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Communist Party of Brazil
Partido Comunista do Brasil
Leader José Renato Rabelo
Founded February 18, 1962
Headquarters Alameda Sarutaiá nº 185 Jardim Paulista
São Paulo, Brazil
Newspaper Tribuna Operária
(The Working Class Tribune)
Youth wing Socialist Youth Union (UJS)
Membership 240,000
Ideology Communism,
Anti-Revisionist
Marxism-Leninism,
Historically also Maoist
from 1962-1976 and then Hoxhaist from 1976 and onwards.
International affiliation Foro de São Paulo,
International Conference of Communist and Workers' Parties
Official colours Red
TSE Identification Number 65
Seats in the Chamber of Deputies 13
Seats in the Senate 2
Website
http://www.pcdob.org.br/
Politics of Brazil
Political parties
Elections

The Communist Party of Brazil (Partido Comunista do Brasil, PC do B) is a political party in Brazil. It currently takes part in the government of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva of the Worker's Party.

Contents

History

The party originated as a splinter group from the Brazilian Communist Party (Partido Comunista Brasileiro - PCB), which, by the late 1950s and early 1960s, had assumed what hardcore Stalinist activists considered a revisionist ideological line. Nearly one hundred of its members quit PCB and, on February 18, 1962, signed PC do B's heavily Maoist-influenced manifesto. Later that day, it was decided that the party would issue its own newspaper, A Classe Operária (The Working Class).

On July 27, 1963, in an open letter to Khrushchev, criticizing the path taken by the Soviet Communist Party after the 20th Congress, PC do B officially adopted its anti-revisionist agenda.

On March 31, 1964, as President João Goulart is overthrown by the military in a US-backed coup d'état which started a twenty-year-long military dictatorship, the party advocated the country's return to democracy. A few months later, when a decree issued by the new regime dissolved all political parties, suppressed most civilian rights and installed the censorship against all the media, PC do B became one of the main underground resistance movements. The small party had grown, thanks to its presence on university campuses and other leftist circles. Meanwhile, members and leaders of anti-regime groups were regularly shot by the military.

In 1972, the Army, Air Force and the Political Police raided the city of Marabá, in southern Pará, suspect of hosting Communist leaders. PC do B was among the resistance movements which formed the Araguaia Guerrilla, named after the nearby river. The government prohibited the media to publish anything on the guerrilla movement, which was defeated only in 1975, after the death of thousands.

With the rise of the post-Mao leadership in China in 1976 and the ensuring Sino-Albanian Split, the PC do B sided with the Albanian Party of Labour and its Hoxhaist stand, criticizing China as revisionist.[1] On August 28, 1979, the military government, which had begun the democratization process, announced it was giving political pardon to the main political prisoners, including original leaders of the PC do B. In that same year, the party announced the issuing of a new newspaper, Tribuna Operária (The Working Class Tribune).

In early 1984, the left-wing leadership organized the Diretas Já campaign. In only three months, as many as eight million Brazilians protested against the government on the streets, demanding presidential elections. This, however, did not pass in the Chamber of Deputies. Even so, the military regime began to be dissolved. Later that year, PC do B created the Union of the Socialist Youth (União da Juventude Socialista - UJS).

On May 23, 1985, eight months after the Diretas Já, Tancredo Neves was elected president by the Senate, marking the end of the dictatorship. PC do B and the Brazilian Socialist Party (Partido Socialista Brasileiro - PSB) were re-legalized by the government. The party later elected five deputies for the Constitutional Assembly, which later approved the 1988 Constitution.

In 1989, the first presidential elections in twenty-nine years took place. Worker's Party candidate Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, in a coalition with PC do B and PSB, obtained 47% of the votes. This alliance would be repeated in the 1994, 1998 and 2002 elections, when Lula was finally elected President.

In February 1992, the party's 8th Congress took place with the motto O Socialismo Vive! (Socialism Lives!). While many other Communist Parties around the world softened their agendas after the fall of the Soviet Union, sometimes even changing their names, PC do B gained prestige for not rescinding its ideals. In September of that same year, it was the first party to request the impeachment of president Fernando Collor de Mello, accused of corruption. Collor eventually resigned on December 29.

In the 1990s, PC do B became one of the main opponents of Fernando Henrique Cardoso's neoliberal agenda. At the legislative elections of October 6, 2002, the party won 12 out of 513 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and no seats in the Senate. It had a similar performance at the October 1, 2006 legislative elections, winning 13 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and a single seat in the Senate.

Structure

PC do B was legally recognized as a political party by the Brazilian Electoral Supreme Court on June 23, 1988. Its current President is José Renato Rabelo. It has nearly 240,000 members.

UJS is affiliated to the World Federation of Democratic Youth.

See also

External links

Links

References

  1. ^ Alexander, Robert. International Maoism in the Developing World. 1st ed. London: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999. p. 78.
Preceded by
50 - SFP (PSOL)
56 - PRNO (PRONA) - defunct
Numbers of Brazilian Official Political Parties
65 - CPB (PCdoB)
Succeeded by
70 - LPB (PTdoB)
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