Communist terrorism: Wikis

  
  

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The term Communist terrorism is refers to terrorism committed by communist organizations. The term lacks a strict definition. There is a disagreement over precise definition of terrorism, and there is a dispute over connection between adherence to communist ideology and committing terrorist acts. Nevertheless there is a number of active and inactive (disbanded or destroyed) left-wing radical organizations which claimed adherence to some form of communist ideology and which were considered as terrorist by international community.

Contents

Terrorist organizations claiming adherence to Communist ideology

Shining Path

The Communist Party of Peru more commonly known as the Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso), is a Maoist guerrilla organization in Peru that launched the internal conflict in Peru in 1980. Widely condemned for its brutality, including violence deployed against peasants, trade union organizers, popularly elected officials and the general civilian population[1], Shining Path is on the U.S. Department of State's "Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations" list.[2] Peru, the European Union[3], and Canada[4] likewise regard Shining Path as a terrorist group and prohibit providing funding or other financial support.

FARC

The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) is a Marxist-Leninist organization in Colombia which has employed vehicle bombings, gas cylinder bombs, killings, landmines, kidnapping, extortion, hijacking, as well as guerrilla and conventional military. The United States Department of State includes the FARC-EP on its list of foreign terrorist organizations, as does the European Union. It funds itself primarily through extortion, kidnapping and their participation in the illegal drug trade.[5][6] Many of their fronts have also overrun and massacred small communities in order to silence and intimidate those who do not support their activities, enlist new and underage recruits by force, distribute propaganda and, more importantly, to pillage local banks. Businesses operating in rural areas, including agricultural, oil, and mining interests, were required to pay "vaccines" (monthly payments) which "protected" them from subsequent attacks and kidnappings. An additional, albeit less lucrative, source of revenue was highway blockades where guerrillas stopped motorists and buses in order to confiscate jewelry and money. An estimated 20-30 percent of FARC combatants are under 18 years old, with many as young as 12 years old, for a total of around 5000 children.[7]), Children who try to escape the ranks of the guerrillas are punished with torture and death.[7][8]

Communist Party of Nepal-Maoist

The Communist Party of Nepal has been responsible for hundreds of attacks on government and civilian targets. After the UPF's Maoist wing (CPN-M) performed poorly in elections and was excluded from the election of 1994. The Maoists then turned to insurgency in order to overthrow Nepal's monarchy, parliamentary democracy and change Nepalese society, including a purge of the nation's elite class, a state takeover of private industry, and collectivization of agriculture.[9][10]

In Nepal attacks against civilian populations occurred as part of Maoist strategy - Amnesty International states:

The CPN (Maoist) has consistently targeted private schools, which it ideologically opposes. On the 14 April 2005 the CPN (Maoist) demanded that all private schools shut down, although this demand was withdrawn on 28 April. Following this demand, it bombed two schools in western Nepal on 15 April, a school in Nepalganj, Banke district on 17 April and a school in Kalyanpur, Chitwan on 21 April. CPN (Maoist) cadres also reportedly threw a bomb at students taking classes in a school in Khara, Rukum district.[11]

Until recently, the Maoist insurgency had been fighting against the Royal Nepalese Army and other supporters of the monarchy. They have since risen to power and began implementing reforms as the legitimate government of Nepal.

Communist Party of India (Maoist) and Naxalites

The Naxalite extremist Communist terror groups in India have effectively taken over large parts of the rural regions of the country in recent years. Advocating a violent, revolutionary Maoist ideology, they and their associates in the Communist Party of India (Maoist) and People's War are regarded as India's biggest and most pernicious security threat.[12] Naxalite Communists have engaged in numerous terrorist attacks and human rights violations in India's "Red Corridor" (the regions in India that they have taken over)[13][14].

A Frontline Cover Story calls the Bhamragad Taluka where the Madia Gond Adivasis live, the heart of the naxalite-affected region in Maharashtra.[15]

Communist Party of the Philippines

The Communist Party of the Philippines and its armed wing, the New People's Army (CPP/NPA) is a paramilitary group fighting of Marxism-Leninism-Maoist ideology (Preamble, Constitution of the Communist Party of the Philippines, 1968)[16] fighting for communist revolution in the Philippines. It was formed on March 29, 1969. The Maoist NPA fights a "protracted people's war" as the military wing of the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP). The NPA is classified as a terrorist organization by the Philippine Government, the US[17] , EU[18] and other countries. The NPA's targets often include politicians, military, police, criminals, landlords, business owners and occasionally U.S. agents in the Philippines. Before the Second Rectification Movement, wherein certain "errors" were being rectified, the group conducted a purge, killing thousands of partisans and members on accusations of being deep penetration agent by the Armed Forces of the Philippines and the Philippine intelligence community. Former NPA fighter Robert Francis Garcia chronicled the wild murders in his book To Suffer Thy Comrades and organized the Peace Advocates for Truth, Healing and Justice (PATH), a group composed of survivors of the "purges" and the families of victims and their friends and supporters.

Out of that rectification movement, the party was split into two, the "Reaffirmists", who uphold the "protracted people's war" and the "mass line"; while the "Rejectionists", who rejects the basic tenets of the party. The latter faction were also known for initiating the mass purges, especially against alleged deep penetration agents before the rectification of errors inside the party system.

November 17

Revolutionary Organization 17 November (also known as 17N or N17) is Marxist terrorist organization formed in 1973 in Greece, recognized as a terrorist organization by the Greek State, the US and international law enforcement",[19][20][21], and believed by many to be have been disbanded in 2002 after the arrest and trial of a number of its members. During its heyday, the urban guerrilla group assassinated 23 people in 103 attacks on U.S., diplomatic and Greek targets. Greek authorities believe spin-off terror groups are still in operation, including Revolutionary Struggle, the group that allegedly fired a rocket propelled grenade at the U.S. Embassy in Athens in January 2007.

Revolutionary People's Liberation Party/Front

The Revolutionary People's Liberation Party/Front, is a militant Marxist-Leninist party in Turkey. It is in the terrorist organization lists in the U.S., the UK and the EU. The organisation is listed among the 12 active terrorist organisation in Turkey as of 2007 according to Counter-Terrorism and Operations Department of Directorate General for Security (Turkish police).[22]

It also appears as one of the 44 names in the current U.S. State Department list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations,[23] 48 groups and entities to which European Union's Common Position 2001/931/CFSP on the application of specific measures to combat terrorism applies[24] and 45 international terrorist organisations in the list of Proscribed Terrorist Groups of the UK Home Office.[25]

May 19th Communist Organization

The May 19 Communist Organization, also referred to as the May 19 Communist Coalition, was a US-based, self-described revolutionary organization formed by splintered-off members of the Weather Underground and the Black Liberation Army.[26] The M19CO name was derived from the birthdays of Ho Chi Minh and Malcolm X. The May 19 Communist Organization was active from 1978 to 1985. M19CO was a combination of the Black Liberation Army and the Weather Underground. It also included members of the Black Panthers and the Republic of New Africa (RNA). [27] [28] The group was originally known as the New York chapter of the Prairie Fire Organizing Committee (PFOC), an organization devoted to legally promoting the causes of the Weather Underground. Its name was derived from the birthdays of Ho Chi Minh and Malcolm X. The May 19 Communist Organization was active from 1978 to 1985.

This alliance between the Weather Underground and the Black Liberation Army had three objectives:

  • 1. Free political prisoners in US prisons
  • 2. Appropriate capitalist wealth (armed robberies) to fund the third stage, and
  • 3. Initiate a series of bombings and terrorist attacks [29]

In 1981 Kathy Boudin, together with several members of the Black Liberation Army, participated in a robbery of a Brinks armored car at the Nanuet Mall, near Nyack, New York. Upon her arrest, Boudin was identified as a member of the May 19 Communist Organization. From 1982 to 1985, a series of bombings were ascribed to the group.

By May 23, 1985, all members of the group had been arrested, with the exception of Elizabeth Duke, who remains a fugitive. At a 1986 trial, six group members were tried and convicted of multiple counts of domestic terrorism.

Red Army Faction (RAF)

The Red Army Faction, was one of postwar West Germany's most active and prominent militant communist terror groups.[30] The group was a successor to the Baader Meinhoff Gang.[31] It was formally founded in 1970 by Andreas Baader, Gudrun Ensslin, Horst Mahler, Ulrike Meinhof, Irmgard Möller and others.

The Red Army Faction operated from the 1970s to 1998, committing numerous crimes, especially in the autumn of 1977, which led to a national crisis that became known as "German Autumn". It was responsible for 34 deaths, including many secondary targets such as chauffeurs and bodyguards, and many injuries in its almost 30 years of existence.

Further reading

  • Deletant, Dennis (1999) Communist Terror in Romania, C. Hurst & Co, ISBN 1850653860
  • Adelman, Jonathan (1984) Terror and Communist Politics: The Role of the Secret Police in Communist States, Westview Press, ISBN 0865312931
  • Evgeni Genchev (2003) Tales from the Dark: Testimonies about the Communist Terror, ACET 2003, ISBN 9549320014

References

  1. ^ Burt, Jo-Marie (2006). "'Quien habla es terrorista': The political use of fear in Fujimori's Peru." Latin American Research Review 41 (3) 32-62.
  2. ^ US Department of State, "Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs)" October 11, 2005. Available online Accessed 1 February 2006.
  3. ^ Council Common Position 2005/936/CFSP. March 14, 2005. Available online. Accessed September 27, 2006.
  4. ^ Government of Canada. "Listed Entities". Available online. Accessed September 27, 2006.
  5. ^ BBC News. "Colombia's Most Powerful Rebels." September 19, 2003. Available online. Accessed September 1, 2006.
  6. ^ International Crisis Group. "War and Drugs in Colombia." January 27, 2005. Available online. Accessed September 1, 2006.
  7. ^ a b Human Rights Watch. "Colombia: Armed Groups Send Children to War." February 22, 2005. Available online. Accessed September 1, 2006.
  8. ^ Human Rights Watch. "'You'll Learn Not to Cry: Child Combatants in Colombia." September 2003. Available online. Accessed September 1, 2006.
  9. ^ MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base
  10. ^ Nepal Terrorist Groups - Maoist Insurgents
  11. ^ Nepal: Children caught in the conflict | Amnesty International
  12. ^ http://www.alertnet.org/printable.htm?URL=/db/crisisprofiles/IN_MAO.htm
  13. ^ http://www.rediff.com/news/2004/nov/25kanch.htm
  14. ^ http://www.economist.com/world/asia/displaystory.cfm?story_id=7799247
  15. ^ Guerilla zone, Cover Story, Frontline, Volume 22 - Issue 21, Oct. 08 - 21, 2005 DIONNE BUNSHA in Gadchiroli http://www.flonnet.com/fl2221/stories/20051021008701600.htm
  16. ^ [PRWC Party Documents] Saligang Batas ng Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas, December 26, 1968
  17. ^ Foreign Terrorist Organization: Redesignation of Communist Party of the Philippines/New People's Army
  18. ^ "Council Decision of 21 December 2005". EU Council. 2005-12-13. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2005/l_340/l_34020051223en00640066.pdf. Retrieved 2007-03-17. 
  19. ^ Leventhal, Todd (2006-01-20). "Misinformation about "Gladio/Stay Behind" Networks Resurfaces". Bureau of International Information Programs, U.S. Department of State. http://www.america.gov/st/pubs-english/2006/January/20060120111344atlahtnevel0.3114282.html. Retrieved 2009-01-09. 
  20. ^ Foreign Terrorist Organizations, The National Counterterrorism Center
  21. ^ Press release, Greek Police (Greek)
  22. ^ "TÜRKİYE'DE HALEN FAALİYETLERİNE DEVAM EDEN BAŞLICA TERÖR ÖRGÜTLERİ". Terörle Mücadele ve Harekat Dairesi Başkanlığı. 2005-01-27. http://www.egm.gov.tr/temuh/terorgrup1.html. Retrieved 2008-08-15. 
  23. ^ Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism (2008-04-08). "Foreign Terrorist Organizations". U.S. Department of State. http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/fs/08/103392.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-15. 
  24. ^ Council Common Position 2008/586/CFSP updating Common Position 2001/931/CFSP on the application of specific measures to combat terrorism and repealing Common Position 2007/871/CFSPPDF (52.3 KB), Official Journal of the European Union L 188/71, 2008-07-16
  25. ^ Communications Directorate (2005-10-04). "Proscribed terrorist groups". Terrorism Act 2000. Home Office. http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/security/terrorism-and-the-law/terrorism-act/proscribed-groups. Retrieved 2008-08-15. 
  26. ^ Jacobs, Ron (1997). The Way The Wind Blew: A History Of The Weather Underground. Verso. pp. 76-77. ISBN 1-85984-167-8. http://www.archive.org/stream/TheWayTheWindBlewAHistoryOfTheWeatherUnderground/waythewindblew_djvu.txt. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  27. ^ [www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/780410-SHVVvq/native/780410.PDF LEFT-WING EXTREMISM: The Current Threat Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Safeguards and Security]. Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education: Center for Human Reliability Studies ORISE 01-0439. 2001. p. 1. www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/780410-SHVVvq/native/780410.PDF. Retrieved December 27, 2009. 
  28. ^ National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and the Responses to Terrorism, DHS (March 1, 2008). "Terrorist Organization Profile: May 19 Communist Order". National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and the Responses to Terrorism. http://www.start.umd.edu/start/data/tops/terrorist_organization_profile.asp?id=3234. Retrieved December 27, 2009. 
  29. ^ [www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/780410-SHVVvq/native/780410.PDF LEFT-WING EXTREMISM: The Current Threat Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Safeguards and Security]. Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education: Center for Human Reliability Studies ORISE 01-0439. 2001. p. 1. www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/780410-SHVVvq/native/780410.PDF. Retrieved December 27, 2009. 
  30. ^ Kushner, Harvey W., Encyclopedia of terrorism, p. 148, Sage 2003
  31. ^ Kushner, Harvey W., Encyclopedia of terrorism, p. 148, Sage 2003







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