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Community-led total sanitation (CLTS), is a grassroots approach to sanitation developed in Bangladesh. It follows the philosophy of participatory rural appraisal,[1][2] or PRA.

CLTS was developed by Kamal Kar, an advocate of community participation in development, in Bangladesh.

He has criticised the lack of success of NGOs in Bangladesh, saying "It is difficult to find even 100 villages among nearly 85,000 that are 100 per cent sanitised and free from open defecation." [1]

He has also been involved in low cost sanitation programs. [2]

See also


  1. ^ Water: either too much or too little, Environmental Articles Archive: Water Resources, July 2004.
  2. ^ Habitat Debate, Volume 9, no. 3, September 2003.

Further reading



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