Community-led total sanitation (CLTS), is a grassroots approach to
sanitation developed in Bangladesh. It follows the philosophy of participatory rural
appraisal, or PRA.
CLTS was developed by Kamal Kar, an advocate of community participation in
development, in Bangladesh.
He has criticised the lack of success of NGOs in Bangladesh, saying
"It is difficult to find even 100 villages among nearly 85,000
that are 100 per cent sanitised and free from open
He has also been involved in low cost sanitation programs.