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In the long-running BBC television science fiction programme Doctor Who and related works, a companion refers to a character who travels with, and shares the adventures of the Doctor. The term is primarily used in Doctor Who fandom; these characters are often referred to in the press as "assistants". The term was rarely used in the classic series (1963–1989), while the revived series (2005–) makes more frequent use of the term. More often, however, the Doctor merely introduces his fellow leads as his "friends". In the 2005 series, the Ninth Doctor states that he "employed Rose Tyler as [his] companion".
The Doctor usually travels with one to three companions. In most Doctor Who stories, the companion provides a surrogate with whom the audience can identify, and furthers the story by asking questions and getting into trouble, or by helping or rescuing the Doctor. Most of the Doctor's companions have been human, with some exceptions such as Kamelion, Nyssa, Adric, Turlough, Astrid and Romana. Of the non-human companions, all apart from K-9 are (or were) members of humanoid races. To date, Romana and Susan are the only members of the Doctor's own race to travel with him. Not all the companions begin their travels by choice. Ian and Barbara are abducted by the Doctor in An Unearthly Child. When Donna Noble was first introduced, she turned down the Doctor's offer to become a full companion, but encouraged him to find someone to act as his moral compass. She later got a rare, second chance to travel with the Doctor and wholeheartedly accepted, regretting her initial refusal.
The lives of the companions after their travels with the Doctor are rarely explored within the series. Three companions had memories of their adventures erased: Jamie and Zoe, by the Time Lords, and Donna, by the Doctor himself. Jamie and Zoe's only remaining memories were their first encounters with the Doctor whilst Donna had all memory of the Doctor erased, being re-introduced to him later as only "John Smith" who was visiting her grandfather Wilfred Mott. Some characters, specifically Susan, Jamie, Harry and Sarah Jane (and K-9 Mark III), have guest-starred in later stories. Zoe, Liz, Adric, Tegan, Nyssa, Turlough and Kamelion have reappeared in cameo roles, played by the original actors rather than in stock footage or still photos (e.g. Romana's later appearance in The Five Doctors).
On occasion, characters have functioned as companions to series villain the Master, among them Chang Lee and the Master's wife, Lucy Saxon, whom he calls his "faithful companion".
When Doctor Who was created, the dramatic structure of the programme's cast was rather different from the hero-and-sidekick pattern that emerged later. Initially, the character of the Doctor was unclear, with uncertain motives and abilities. The protagonists were schoolteachers Ian Chesterton and Barbara Wright, who provided the audience's point-of-view in stories set in Earth's history and on alien worlds. Ian in particular served the role of the action hero. The fourth character was the Doctor's granddaughter Susan, who (though initially presented as an "unearthly child") was intended as an identification figure for younger viewers.
Carole Ann Ford, who played Susan Foreman, became unhappy with the lack of development for her character, and chose to leave in its second series. The character of Susan was married off to a freedom fighter and left behind to rebuild a Dalek-ravaged Earth. Doctor Who's producers replaced Susan with another young female character, Vicki. Similarly, when Ian and Barbara left, the "action hero" position was filled by astronaut Steven Taylor. This grouping of the Doctor, a young heroic male and an attractive young female became the programme's pattern throughout the 1960s.
When the programme changed to colour in 1970, its format changed: the Doctor was now Earth-bound, and acquired a supporting cast by his affiliation with the paramilitary organization United Nations Intelligence Taskforce (UNIT). The Third Doctor, more active and physical than his predecessors, made the role of the "action hero" male companion redundant. In the 1970 season the Doctor was assisted by scientist Liz Shaw and Brigadier Lethbridge-Stewart, along with other UNIT personnel. The intellectual Shaw was replaced by Jo Grant in the 1971 season, and as the programme returned to occasional adventures in outer space, the format shifted once more: while UNIT continued to provide a regular "home base" for Earth-bound stories, in stories on other planets the Doctor and Jo became a two-person team with a close, personal bond. This pattern, the Doctor with a single female companion, became a template from which subsequent episodes of Doctor Who rarely diverged. The "heroic male" type occasionally returned (for example, Harry Sullivan, Adric and Jack Harkness), but the single female companion was Doctor Who's staple.
There is no formal definition of what makes a companion. The Guardian muses in its OrganGrinder blog, "How do you qualify? Name in the opening credits, regular trips in the Tardis?" The definition of who is and is not a companion becomes less clear in the newer series. The Doctor's primary companion (first Rose Tyler, then Martha Jones, then Donna Noble) fulfilled a distinct dramatic role, more significant than other, less-present TARDIS travellers such as Adam, Jack, and Mickey. The British press referred to Martha as the "first ethnic minority companion in the 43-year television history of Doctor Who" and the "first black assistant", despite the presence of Mickey Smith in the previous season—including several episodes in which he was invited to travel in the TARDIS with the Doctor.
In the first two seasons of the renewed series, the only actor portraying a companion to be credited in the opening title sequence was Billie Piper. In subsequent seasons, Freema Agyeman and Catherine Tate are credited in all episodes in which they appear, and in the third series, John Barrowman also appears in the title credits. Agyeman was also credited for her appearances in three episodes of series four. Piper, Agyeman, Barrowman and Elisabeth Sladen appeared in the sequence along with Tennant and Tate in the season finale of series four. The characters played by these actors are listed as companions on the BBC Website for Doctor Who (series 4). Noel Clarke, who acted as a companion in the last episode and is listed as such on the website was not credited in this way. John Simm was credited in the opening title sequence of "The End of Time", Parts One and Two despite portraying one of the episode's antagonists, The Master, and not a companion.
Companions in the new series have a more flexible tenure than their classical predecessors. Several companion characters have returned to the series after leaving the Doctor's company, most notably in the series four finale "The Stolen Earth"/"Journey's End", which featured the return of Rose, Martha, Jack, Sarah Jane and Mickey. This tendency, and the increase in "one-off" companions like Astrid Peth or Jackson Lake, has further obscured the matter of who is and is not a companion.
Companions have assumed a variety of roles in Doctor Who, as involuntary passengers, as assistants per se (particularly Liz Shaw), as disciples, as friends, and as fellow adventurers.
The Doctor regularly gains new companions and loses old ones; sometimes they return home, or find new causes—or loves—on worlds they have visited. Some companions (notably Katarina, Sara Kingdom, Adric and Kamelion) have died during the course of the series.
Most companions travel in the TARDIS with the Doctor for more than one adventure, although there are exceptions. Sometimes a guest character will take a role in the story similar to that of a companion, such as photographer Isobel Watkins who plays a significant role in "The Invasion" in the classic series, or Lynda in "Bad Wolf" and "The Parting of the Ways" in the revived series.
Despite the fact that the majority of the Doctor's companions are young, attractive females, the production team for the 1963–1989 series maintained a long-standing taboo against any overt romantic involvement in the TARDIS: for example, Peter Davison, as the Fifth Doctor, was not allowed to put his arm around either Sarah Sutton (Nyssa) or Janet Fielding (Tegan). However, that has not prevented fans from speculating about possible romantic involvements, most notably between the Fourth Doctor and the Time Lady Romana (whose actors, Tom Baker and Lalla Ward, shared a romance and brief marriage). The taboo was controversially broken in the 1996 television movie when the Eighth Doctor was shown kissing companion Grace Holloway. The 2005 series played with this idea by having various characters think that the Ninth Doctor and Rose Tyler were a couple, which they vehemently denied. Since the series revival, the Doctor has kissed companions Rose, Jack, Mickey (on the forehead), Martha, Astrid and Donna, although each instance not in a romantic context (see also "The Doctor and romance").
Previous companions have reappeared in the series, usually for anniversary specials. One former companion, Sarah Jane Smith (played by Elisabeth Sladen), together with the robotic dog K-9, appeared in one episode of the 2006 series more than twenty years after their last appearances in the 20th anniversary story The Five Doctors (1983). The character of Sarah Jane also heads up a Doctor Who spin-off, The Sarah Jane Adventures. Another companion, Captain Jack Harkness, appears in the spin-off programme Torchwood.
When Doctor Who returned to television in 2005, the companion characters played a slightly different role, partly due to a strong focus on the character of Rose Tyler and characters connected to her. For example, although Adam Mitchell was a companion by the standard definition, he appeared in only two episodes and was arguably a less significant part of the 2005 series than Rose's sometime boyfriend Mickey Smith, who was not technically a companion but appeared in five episodes (or six, including a brief appearance as a child in "Father's Day"). Mickey later gained full-fledged companion status when he travelled in the TARDIS in the 2006 episode "School Reunion". In that episode, Sarah Jane Smith referred to Rose as the Doctor's "assistant", a term to which the latter took offence. This exchange might be regarded as indicating the new series' shift in approach to the companion role.
Sarah Jane Smith is the only classic companion to have been asked to travel again by the Doctor, 30 years later.
List of television companions
- ^ Susan travelled with the Doctor prior to the events of "An Unearthly Child".
- ^ a b The Doctor takes Barbara and Ian from their time against their will in "An Unearthly Child".
- ^ Vicki joins the TARDIS crew at the end of her first story, The Rescue.
- ^ Unbeknown to the Doctor and Vicki, Steven took refuge in the TARDIS during the events of "The Planet of Decision" and is not discovered by them until "The Watcher".
- ^ Steven left the Doctor in "Bell of Doom", episode four of The Massacre of St Bartholomew's Eve, but returned to him shortly afterwards in the same episode.
- ^ Sara Kingdom is not included in all lists of companions - the BBC's list of companions at http://www.bbc.co.uk/doctorwho/classic/episodeguide/companions/ excludes her.
- ^ Jamie was played by Hamish Wilson in The Mind Robber episodes 2 and 3.
- ^ Jamie later appears in the Sixth Doctor-era story The Two Doctors, once more alongside the Second Doctor.
- ^ Sarah Jane Smith has had two subsequent appearances with the Tenth Doctor, most recently in "Journey's End", as well as her own spin-off series K-9 and Company and The Sarah Jane Adventures.
- ^ Harry also appears in The Android Invasion.
- ^ K-9 was voiced by Brierley in season 17, explained away as laryngitis within the programme.
- ^ Subsequent models of K-9 have made appearances with Sarah Jane Smith in various episodes, due to the Doctor's giving Sarah Jane a version of K-9 in the aborted spin-off K-9 and Company. He has also appeared in The Sarah Jane Adventures. K-9 is due to be the subject of his own spin-off, produced separate from the BBC, entitled simply K-9.
- ^ also appears in Time-Flight
- ^ a b c d e also appears inThe Caves of Androzani
- ^ Without explanation in the stories, Kamelion is not featured in the five serials between his first and last stories (although he does appear in deleted scenes from The Awakening).
- ^ The series never establishes how the Doctor first meets Mel; she just appears mid-way through The Trial of a Time Lord. The Doctor's first meeting with Mel is recounted in the Past Doctor Adventures novel Business Unusual.
- ^ Ace's fate is unknown past Survival and her appearance in Dimensions in Time, as she does not appear in the following story, the 1996 film.
- ^ Jack Harkness was the first openly LGBT (in this case pansexual) companion.
- ^ Lead-in to "The Christmas Invasion"
- ^ Rose departs in "Doomsday" and makes brief cameo appearances in "Partners in Crime", "The Poison Sky" and "Midnight" before returning as a companion in "Turn Left". She also appears in The End of Time.
- ^ Including the 2005 Children in Need scene and the three cameo appearances in series 4.
- ^ Also appears in "School Reunion" and The End of Time.
- ^ Mickey is introduced in "Rose" as Rose's boyfriend and recurs regularly before becoming a companion.
- ^ Mickey departs in "The Age of Steel" before returning as a companion in "Journey's End", and also re-appears in "Army of Ghosts" / "Doomsday" and The End of Time.
- ^ Introduced in "Doomsday"
- ^ After initially refusing to join the Doctor on his travels in "The Runaway Bride", Donna returns as a regular companion from "Partners in Crime". She also appears in The End of Time.
- ^ Martha departs in "Last of the Time Lords", but returns from "The Sontaran Stratagem" to "The Doctor's Daughter" and again for "The Stolen Earth" / "Journey's End". She supsequently appeared in a cameo role in The End of Time.
- ^ Jack rejoins the Doctor in "Utopia" before departing again in "Last of the Time Lords", but returns again for "The Stolen Earth" / "Journey's End". He also makes a cameo appearance in The End of Time.
- ^ Jackson Lake is the first of a series of one-off companions featured in the aftermath of "Journey's End".
- ^ Like Jackson Lake and Christina da Souza, Adelaide is a one-off companion.
- ^ Wilf is introduced in "Voyage of the Damned", and recurs throughout series 4 as Donna's grandfather.
River Song from the Tenth Doctor episodes "Silence in the Library" / "Forest of the Dead" is an archaeologist who states that she has travelled with the Doctor in his relative future. Doctor Who Confidential referred to her as a "companion-to-come".
During the course of the show's history, companions have, on rare occasion, been killed while serving with the Doctor.
- Katarina dies in "The Traitors", the fourth episode of The Daleks' Master Plan, when she opens the airlock of a spaceship and is blown out into space while trying to protect her friends from the insane Kirkson.
- Sara Kingdom dies in "Destruction of Time", the twelfth and final episode of The Daleks' Master Plan, when she undergoes extreme aging as an unfortunate side-effect of the First Doctor's activation of a "Time Destructor" device in order to defeat the Daleks.
- Adric dies at the end of Episode 4 of Earthshock in the explosion of a bomb-laden space freighter in Earth's atmosphere.
- Kamelion, an android companion, is destroyed by the Fifth Doctor in Episode 4 of Planet of Fire as an act of mercy after Kamelion is taken over by the Master.
- K-9 Mark III sacrifices himself in "School Reunion" in order to save the Doctor and his friends from a group of aliens. The subsequent K-9 Mark IV that the Doctor leaves with Sarah Jane tells her that the Mark III's files have been transferred to the new machine.
- In an alternative timeline in "Turn Left", Sarah Jane Smith dies from oxygen starvation when the Royal Hope hospital is transported to the moon. (Martha Jones also dies of asphyxiation on the moon, and Donna Noble is hit by a truck later in the episode, but neither had met the Doctor in the alternative timeline.)
Additional companions have died while serving with the Doctor in the various spin-off media (the canonicity of which is unclear); this has included Jamie McCrimmon and Ace, both of whom were killed off in the Doctor Who comic strip published in Doctor Who Magazine. McCrimmon is killed in a Grant Morrison-written strip entitled The World Shapers, and Ace in Ground Zero.
Additional spin-off works have also postulated the final fates of some former companions in the years following their travels with the Doctor, such as Dodo Chaplet, whose death is indicated in the novel Who Killed Kennedy and Liz Shaw in the novel Eternity Weeps.
- Peri Brown is depicted in episode 8 of The Trial of a Time Lord as having been killed by King Yrcanos, upon his discovery that her brain has been replaced by that of Kiv, a member of the Mentor race. However, episode 14 of The Trial of a Time Lord revealed that Peri had not been killed and had instead become Yrcanos' consort, although it is not explained how the brain transplant was undone or whether it had actually occurred, as several incidents depicted in the arc are revealed to have been fabricated by the Valeyard.
- Susan Foreman and Romana are implied to have died by the events of "Rose" in the Doctor's personal chronology as the Doctor is said to be the last of the Time Lords following the events of the Time War. Susan is left on 22nd century Earth by the First Doctor in The Dalek Invasion of Earth after she falls in love with David Campbell, whilst Romana chooses to remain in E-space to help the Tharils at the end of Warrior's Gate.
- Leela is implied to have died by the 9th Doctor's claim that his whole planet is gone, as Leela stayed behind with K-9 Mark I on Gallifrey when she decided to marry Andred (though this version of K-9 will appear in the new K-9 spin-off TV series).
- Rose Tyler is declared dead in her original universe, though she is trapped in a parallel universe in "Doomsday" while trying to save the world from a war between Daleks, Cybermen and humans. The Doctor later tells Donna Noble that Rose is "so alive".
In the Big Finish audio production The Gathering, Tegan Jovanka is described as having a terminal illness, though her actual death is not depicted.
Vicki, Polly, Mel and Ace are never given surnames on-screen. Mel Bush is fully named in production notes and promotional material, while Vicki Pallister and Dorothy McShane (Ace) gained surnames in spinoff novels. Polly's intended surname of Wright was rejected for fear of confusion with previous companion Barbara Wright. The production team had intended that, if revealed in the course of a story, Ace would either have the last name Gale (an allusion to the movie version of The Wizard of Oz) or whatever would suit the story.
Sarah Jane Smith and K-9 Mark III returned in the 2006 series episode "School Reunion". She later reappears and acts as a companion in The Stolen Earth and Journey's End.
Sarah Jane has appeared in three television series, namely Doctor Who, K-9 and Company and The Sarah Jane Adventures. K-9 Mark III has appeared in two, (K-9 and Company and Doctor Who), as have K-9 Mark IV (Doctor Who and The Sarah Jane Adventures), and Captain Jack and Martha (Doctor Who and Torchwood).
Nine companions have been with the Doctor during his regeneration:
During the Tenth Doctor's aborted regeneration in "The Stolen Earth", Rose, Jack and Donna were present.
- ^ "Last of the Time Lords". Writer Russell T Davies, Director Colin Teague. Doctor Who. BBC. BBC One. 2007-06-30.
- ^ a b c Brook, Stephen (23 January 2009). "Michelle Ryan guest stars in Doctor Who. But would she make a good companion?". Organ Grinder (guardian.co.uk). http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/organgrinder/2009/jan/23/doctorwho-bbc. Retrieved 25 January 2009. "A minor factor in the continual swirl around Doctor Who is that what constitutes a Doctor Who companion is no longer clear. Sure, Rose, Martha and Donna were all companions. So was Captain Jack. But what about Mickey and Jackie? How do you qualify? Name in the opening credits, regular trips in the Tardis? The doctor kisses you? I'm no longer sure. Modern TV drama is so difficult."
- ^ Adam Sherwin (2006-07-05). "Sidekick whose time has come". London: The Times. http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,23569-2256654.html. Retrieved 2006-07-05.
- ^ Richard Simpson (2006-07-05). "Doctor Who gets first black assistant". Daily Mail. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/articles/showbiz/showbiznews.html?in_article_id=394073&in_page_id=1773. Retrieved 2006-07-05.
- ^ "BBC Doctor Who Series 4 Characters". http://www.bbc.co.uk/doctorwho/s4/characters. Retrieved 2008-07-29.
- ^ Commentary on DVD of Castrovalva
- ^ The Dalek Invasion of Earth. Writer Terry Nation, Director Richard Martin, Producers Verity Lambert, Mervyn Pinfield. Doctor Who. BBC. BBC1, London. 21 November 1964–26 December 1964.
- ^ a b An Unearthly Child. Writers Anthony Coburn, C. E. Webber, Directors Waris Hussein, Douglas Camfield, Producers Verity Lambert, Mervyn Pinfield. Doctor Who. BBC, London. 23 November 1963–14 December 1963.
- ^ a b c The Chase. Writer Terry Nation, Directors Richard Martin, Douglas Camfield, Producers Verity Lambert. Doctor Who. BBC. BBC1, London. 22 May 1965–26 June 1965.
- ^ The Rescue. Writer David Whitaker, Director Christopher Barry, Producer Verity Lambert, Mervyn Pinfield. Doctor Who. BBC. BBC1, London. 2 January 1965–9 January 1964.
- ^ a b The Myth Makers. Writer Donald Cotton, Directors Michael Leeston-Smith, Producer John Wiles. Doctor Who. BBC. BBC1, London. 16 October 1965–6 November 1965.
- ^ The Savages. Writer Ian Stuart Black, Director Christopher Barry, Producer Innes Lloyd. Doctor Who. BBC. BBC1, London. 28 May 1966–18 June 1966.
- ^ a b c The Daleks' Master Plan. Writers Terry Nation, Dennis Spooner, Director Douglas Camfield, Producer John Wiles. Doctor Who. BBC. BBC1, London. 13 November 1965–29 January 1966.
- ^ Robinson, Nigel; Nathan-Turner, John (1981). The Doctor Who Quiz Book. Target Books. pp. 39 and 98. ISBN 0426-20143-4.
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Pixley, Andrew (16 December), Doctor Who Magazine, p. 21
Campbell, Mark; Duncan, Paul (2000). The Pocket Essential Doctor Who. Pocket Essentials. pp. 20–21. ISBN 1-903047-19-6.
Cornell, Paul; M.Day, K. Topping, D. J. Howe and S. J. Walker (1995, 1998 and 2003). "The Daleks' Master Plan". Doctor Who: Classic Series Episode Guide. BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/doctorwho/classic/episodeguide/daleksmasterplan/detail.shtml. Retrieved 2007-09-14.
- ^ The Massacre of St Bartholomew's Eve. Writers John Lucarotti, Donald Tosh, Director Paddy Russell, Producer John Wiles. Doctor Who. BBC. BBC1, London. 5 February 1966–26 February 1966.
- ^ The War Machines. Writer Ian Stuart Black, Kit Pedler (idea), Director Michael Ferguson, Producer Innes Lloyd. Doctor Who. BBC. BBC1, London. 25 June 1966–16 July 1966.
- ^ a b The Faceless Ones. Writers David Ellis and Malcolm Hulke, Director Gerry Mill, Producer Innes Lloyd. Doctor Who. BBC. BBC1, London. 8 April 1967–13 May 1967.
- ^ The Highlanders. Writers Elwyn Jones, Gerry Davis, Director Hugh David, Producer Innes Lloyd. Doctor Who. BBC. BBC1, London. 17 December 1966–7 January 1967.
- ^ a b The War Games. Writers Malcolm Hulke and Terrance Dicks, Director David Maloney, Producer Derrick Sherwin. Doctor Who. BBC. BBC1, London. 19 April 1969–21 June 1969.
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- ^ a b "Companion Piece". BBC News. 2007-08-14. http://www.bbc.co.uk/doctorwho/news/cult/news/drwho/2007/08/14/47874.shtml. Retrieved 2007-08-15.
- ^ "Who Should Be So Lucky?". 2007-08-14. http://www.bbc.co.uk/doctorwho/news/cult/news/drwho/2007/12/19/51611.shtml. Retrieved 2008-02-01.
"Confidential at Christmas". Doctor Who Confidential. 2007-12-25. No. 1, season 4.
- ^ Cook, Benjamin (2008-01-09 (cover date)), "Sands of time", Radio Times (11–17 April 2009): 16–20
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- ^ "Lindsay Duncan to star in second Doctor Who Special of 2009". BBC. 2009-02-19. http://www.bbc.co.uk/pressoffice/pressreleases/stories/2009/02_february/19/who.shtml. Retrieved 21 February 2009.
- ^ a b Davies, Russell T (2009-04-07), Dr Who's Easter special, BBC News, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/7987179.stm, retrieved 7 April 2009
- ^ New Doctor Who costume revealed
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- ^ Three New Companions for Doctor Who 
- ^ "Here's a woman who travels with the Doctor, therefore she knows him" - director Euros Lyn to Alex Kingston (Doctor Who Confidential, Series 4, Episode 9)
- ^ "You took me to Derillium, to see the Singing Towers. Oh, what a night that was." - River Song (Silence in the Library / Forest of the Dead)
- ^ "The future is already written for both the Doctor and his adventurous companion-to-come" - Narration: Doctor Who Confidential, Series 4, Episode 9
- ^ "The Traitors". Writer Terry Nation, Director Douglas Camfield. Doctor Who. BBC. 1965-12-04.
- ^ "Destruction of Time". Writer Dennis Spooner, Director Douglas Camfield. Doctor Who. BBC. 1966-01-29.
- ^ Earthshock. Writer Eric Saward, Director Peter Grimwade. Doctor Who. BBC. BBC One. 8 March 1982–16 March 1982.
- ^ Planet of Fire. Writer Peter Grimwade, Director Fiona Cumming. Doctor Who. BBC. BBC 1. 23 February 1984–2 March 1984.
- ^ "School Reunion". Writer Toby Whithouse, Director James Hawes. Doctor Who. BBC. BBC One. 2006-04-29.
- ^ "Turn Left". Writer Russell T Davies, Director Graeme Harper. Doctor Who. BBC. BBC One. 2008-06-21.
- ^ "The Waters of Mars". Writer Russell T Davies, Director Graeme Harper. Doctor Who. BBC. BBC One. 2009-11-15.
- ^ Morrison, Grant (w), Ridgway, John (p), Perkins, Tim (i). "The World Shapers" Doctor Who Magazine (127–129) (August–October 1987), Marvel UK
- ^ Gray, Scott (w), Geraghty, Martin (p), Georgiou, Bambos (i). "Ground Zero" Doctor Who Magazine (238–242) (May 8, 1996 – July 31, 1996), Marvel UK
- ^ Bishop, David; "James Stevens" (1997). Who Killed Kennedy. London: Virgin Books. ISBN 0-426-20497-2.
- ^ Mortimore, Jim (1996). Eternity Weeps. London: Virgin Books. ISBN 0-426-20467-0.
- ^ The Trial of a Time Lord. Writer Philip Martin, Director Ron Jones. Doctor Who. BBC. BBC One. 25 October 1986.
- ^ The Trial of a Time Lord. Writer Pip and Jane Baker, Director Chris Clough. Doctor Who. BBC. BBC One. 6 December 1986.
- ^ "Doomsday". Writer Russell T Davies, Director Graeme Harper. Doctor Who. BBC. BBC One. 2006-07-08.
- ^ "The Runaway Bride". Writer Russell T Davies, Director Euros Lyn. Doctor Who. BBC. BBC One. 2006-12-25.
- ^ The Gathering. Writer Joseph Lidster. Director Gary Russell. Big Finish Productions, 2006. ISBN 1 84435 195 5.
- ^ Doctor Who. Writer Matthew Jacobs, Director Geoffrey Sax. FOX. 14 May 1996.
- ^ "The Parting of the Ways". Writer Russell T Davies, Director Joe Ahearne. Doctor Who. BBC. BBC One. 2005-06-18.