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Up to date as of January 14, 2010

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Comparative Teaching of Old Greek and Latin Lesson 04 Part 3

Translated from the Greek Wikipedia|Wikiversity: "Συγκριτική διδασκαλία των κλασικών γλωσσών / (Comparative Teaching of the Classical Languages)"

LESSON 04 PART 3. The verb. Regular verbs. Present, imperfect, future indicative, active voice.


4.3.1. Analyse and translate the dialogues:


Α. Old Greek


Teacher: Χαίρετε, ὦ φίλοι μαθηταί!

Student: Χαῖρε, ὦ διδάσκαλε!

Teacher: Τὶς ἡμῶν (which of you) εἰς πίνακα (blackboard) ἐλθεῖν (to come) βούλεται;

Student: Ἔγωγε (me of course), ὦ διδάσκαλε, πάνυ (much) βούλομαι.

Teacher: Ἐλθὲ καὶ εἰπὲ ἡμῖν ὅς τυγχάνεις (who you are)!

Student: Ἰωάννης Γεωργίου.

Teacher: Εἰπὲ αὐτοῖς, ὦ Ἰωάννη, ὅ,τι (what) ἐθήρευεν Κῦρος ἐν τῷ παραδείσῳ (the garden).

Student: Ἄγρια (wild) θηρία (beasts) ἐθήρευεν ἐν τῷ παραδείσῳ.

Teacher: Τίς ἐστιν ὁ ποταμός, ὁ διὰ μέσου τοῦ παραδείσου (through the garden) ῥέων (flowing);

Student: Μαίανδρός (Meander) ἐστι.

Teacher: Πόθεν (where from) εἰσὶν αἱ πηγαὶ (the springs) αὐτοῦ;

Student: Ἀπὸ τῶν βασιλείων (from the palace).

Teacher: Ὀρθῶς (correctly) γε λέγεις. Ποῖον δ’ ἐστί τὸ σημερινὸν (of today) μάθημα;

Student: Βίος (the life) Ἀλεξάνδρου τοῦ Μεγάλου, ὦ διδάσκαλε.

Teacher: Τὶς ἦν πατὴρ αὐτῷ (his father) τὶς δὲ ἡ μήτηρ;

Student: Φίλιππος ὁ Μακεδών καὶ Ὀλυμπιάς.

Teacher: Τίς δὲ ὁ διδάσκαλος;

Student: Ἀριστοτέλης, ὁ φιλόσοφος.

Teacher: Ἄληθες (really); Δίδασκε (explain) πῶς!

Student: Ἐπεὶ (for, because) καὶ Ἀριστοτέλης Μακεδὼν ἦν, ὦ διδάσκαλε.

Teacher: Εὖ γε (well done), ἴθι (go)!

Student: Χαῖρε, ὦ διδάσκαλε!

Teacher: Καὶ σύ γε! Οὐκ αἰσχύνει (aren't you ashamed) γελῶν (laughing), ὦ οὗτος;

Student: Σύγγνωθι (excuse me), ὦ διδάσκαλε!

Β. Latin:


Praeceptor: Salve’te!

Discipulus: Salve tu quoque!

Praeceptor: Intellexistis’ne (did you undestand) lectio’nem (lesson) hodie’rnam (of today)?

Discipulus: Ego, magi’ster, non intelle’xi.

Praeceptor: Quid est tibi nomen? (what's your name?).

Praeceptor: Deme’trius, magi’ster.

Praeceptor: Quid (what) non intellexi’sti, Deme’tri?

Discipulus: Hanni’balis sermo’nem (speech), magi’ster.

Praeceptor: Bene (well)! Quis Hanni’balis sermo’nen explica’re (to explain) potest (he can)?

Discipulus: Ego, magister.

Praeceptor: Age (go on), e’xplica!

Discipulus: Tintina’bulum (the handbell), magister, ιnterva’llum (interval) est.

Praeceptor: Bene! Ea’tis (you may go) in a’uleam (the yard)!

Discipulus: In a’ulea, magi’ster, ludus (game) pilae (foot ball) est. Venies’ne (will you come) nobi’scum (with us)?

Praeceptor: Non possum (I cannot), gra’tias ago vobis (I thank you)!

Discipulus: Curnam (why then) non potes (you cannot)?

Praeceptor: Quia (for, because) eo (there) magna perturba’tio (ado) est et a’liqui (some students) fumiga’re (to smoke) solent (are get used).

Discipulus: At ita sit! (let it be so!). Vale (hi), magi’ster!

Praeceptor: Vale’te, vos quoque (as well)!

Discipulus: Ea’mus ergo (let us go then, therefore) in a’uleam, ut (in order that) ludum specte’mus (to watch)!

Condiscipuli: Ea’mus i’gitur (therefore)!

4.3.2. Fill in all forms in the following table for the verbs ἐθήρευον, γυμνάζεις, γυμνάσομεν:


Persons / Indicative present / Indicative imperfect / Indicative future


1st singular / .................................................................................................

2nd singular / .................................................................................................

3rd singular / .................................................................................................


1st plural / .................................................................................................

2nd plural / .................................................................................................

3rd plural / .................................................................................................

Fill in all forms in the following table for the verbs firma’bam, vasta’bis, pugnant:


Persons / Indicative present / Indicative imperfect / Indicative future


1st singular / ..................................................................................................

2nd singular / .................................................................................................

3rd singular / ..................................................................................................


1st plural / .................................................................................................

2nd plural / .................................................................................................

3rd plural / ..................................................................................................


4.3.3. Recognize the verbs and their function in the following expressions:


1. Ἐγὼ δ’ οὐκ ἀγνοῶ (I ignore), ὦ ἄνδρες Ἀθηναῖοι, τοῦτο.

2. Ἐκέλευσαν (they ordered) τοὺς παῖδας τάχιστα (very quickly) ἀπιέναι (to go away).

3. Ἐδήλωσαν (they denoted) ὅτι οὐ πλαστὴν (false) τὴν φιλίαν παρείχοντο (to give, to supply).

4. Δοκεῖ (it seems) δὲ ὁ δῆμος (people, municipality) ὁ Ἀθηναίων καὶ ἐν τῷδε (in this subject) κακῶς βουλεύεσθαι.

5. Ὁ δὲ Κυαξάρης πέμπων (sending delegates) πρὸς τὸν Κῦρον λέγει ὡς καιρός ἐστι ἄγειν (to make an expedition) ἐπὶ τοὺς πολεμίους.

1. Ho’mines fortes (the brave) multum lauda’mus.

2. Omnes ho’mines mala (misfortunes, calamities) bello’rum (of wars) me’tuunt (they are afraid).

3. Disci’puli in schola (school) histo’riam di’scere (to learn) volunt (they want).

4. Pare’ntes (the parents) meos multum ama’bam.

5. Pater meus et mater mea divites (rich) sunt.

4.3.4. Recognize the verbs in the following expressions and decline them in the indicative of present, imperfect and future tense:


1. Καὶ τοῦτο λέξω (I'll tell you) ἡμῖν.

2. Θαυμάζω (I wonder) ὡς (because) οὔπω (yet) Κῦρος θηρεύει (he hunts).

3. Σπεῦσον (make haste) καὶ ταχύ (quickly) μοι (to me) προσκόμισον (bring) τὸν πάπυρον (the notebook) .

4. Οὐκ ἔστι μοι ἰδεῖν (I cannot) τοὺς παῖδας παίζοντας (playing).

5. Σάφ’ οἶσθα (you must know well) ὅτι οὐδέποτε (never) ἡμεῖς φευξόμεθα (we'll go away).

6. Φαιδρῷ (having smiling face) τῶ προσώπῳ λέγει.

7. Μὴ παῦε μελετῶν (do not stop studying)!

8. Σωκράτης ἀεὶ (always) τὰ ἄριστα πράττει.


9. Rem confirma’re volo (I want to confirm).

10. Omnes (we all) ex o’culis (the eyes) labora’mus (we suffer).

11. Me (me) specula’ria (the mirrors) deterge’re opo’rtet (I have to clean).

12. Mihi non fidis, ami’ce mi? (do not you trust me?)

13. Vi’deo (I can see) fratrem (the brother) mu’sicam audie’ntem (to listen).

14. Desce’ndo per scalas (get down).

15. Ia’nuam pulto (I knock the door).

16. Modo veni e thea’tro (I have just come from).


4.3.5. Recognize the verbs in the following expressions and decline them in the indicative of present, imperfect and future tense:


1. Διὰ γυναικὸς πηγάζει τὰ κρείττονα (through women spring the best things).

2. Ἐξ ἰδίων κρίνει τὰ ἀλλότρια (one based on one's own things considers the foreigner's).

3. Κομίζει γλαῦκα εἰς Ἀθήνας (one carries coal to Newcastle).

4. Μή μου τοὺς κύκλους τάραττε (don't trouble me. Let me alone).

5. Οὔ με πείσεις κἄν με πείσῃς! (you will not persuade me, even if you persuade me!)

6. Ave, Caesar, moritu’ri (the sentenced to death) te salu’tant (saluta’re= salute, greet)!

7. Co’gito (cogita’re) ergo sum (I think, therefore I exist).

8. Dat, donat (dona’re), dicat (dica’re) (he gives, he presents, he says).

9. Horre’sco (horre’scere) re’ferens (I tremble even when I refer this).

10. Labor o’mnia vincit (vi’ncere) (the effort (trouble) wins all).

4.3.6. Analyse structurally the following sentences:


Λέγεται δὴ Φίλιππος μὲν τελευτῆσαι (to die) ἐπὶ ἄρχοντος (leader, nobleman) Πυθοδήμου Ἀθήνησι (in Athens). Λέγεται δὲ παραλαβόντα τὴν βασιλείαν (royalty) Ἀλέξανδρον, παῖδα ὄντα (who was child of) Φιλίππου, ἐς Πελοπόννησον παρελθεῖν. Λέγεται δὲ εἶναι τότε ἀμφὶ τὰ εἴκοσιν (about twenty years old) ἔτη Ἀλέξανδρον.

Ita’lia est terra (a country) Euro’pae. Sici’lia est i’nsula (island) Ita’liae. In’colae (inhabitants) Ita’liae sunt agri’colae (peasants, countrymen). Roma’ni multos deos adora’bant (worship). Graeci decem annos (ten years) cum Troia’nis (Trojans) bella’bant (to fight).


4.3.7. Translate in Old Greek and Latin the following expressions:


In Old Greek:


1. Cyrus' palace is at Kelaines.

2. Kelaines was a big and rich city.

3. Cyrus hunted beasts riding on the horse.

4. Through the garden flows the river Meander.

5. The width of the river is twenty feet.

6. Who was Alexander's father?

7. Alexander's father was Philip.

8. Hi, students!

9. Hi, teacher!

10. Hi, my friend!

In Latin:


1. Romans are a warlike population fighting by swords.

2. Romans during the wars founded barracks everyday.

3. They fortify the barracks by trenches and ditches.

4. Hannibal after the fight will praise the brave soldiers.

5. What is your name?

6. I did not understand.

7. What did you not understand?

8. It is an interval, teacher!

9. Well, let us go to the yard!

10. Hi, students!

4.4. Information about the Classic Culture.


1. τὸ εὖρός ἐστιν εἴκοσι καὶ πέντε ποδῶν (the width is twenty five feet):

The foot was the unit of measurement of length that amounted with 0,308 metres. Other units of length were the ell (ὁ πῆχυς) = 0,462 metres, the step = 0,77 metres, the fathom = 1,83 metres, the dekapous (δεκάπους, ten feet) 3,08 metres, the amma (ἅμμα) = 18,48 metres, the acre (plethron) = 30,83 metres, the stadium = 184,97 metres, the channel (δίαυλος) = 369,94 metres, the ippikon (ἱππικόν) = 739,87 metres and the dolichos (δόλιχος) = 2219 metres. There also existed other smaller metres of length as the inch (δάκτυλος), the condylus (κόνδυλος), the dohmi (ἡ δοχμή), the dichas (ἡ διχάς), the span (ἡ σπιθαμή) etc. The units of measurement of Romans were: the inch (digitus), the foot = 0,2945 metres, the cu'bitus, the step (passus) = 1,425 metres, the dece'mpeda (ten feet), the actus = 35,34 metres, the mile (millia'rium) = 1472,5 metres etc. The Attic currencies were the thin (λεπτόν), the copper (το χαλκοῦν), the double copper, the semiobol, the obol (mite, farthing) that amounted with the 1/6 of drachma, the double obol, the threefold obol, the fourfold obol, the drachma, double drachma, the fourfold drachma, the mna, that amounted with 97,07 drachmas, and the talant, that amounted with 5823,33 drachmas. The Roman currencies of the period of Democracy were: the quina'rius, the dena'rius (roughly one Attic drachma), the seste'rtius, the as, the a'ureus (roughly four Attic drachmas).


2. μή μου τοὺς κύκλους τάραττε (do not trouble me):

This expression was said by Archimedes, from Syracuse of Sicily, the big mathematician and pfysicist of the antiquity (287-212 B.C.), to a Roman soldier, during the siege of Syracuse by the Romans in 212 B.C., a little while before the soldier kill him, at the moment when he observed the circles that he had made in the floor, probably studying his hydrostatic principle. It is said that Archimedes was a student of Euclid and that had friendship with Eratosthenes. To him belong the formulas that give the area and the volume of a sphere and he is considered the precursor of the absolute reasoning. He also manufactured a lot of besieging machines that were used against the Romans during the siege of Syracuse.


3. Roma’ni in bellis coti’die castra colloca’bant (Romans during the wars every day founded barracks):

Romans, during the war or even before the war, manufactured in countries or regions that they had conquered, fortified camps (castra, -orum) in order to protect themselves from the hostile attacks, in the period of the possession of the conquered ground, or in order to prepare themselves for new expeditions or pass the cold months of winter. These camps became by the time small settlements and small cities, through which the Roman culture was disseminated in the conquered populations. A lot of such camps became in the country of Galatians (France), in Spain and in Britain, where there exist up to today big cities, that began as camps, the names of which contain the word castra, as Manchester, Winchester etc.


4. e thea’tro (from the theater):

The theatrical representations were taking place in the feasts of Dionysus that is in Great Dionysia (or in city Dionysia) and in Small Dionysia (or at fields Dionysia), the feast of Lenaia and Anthesteria. Great Dionysia were taking place in the month Elafevolion (15-3/15-4), their duration was six days and there were presented new plays in them. Small Dionysia were celebrated in the month Poseideon (15-12/15-1) and there were presented in them repetitions of successful plays. Lenaia were celebrated in the month Gamelion (15-1/15-2) and during them there were taught new tragedies and comedies. Anthesteria were celebrated in the month Anthesterion (15-2/15-3) and in them, later, there began to be taught dramas. Other feasts were: Winter Nemea (Gamelion 12), Small Eleusinia (Anthesterion 12-21), Theseia (Hecatombaion (15-7/15-8) 8), Olympic games (Hecatombaion 11-16), Summer Nemea (Hecatombaion 12), Great and Small Panathenaia (Hecatombaion 24-29), Thesmophoria (Boedromion (15-9/15-10) 10-14), Great Eleusinia (Boedromion 16-25).


To continue look at: Comparative Teaching of Old Greek and Latin, Lesson 05 Part 1

To see the Introduction look at:Comparative Teaching of Old Greek and Latin

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