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.A computer is a programmable machine that receives input, stores and manipulates data, and provides output in a useful format.^ Computer Structure 2.4.2 Accessing Memory The CPU has to access memory both for instructions and to receive and transmit data from or to memory.

^ While the fMRI machine monitored the changes in brain activity, a computer crunched the data and learned to associate the various changes in brain activity with the different image designs.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Less than 6 percent of surfers manage to use Boolean search terms, which are the `and' and `or,' and plus and minus signs that correspond to the way a computer filters data."
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although mechanical examples of computers have existed through much of recorded human history, the first electronic computers were developed in the mid-20th century (1940–1945).^ Examples of what humans can do for computers?
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Along with the development of general-purpose computers, the past few years have seen an increase in effort toward the discovery and mechanization of problem-solving processes.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First-rate human reasoners get enormous leverage from pictorial representation schemes, but machines are still pretty much locked into formal languages that are linguistic through and through.
  • Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC kryten.mm.rpi.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers (PCs).^ Storage Devices 4.5.1.2 Magnetic Tape Capacity Magnetic tapes have large capacities, reaching up to several gigabytes and come in a variety of sizes and formats.

^ "The U.S. home personal computer market is the largest in the world, holding a 55% share of the $24 billion-a-year global market for home PCs....
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The PC Technology Guide - An excellent detailed overview of all of the components inside a personal computer.
  • Computer Hardware Links 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC mysite.verizon.net [Source type: General]

[1] .Modern computers based on integrated circuits are millions to billions of times more capable than the early machines, and occupy a fraction of the space.^ Today, more than 13 million Americans hold IT-related jobs, and the rate of growth is six times as fast as overall job growth."
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Computer Economics says the Love Bug virus retains the top spot all time, costing organizations $8.75 billion."
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An elementary school teacher once told me they don't have time to allow the kids to get a drink after PE or more than once a day.

[2] .Simple computers are small enough to fit into small pocket devices, and can be powered by a small battery.^ If computer not powerful enough or bandwidth too low the video appears jerky.

.Personal computers in their various forms are icons of the Information Age and are what most people think of as "computers". However, the embedded computers found in many devices from MP3 players to fighter aircraft and from toys to industrial robots are the most numerous.^ Personal Computers per 1,000 people .
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have finished College and so do not use many of my PC capabilities just like most people I know.
  • Hey! The PS3 is a Computer, Not a Game System: News from 1UP.com 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.1up.com [Source type: General]

^ Computer Company Sites Storage Search - Links to many different manufacturers of storage devices.
  • Computer Hardware Links 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC mysite.verizon.net [Source type: General]

.The ability to store and execute lists of instructions called programs makes computers extremely versatile, distinguishing them from calculators.^ O/S manages processes – programs in execution 7 – Computer Software 7.2.1 Starting up The most essential and frequently used instructions of the operating system are held in main memory.

^ Fetch, decode and execute are repeated until a program instruction to HALT is encountered.

^ A series of these instructions is called a machine code program held in main memory as a stored program , a concept first proposed by John Von Neumann in 1945.

.The Church–Turing thesis is a mathematical statement of this versatility: any computer with a certain minimum capability is, in principle, capable of performing the same tasks that any other computer can perform.^ On the other hand, the success of Turing's second prediction (that acknowledgment of computer thought processes would become commonplace) in practice amply ( ...
  • Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence - Bibliography | PhilPapers 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC philpapers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Input/output channels, floating-point coprocessors, and similar specialized computing devices are other applications of this principle.
  • Hints for computer system design 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC research.microsoft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But neural networks have not proved capable of higher level cognitive tasks like mathematical logic, planning, or reasoning.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: General]

.Therefore computers ranging from a netbook to a supercomputer are all able to perform the same computational tasks, given enough time and storage capacity.^ Offloading 80% of the tasks doctors currently perform would be the equivalent of having five times as many doctors on hand to apply their expertise to the treatment and prevention of illness.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Memory can be organised as: 8- bit wide (PC-8088) 16-bit wide (XT-8086, AT-80286) 32-bit wide (386DX, 486SX, 486DX) 64-bit wide (Pentium) 2 Computer Structure 2.3.1 RAM RAM Has same access time for all locations.

^ Computer Economics says the Love Bug virus retains the top spot all time, costing organizations $8.75 billion."
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

History of computing

The Jacquard loom, on display at the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester, England, was one of the first programmable devices.
.The first use of the word "computer" was recorded in 1613, referring to a person who carried out calculations, or computations, and the word continued to be used in that sense until the middle of the 20th century.^ Computers figuring out what words mean " .
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mostly, experienced users of computers, social gadflys, and people who tinker with newer hardware & software hang out here.

^ Computers carry out tasks by executing machine instructions.

.From the end of the 19th century onwards though, the word began to take on its more familiar meaning, describing a machine that carries out computations.^ Computers figuring out what words mean " .
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It means that connections can carry more meaning, on their own.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: General]

^ Computers carry out tasks by executing machine instructions.

[3]
.The history of the modern computer begins with two separate technologies—automated calculation and programmability—but no single device can be identified as the earliest computer, partly because of the inconsistent application of that term.^ But if it was it would be the single sold computer in history!
  • Hey! The PS3 is a Computer, Not a Game System: News from 1UP.com 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.1up.com [Source type: General]

^ This local computation is calculated in two stages.
  • Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC kryten.mm.rpi.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is safe to say that no other single article in computer science, and few other articles in science in general, have generated so much discussion.
  • Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence - Bibliography | PhilPapers 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC philpapers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Examples of early mechanical calculating devices include the abacus, the slide rule and arguably the astrolabe and the Antikythera mechanism (which dates from about 150–100 BC).^ Calculating Machines- From Babbage to VLSI Abacus developed about 1300 AD by Chinese Logarithms developed by John Napier Other manual devices developed by Pascal & Liebniz First mechanical calculator developed by Charles Babbage (1792 – 1871) Difference Engine and then Analytical Engine.

^ It is not surprising that the testing grounds for early work on mechanical problem solving have usually been areas of mathematics, or games, in which the rules are learned with absolute clarity.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Non-monotonic (or defeasible) logic includes formalisms designed to capture the mechanisms underlying these kinds of examples.
  • Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC kryten.mm.rpi.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Hero of Alexandria (c. .10–70 AD) built a mechanical theater which performed a play lasting 10 minutes and was operated by a complex system of ropes and drums that might be considered to be a means of deciding which parts of the mechanism performed which actions and when.^ T he operating system is part of the system software.

^ Extensions for Windows is the first community driven, modular upgrade for Windows XP and Vista and contains a number of new features Windows users have desired as part of the operating system.
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

^ Networking 5.1 Introduction This unit on Networking considers the basic system topologies and functions that allow computers to operate on a network.

[4] This is the essence of programmability.
The "castle clock", an astronomical clock invented by Al-Jazari in 1206, is considered to be the earliest programmable analog computer.[5] .It displayed the zodiac, the solar and lunar orbits, a crescent moon-shaped pointer travelling across a gateway causing automatic doors to open every hour,[6][7] and five robotic musicians who played music when struck by levers operated by a camshaft attached to a water wheel.^ Was I the only one who recognized the Kid Rock robot playing "live" at the Flesh Fair?
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 2 February 2010 13:21 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The length of day and night could be re-programmed to compensate for the changing lengths of day and night throughout the year.[5]
The Renaissance saw a re-invigoration of European mathematics and engineering. .Wilhelm Schickard's 1623 device was the first of a number of mechanical calculators constructed by European engineers, but none fit the modern definition of a computer, because they could not be programmed.^ Calculating Machines- From Babbage to VLSI Abacus developed about 1300 AD by Chinese Logarithms developed by John Napier Other manual devices developed by Pascal & Liebniz First mechanical calculator developed by Charles Babbage (1792 – 1871) Difference Engine and then Analytical Engine.

^ Logic, for instance, can provide a specification for a programming language by characterizing a mapping from programs to the computations that they license.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ And the reason that they were so kind to David and wanted him to be happy was because he was the first of their kind.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 2 February 2010 13:21 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 1801, Joseph Marie Jacquard made an improvement to the textile loom by introducing a series of punched paper cards as a template which allowed his loom to weave intricate patterns automatically. .The resulting Jacquard loom was an important step in the development of computers because the use of punched cards to define woven patterns can be viewed as an early, albeit limited, form of programmability.^ With interactive use the response time to a demand for computing is important, since a person is waiting for it.
  • Hints for computer system design 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC research.microsoft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is a step, albeit a small one, beyond the template method; the Characters are not simple instances of the patterns, and the properties may themselves be very abstract.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On a cross between physics, chemistry, biology and what some could possibly call blasphemy, European scientists have developed a self-assembling integrated circuit, an important step towards the ultimate goal: self-assembling computers.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

It was the fusion of automatic calculation with programmability that produced the first recognizable computers. .In 1837, Charles Babbage was the first to conceptualize and design a fully programmable mechanical computer, his analytical engine.^ Calculating Machines- From Babbage to VLSI Abacus developed about 1300 AD by Chinese Logarithms developed by John Napier Other manual devices developed by Pascal & Liebniz First mechanical calculator developed by Charles Babbage (1792 – 1871) Difference Engine and then Analytical Engine.

[8] Limited finances and Babbage's inability to resist tinkering with the design meant that the device was never completed.
.In the late 1880s, Herman Hollerith invented the recording of data on a machine readable medium.^ When the amount of data is large or the data must be recorded on separate machines, it is not easy to ensure that the copies are always the same.
  • Hints for computer system design 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC research.microsoft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Prior uses of machine readable media, above, had been for control, not data.^ They are not suitable as storage media for applications where data needs be used regularly - where a disk is a more appropriate medium.

"After some initial trials with paper tape, he settled on punched cards ..."[9] .To process these punched cards he invented the tabulator, and the keypunch machines.^ These machines are used at “run time” for rapid, reactive processing.
  • Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC kryten.mm.rpi.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These three inventions were the foundation of the modern information processing industry.^ These are hard problems of semantic information processing and integration that are difficult but feasible today using the latest AI technologies.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: General]

.Large-scale automated data processing of punched cards was performed for the 1890 United States Census by Hollerith's company, which later became the core of IBM.^ "The U.S. Census Bureau reports that the United States has 60 million disabled individuals, 70% of whom say they are underemployed or without employment at all because of that disability.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now we have VLSI (Very large Scale Integration) 2 Computer Structure 2.2.1 A Two State Machine Typical 4 box diagram Only 2 states used in all components and data storage, on or off, 1 or 0.

^ Large Scale Systems, Revenue in $millions Source: Datamation, (from Marvin Sirbu, CMU) 1992 1991 1990 Change Market Company Rev. Rev.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By the end of the 19th century a number of technologies that would later prove useful in the realization of practical computers had begun to appear: the punched card, Boolean algebra, the vacuum tube (thermionic valve) and the teleprinter.^ Quite a number of papers have appeared describing theories or actual computer programs concerned with game-playing, theorem-proving, pattern-recognition, and other domains which would seem to require some intelligence.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Less than 6 percent of surfers manage to use Boolean search terms, which are the `and' and `or,' and plus and minus signs that correspond to the way a computer filters data."
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The success information is used to reinforce individual instructions (in fixed locations) so that each success tends to increase the chance that the instructions of successful programs will appear in later trials.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the first half of the 20th century, many scientific computing needs were met by increasingly sophisticated analog computers, which used a direct mechanical or electrical model of the problem as a basis for computation.^ How many deaths (from war and democide and religion) have we had in the 20th century?
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bringing an eclectic set of conceptual tools to the problem of idealized reasoning in realistic settings, and using computers to model and test the theories, research in AI has transformed the study of reasoning—especially of practical, common sense reasoning.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Computer Software 7.4 Graphic Applications Many applications use computers to generate images.

.However, these were not programmable and generally lacked the versatility and accuracy of modern digital computers.^ It's likely that quantum computing will, in the future, be a reality.However, making algorithms for them is not going to be trivial as they don't function at all like our traditional digital computers.
  • memepool.com: Computing archive 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

Alan Turing is widely regarded to be the father of modern computer science. .In 1936 Turing provided an influential formalisation of the concept of the algorithm and computation with the Turing machine.^ Of course, it's possible that AI could be replaced by a field devoted not to building computational artifacts by writing computer programs and running them on embodied Turing machines.
  • Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC kryten.mm.rpi.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each author provides a “proof of concept” for the formalization by showing that the axioms support a proof of the correctness of a plan to crack the egg in the simple case.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ One conclusion to be drawn is that, IF a computer can effectively calculate an algorithm THEN so can an equivalent Turing Machine.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

Of his role in the modern computer, Time magazine in naming Turing one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century, states: "The fact remains that everyone who taps at a keyboard, opening a spreadsheet or a word-processing program, is working on an incarnation of a Turing machine".[10]
.The inventor of the program-controlled computer was Konrad Zuse, who built the first working computer in 1941 and later in 1955 the first computer based on magnetic storage.^ Access – Always random 4.5 – Storage Devices 4.5.3Magneto Optical Storage Based on a combination of magnetic and optical technologies.

^ Computer Software 7.2.1.2 Disk Based Operating Systems With a disk based operating system the system software is held on backing storage and loaded into main memory when the machine is switched on.

^ The humans in the movie are all programmed by emotions (hate, anger, love, understanding) and they build a robot who they say is the first robot programmed to love.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 2 February 2010 13:21 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11]
.George Stibitz is internationally recognized as a father of the modern digital computer.^ It is generally assumed that the birth of modern-day AI in the 1950’s came in large part because of and through the advent of the modern high-speed digital computer.
  • Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC kryten.mm.rpi.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While working at Bell Labs in November 1937, Stibitz invented and built a relay-based calculator he dubbed the "Model K" (for "kitchen table", on which he had assembled it), which was the first to use binary circuits to perform an arithmetic operation.^ Summary—In order to solve a new problem, one should first try using methods similar to those that have worked on similar problems.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We only need two voltages 0 and a voltage of any value = 1 There are only 4 rules of arithmetic with binary (100 in base 10).

^ What would work better would be transferring over the moral complexity that you used to make up these goals in the first place.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

Later models added greater sophistication including complex arithmetic and programmability.[12]
Defining characteristics of some early digital computers of the 1940s (In the history of computing hardware)
Name First operational Numeral system Computing mechanism Programming Turing complete
Zuse Z3 (Germany) May 1941 Binary Electro-mechanical Program-controlled by punched film stock (but no conditional branch) Yes (1998)
Atanasoff–Berry Computer (US) 1942 Binary Electronic Not programmable—single purpose No
Colossus Mark 1 (UK) February 1944 Binary Electronic Program-controlled by patch cables and switches No
Harvard Mark I – IBM ASCC (US) May 1944 Decimal Electro-mechanical Program-controlled by 24-channel punched paper tape (but no conditional branch) No
Colossus Mark 2 (UK) June 1944 Binary Electronic Program-controlled by patch cables and switches No
ENIAC (US) July 1946 Decimal Electronic Program-controlled by patch cables and switches Yes
Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine (Baby) (UK) June 1948 Binary Electronic Stored-program in Williams cathode ray tube memory Yes
Modified ENIAC (US) September 1948 Decimal Electronic Program-controlled by patch cables and switches plus a primitive read-only stored programming mechanism using the Function Tables as program ROM Yes
EDSAC (UK) May 1949 Binary Electronic Stored-program in mercury delay line memory Yes
Manchester Mark 1 (UK) October 1949 Binary Electronic Stored-program in Williams cathode ray tube memory and magnetic drum memory Yes
CSIRAC (Australia) November 1949 Binary Electronic Stored-program in mercury delay line memory Yes
.A succession of steadily more powerful and flexible computing devices were constructed in the 1930s and 1940s, gradually adding the key features that are seen in modern computers.^ Since the computer understands the meaning behind words, it will be more successful finding what you really want than it is currently by just matching words.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Making super-fast, super-powerful computers more widely available can only empower such individuals.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The semantic map is reportedly the world's largest, and gives computers a vocabulary more than 10 times as extensive as that of a typical US college graduate.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

.The use of digital electronics (largely invented by Claude Shannon in 1937) and more flexible programmability were vitally important steps, but defining one point along this road as "the first digital electronic computer" is difficult.^ This is why we guarantee 100% compatible ram upgrades for more than 20,000 different computers, notebooks, servers, digital cameras and electronic devices.
  • Computer Hardware Directory of Indiana 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC indiana.uscity.net [Source type: General]

^ In changing just one instruction at a time, the machine had not taken large enough steps in its search through program space.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nevertheless, the team has made a first step, and as usual, the first steps are the hardest ones to take.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

Shannon 1940 Notable achievements include:
EDSAC was one of the first computers to implement the stored program (von Neumann) architecture.
.
Die of an Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor (actual size: 12×6.75 mm) in its packaging.
  • Konrad Zuse's electromechanical "Z machines". The Z3 (1941) was the first working machine featuring binary arithmetic, including floating point arithmetic and a measure of programmability.^ If you happen to be chained to a desktop machine, I strongly reccomend the IBM Trackpoint Keyboard featuring their trademark red eraserhead pointing device.
    • memepool.com: Computing archive 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

    ^ He had an electromechanical, freely-programmable binary computer working in his parents' living room in 1938.
    • memepool.com: Computing archive 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

    ^ "Chipping at Intel" by Michael Meyer Nearly 150 million personal computers are working now, 9 out of 10 of them running Intel microprocessors.
    • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .In 1998 the Z3 was proved to be Turing complete, therefore being the world's first operational computer.^ However, this is only part of the story: the part that reaches back but to Turing and others (e.g., von Neuman) responsible for the first electronic computers.
    • Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC kryten.mm.rpi.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [13]
  • .
  • The non-programmable Atanasoff–Berry Computer (1941) which used vacuum tube based computation, binary numbers, and regenerative capacitor memory.^ I/O system needs to use the devices efficiently so as not to waste the CPU. A buffer is an area of memory set aside to help in the transfer of data between the computer and a device.

    ^ The number of sites using the Internet for product transactions will increase from 14% of the survey base in 1995 to 34% in 1996 and 44% in the next three to five years....
    • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ O/S manages processes – programs in execution 7 – Computer Software 7.2.1 Starting up The most essential and frequently used instructions of the operating system are held in main memory.

    .The use of regenerative memory allowed it to be much more compact then its peers (being approximately the size of a large desk or workbench), since intermediate results could be stored and then fed back into the same set of computation elements.
  • The secret British Colossus computers (1943),[14] which had limited programmability but demonstrated that a device using thousands of tubes could be reasonably reliable and electronically reprogrammable.^ Computer Software 7.2.1.2 Disk Based Operating Systems With a disk based operating system the system software is held on backing storage and loaded into main memory when the machine is switched on.

    ^ Computer Structure 2.2.4 The fetch execute cycle To execute a machine code program it must first be loaded, together with any data that it needs, into main memory (RAM).

    ^ Preferential semantics relies on a function S taking a set K of models into a subset S ( K ) of K .
    • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .It was used for breaking German wartime codes.
  • The Harvard Mark I (1944), a large-scale electromechanical computer with limited programmability.
  • The U.S. Army's Ballistic Research Laboratory ENIAC (1946), which used decimal arithmetic and is sometimes called the first general purpose electronic computer (since Konrad Zuse's Z3 of 1941 used electromagnets instead of electronics).^ Electronics, MIT, Cambridge, Mass., which is supported in part by the U. S. Army Signal Corps, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, and the ONR—is based on earlier work done by the author as a Junior Fellow of the Society of Fellows, Harvard University.
    • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ However, this is only part of the story: the part that reaches back but to Turing and others (e.g., von Neuman) responsible for the first electronic computers.
    • Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC kryten.mm.rpi.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Some have to do with the emerging development in computer science of ambitious applications using unprecedentedly large bodies of logical axioms.
    • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Initially, however, ENIAC had an inflexible architecture which essentially required rewiring to change its programming.
.Several developers of ENIAC, recognizing its flaws, came up with a far more flexible and elegant design, which came to be known as the "stored program architecture" or von Neumann architecture.^ Idea of stored program concept developed.

^ Main Memory External Memory Peripheral Devices 2 Computer Structure 2.2.3 The stored program concept All computers based on same basic design, known as the Von Neumann Architecture .

^ This effort is yielding a better sense of how to develop a workable methodology for formalizing common sense, and of how to divide the larger problem up into more manageable parts.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This design was first formally described by John von Neumann in the paper First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC, distributed in 1945. A number of projects to develop computers based on the stored-program architecture commenced around this time, the first of these being completed in Great Britain.^ Numbers stored as base and exponent.

^ Idea of stored program concept developed.

^ A series of these instructions is called a machine code program held in main memory as a stored program , a concept first proposed by John Von Neumann in 1945.

.The first to be demonstrated working was the Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM or "Baby"), while the EDSAC, completed a year after SSEM, was the first practical implementation of the stored program design.^ Demonstrations of the system are expected this year, with a final televised matchup--complete with hosting by the show's Alex Trebek--sometime next year.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It looked like this stinker was designed to appeal to stoned,smug, PC 18 year old first year Berkely students.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 2 February 2010 13:21 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We write Agent(P,M) to denote the agent function implemented by program P running on machine M .
  • Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC kryten.mm.rpi.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Shortly thereafter, the machine originally described by von Neumann's paper—EDVAC—was completed but did not see full-time use for an additional two years.^ Shortly thereafter, the Trainer sends to the machine positive or negative reinforcement (reward) signal; this increases or decreases the tendency to make the same decisions in the future.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A series of these instructions is called a machine code program held in main memory as a stored program , a concept first proposed by John Von Neumann in 1945.

^ (Note that in this example, the articulation is essentially recursive; the figure is first divided into two parts; then each part is described using the same machinery.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nearly all modern computers implement some form of the stored-program architecture, making it the single trait by which the word "computer" is now defined.^ Now it's all just words.
  • Hey! The PS3 is a Computer, Not a Game System: News from 1UP.com 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.1up.com [Source type: General]

^ Computer Structure 2.4.1 Architecture of the microprocessor We will now study the internal architecture of the microprocessor (CPU) itself.

^ W95 on XP 8 – Supporting Software 8.3 Viruses A virus is program code that causes some undesirable and unexpected event to happen in a computer.

.While the technologies used in computers have changed dramatically since the first electronic, general-purpose computers of the 1940s, most still use the von Neumann architecture.^ In this section I'll discuss the approach taken by most computer scientists, who, unlike McCarthy, use a modal language to formalize propositional attitudes.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A series of these instructions is called a machine code program held in main memory as a stored program , a concept first proposed by John Von Neumann in 1945.

^ Computer Software 7.4 Graphic Applications Many applications use computers to generate images.

.Computers using vacuum tubes as their electronic elements were in use throughout the 1950s, but by the 1960s had been largely replaced by transistor-based machines, which were smaller, faster, cheaper to produce, required less power, and were more reliable.^ Less than 6 percent of surfers manage to use Boolean search terms, which are the `and' and `or,' and plus and minus signs that correspond to the way a computer filters data."
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Computer Software 7.1 Introduction This unit on computer software considers the software that is required to support the use of computer systems.

^ Why are some computers more powerful than others?

.The first transistorised computer was demonstrated at the University of Manchester in 1953.[15] In the 1970s, integrated circuit technology and the subsequent creation of microprocessors, such as the Intel 4004, further decreased size and cost and further increased speed and reliability of computers.^ As computers increase in power, the time and resources needed to crack such codes decreases, so the minimum encryption key size needs to increase as computer technology improves.

^ Microprocessor Quick Reference - List of Intel chips since 4004.
  • Computer Hardware Links 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC mysite.verizon.net [Source type: General]

^ The question is open if for no other reason than that all must concede that the constant increase in reasoning speed of first-order theorem provers is breathtaking.
  • Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC kryten.mm.rpi.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By the late 1970s, many products such as video recorders contained dedicated computers called microcontrollers, and they started to appear as a replacement to mechanical controls in domestic appliances such as washing machines.^ In that case the average man may have control over certain private machines of his own, such as his car or his personal computer, but control over large systems of machines will be in the hands of a tiny elite -- just as it is today, but with two differences.
  • Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC kryten.mm.rpi.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amazon.com has launched a new program called Amazon Mechanical Turk, through which a computer can ask humans to perform tasks that it can't do itself, such as identifying objects in photographs.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They are called magnetic storage devices because their recording surfaces are coated with a material that responds to magnetic fields to enable data to be stored.

.The 1980s witnessed home computers and the now ubiquitous personal computer.^ The home-use gap of the mid-1980s of about 20 percentage points has now closed."
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Chipping at Intel" by Michael Meyer Nearly 150 million personal computers are working now, 9 out of 10 of them running Intel microprocessors.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The number of U.S. homes with one or more personal computers increased by 16% [in 1995] to about 38 million households, up from 33 million in 1994 and 25 million in 1993....
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With the evolution of the Internet, personal computers are becoming as common as the television and the telephone in the household[citation needed].^ "The current market for personal computers and Internet access should reveal that there is no digital divide.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The number of U.S. homes with one or more personal computers increased by 16% [in 1995] to about 38 million households, up from 33 million in 1994 and 25 million in 1993....
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Boys Girls Internet: 38 28 Television: 34 17 Telephone: 12 31 Radio: 12 17 .
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Modern smartphones are fully-programmable computers in their own right, and as of 2009 may well be the most common form of such computers in existence[citation needed].^ D hehe The PS2 was a computer as well right?
  • Hey! The PS3 is a Computer, Not a Game System: News from 1UP.com 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.1up.com [Source type: General]

^ Bring your own brain to the movie instead of a head full of juvenile talkbackers and you may enjoy it as well.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 2 February 2010 13:21 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In that case the average man may have control over certain private machines of his own, such as his car or his personal computer, but control over large systems of machines will be in the hands of a tiny elite -- just as it is today, but with two differences.
  • Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC kryten.mm.rpi.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Stored program architecture

.The defining feature of modern computers which distinguishes them from all other machines is that they can be programmed.^ In that sense, they are all heuristic programs.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Logic, for instance, can provide a specification for a programming language by characterizing a mapping from programs to the computations that they license.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ They are often designed so that they automatically spread to other computer users on a network.

.That is to say that a list of instructions (the program) can be given to the computer and it will store them and carry them out at some time in the future.^ By altering the stored program it is possible to have the computer carry out a different task.

^ Computers carry out tasks by executing machine instructions.

^ W95 on XP 8 – Supporting Software 8.3 Viruses A virus is program code that causes some undesirable and unexpected event to happen in a computer.

.In most cases, computer instructions are simple: add one number to another, move some data from one location to another, send a message to some external device, etc.^ (SEND2PRESS NEWSWIRE) -- EASEUS Software, the innovative, dedicated data recovery software provider, offers a one-stop solution to 'unformat' a hard disk drive or external hard disk.
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

^ We might also limit the number of alternatives explored from each position—this requires some heuristics for selection of "plausible moves."
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The trick is to find some relatively simple (formal) language in which the good statements are grammatical, and in which the bad ones are not.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These instructions are read from the computer's memory and are generally carried out (executed) in the order they were given.^ Computers carry out tasks by executing machine instructions.

^ Kingston Memory Primer - General information on memory chips and how they work.
  • Computer Hardware Links 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC mysite.verizon.net [Source type: General]

^ Computer Structure 2.2.4 The fetch execute cycle To execute a machine code program it must first be loaded, together with any data that it needs, into main memory (RAM).

.However, there are usually specialized instructions to tell the computer to jump ahead or backwards to some other place in the program and to carry on executing from there.^ Computers carry out tasks by executing machine instructions.

^ Quite a number of papers have appeared describing theories or actual computer programs concerned with game-playing, theorem-proving, pattern-recognition, and other domains which would seem to require some intelligence.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ W95 on XP 8 – Supporting Software 8.3 Viruses A virus is program code that causes some undesirable and unexpected event to happen in a computer.

.These are called "jump" instructions (or branches).^ A series of these instructions is called a machine code program held in main memory as a stored program , a concept first proposed by John Von Neumann in 1945.

.Furthermore, jump instructions may be made to happen conditionally so that different sequences of instructions may be used depending on the result of some previous calculation or some external event.^ Some of the difficulty may be evaded by using carefully graded "training sequences"" as described in the following section.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ W95 on XP 8 – Supporting Software 8.3 Viruses A virus is program code that causes some undesirable and unexpected event to happen in a computer.

^ It may be possible to plan using Differences, as well.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many computers directly support subroutines by providing a type of jump that "remembers" the location it jumped from and another instruction to return to the instruction following that jump instruction.^ DON5408's Unofficial Aptiva Support Site - Many tips on configuring and upgrading IBM Aptiva computers.
  • Computer Hardware Links 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC mysite.verizon.net [Source type: General]

^ They resemble possible worlds in modal logic in providing abstract locations that support a consistent and complete collection of truths.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ "Fifty-four percent of U.S. schools rely on students to provide technical support for their computer systems, according to a report titled "Are We There Yet?"
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Program execution might be likened to reading a book. .While a person will normally read each word and line in sequence, they may at times jump back to an earlier place in the text or skip sections that are not of interest.^ Some of the difficulty may be evaded by using carefully graded "training sequences"" as described in the following section.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It may take a long time, but eventually it is inevitable that we will cross paths -- if they exist at all.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: General]

^ They may not use those words, but this summer, pollsters will be randomly dialing 10,000 homes as part of an unusual survey commissioned by Microsoft Corp.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Similarly, a computer may sometimes go back and repeat the instructions in some section of the program over and over again until some internal condition is met.^ What is required is a system which computes some sampling of all the joint conditional probabilities, and uses these to estimate others when needed.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They may decide to check back in and start reproducing again at some point.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some viruses take effect as soon as their code takes residence in a system whilst others lie dormant until something triggers their code to be executed by the computer.

.This is called the flow of control within the program and it is what allows the computer to perform tasks repeatedly without human intervention.^ How about a computer program that can compete with human beings in a game of Jeopardy : .
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By altering the stored program it is possible to have the computer carry out a different task.

^ The machines might be permitted to make all of their own decisions without human oversight, or else human control over the machines might be retained.
  • Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC kryten.mm.rpi.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Comparatively, a person using a pocket calculator can perform a basic arithmetic operation such as adding two numbers with just a few button presses.^ The operating system compares the data entered with the identities and passwords in its database and if the two do not match up then it will not allow that user any access to the resources on the network.

^ Tamper-resistant hardware uses physical security to perform sensitive operations (like decryption and public-key signature) safely in a potentially hostile environment.
  • memepool.com: Computing archive 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

^ Some devices such as CD-ROM drives are currently so similar that it is possible to use a ’generic’ driver in conjunction with just about any CD-ROM. Modern operating systems offer the facility of adding device drivers to a system, at the same time that the device itself is added.

.But to add together all of the numbers from 1 to 1,000 would take thousands of button presses and a lot of time—with a near certainty of making a mistake.^ People make the mistake of camparing this film to this or that film by this or that director - yes, there were a lot of Kubrick moments - and a lot of Stevie-moments - some were cool, some didn't work at all - but none of that really matters - what matters is this movie - as it is - alone, without reference to other movies.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 2 February 2010 13:21 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They supported HD-DVD before, it would make sense to offer that option...but it is an option after all.
  • Hey! The PS3 is a Computer, Not a Game System: News from 1UP.com 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.1up.com [Source type: General]

^ It would have given David all he wanted: He would be just as 'real' as his 'mother', and they would be able to spend forever together.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 2 February 2010 13:21 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the other hand, a computer may be programmed to do this with just a few simple instructions.^ Nowadays the term refers to programming flaws--commands that don't accomplish the desired result because computers have a habit of following the letter rather than the spirit of the instructions handed to them.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In that case the average man may have control over certain private machines of his own, such as his car or his personal computer, but control over large systems of machines will be in the hands of a tiny elite -- just as it is today, but with two differences.
  • Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC kryten.mm.rpi.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ O/S manages processes – programs in execution 7 – Computer Software 7.2.1 Starting up The most essential and frequently used instructions of the operating system are held in main memory.

For example:
mov #0,sum ; set sum to 0
mov #1,num ; set num to 1
loop: add num,sum ; add num to sum
add #1,num ; add 1 to num
cmp num,#1000 ; compare num to 1000
ble loop ; if num <= 1000, go back to 'loop'
halt ; end of program. stop running
.Once told to run this program, the computer will perform the repetitive addition task without further human intervention.^ This review will concentrate on logical AI in relation to philosophical logic, without further comment on relations to philosophy in general or to the feasibility of developing human-level intelligent systems.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ How about a computer program that can compete with human beings in a game of Jeopardy : .
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition, even the software giant's rivals admit that running a business without Microsoft Office, which includes Word, Excel, and PowerPoint, is nearly impossible.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It will almost never make a mistake and a modern PC can complete the task in about a millionth of a second.^ Your comment makes no sense as the dreamcast and xbox were both good systems, and Ive never said anything about either one.
  • Hey! The PS3 is a Computer, Not a Game System: News from 1UP.com 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.1up.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1998, worldwide PC sales totaled almost 93 million and US sales about 36 million.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Could we assign to each decision element one-millionth of the credit for the completed task?
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16]
.However, computers cannot "think" for themselves in the sense that they only solve problems in exactly the way they are programmed to.^ A computer can do, in a sense, only what it is told to do.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In that sense, they are all heuristic programs.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a sense, this problem is addressed at a general level by nonmonotonic logics, which—though they do not provide a way to enumerate exceptions—do allow common sense generalizations to be formulated as defaults, as well as enabling further qualifications to be added nondestructively.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

An intelligent human faced with the above addition task might soon realize that instead of actually adding up all the numbers one can simply use the equation
1+2+3+...+n = {{n(n+1)} \over 2}
and arrive at the correct answer (500,500) with little work.[17] .In other words, a computer programmed to add up the numbers one by one as in the example above would do exactly that without regard to efficiency or alternative solutions.^ I am not specifically programmed to do unto others as I would have them do unto me.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After all, what cop or county commisioner would place or allow obstacles in front of all these traffic safety signs other than one with bad intent.

^ The importance of applications in logical AI, and the scale of these applications, represents a new methodology for logic—one that would have been impossible without mechanized reasoning.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

Programs

.
A 1970s punched card containing one line from a FORTRAN program.
^ One in three children continues watching TV after [9pm when the programs containing violence or sex start].
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One problem is that a program needs to be entirely self-reliant and contain, for example, drivers for all I/O devices it needs to use.

The card reads: "Z(1) = Y + W(1)" and is labelled "PROJ039" for identification purposes.
.In practical terms, a computer program may run from just a few instructions to many millions of instructions, as in a program for a word processor or a web browser.^ It installed just fine on the desktop too, runs for a few seconds and then exits when it finds that I have no wireless on it.

^ The Zigback Blocker is an Internet browser enhancement that creates a kid-friendly, condensed Internet by blocking millions of unverified, unknown, and potentially harmful and inappropriate Web sites.
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

^ O/S manages processes – programs in execution 7 – Computer Software 7.2.1 Starting up The most essential and frequently used instructions of the operating system are held in main memory.

.A typical modern computer can execute billions of instructions per second (gigahertz or GHz) and rarely make a mistake over many years of operation.^ Gartner Group reports that 200 billion lines of Cobol code existed as of last year, with an expected growth of 5 billion lines of code per year for the next four years.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Measures of Processor Speed Clock Speed Generally the faster the clock speed the faster the processor – 3.2 GHz is faster than 933 MHz Mips – Millions of Instructions per Second Better comparison but beware of false claims e.g.

^ Execute the instruction in the IR. 2 Computer Structure 2.2.8 Computer Components and Their Function The components of the CPU and the connections to devices that are external to it are shown.

.Large computer programs consisting of several million instructions may take teams of programmers years to write, and due to the complexity of the task almost certainly contain errors.^ Some of these may be hard-coded into the brain itself, while others may evolve by trial-and-error, or be programmed or taught to it socially through the process of education (which takes many years at the least).
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: General]

^ Suppose that one million decisions are involved in a complex task (such as winning a chess game).
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In playing a complex game such as chess or checkers, or in writing a computer program, one has a definite success criterion—the game is won or lost.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Errors in computer programs are called "bugs". Bugs may be benign and not affect the usefulness of the program, or have only subtle effects.^ Only 11 percent of the 20 million computers that outlived their usefulness last year were recycled.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those of you who took a beginner's computer science course may remember programming Karel the Robot .
  • memepool.com: Computing archive 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

.But in some cases they may cause the program to "hang"—become unresponsive to input such as mouse clicks or keystrokes, or to completely fail or "crash". Otherwise benign bugs may sometimes may be harnessed for malicious intent by an unscrupulous user writing an "exploit"—code designed to take advantage of a bug and disrupt a program's proper execution.^ To be useful, these should reflect some of the structure of the things they designate, abstracted in a manner relevant to the problem area.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The projects aimed at creating Web 3.0 all take advantage of increasingly powerful computers that can quickly and completely scour the Web.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: General]

^ A "heuristic program," to be considered successful, must work well on a variety of problems, and may often be excused if it fails on some.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Bugs are usually not the fault of the computer. .Since computers merely execute the instructions they are given, bugs are nearly always the result of programmer error or an oversight made in the program's design.^ O/S manages processes – programs in execution 7 – Computer Software 7.2.1 Starting up The most essential and frequently used instructions of the operating system are held in main memory.

^ Nowadays the term refers to programming flaws--commands that don't accomplish the desired result because computers have a habit of following the letter rather than the spirit of the instructions handed to them.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Execute the instruction in the IR. 2 Computer Structure 2.2.8 Computer Components and Their Function The components of the CPU and the connections to devices that are external to it are shown.

[18]
.In most computers, individual instructions are stored as machine code with each instruction being given a unique number (its operation code or opcode for short).^ O/S manages processes – programs in execution 7 – Computer Software 7.2.1 Starting up The most essential and frequently used instructions of the operating system are held in main memory.

^ The credit for a working program can only be assigned to functional groups of instructions, e.g., subroutines, and as these operate in hierarchies, we should not expect individual instruction reinforcement to work well.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Computer Structure 2.2.4 The fetch execute cycle To execute a machine code program it must first be loaded, together with any data that it needs, into main memory (RAM).

.The command to add two numbers together would have one opcode, the command to multiply them would have a different opcode and so on.^ On a network, one machine may provide access to a number of different resources T here may be a number of different machines acting as servers, each one providing access to different resources.

^ The possibility of this unification is one of the most exciting logical developments in this area, bringing together as it does two independent descendants of the earlier work in the logic of time.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The simplest computers are able to perform any of a handful of different instructions; the more complex computers have several hundred to choose from—each with a unique numerical code.^ "The Code Red virus alone infected more than 300,000 workplace computers in 14 hours and cost more than $2.6 billion worldwide.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Computer Performance 3.2 Measuring Performance When we measure performance we usually mean how fast the computer carries out instructions.

^ To me "intelligence" seems to denote little more than the complex of performances which we happen to respect, but do not understand.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since the computer's memory is able to store numbers, it can also store the instruction codes.^ Computer Structure 2.4.2 Accessing Memory The CPU has to access memory both for instructions and to receive and transmit data from or to memory.

^ A series of these instructions is called a machine code program held in main memory as a stored program , a concept first proposed by John Von Neumann in 1945.

^ Computer Structure 2.3 Memory Main memory (RAM and ROM) stores programs and data while the computer is operating.

.This leads to the important fact that entire programs (which are just lists of instructions) can be represented as lists of numbers and can themselves be manipulated inside the computer just as if they were numeric data.^ It executes program instructions and manipulates data in accordance with the instructions.

^ Increasing the size of the storage for numeric data increases the range of numbers which can be stored.

^ In changing just one instruction at a time, the machine had not taken large enough steps in its search through program space.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The fundamental concept of storing programs in the computer's memory alongside the data they operate on is the crux of the von Neumann, or stored program, architecture.^ Idea of stored program concept developed.

^ Computer Structure 2.3 Memory Main memory (RAM and ROM) stores programs and data while the computer is operating.

^ Main Memory External Memory Peripheral Devices 2 Computer Structure 2.2.3 The stored program concept All computers based on same basic design, known as the Von Neumann Architecture .

.In some cases, a computer might store some or all of its program in memory that is kept separate from the data it operates on.^ Computer Structure 2.3 Memory Main memory (RAM and ROM) stores programs and data while the computer is operating.

^ W95 on XP 8 – Supporting Software 8.3 Viruses A virus is program code that causes some undesirable and unexpected event to happen in a computer.

^ Memory Address Register (MAR) - specifies the address in memory for the next read or write operation from or to memory; The Memory Data Register (MDR) or Memory Buffer Register (MBR) - contains the data to be written to memory or receives the data read from memory.

.This is called the Harvard architecture after the Harvard Mark I computer.^ "Computer bugs have been around since malfunctions in a 1945 [Harvard] Mark II were blamed (facetiously) on a moth trapped in a relay.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Modern von Neumann computers display some traits of the Harvard architecture in their designs, such as in CPU caches.^ Computer Structure 2.4.1 Architecture of the microprocessor We will now study the internal architecture of the microprocessor (CPU) itself.

^ Main Memory External Memory Peripheral Devices 2 Computer Structure 2.2.3 The stored program concept All computers based on same basic design, known as the Von Neumann Architecture .

^ Network Operating Systems Improved networking operating systems Easier to connect computers together Modern O/S has networking built-in Common standards such as TCP/IP has made networking easier and cheaper.

.While it is possible to write computer programs as long lists of numbers (machine language) and this technique was used with many early computers,[19] it is extremely tedious to do so in practice, especially for complicated programs.^ Logic, for instance, can provide a specification for a programming language by characterizing a mapping from programs to the computations that they license.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In this section I'll discuss the approach taken by most computer scientists, who, unlike McCarthy, use a modal language to formalize propositional attitudes.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Another system that is a logic/programming hybrid is Athena , which can be used as a programming language, and is at the same time a form of MSL. Athena is known as a denotational proof language (Arkoudas 2000).
  • Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC kryten.mm.rpi.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Instead, each basic instruction can be given a short name that is indicative of its function and easy to remember—a mnemonic such as ADD, SUB, MULT or JUMP. These mnemonics are collectively known as a computer's assembly language.^ A more basic example given is an artificial intelligence which has been programmed to build certain structures on the moon, and given no other instructions.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Newell, Shaw and Simon have developed powerful computer techniques for manipulating symbolic expressions in such languages for purposes of heuristic programming.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dave's Guide to Buying a Home Computer - Dave's buying guide and assembly instructions.
  • Computer Hardware Links 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC mysite.verizon.net [Source type: General]

.Converting programs written in assembly language into something the computer can actually understand (machine language) is usually done by a computer program called an assembler.^ Computer Software 7.2.1.2 Disk Based Operating Systems With a disk based operating system the system software is held on backing storage and loaded into main memory when the machine is switched on.

^ Computer Structure 2.2.4 The fetch execute cycle To execute a machine code program it must first be loaded, together with any data that it needs, into main memory (RAM).

^ For it may be so with man , as with machine, that, when we understand finally the structure and program, the feeling of mystery (and self-approbation) will weaken.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Machine languages and the assembly languages that represent them (collectively termed low-level programming languages) tend to be unique to a particular type of computer.^ The bounded optimal program P opt then is: P opt = argmax P ∈ V(Agent(P,M), E ,U) You can understand this equation in terms of any of the mathematical idealizations for standard computation.
  • Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC kryten.mm.rpi.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Logic, for instance, can provide a specification for a programming language by characterizing a mapping from programs to the computations that they license.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In particular it measures the ability of a computer program to imitate humanlike dialogue, which is different than measuring awareness itself.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: General]

.For instance, an ARM architecture computer (such as may be found in a PDA or a hand-held videogame) cannot understand the machine language of an Intel Pentium or the AMD Athlon 64 computer that might be in a PC.^ Understanding PC Sources, Vendors, and Prices - Large section on where to buy computer hardware, who may best fit your needs, and common vedor practices (both good and bad).
  • Computer Hardware Links 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC mysite.verizon.net [Source type: General]

^ In that case the average man may have control over certain private machines of his own, such as his car or his personal computer, but control over large systems of machines will be in the hands of a tiny elite -- just as it is today, but with two differences.
  • Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC kryten.mm.rpi.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The survey of 630 random households found that 79 percent had machines compatible with computers made by International Business Machines Corp., while 16 percent had Apple Computer Inc.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20]
.Though considerably easier than in machine language, writing long programs in assembly language is often difficult and error prone.^ We write Agent(P,M) to denote the agent function implemented by program P running on machine M .
  • Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC kryten.mm.rpi.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of course, it's possible that AI could be replaced by a field devoted not to building computational artifacts by writing computer programs and running them on embodied Turing machines.
  • Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC kryten.mm.rpi.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Writings in the latter category are more often than not quite narrow, but, as the example of Pollock shows, sometimes these specific issues are inextricably linked to philosophy.
  • Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC kryten.mm.rpi.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Therefore, most complicated programs are written in more abstract high-level programming languages that are able to express the needs of the programmer more conveniently (and thereby help reduce programmer error).^ Borland's new Delphi 6.0 release is targeted at programmers interested in the Web-based applications sector as it supports XML, SOAP, and other Web-based programming languages and protocols."
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The C Terrain is a beginners level programming tutorial: "You need to talk to Compiler in his terms.
  • memepool.com: Computing archive 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

^ One for the Babbage "if only people had listened " file: Konrad Zuse came up with apparently the first high level language , called Plankalkül .
  • memepool.com: Computing archive 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

.High level languages are usually "compiled" into machine language (or sometimes into assembly language and then into machine language) using another computer program called a compiler.^ The C Terrain is a beginners level programming tutorial: "You need to talk to Compiler in his terms.
  • memepool.com: Computing archive 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

^ Logic, for instance, can provide a specification for a programming language by characterizing a mapping from programs to the computations that they license.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In this section I'll discuss the approach taken by most computer scientists, who, unlike McCarthy, use a modal language to formalize propositional attitudes.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

[21] .Since high level languages are more abstract than assembly language, it is possible to use different compilers to translate the same high level language program into the machine language of many different types of computer.^ It is possible to have many files of the same name existing in different directories.

^ Summary—In order not to try all possibilities, a resourceful machine must classify problem situations into categories associated with the domains of effectiveness of the machine's different methods.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the computer understands the meaning behind words, it will be more successful finding what you really want than it is currently by just matching words.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

.This is part of the means by which software like video games may be made available for different computer architectures such as personal computers and various video game consoles.^ Items on sale over the Internet which can be electronically distributed are things like software, music, photographic images, video and information in the form of data files.

^ In that case the average man may have control over certain private machines of his own, such as his car or his personal computer, but control over large systems of machines will be in the hands of a tiny elite -- just as it is today, but with two differences.
  • Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC kryten.mm.rpi.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Remaining exclusive to one console limits your target audience, because people that may have bought their game may not own that system.
  • Hey! The PS3 is a Computer, Not a Game System: News from 1UP.com 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.1up.com [Source type: General]

.The task of developing large software systems presents a significant intellectual challenge.^ And no matter how complex the notions with which they which they are concerned, philosophers have never allowed their analyses to grow to the complexity where methodological issues arise similar to those that apply to the development and maintenance of large software systems.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The newly developed free backup software is especially designed for system state backup and system disaster restore, which means users no longer have to worry about a system crash.
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

^ A large part of the effort of developing limited-objective reasoning systems goes into the management of large, complex bodies of declarative information.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Producing software with an acceptably high reliability within a predictable schedule and budget has historically been difficult; the academic and professional discipline of software engineering concentrates specifically on this challenge.^ Computer Software 7.2.5.5 Plug and Play Adding a new device to a system Historically a difficult and fiddly process.

^ When larger-scale formalizations are attempted, other challenges arise that are similar to those that software engineering tries to address.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This specific challenge is actually merely the foothill before a dizzyingly high mountain that AI must eventually somehow manage to climb.
  • Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC kryten.mm.rpi.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Example

A traffic light showing red
.Suppose a computer is being employed to operate a traffic light at an intersection between two streets.^ There is a big difference, however, between a computer fully solving a game and the same computer being able to beat a human being at that game.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ How is interoperability between two systems to be enabled by CL? Suppose one of these systems is based on logic L , and the other on L' .
  • Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC kryten.mm.rpi.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The computer has the following three basic instructions.
  1. ON(Streetname, Color) Turns the light on Streetname with a specified Color on.
  2. OFF(Streetname, Color) Turns the light on Streetname with a specified Color off.
  3. WAIT(Seconds) Waits a specifed number of seconds.
  4. START Starts the program
  5. REPEAT Tells the computer to repeat a specified part of the program in a loop.
Comments are marked with a // on the left margin. .Comments in a computer program do not affect the operation of the program.^ Computer Structure 2.3 Memory Main memory (RAM and ROM) stores programs and data while the computer is operating.

^ O/S manages processes – programs in execution 7 – Computer Software 7.2.1 Starting up The most essential and frequently used instructions of the operating system are held in main memory.

^ Computer Software 7.2.4 Memory Management The operating system decides what programs and data a re to be placed in memory.

They are not evaluated by the computer. Assume the streetnames are Broadway and Main.
.
START
//Let Broadway traffic go
OFF(Broadway, Red)
ON(Broadway, Green)
WAIT(60 seconds)
//Stop Broadway traffic
OFF(Broadway, Green)
ON(Broadway, Yellow)
WAIT(3 seconds)
OFF(Broadway, Yellow)
ON(Broadway, Red)
//Let Main traffic go
OFF(Main, Red)
ON(Main, Green)
WAIT(60 seconds)
//Stop Main traffic
OFF(Main, Green)
ON(Main, Yellow)
WAIT(3 seconds)
OFF(Main, Yellow)
ON(Main, Red)
//Tell computer to continuously repeat the program.^ But we should not let our inability to discern a locus of intelligence lead us to conclude that programmed computers therefore cannot think.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One in three children continues watching TV after [9pm when the programs containing violence or sex start].
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Posted: 2006-06-09 18:14:21.167 Let me first start off by saying that "I don't totally dislike Sony" What I dislike is their "Ego".
  • Hey! The PS3 is a Computer, Not a Game System: News from 1UP.com 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.1up.com [Source type: General]

REPEAT ALL
.With this set of instructions, the computer would cycle the light continually through red, green, yellow and back to red again on both streets.^ Computer Structure 2.4.2 Accessing Memory The CPU has to access memory both for instructions and to receive and transmit data from or to memory.

^ Computer Structure 2.2.4.1 The fetch execute cycle in detail This is how the: Address bus Data bus Control Bus Registers All take part in reading an instruction from memory and executing it.

^ Actually, as I read back over it, I would slightly disagree with Michael when he says that today both areas change rapidly.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, suppose there is a simple on/off switch connected to the computer that is intended to be used to make the light flash red while some maintenance operation is being performed.^ There was not much gender difference in computer use reported by those entering college in 2000: 77.8% of women and 79.5% of men.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There's only one way to avoid being suckered by the Bastard Operator from Hell 's Excuse of the Day : Read the Frigging Manual!
  • memepool.com: Computing archive 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

^ I suppose there might be some nature religions which take offense at all machines and which therefore might consider a self-assembling machine to be particularly egregious.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

The program might then instruct the computer to:
.
START
IF Switch == OFF then: //Normal traffic signal operation
{
//Let Broadway traffic go
OFF(Broadway, Red)
ON(Broadway, Green)
WAIT(60 seconds)
//Stop Broadway traffic
OFF(Broadway, Green)
ON(Broadway, Yellow)
WAIT(3 seconds)
OFF(Broadway, Yellow)
ON(Broadway, Red)
//Let Main traffic go
OFF(Main, Red)
ON(Main, Green)
WAIT(60 seconds)
//Stop Main traffic
OFF(Main, Green)
ON(Main, Yellow)
WAIT(3 seconds)
OFF(Main, Yellow)
ON(Main, Red)
//Tell the computer to repeat this section continuously.^ Computer Structure 2.3 Memory Main memory (RAM and ROM) stores programs and data while the computer is operating.

^ The o/s builds its capability using what it already has, the ROM boot program, to load itself from disk into RAM. Once the operating system is loaded into main memory, it runs until the computer is switched off.

^ Posted: 2006-06-09 18:14:21.167 Let me first start off by saying that "I don't totally dislike Sony" What I dislike is their "Ego".
  • Hey! The PS3 is a Computer, Not a Game System: News from 1UP.com 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.1up.com [Source type: General]

REPEAT THIS SECTION }
IF Switch == ON THEN: //Maintenance Mode
{
//Turn the red lights on and wait 1 second.
ON(Broadway, Red)
ON(Main, Red)
WAIT(1 second)
//Turn the red lights off and wait 1 second.
OFF(Broadway, Red)
OFF(Main, Red)
WAIT(1 second)
//Tell the computer to repeat the statements in this section.
REPEAT THIS SECTION
}
.In this manner, the traffic signal will run a flash-red program when the switch is on, and will run the normal program when the switch is off.^ Take the question and translate it into a query that the Wolfram program can understand, and you're off and running.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

.Both of these program examples show the basic layout of a computer program in a simple, familiar context of a traffic signal.^ Interestingly, the computer program driving that strategy consisted of only four lines of BASIC code.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "The annual freshman survey conducted by UCLAs Higher Education Research Institute showed increasing familiarity of entering students with computers.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A more basic example given is an artificial intelligence which has been programmed to build certain structures on the moon, and given no other instructions.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

.Any experienced programmer can spot many software bugs in the program, for instance, not making sure that the green light is off when the switch is set to flash red.^ But if you know as well that a is illuminated by red lights, and that such lights can make things look red when they aren't, the connection is threatened.
  • Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC kryten.mm.rpi.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finding a good set of properties is the major concern of many heuristic programs.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, to remove all possible bugs would make this program much longer and more complicated, and would be confusing to nontechnical readers: the aim of this example is a simple demonstration of how computer instructions are laid out.^ It is safe to say that all simple, unitary, notions of how to build an intelligent machine will fail, rather sharply, for some modest level of problem difficulty.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Computer Economics says the Love Bug virus retains the top spot all time, costing organizations $8.75 billion."
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A computer program that can parse Jeopardy questions (I know: answers ) would be the perfect front-end for something like Wolfram Alpha .
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

Function

.A general purpose computer has four main components: the arithmetic logic unit (ALU), the control unit, the memory, and the input and output devices (collectively termed I/O).^ ALU involves arithmetic operations and logical operations .

^ Input Processor Memory RAM & ROM Output Backing Storage CPU 2 Computer Structure 2.2.2.1 The structure of the CPU (a) Memory Processor Control unit ALU Registers, A, MAR, MDR, PC, SP Address bus – 1 way Data bus – 2 way Control Bus Internal buses 2 Computer Structure 2.2.2.1 The structure of the CPU (b) ALU (Arithmetic & Logic Unit) Data is processed and manipulated.

^ Computer Software 7.2.5.1 Direct Memory Access A device controller usually has its own memory on board.

These parts are interconnected by busses, often made of groups of wires.
.Inside each of these parts are thousands to trillions of small electrical circuits which can be turned off or on by means of an electronic switch.^ But these early forays into the gender-optional lifestyle will be seen as crude and primitive by gender-switching intelligences living in what we would think of as virtual, electronic worlds.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

.Each circuit represents a bit (binary digit) of information so that when the circuit is on it represents a "1", and when off it represents a "0" (in positive logic representation).^ Traditionally, the task of representing large amounts of domain information for general-purpose reasoning has been one of the most important areas of knowledge representation.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The circuits are arranged in logic gates so that one or more of the circuits may control the state of one or more of the other circuits.^ The case of philosophical logic that forms the theme of this article may provide support for the more general point.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ On the one hand there are many practically important applications of automated planning, and on the other logical formalizations of planning are genuinely helpful in understanding the problems and in designing algorithms.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The problem is that default logic does not provide for more specific defaults to override ones that are more general.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

The control unit, ALU, registers, and basic I/O (and often other hardware closely linked with these) are collectively known as a central processing unit (CPU). .Early CPUs were composed of many separate components but since the mid-1970s CPUs have typically been constructed on a single integrated circuit called a microprocessor.^ By the early 1970s, many philosophers felt that philosophical papers on logic were unlikely to be accepted by the JSL , and that if they were accepted they were unlikely to be read by philosophers.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A separate knowledge representation component is useful for software engineering purposes—it is much better to have a single representation of a general fact that can have many different uses, since this makes the system easier to develop and to modify.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

Control unit

Diagram showing how a particular MIPS architecture instruction would be decoded by the control system.
.The control unit (often called a control system or central controller) manages the computer's various components; it reads and interprets (decodes) the program instructions, transforming them into a series of control signals which activate other parts of the computer.^ But at least 500 are considered serious attempts at breaking into classified systems....
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mailscape is a complete systems management tool that combines all the key elements for Exchange monitoring, reporting and administration into a single, affordable solution.
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

^ But the cost that's increased is that users are now the system managers, and that's costing a minimum of $50 billion a year to the 50 or 100 million computer users in lost time."
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22] .Control systems in advanced computers may change the order of some instructions so as to improve performance.^ IBM hopes to advance toward this objective with Watson, a computer system that will play Jeopardy!, the popular TV trivia game show, against human contestants.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The results of the study, reported in the Journal of Experimental Biology, may eventually aid the development of computer vision systems.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ PRCS is a revision control system with many improvments over CVS to Computing by joshua .
  • memepool.com: Computing archive 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

.A key component common to all CPUs is the program counter, a special memory cell (a register) that keeps track of which location in memory the next instruction is to be read from.^ This in combination with their TUSCON software release provides a uniform common API to all adapters both PCIx and PCIe enabling easy programming of the adapters.
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

[23]
The control system's function is as follows—note that this is a simplified description, and some of these steps may be performed concurrently or in a different order depending on the type of CPU:
.
  1. Read the code for the next instruction from the cell indicated by the program counter.
  2. Decode the numerical code for the instruction into a set of commands or signals for each of the other systems.
  3. Increment the program counter so it points to the next instruction.
  4. Read whatever data the instruction requires from cells in memory (or perhaps from an input device).^ Some of these may be hard-coded into the brain itself, while others may evolve by trial-and-error, or be programmed or taught to it socially through the process of education (which takes many years at the least).
    • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The point here is that adding content to Twine, or other next-generation interest networks, should result in increasing returns.
    • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: General]

    ^ That is, a nonmonotonic inference may require not merely the presence of a set of proved conclusions, but the absence of certain other conclusions.
    • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

    The location of this required data is typically stored within the instruction code.
  5. Provide the necessary data to an ALU or register.
  6. If the instruction requires an ALU or specialized hardware to complete, instruct the hardware to perform the requested operation.
  7. Write the result from the ALU back to a memory location or to a register or perhaps an output device.
  8. Jump back to step (1).
.Since the program counter is (conceptually) just another set of memory cells, it can be changed by calculations done in the ALU. Adding 100 to the program counter would cause the next instruction to be read from a place 100 locations further down the program.^ The axioms that specify the effects of actions treat these effects as caused; for instance, the axiom schema for loading would read as follows: .
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Did he really dream or was this just another by-product of his AI programming?
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 2 February 2010 13:21 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I would say the same about any film, in fact I have in another recent article.It's just that the self-involvement of some of the reviews I've read for A.I. have bordered on McCarthyism.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 2 February 2010 13:21 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Instructions that modify the program counter are often known as "jumps" and allow for loops (instructions that are repeated by the computer) and often conditional instruction execution (both examples of control flow).^ [This violates, for example, the restrictions on "DO loops" in programming systems such as FORTRAN. Convenient techniques for programming such processes were developed by Newell, Shaw, and Simon [64]; the program state-variables are stored in "pushdown lists" and both the program and the data are stored in the form of "list-structures."
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A more basic example given is an artificial intelligence which has been programmed to build certain structures on the moon, and given no other instructions.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is noticeable that the sequence of operations that the control unit goes through to process an instruction is in itself like a short computer program—and indeed, in some more complex CPU designs, there is another yet smaller computer called a microsequencer that runs a microcode program that causes all of these events to happen.^ Torrid Technologies' Retirement Savings Planner is a PC-based software program that runs on all versions of Microsoft Windows(R).
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

^ A computer program that can parse Jeopardy questions (I know: answers ) would be the perfect front-end for something like Wolfram Alpha .
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Suppose that there is available, for a given problem, some other problem of "essentially the same character" but with less detail and complexity.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU)

The ALU is capable of performing two classes of operations: arithmetic and logic.[24]
.The set of arithmetic operations that a particular ALU supports may be limited to adding and subtracting or might include multiplying or dividing, trigonometry functions (sine, cosine, etc) and square roots.^ For certainly the programmer may set up an evolutionary system whose limitations are for him unclear and possibly incomprehensible.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, it is generally supposed that the domain of fluents will be a very limited set of the totality of situation-dependent functions; typically, it will be a relatively small finite set of important variables, and will be chosen in particular cases much as a set of variables is chosen in statistical modeling.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Connections between information and applications (databases and data sets stored or accessible by particular apps) Connections between people and applications (user accounts, preferences, cookies, etc.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: General]

.Some can only operate on whole numbers (integers) whilst others use floating point to represent real numbers—albeit with limited precision.^ Some estimates report that only slightly more than 30% of the code developed in application software development ever gets used as intended by end-users.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If it weren't for this one frustrating limitation I would really use Pandora all the time to discover and buy new music.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: General]

^ If Sony is the only company willing to actually let us use it as a computer, IE - internet, multimedia, (Operating system?
  • Hey! The PS3 is a Computer, Not a Game System: News from 1UP.com 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.1up.com [Source type: General]

.However, any computer that is capable of performing just the simplest operations can be programmed to break down the more complex operations into simple steps that it can perform.^ In just over a day, a powerful computer program accomplished a feat that took physicists centuries to complete: extrapolating the laws of motion from a pendulum's swings.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the computer understands the meaning behind words, it will be more successful finding what you really want than it is currently by just matching words.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What's hard, and what's new about what we have done, is that we've accomplished this for much more complex data than the simple flat files that Google indexes.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: General]

.Therefore, any computer can be programmed to perform any arithmetic operation—although it will take more time to do so if its ALU does not directly support the operation.^ Spielberg does not directly reveal who is telling the story, taking more of a Nabokovian approach to it.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 2 February 2010 13:21 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While computers continue to take on more and more of the hallmarks of intelligence, critics are able to (correctly) point out that we appear to be making no progress towards passing the big test.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The semantic map is reportedly the world's largest, and gives computers a vocabulary more than 10 times as extensive as that of a typical US college graduate.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

.An ALU may also compare numbers and return boolean truth values (true or false) depending on whether one is equal to, greater than or less than the other ("is 64 greater than 65?").^ I want a PS3 eventually (I have to have one for no other reason than to play Metal Gear Solid 4...
  • Hey! The PS3 is a Computer, Not a Game System: News from 1UP.com 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.1up.com [Source type: General]

^ Of seniors older than 65 whose annual household income is less than $20,000 a year...an even slighter 15 percent have gone online."
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Less than 6 percent of surfers manage to use Boolean search terms, which are the `and' and `or,' and plus and minus signs that correspond to the way a computer filters data."
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Logic operations involve Boolean logic: AND, OR, XOR and NOT. .These can be useful both for creating complicated conditional statements and processing boolean logic.^ Ever since the PhotoTrackr was created, photographers, both amateur and professional, have been making use of its easy-to-use features, allowing them to properly date, map, categorize, and organize their photos.
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

^ Local clients may be created for various devices, but ultimately the most logical choice is to just use the browser as the client.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: General]

^ But the left-nonmonotonicity of conditionals (the fact that A C does not imply [ A ∧ B ] C ) creates issues that parallel those in nonmonotonic logics.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Superscalar computers may contain multiple ALUs so that they can process several instructions at the same time.^ Two-thirds of the respondents report that they go online several times a day, seven days a week."
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They made mention several times during the movie that the human race was dying and would be replaced.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 2 February 2010 13:21 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the noise is not too severe, we may be able to manage the identification by what we call a normalization and template-matching process.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25] .Graphics processors and computers with SIMD and MIMD features often provide ALUs that can perform arithmetic on vectors and matrices.^ EASEUS Partition Master Server Edition, the leading partition management solution, provides innovative features to maximize server performance and minimize server downtime.
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

Memory

Magnetic core memory was the computer memory of choice throughout the 1960s, until it was replaced by semiconductor memory.
A computer's memory can be viewed as a list of cells into which numbers can be placed or read. Each cell has a numbered "address" and can store a single number. .The computer can be instructed to "put the number 123 into the cell numbered 1357" or to "add the number that is in cell 1357 to the number that is in cell 2468 and put the answer into cell 1595". The information stored in memory may represent practically anything.^ More than two-thirds of the world's scientists read English, the council adds, three-quarters of the world's mail is written in the language and 80 percent of the world's information stored on computers is in English.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The number PhDs conferred in the U.S.: Computer and information sciences: 1982: 251 1992: 772 Mathematics 1982: 721 1992: 1082 Engineering 1982: 2621 1992: 5488 .
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Letters, numbers, even computer instructions can be placed into memory with equal ease.^ For example, to help find a place to eat, user preferences for cuisine, price range, location, or even specific food items come into play.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: General]

^ With 1,300 miles of fiber-optic lines being laid every day in the U.S., bandwidth is sure to rise even faster than the number of networked computers."
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since the CPU does not differentiate between different types of information, it is the software's responsibility to give significance to what the memory sees as nothing but a series of numbers.^ No stolen serial numbers are listed without this information.
  • Stolen Computers and Hardware 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ccmostwanted.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If the chemical compositions and neuronal pathways of humans were eventually perfectly mapped and could be re-created, what woud be the difference between building a human and giving birth to one?
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 2 February 2010 13:21 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In almost all modern computers, each memory cell is set up to store binary numbers in groups of eight bits (called a byte).^ The focus will be on keep up with all the stuff flowing through and what the trends are, rather than on all the stuff that is stored there already.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: General]

^ "The number of U.S. homes with one or more personal computers increased by 16% [in 1995] to about 38 million households, up from 33 million in 1994 and 25 million in 1993....
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ AllMemory We carry all major computer memory brands including Dell, Samsung, Compaq, Toshiba and many more!
  • Computer Hardware Directory of Indiana 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC indiana.uscity.net [Source type: General]

.Each byte is able to represent 256 different numbers (2^8 = 256); either from 0 to 255 or -128 to +127. To store larger numbers, several consecutive bytes may be used (typically, two, four or eight).^ "More than 9.8 million children are using the Internet, a number projected to triple in the next four years...
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several other market research firms, using older data, have put the number at 35 million to 45 million adult users in the U.S. alone.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This isn't a Kubrick movie, hell it's not your typical Spielberg movie either....it's a combination of the two.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 2 February 2010 13:21 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When negative numbers are required, they are usually stored in two's complement notation.^ Due to what they report as a requirement of their music license the user is only allowed to skip a small number of songs per hour.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: General]

Other arrangements are possible, but are usually not seen outside of specialized applications or historical contexts. .A computer can store any kind of information in memory if it can be represented numerically.^ His quest was fulfilled...I believe the evolved A.I.s dowloanded his memories and information he stored...
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 2 February 2010 13:21 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Modern computers have billions or even trillions of bytes of memory.
.The CPU contains a special set of memory cells called registers that can be read and written to much more rapidly than the main memory area.^ Putting together entries for this blog means that I read an amazing story every other day -- sometimes more frequently than that.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most people who read and write about technology are more like Star trek fans than they are political junkies.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ More than two-thirds of the world's scientists read English, the council adds, three-quarters of the world's mail is written in the language and 80 percent of the world's information stored on computers is in English.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are typically between two and one hundred registers depending on the type of CPU. Registers are used for the most frequently needed data items to avoid having to access main memory every time data is needed.^ A.I. reviews, but im seeing so many similarities, between the reviews here, the 6 over at my site and even the big name ones at Time and Newsweek.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 2 February 2010 13:21 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Between 1995 and 2000, paper use increased 12 percent while there were almost 5 percent more computers at workplaces.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A new mathematical technique provides a dramatically better way to analyze data, such as audio data, radar, sonar, or any other form of time-frequency data .
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: General]

.As data is constantly being worked on, reducing the need to access main memory (which is often slow compared to the ALU and control units) greatly increases the computer's speed.^ The usefulness and scope of logical methods in relation to linguistics is greatly increased by the development of techniques for analyzing the way information attaches to linguistic units.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ EASEUS Partition Master is able to help computer users increase their C drive to speed up computers when the system drive is at low disk space.
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

^ The report cites technological advances such as computer-aided design programs as a main reason for the increases in productivity.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Computer main memory comes in two principal varieties: random-access memory or RAM and read-only memory or ROM. RAM can be read and written to anytime the CPU commands it, but ROM is pre-loaded with data and software that never changes, so the CPU can only read from it.^ Evaluating only the cost of intrusions by hackers, who exploit flaws in computer security, Gartner Group comes up with $5.4 billion a year..."Software quality is about removing or preventing defects.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the fMRI machine monitored the changes in brain activity, a computer crunched the data and learned to associate the various changes in brain activity with the different image designs.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ More than two-thirds of the world's scientists read English, the council adds, three-quarters of the world's mail is written in the language and 80 percent of the world's information stored on computers is in English.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.ROM is typically used to store the computer's initial start-up instructions.^ The Dell Store at Dell Financial Services has quality refurbished Dell Computers, refurbished Dell Notebooks, refurbished Dell Laptops, refurbished Dell PCs, refurbished Dell Desktops, and used Dell computers.
  • Computer Hardware Directory of Indiana 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC indiana.uscity.net [Source type: General]

In general, the contents of RAM are erased when the power to the computer is turned off, but ROM retains its data indefinitely. .In a PC, the ROM contains a specialized program called the BIOS that orchestrates loading the computer's operating system from the hard disk drive into RAM whenever the computer is turned on or reset.^ (SEND2PRESS NEWSWIRE) -- EASEUS Software, the innovative, dedicated data recovery software provider, offers a one-stop solution to 'unformat' a hard disk drive or external hard disk.
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

^ Extensions for Windows is the first community driven, modular upgrade for Windows XP and Vista and contains a number of new features Windows users have desired as part of the operating system.
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

^ PS3 all have a CPU, graphics card, RAM, Mobo, power supply and they now have hard drives.
  • Hey! The PS3 is a Computer, Not a Game System: News from 1UP.com 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.1up.com [Source type: General]

.In embedded computers, which frequently do not have disk drives, all of the required software may be stored in ROM. Software stored in ROM is often called firmware, because it is notionally more like hardware than software.^ My take is that either all this less-relevant progress is more relevant than we thought, or the test itself is of questionable relevance.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ CompUSA CcompUSA is your source for computers, motherboards, processors, memory, hard drives, components, monitors and much more at the lowest prices in the industry.
  • Computer Hardware Directory of Indiana 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC indiana.uscity.net [Source type: General]

^ Low-fat computing is a heretical approach to the integrated design of hardware/software systems, based on the Forth philosophy of Chuck Moore and Jeff Fox .
  • memepool.com: Computing archive 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

.Flash memory blurs the distinction between ROM and RAM, as it retains its data when turned off but is also rewritable.^ I/O system needs to use the devices efficiently so as not to waste the CPU. A buffer is an area of memory set aside to help in the transfer of data between the computer and a device.

^ Computer Structure 2.3 Memory Main memory (RAM and ROM) stores programs and data while the computer is operating.

^ The o/s builds its capability using what it already has, the ROM boot program, to load itself from disk into RAM. Once the operating system is loaded into main memory, it runs until the computer is switched off.

.It is typically much slower than conventional ROM and RAM however, so its use is restricted to applications where high speed is unnecessary.^ Using Networks 6.4.3 Wireless Features Slower than conventional cabling.

^ I do believe, however, that the concepts will be more useful for us if we begin to see them as positives rather than stand-ins for the things we hate the most.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This technology is used in applications from postage to safeguarding nuclear weapons , and attacking it is the subject of much research .
  • memepool.com: Computing archive 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

[26]
.In more sophisticated computers there may be one or more RAM cache memories which are slower than registers but faster than main memory.^ Really, it'd be very nice to be able to surf the net and play console games on one platform rather than having to switch to a standard computer.
  • Hey! The PS3 is a Computer, Not a Game System: News from 1UP.com 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.1up.com [Source type: General]

^ With 1,300 miles of fiber-optic lines being laid every day in the U.S., bandwidth is sure to rise even faster than the number of networked computers."
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the computer understands the meaning behind words, it will be more successful finding what you really want than it is currently by just matching words.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

.Generally computers with this sort of cache are designed to move frequently needed data into the cache automatically, often without the need for any intervention on the programmer's part.^ While the fMRI machine monitored the changes in brain activity, a computer crunched the data and learned to associate the various changes in brain activity with the different image designs.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They are often designed so that they automatically spread to other computer users on a network.

^ The Computer Misuse Act covers crimes such as breaking into computer systems or networks to destroy or steal data and propagating viruses which destroy or damage information or computer systems.

Input/output (I/O)

Hard disk drives are common storage devices used with computers.
I/O is the means by which a computer exchanges information with the outside world.[27] Devices that provide input or output to the computer are called peripherals.[28] .On a typical personal computer, peripherals include input devices like the keyboard and mouse, and output devices such as the display and printer.^ It utilizes a 19.0-inch wide screen diagonal color TFT LCD as display and a resistive touch screen as the input device.
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

^ Ransom69 Posted: 2006-06-07 21:16:29.357 "With an expansion slot for a hard drive and USB ports for peripherals like a mouse or keyboard, the PS2 is, according to Sony, all of the computer your family needs."
  • Hey! The PS3 is a Computer, Not a Game System: News from 1UP.com 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.1up.com [Source type: General]

^ Computing Industry News Recent Computer Industry News Stories from Send2Press Newswire : Computer Technology News includes computing news, computer industry news, IT accessibility, computer hardware news, biometrics news, peripherals news, software industry news, computer education news, and related newswire stories.
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

.Hard disk drives, floppy disk drives and optical disc drives serve as both input and output devices.^ (SEND2PRESS NEWSWIRE) -- EASEUS Software, the innovative, dedicated data recovery software provider, offers a one-stop solution to 'unformat' a hard disk drive or external hard disk.
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

^ This application is designed to back up or copy hard drives for upgrading to a newer larger hard disk.
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

^ (SEND2PRESS NEWSWIRE) -- EASEUS Software, the innovative, dedicated data recovery software provider, offers a one-stop solution for data recovery from hard drive disk or portable storage device under Windows OS environment.
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

Computer networking is another form of I/O.
Often, I/O devices are complex computers in their own right with their own CPU and memory. .A graphics processing unit might contain fifty or more tiny computers that perform the calculations necessary to display 3D graphics[citation needed].^ Featuring an XGA 12.1" display, 3d accelerated graphics, a 0.18 micron process Pentium III at 400mhz, and a modular bay that takes a DVD drive in a svelte package that weighs between 3.7 and 4.5lbs.
  • memepool.com: Computing archive 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

^ Three, the ability to evolve could mean we could swap out graphics chips for more advanced setups, much like a computer.
  • Hey! The PS3 is a Computer, Not a Game System: News from 1UP.com 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.1up.com [Source type: General]

^ But while Wolfram Alpha includes a huge knowledge base, I doubt it contains more than a tiny fraction of all the information that can be found on the Web.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

Modern desktop computers contain many smaller computers that assist the main CPU in performing I/O.

Multitasking

.While a computer may be viewed as running one gigantic program stored in its main memory, in some systems it is necessary to give the appearance of running several programs simultaneously.^ After storing several years worth of music and films, the disk runs out of space.
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

^ In playing a complex game such as chess or checkers, or in writing a computer program, one has a definite success criterion—the game is won or lost.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The results of the study, reported in the Journal of Experimental Biology, may eventually aid the development of computer vision systems.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

This is achieved by multitasking i.e. having the computer switch rapidly between running each program in turn.[29]
One means by which this is done is with a special signal called an interrupt which can periodically cause the computer to stop executing instructions where it was and do something else instead. By remembering where it was executing prior to the interrupt, the computer can return to that task later. .If several programs are running "at the same time", then the interrupt generator might be causing several hundred interrupts per second, causing a program switch each time.^ The second paper goes on to discuss a sequence of modifications in the program generator and its reinforcement operators.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ordinary, uniformly-weighted average has the same general form but with time‑dependent q : .
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They might all start out the same, but wouldn't each instantiation of these programs quickly diversify based on the experiences and preferences of the individual intelligences which "runs its personality" in that environment?
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

.Since modern computers typically execute instructions several orders of magnitude faster than human perception, it may appear that many programs are running at the same time even though only one is ever executing in any given instant.^ Over the past five years, patent, copyright, and other intellectual property cases have occurred 10 times faster than other cases.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A.I. reviews, but im seeing so many similarities, between the reviews here, the 6 over at my site and even the big name ones at Time and Newsweek.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 2 February 2010 13:21 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With 1,300 miles of fiber-optic lines being laid every day in the U.S., bandwidth is sure to rise even faster than the number of networked computers."
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This method of multitasking is sometimes termed "time-sharing" since each program is allocated a "slice" of time in turn.[30]
.Before the era of cheap computers, the principle use for multitasking was to allow many people to share the same computer.^ People don't want to manage all their information on the Web in the same interface they use to manage data and apps on their local PC. .
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: General]

^ It's only because Spielberg has had so many hits..people only expect the next Masterpiece and a dawn of a new era in film!!
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 2 February 2010 13:21 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the same time, the amount of people using it has increased from 2 million in 1998 to 23 million today."
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Seemingly, multitasking would cause a computer that is switching between several programs to run more slowly — in direct proportion to the number of programs it is running.^ Among families earning between $15,000 and $35,000 annually, more than a third of white families owned computers, while just one in five black families did.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PS3 is going need updates like the computers do, would you need to spend more money to play some games???...
  • Hey! The PS3 is a Computer, Not a Game System: News from 1UP.com 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.1up.com [Source type: General]

^ "Between 1995 and 2000, paper use increased 12 percent while there were almost 5 percent more computers at workplaces.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, most programs spend much of their time waiting for slow input/output devices to complete their tasks.^ Kutaragi further implied that the PS3 may adapt over time, much like computers do now as hardware technology changes: ""However, the PS3 is a computer," Kutaragi said.
  • Hey! The PS3 is a Computer, Not a Game System: News from 1UP.com 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.1up.com [Source type: General]

^ However, IMHO, with the work done by Spielberg lately, i'm not expecting much this time around.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 2 February 2010 13:21 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If a program is waiting for the user to click on the mouse or press a key on the keyboard, then it will not take a "time slice" until the event it is waiting for has occurred.^ Meanwhile, a separate study from Stanford University indicates that email is taking a toll on users' social lives, finding that Internet users tend to devote less time to social events and personal phone calls."
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Microsoft is introducing a revision to the Visual Basic programming language, which has some 3.3 million users, to take advantage of its .Net Web services model.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This frees up time for other programs to execute so that many programs may be run at the same time without unacceptable speed loss.^ Some of these may be hard-coded into the brain itself, while others may evolve by trial-and-error, or be programmed or taught to it socially through the process of education (which takes many years at the least).
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: General]

^ Which brings up the question - was there anything wrong with what the humans were doing at the flesh fair (other than that they were wasting their time and money).
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 2 February 2010 13:21 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Real Time Battle and Robot Battle are just two of many games in which the object is not to do battle with the competition directly but instead write little programs that fight each other on a virtual battlefield.
  • memepool.com: Computing archive 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

Multiprocessing

Cray designed many supercomputers that used multiprocessing heavily.
.Some computers are designed to distribute their work across several CPUs in a multiprocessing configuration, a technique once employed only in large and powerful machines such as supercomputers, mainframe computers and servers.^ Some have to do with the emerging development in computer science of ambitious applications using unprecedentedly large bodies of logical axioms.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Such a development has the potential to unite the machine world and the human world in a completely new and powerful way.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The software stitches images automatically, and would be great for pasting large documents scanned on consumer scanning products , if I could only get the low overlap case to work.
  • memepool.com: Computing archive 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

.Multiprocessor and multi-core (multiple CPUs on a single integrated circuit) personal and laptop computers are now widely available, and are being increasingly used in lower-end markets as a result.^ Making super-fast, super-powerful computers more widely available can only empower such individuals.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Chipping at Intel" by Michael Meyer Nearly 150 million personal computers are working now, 9 out of 10 of them running Intel microprocessors.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The report says 90 percent, or 47.4 million, of children between the ages of 5 and 17 now use computers at home and at school.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Supercomputers in particular often have highly unique architectures that differ significantly from the basic stored-program architecture and from general purpose computers.^ Interestingly, the computer program driving that strategy consisted of only four lines of BASIC code.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This paper emphasizes the class of activities in which a general-purpose computer, complete with a library of basic programs, is further programmed to perform operations leading to ever higher-level information processing functions such as learning and problem solving.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For he would find only a few machines mostly general-purpose computers), programmed for the moment to behave according to some specification) doing things that might claim any real intellectual status.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31] .They often feature thousands of CPUs, customized high-speed interconnects, and specialized computing hardware.^ Anyhow the ps3 is not a computer in my book, and their claim that it rivals todays high end cpus is just pure hype.
  • Hey! The PS3 is a Computer, Not a Game System: News from 1UP.com 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.1up.com [Source type: General]

^ LowerBound is a computer hardware search engine that scans pricewatch and many other web retailers for best prices, product features, and so on.
  • memepool.com: Computing archive 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

.Such designs tend to be useful only for specialized tasks due to the large scale of program organization required to successfully utilize most of the available resources at once.^ Even when attempted on a moderate scale, the formalization of common sense knowledge puts considerable pressure on the resources of even the most powerful logical systems that were devised for the formalization of mathematics.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Stone shows that modal logic can be used to modularize the formalization of the information required in this task; he also shows how modal theorem proving can be used to implement the reasoning.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Just as programming systems, expert systems and knowledge bases have created corresponding software engineering disciplines, large-scale formalization projects require a carefully thought through and tested methodology.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Supercomputers usually see usage in large-scale simulation, graphics rendering, and cryptography applications, as well as with other so-called "embarrassingly parallel" tasks.^ Most research in AI is devoted to fairly narrow applications, such as planning or speech-to-speech translation in limited, well defined task domains.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Developments such as this would have been impossible without the interactions between the logical theories and large-scale, practical applications in automated planning.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

Networking and the Internet

Visualization of a portion of the routes on the Internet.
.Computers have been used to coordinate information between multiple locations since the 1950s.^ The success information is used to reinforce individual instructions (in fixed locations) so that each success tends to increase the chance that the instructions of successful programs will appear in later trials.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The report says 90 percent, or 47.4 million, of children between the ages of 5 and 17 now use computers at home and at school.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Between 1995 and 2000, paper use increased 12 percent while there were almost 5 percent more computers at workplaces.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The U.S. military's SAGE system was the first large-scale example of such a system, which led to a number of special-purpose commercial systems like Sabre.^ Extensions for Windows is the first community driven, modular upgrade for Windows XP and Vista and contains a number of new features Windows users have desired as part of the operating system.
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

^ Like variable-free versions of first-order logic (see, for instance, Quine 1960 , these systems are centered on concepts or first-order predicates, and provide a number of mechanisms for their definition.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In Japan, 10 percent of drivers rely on such systems, and that number is growing rapidly."
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32]
.In the 1970s, computer engineers at research institutions throughout the United States began to link their computers together using telecommunications technology.^ The technology works by using the computer microphone to make brief snippet recordings of your room where you are.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: General]

.This effort was funded by ARPA (now DARPA), and the computer network that it produced was called the ARPANET.^ Now, companies are tweaking their internal corporate computer networks so that they can communicate through the Internet with the networks of their customers.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I’ve been writing about a new trend that I call “interest networking” for a while now .
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: General]

[33] The technologies that made the Arpanet possible spread and evolved.
.In time, the network spread beyond academic and military institutions and became known as the Internet.^ The Networked Computer Science Technical Reference Library is a search engine for academic papers in Computer Science topics that lets you search by journal, title, abstract, author and institution.
  • memepool.com: Computing archive 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

The emergence of networking involved a redefinition of the nature and boundaries of the computer. .Computer operating systems and applications were modified to include the ability to define and access the resources of other computers on the network, such as peripheral devices, stored information, and the like, as extensions of the resources of an individual computer.^ Among the top technologies that contribute to productivity are collaborative software tools, newer PCs, increased network bandwidth, mobile computing devices, and wireless devices.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our products include barebone, system, computer, case, drive, enclosure, USB products, power supply, dance pad, game accessories etc.
  • Computer Hardware Directory of Indiana 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC indiana.uscity.net [Source type: General]

^ If Sony is the only company willing to actually let us use it as a computer, IE - internet, multimedia, (Operating system?
  • Hey! The PS3 is a Computer, Not a Game System: News from 1UP.com 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.1up.com [Source type: General]

.Initially these facilities were available primarily to people working in high-tech environments, but in the 1990s the spread of applications like e-mail and the World Wide Web, combined with the development of cheap, fast networking technologies like Ethernet and ADSL saw computer networking become almost ubiquitous.^ So what are the 15 people at Radar Networks working on?
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: General]

^ In five years, 350 million computers will have become obsolete and about 55 million are likely to reach landfills, says the National Safety Council...In addition, while 97 percent of computer parts can be recycled for use in other computers or as scrap metal, qualified recyclers deal primarily with companies and are not widely known among consumers...The high-tech industry is also taking some responsibility, with companies such as IBM working to design computers that can be recycled more easily."
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ THE WHITE HOUSE, Office of the Press Secretary, January 21, 2000, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE 21ST CENTURY, http://www.whitehouse.gov/WH/New/html/20000121_2.html "During the past seven years, computers, high-speed communication systems, and computer software have become more powerful and more useful to people at home and work.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In fact, the number of computers that are networked is growing phenomenally.^ With 1,300 miles of fiber-optic lines being laid every day in the U.S., bandwidth is sure to rise even faster than the number of networked computers."
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A very large proportion of personal computers regularly connect to the Internet to communicate and receive information.^ Now, companies are tweaking their internal corporate computer networks so that they can communicate through the Internet with the networks of their customers.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 2001, 268 million computers will be connected to the Internet, generating $32.2 billion in revenue for the software and computer services industries, Dataquest said.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Connections between information and people (personal data collections, blogs, social bookmarking, search results, etc.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: General]

."Wireless" networking, often utilizing mobile phone networks, has meant networking is becoming increasingly ubiquitous even in mobile computing environments.^ Among the top technologies that contribute to productivity are collaborative software tools, newer PCs, increased network bandwidth, mobile computing devices, and wireless devices.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Mobile phones are rapidly becoming the preferred means of personal communication, creating the world's largest consumer electronics industry.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With 1,300 miles of fiber-optic lines being laid every day in the U.S., bandwidth is sure to rise even faster than the number of networked computers."
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


Further topics

Hardware

.The term hardware covers all of those parts of a computer that are tangible objects.^ And what will those terms mean to a subsequent generation which originates in the new substrate, beings that don't necessarily start out with gender as a fundamental part of their identity?
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By the way, for those of you unfamiliar with the term, the neocortex is that special core brain part that only mammals have.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

.Circuits, displays, power supplies, cables, keyboards, printers and mice are all hardware.^ PS3 all have a CPU, graphics card, RAM, Mobo, power supply and they now have hard drives.
  • Hey! The PS3 is a Computer, Not a Game System: News from 1UP.com 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.1up.com [Source type: General]

History of computing hardware
First Generation (Mechanical/Electromechanical) Calculators Antikythera mechanism, Difference engine, Norden bombsight
Programmable Devices Jacquard loom, Analytical engine, Harvard Mark I, Z3
Second Generation (Vacuum Tubes) Calculators Atanasoff–Berry Computer, IBM 604, UNIVAC 60, UNIVAC 120
Programmable Devices Colossus, ENIAC, Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine, EDSAC, Manchester Mark 1, Ferranti Pegasus, Ferranti Mercury, CSIRAC, EDVAC, UNIVAC I, IBM 701, IBM 702, IBM 650, Z22
Third Generation (Discrete transistors and SSI, MSI, LSI Integrated circuits) Mainframes IBM 7090, IBM 7080, IBM System/360, BUNCH
Minicomputer PDP-8, PDP-11, IBM System/32, IBM System/36
Fourth Generation (VLSI integrated circuits) Minicomputer VAX, IBM System i
4-bit microcomputer Intel 4004, Intel 4040
8-bit microcomputer Intel 8008, Intel 8080, Motorola 6800, Motorola 6809, MOS Technology 6502, Zilog Z80
16-bit microcomputer Intel 8088, Zilog Z8000, WDC 65816/65802
32-bit microcomputer Intel 80386, Pentium, Motorola 68000, ARM architecture
64-bit microcomputer[34] Alpha, MIPS, PA-RISC, PowerPC, SPARC, x86-64
Embedded computer Intel 8048, Intel 8051
Personal computer Desktop computer, Home computer, Laptop computer, Personal digital assistant (PDA), Portable computer, Tablet PC, Wearable computer
Theoretical/experimental Quantum computer, Chemical computer, DNA computing, Optical computer, Spintronics based computer
Other Hardware Topics
Peripheral device (Input/output) Input Mouse, Keyboard, Joystick, Image scanner, Webcam, Graphics tablet, Microphone
Output Monitor, Printer, Loudspeaker
Both Floppy disk drive, Hard disk drive, Optical disc drive, Teleprinter
Computer busses Short range RS-232, SCSI, PCI, USB
Long range (Computer networking) Ethernet, ATM, FDDI

Software

.Software refers to parts of the computer which do not have a material form, such as programs, data, protocols, etc.^ The report cites technological advances such as computer-aided design programs as a main reason for the increases in productivity.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nova Spivack: Will Siri be part of the Semantic Web, or at least the open linked data Web (by making open API’s, sharing of linked data, RDF, available, etc.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: General]

^ A new mathematical technique provides a dramatically better way to analyze data, such as audio data, radar, sonar, or any other form of time-frequency data .
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: General]

.When software is stored in hardware that cannot easily be modified (such as BIOS ROM in an IBM PC compatible), it is sometimes called "firmware" to indicate that it falls into an uncertain area somewhere between hardware and software.^ The demonstrations provide step-by-step overviews of how the software and hardware work together to obtain strain data over areas of deformed sheet metal or plastic parts.
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

^ One cannot expect easily to find a small set of properties that will be just right for a problem area.
  • Steps Toward Artificial Intelligence - - -Marvin Minsky 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Last year the videogame industry raked in $6.3 billion (between software and hardware), just shy of the record $6.9 billion movies earned at the box office....
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Computer software
Operating system Unix and BSD UNIX System V, IBM AIX, HP-UX, Solaris (SunOS), IRIX, List of BSD operating systems
GNU/Linux List of Linux distributions, Comparison of Linux distributions
Microsoft Windows Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows CE
DOS 86-DOS (QDOS), PC-DOS, MS-DOS, DR-DOS, FreeDOS
Mac OS Mac OS classic, Mac OS X
Embedded and real-time List of embedded operating systems
Experimental Amoeba, Oberon/Bluebottle, Plan 9 from Bell Labs
Library Multimedia DirectX, OpenGL, OpenAL
Programming library C standard library, Standard Template Library
Data Protocol TCP/IP, Kermit, FTP, HTTP, SMTP
File format HTML, XML, JPEG, MPEG, PNG
User interface Graphical user interface (WIMP) Microsoft Windows, GNOME, KDE, QNX Photon, CDE, GEM
Text-based user interface Command-line interface, Text user interface
Application Office suite Word processing, Desktop publishing, Presentation program, Database management system, Scheduling & Time management, Spreadsheet, Accounting software
Internet Access Browser, E-mail client, Web server, Mail transfer agent, Instant messaging
Design and manufacturing Computer-aided design, Computer-aided manufacturing, Plant management, Robotic manufacturing, Supply chain management
Graphics Raster graphics editor, Vector graphics editor, 3D modeler, Animation editor, 3D computer graphics, Video editing, Image processing
Audio Digital audio editor, Audio playback, Mixing, Audio synthesis, Computer music
Software engineering Compiler, Assembler, Interpreter, Debugger, Text editor, Integrated development environment, Software performance analysis, Revision control, Software configuration management
Educational Edutainment, Educational game, Serious game, Flight simulator
Games Strategy, Arcade, Puzzle, Simulation, First-person shooter, Platform, Massively multiplayer, Interactive fiction
Misc Artificial intelligence, Antivirus software, Malware scanner, Installer/Package management systems, File manager

Programming languages

.Programming languages provide various ways of specifying programs for computers to run.^ For example, various dynasties and historical periods are also given names and this provides shorthand way of referring to those periods and their unique flavors.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: General]

^ Logic, for instance, can provide a specification for a programming language by characterizing a mapping from programs to the computations that they license.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

Unlike natural languages, programming languages are designed to permit no ambiguity and to be concise. They are purely written languages and are often difficult to read aloud. .They are generally either translated into machine code by a compiler or an assembler before being run, or translated directly at run time by an interpreter.^ Sweet...I'm not THAT deep into PC's that I mod/code...but since you can...kudos, it takes a special breed to take the time to figure anything in that field out.
  • Hey! The PS3 is a Computer, Not a Game System: News from 1UP.com 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.1up.com [Source type: General]

^ Until then, we've got Generic Java , which adds polymorphic types to Java and still compiles into standard Java bytecode.
  • memepool.com: Computing archive 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

^ They settle on the idea that unmotivated actions are to be minimized, where an action (“actions” construed generally enough to include any change) can be motivated directly, e.g.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

Sometimes programs are executed by a hybrid method of the two techniques. .There are thousands of different programming languages—some intended to be general purpose, others useful only for highly specialized applications.^ We then apply a range of new algorithms to the data (part of our secret sauce) to generate some very interesting and useful new information about the Web.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: General]

^ And other differences originate in the interest of philosophical logicians in some topics (metaphysical topics, for instance) that are primarily inspired by purely philosophical considerations.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ There was not much gender difference in computer use reported by those entering college in 2000: 77.8% of women and 79.5% of men.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Programming languages
Lists of programming languages Timeline of programming languages, List of programming languages by category, Generational list of programming languages, List of programming languages, Non-English-based programming languages
Commonly used Assembly languages ARM, MIPS, x86
Commonly used high-level programming languages Ada, BASIC, C, C++, C#, COBOL, Fortran, Java, Lisp, Pascal, Object Pascal
Commonly used Scripting languages Bourne script, JavaScript, Python, Ruby, PHP, Perl

Professions and organizations

.As the use of computers has spread throughout society, there are an increasing number of careers involving computers.^ "The numbers of computers in schools is increasing rapidly...
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was not much gender difference in computer use reported by those entering college in 2000: 77.8% of women and 79.5% of men.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The number of U.S. homes with one or more personal computers increased by 16% [in 1995] to about 38 million households, up from 33 million in 1994 and 25 million in 1993....
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Computer-related professions
Hardware-related Electrical engineering, Electronic engineering, Computer engineering, Telecommunications engineering, Optical engineering, Nanoengineering
Software-related Computer science, Desktop publishing, Human–computer interaction, Information technology, Computational science, Software engineering, Video game industry, Web design
.The need for computers to work well together and to be able to exchange information has spawned the need for many standards organizations, clubs and societies of both a formal and informal nature.^ This new desktop will provide an interface both to your local device, applications and information, as well as to your online life and information.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: General]

^ My many talks with him really got me interested in organizations and society.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: General]

^ Over the next two years scientists from both organizations will work together using the huge computational capacity of IBM’s eServer Blue Gene supercomputer to create a detailed model of the circuitry in the neocortex – the largest and most complex part of the human brain.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

Organizations
Standards groups ANSI, IEC, IEEE, IETF, ISO, W3C
Professional Societies ACM, ACM Special Interest Groups, IET, IFIP, BCS
Free/Open source software groups Free Software Foundation, Mozilla Foundation, Apache Software Foundation

See also


Notes

  1. ^ In 1946, ENIAC required an estimated 174 kW. By comparison, a modern laptop computer may use around 30 W; nearly six thousand times less. "Approximate Desktop & Notebook Power Usage". University of Pennsylvania. http://www.upenn.edu/computing/provider/docs/hardware/powerusage.html. Retrieved 2009-06-20. 
  2. ^ Early computers such as Colossus and ENIAC were able to process between 5 and 100 operations per second. A modern "commodity" microprocessor (as of 2007) can process billions of operations per second, and many of these operations are more complicated and useful than early computer operations. "Intel Core2 Duo Mobile Processor: Features". Intel Corporation. http://www.intel.com/cd/channel/reseller/asmo-na/eng/products/mobile/processors/core2duo_m/feature/index.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-20. 
  3. ^ computer, n., Oxford English Dictionary (2 ed.), Oxford University Press, 1989, http://dictionary.oed.com/, retrieved 2009-04-10 
  4. ^ "Heron of Alexandria". http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/HeronAlexandria2.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-15. 
  5. ^ a b Ancient Discoveries, Episode 11: Ancient Robots, History Channel, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rxjbaQl0ad8, retrieved 2008-09-06 
  6. ^ Howard R. Turner (1997), Science in Medieval Islam: An Illustrated Introduction, p. 184, University of Texas Press, ISBN 0-292-78149-0
  7. ^ Donald Routledge Hill, "Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval Near East", Scientific American, May 1991, pp. 64–9 (cf. Donald Routledge Hill, Mechanical Engineering)
  8. ^ The analytical engine should not be confused with Babbage's difference engine which was a non-programmable mechanical calculator.
  9. ^ Columbia University Computing History: Herman Hollerith
  10. ^ "Alan Turing - Time 100 People of the Century". Time Magazine. http://www.yachtingnet.com/time/time100/scientist/profile/turing.html. Retrieved 2009-06-13. "The fact remains that everyone who taps at a keyboard, opening a spreadsheet or a word-processing program, is working on an incarnation of a Turing machine" 
  11. ^ Spiegel: The inventor of the computer's biography was published
  12. ^ "Inventor Profile: George R. Stibitz". National Inventors Hall of Fame Foundation, Inc.. http://www.invent.org/hall_of_fame/140.html. 
  13. ^ Rojas, R. (1998). "How to make Zuse's Z3 a universal computer". IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 20 (3): 51–54. doi:10.1109/85.707574. 
  14. ^ B. Jack Copeland, ed., Colossus: The Secrets of Bletchley Park's Codebreaking Computers, Oxford University Press, 2006
  15. ^ Lavington 1998, p. 37
  16. ^ This program was written similarly to those for the PDP-11 minicomputer and shows some typical things a computer can do. All the text after the semicolons are comments for the benefit of human readers. These have no significance to the computer and are ignored. (Digital Equipment Corporation 1972)
  17. ^ Attempts are often made to create programs that can overcome this fundamental limitation of computers. Software that mimics learning and adaptation is part of artificial intelligence.
  18. ^ It is not universally true that bugs are solely due to programmer oversight. Computer hardware may fail or may itself have a fundamental problem that produces unexpected results in certain situations. For instance, the Pentium FDIV bug caused some Intel microprocessors in the early 1990s to produce inaccurate results for certain floating point division operations. This was caused by a flaw in the microprocessor design and resulted in a partial recall of the affected devices.
  19. ^ Even some later computers were commonly programmed directly in machine code. Some minicomputers like the DEC PDP-8 could be programmed directly from a panel of switches. However, this method was usually used only as part of the booting process. Most modern computers boot entirely automatically by reading a boot program from some non-volatile memory.
  20. ^ However, there is sometimes some form of machine language compatibility between different computers. An x86-64 compatible microprocessor like the AMD Athlon 64 is able to run most of the same programs that an Intel Core 2 microprocessor can, as well as programs designed for earlier microprocessors like the Intel Pentiums and Intel 80486. This contrasts with very early commercial computers, which were often one-of-a-kind and totally incompatible with other computers.
  21. ^ High level languages are also often interpreted rather than compiled. Interpreted languages are translated into machine code on the fly by another program called an interpreter.
  22. ^ The control unit's role in interpreting instructions has varied somewhat in the past. Although the control unit is solely responsible for instruction interpretation in most modern computers, this is not always the case. Many computers include some instructions that may only be partially interpreted by the control system and partially interpreted by another device. This is especially the case with specialized computing hardware that may be partially self-contained. For example, EDVAC, one of the earliest stored-program computers, used a central control unit that only interpreted four instructions. All of the arithmetic-related instructions were passed on to its arithmetic unit and further decoded there.
  23. ^ Instructions often occupy more than one memory address, so the program counters usually increases by the number of memory locations required to store one instruction.
  24. ^ David J. Eck (2000). The Most Complex Machine: A Survey of Computers and Computing. A K Peters, Ltd.. p. 54. ISBN 9781568811284. 
  25. ^ Erricos John Kontoghiorghes (2006). Handbook of Parallel Computing and Statistics. CRC Press. p. 45. ISBN 9780824740672. 
  26. ^ Flash memory also may only be rewritten a limited number of times before wearing out, making it less useful for heavy random access usage. (Verma 1988)
  27. ^ Donald Eadie (1968). Introduction to the Basic Computer. Prentice-Hall. p. 12. 
  28. ^ Arpad Barna; Dan I. Porat (1976). Introduction to Microcomputers and the Microprocessors. Wiley. p. 85. ISBN 9780471050513. 
  29. ^ Jerry Peek; Grace Todino, John Strang (2002). Learning the UNIX Operating System: A Concise Guide for the New User. O'Reilly. p. 130. ISBN 9780596002619. 
  30. ^ Gillian M. Davis (2002). Noise Reduction in Speech Applications. CRC Press. p. 111. ISBN 9780849309496. 
  31. ^ However, it is also very common to construct supercomputers out of many pieces of cheap commodity hardware; usually individual computers connected by networks. These so-called computer clusters can often provide supercomputer performance at a much lower cost than customized designs. While custom architectures are still used for most of the most powerful supercomputers, there has been a proliferation of cluster computers in recent years. (TOP500 2006)
  32. ^ Agatha C. Hughes (2000). Systems, Experts, and Computers. MIT Press. p. 161. ISBN 9780262082853. "The experience of SAGE helped make possible the first truly large-scale commercial real-time network: the SABRE computerized airline reservations system..." 
  33. ^ "A Brief History of the Internet". Internet Society. http://www.isoc.org/internet/history/brief.shtml. Retrieved 2008-09-20. 
  34. ^ Most major 64-bit instruction set architectures are extensions of earlier designs. All of the architectures listed in this table, except for Alpha, existed in 32-bit forms before their 64-bit incarnations were introduced.

References

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Computers article)

From Wikiquote

.A computer is a machine for manipulating data according to a list of instructions.^ A computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions.
  • Computers Videos - Metacafe 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.metacafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions .
  • Computer (Linux Reviews) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A device used for computing ; specifically, an electronic machine which performs rapid, often complex calculation s or compiles, correlates, and selects data in inference -like operations which are defined over a set of representational structures ( information ) and result from the manipulation of these structures in accordance with a fixed set of rule s ( instruction s).
  • computer@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Computers take many forms, from early room-sized complexes to modern personal computers (PCs) and personal digital assistants (PDAs) to tiny embedded systems that add sophisticated capabilities to other devices like toys and appliances.^ What is a media center PC? What are embedded systems?
  • What are the Computer Parts? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.tech-faq.com [Source type: General]

^ Artificial Intelligence takes many forms.

^ The personal computer (PC) is one complex piece of machinery.

Contents

Sourced

.
  • Dare to be gorgeous and unique.^ Dare to be gorgeous and unique.
    • Computers - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    But don't ever be cryptic or otherwise unfathomable. .Make it unforgettably great.^ Make it unforgettably great.
    • Computers - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • Robert J. Mical, Amiga Intuition Reference Manual, 1986, (ISBN 0201110768), p.^ Robert J. Mical, Amiga Intuition Reference Manual , 1986, ( ISBN 0201110768 ), p.
      • Computers - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      231
  • Mr. McKitrick, after careful consideration I have come to the conclusion that your defense system sucks. .
  • Trust The Computer.^ The general problem computer vision deals with (identify, classify and track “objects” in real-world scenes) is considered “AI complete” by some, and I tend to agree.
    • AI problems 2 February 2010 13:21 UTC www.yosefk.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ General Beringer ( Barry Corbin ) in WarGames , unidentified scene Trust The Computer.
    • Computers - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Computer is your friend.^ Now that you have the facts about green computing, share your knowledge with friends, family, and co-workers.

    ^ We do this because sometimes all you need to fix your PC is a friend to tell you how to get this or that done on your computer.
    • Computer Repair St Augustine $50 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC 11pccomputers.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It could be that your friend’s computer is infected, but, not always.
    • System Techs Blog | Computer Repair, Web Design & Development Companyin Wilmington, NC 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC blog.systemtechs.net [Source type: General]

  • "So computers are tools of the devil?" thought Newt. He had no problem believing it. .Computers had to be the tools of somebody, and all he knew for certain was that it definitely wasn't him.^ First of all, the modifications made to the Apple to produce the Agat were done by somebody in the USSR. Even if they have "very few" computers, they still have thousands upon thousands of computers.
    • [Chaos CD][HaBi 2]- Soviet Computer Technology 15 September 2009 5:36 UTC www.trust-us.ch [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Tom's Definitive Linux Software Roundup: Communications Apps All business computing articles Storage .
    • Tom's Hardware: Hardware News, Tests and Reviews 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.tomshardware.com [Source type: General]

    ^ When your computer is running in ship-shape, then go to start, all programs, accessories, system tools, then system restore.
    • How to Clean Your Computer System: 9 steps - wikiHow 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.wikihow.com [Source type: General]

    .
  • Never underestimate the bandwidth of a station wagon full of tapes hurtling down the highway.^ "Never underestimate the bandwidth of a pickup full of magnetic tapes."
    • Computer Quotes 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.gdargaud.net [Source type: General]

    ^ Backup routines Easy to backup central server to tape either full or incremental backup Ease of expansion Most LANs can easily be extended by adding cables and stations.

    .
  • The simple fact is that without supporting directives or a mechanism for feedback, security is defined differently by each person and verified by no one.^ Computer viruses that no one can stop.
    • The Daily Galaxy: Great Discoveries Channel : Science News, Tech News, Astronomy and Space Exploration : Artificial Intelligence 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.dailygalaxy.com [Source type: General]

    ^ No one ever said the PS2 was a computer!
    • Hey! The PS3 is a Computer, Not a Game System: News from 1UP.com 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.1up.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Economic trends indicate that this will continue; in particular, jobs in software engineering, networking, and computer support are expected to rise over 6% in the next ten years.
    • Indiana Computer Training Institutes, Computer Schools in Indiana 15 September 2009 5:36 UTC www.computerschools.com [Source type: Academic]

    .There is no metric for compliance with a "culture", and a "culture of security" is overridden by a culture of "get the job done" every time.^ Casinos Purchasing a Laptop and Leaving Behind an Ancient Desktop I cannot count the times that I have been on a trip and needed to access the Internet, but there was no computer available with which to do so.
    • Computer - Associated Content - Theme - associatedcontent.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

    ^ There is no agreed upon model of time with properties that are well understood.
    • The Semantic Web: The Origins of Artificial Intelligence Redux 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ By taking the time to read this document, you know more about securing your home computer and the extra costs required to do this job.
    • Home Computer Security 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.cert.org [Source type: General]

    If there are rules, write them down. .If technology is put in place to implement or monitor the rules, write that down too.^ I am implementing this theory using running arguments, a technique for writing rule-based programs for intelligent agents.
    • CSAIL Publications 2 February 2010 13:21 UTC www.ai.mit.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Put a calendar in the binder, and on the calendar write down maintenance and software subscription expiration dates.
    • Your Computer System - IT Management for Small Business and Professional Offices 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.solutionarchitech.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Software viruses are getting more plentiful and more sophisticated, yet we have put in place an ever evolving technology immune system that protects us.
    • Artificial Intelligence - washingtonpost.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.washingtonpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .If people break the rules, follow up.^ To set up the rule set database enter the following Scheme sentence: (set-up-rules 'first first) 14.4.2 Rule Interpreter .
    • artificial intelligence 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cs.trinity.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The dealer has a simple rule that it follows: Always hit when the cards add up to 17 or less.
    • Designing Artificial Intelligence for Games (Part 1) - Intel® Software Network 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC software.intel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    If the rules prevent legitimate business from getting done, change them. It's that simple. .
  • It used to be said of a man who had suffered a catastrophic setback in his line of work that he had been handed his head on a platter.^ Ken ­ - my right-hand man ­ - put a stake in the ground and ran our concepts up the flagpole to see who would salute.

    ^ For example, you might choose to work on computer software technology that is being used to assist in the education of students who have difficulties with processing and remembering information.
    • Help the Disabled Through A Career in Assistive Computer Technology - Technology Schools 15 September 2009 5:36 UTC www.technology-schools.com [Source type: News]

    ^ The director of Expert Labs, an initiative that aims to connect government projects with citizens who want to become more involved in the political discussion, discusses the White House's using URL shorteners and working with the government to start apps.
    • Technology News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:58 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

    .We are being handed our heads with tweezers now.^ Does it suffice for now to just “put our heads down” and work on solving the short-term and medium-term problems at hand?
    • Computability in Artificial Intelligence « Machine Learning (Theory) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC hunch.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ We have been trying to model our successors robot servants to resemble human beings physically and psychically for a while now.
    • AI Panic! 2 February 2010 13:21 UTC aipanic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • I have bought this wonderful machine- a computer.^ When we bought the BG, we also had to make sure that we have the computer engineering and computer science expertise to run the machine and optimize all the programs.
    • Technology Report » Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC technology-report.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Now I am rather an authority on gods, so I identified the machine- it seems to me to be an Old Testament god with a lot of rules and no mercy.^ After a second viewing of A.I., and after reading lots of reviews and talkbalk, it seems like no one has disscussed a very important point: Who is telling the story?
    • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 2 February 2010 13:21 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The rules identify ideograms according to their shape with no ambiguity, and they do not require me to understand them.
    • DISF - Dizionario Interdisciplinare di Scienza e Fede | Intelligence, Artificial 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.disf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ What the writer is saying is that Yahweh (there is no such name as Jehovah - it is a misinterpretation of the original Hebrew name Yahweh), the unique name of God recorded in the Old Testament, was given to one of many gods that the Israelites once worshipped.

Software

.
  • Around computers it is difficult to find the correct unit of time to measure progress.^ He installed everything, then complained that when he started his computer up, the screen was so cluttered he was having a hard time finding his desktop.
    • Computer Stupidities: Operating Systems 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.rinkworks.com [Source type: General]

    ^ To find the figure for your particular computer you can contact the manufacturer (not me), or see my section on measuring electrical use .
    • How much electricity does my computer use? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC michaelbluejay.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Pitch is measured logarithmically in twelve equal units per octave, duration is measured in integer divisions of a constant time interval, etc.
    • Music and Artificial Intelligence 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC music.arts.uci.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Some cathedrals took a century to complete.^ "In just over a day, a powerful computer program accomplished a feat that took physicists centuries to complete: extrapolating the laws of motion from a pendulum's swings.
    • AI // Current 2 February 2010 13:21 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In just over a day, a powerful computer program accomplished a feat that took physicists centuries to complete: extrapolating the laws of motion from a pendulum's swings.
    • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Can you imagine the grandeur and scope of a program that would take as long?^ This would include your operating system (Windows), device drivers, programs, and data you have created using your programs (word documents, spread sheets, etc.
    • Basic Computer Components 16 September 2009 22:17 UTC faq.cpals.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I'm sure it would provide us with some amazing insights on the way to, you know, taking over the world.
    • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If you were to complete the entire program in just 48 weeks, you would only be required to pay tuition for two terms.
    • Associate In Applied Science In Computer Information Technology and Systems Management 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.cie-wc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • "Epigrams in Programming", SIGPLAN, Association for Computing Machinery, September 1982
  • Einstein argued that there must be simplified explanations of nature, because God is not capricious or arbitrary.^ It also argues that grammatical theories based on explicit phrase structure rules are unlikely to provide comparable explanations of why natural languages are built the way they are.
    • CSAIL Publications 2 February 2010 13:21 UTC www.ai.mit.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ This remarkable result was achieved by first writing a procedure FindIthField to find the i th field (which must take time O( n ) if there is no auxiliary data structure), and then implementing FindNamedField ( name ) with the very natural program .
    • Hints for computer system design 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC research.microsoft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ As computers have evolved in complexity, high-level programming languages (such as C , Ada , and LISP ) have been created to simplify the creation of complex programs.
    • computer@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .No such faith comforts the software engineer.^ Modha himself is a software engineer with no knowledge of the brain.
    • Technology Report » Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC technology-report.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Software Engineering , ieee Computer Society order no.
    • Hints for computer system design 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC research.microsoft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "In his book, The Decline and Fall of the American Programmer , Edward Yourdon claims it can take one to two years for the typical software engineer to become familiar and comfortable with a methodology [such as object-oriented programming].
    • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
  • A refund for defective software might be nice, except it would bankrupt the entire software industry in the first year.^ It would be a guess as to which might come first.
    • Artificial Intelligence - washingtonpost.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.washingtonpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Sent by romanaround After a software is released, the first bug found will be by a person who normally does not use that portion of the program but was wondering why he can't do something he normally would not do.
    • Murphy Laws Site - Computers Laws 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.murphys-laws.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Futurist: Where do you see the entire industry going in the next five to ten years; I know Wikipedia and Google were working on similar software tracks right now?
    • Futurist Interviews 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.wfs.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Interviewer: Is studying computer science the best way to prepare to be a programmer?^ Denker 10 years ago said that "artificial neural networks are the second best way to implement a solution" motivated by the simplicity of their design and because of their universality, only shadowed by the traditional design obtained by studying the physics of the problem.

    ^ They prepare specifications, flow charts, and process diagrams for computer programmers to follow; then, they work with programmers to debug, or eliminate, errors from the system.
    • Computer systems analyst -- Job training, employment, job outlook and earnings 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Unlike conventional computer programs, neural networks are "trained", not programmed to respond the way they do.
    • ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND THE PRESERVATION OF MIND 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.benbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Bill Gates: No. the best way to prepare is to write programs, and to study great programs that other people have written. .In my case, I went to the garbage cans at the Computer Science Center and I fished out listings of their operating system.^ List of embedded operating systems .
    • Computer (Linux Reviews) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Formal methods Computer science Systems sciences Computer systems .
    • Computer Based Systems - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Computer Science classics : A list by SAH .
    • Amazon.com: Paradigms of Artificial Intelligence Programming: Case Studies in Common Lisp (9781558601918): Peter Norvig: Books 2 February 2010 13:21 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    .You got to be willing to read other people's code, then write your own, then have other people review your code.^ Share your thoughts with other customers: Create your own review .
    • Amazon.com: Computer Systems: A Programmer's Perspective (9780130340740): Randal E. Bryant, David R. O'Hallaron: Books 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]
    • Amazon.com: Computer Networks: A Systems Approach, Fourth Edition (The Morgan Kaufmann Series in Networking) (9780123705488): Larry L. Peterson, Bruce S. Davie: Books 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]
    • Amazon.com: Paradigms of Artificial Intelligence Programming: Case Studies in Common Lisp (9781558601918): Peter Norvig: Books 2 February 2010 13:21 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]
    • Amazon.com: Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach (2nd Edition) (9780137903955): Stuart Russell, Peter Norvig: Books 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]
    • Amazon.com: Artificial Intelligence (3rd Edition) (9780201533774): Winston: Books 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Write your own games!
    • Hey! The PS3 is a Computer, Not a Game System: News from 1UP.com 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.1up.com [Source type: General]

    ^ NOTE: This course has substantial elements of both programming and mathematics, because these elements are central to modern AI. You should be prepared to review basic probability on your own if it is not fresh in your head.
    • Artificial Intelligence (CS 5300/CS 6300) - Spring 2010 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cs.utah.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .You've got to want to be in this incredible feedback loop where you get the world-class people to tell you what you're doing wrong.^ Which is what we've been telling people for years.

    ^ Why do you tell me you're not sure me do?
    • Programmer-art.org - Articles - Python Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC programmer-art.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ You're free to use the LaTeX source in any way you want, but you'll need haldefs.sty and notes.sty to build them.
    • Artificial Intelligence (CS 5300/CS 6300) - Spring 2010 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cs.utah.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    • "Programmers at Work: Interviews With 19 Programmers Who Shaped the Computer Industry", Tempus, by Susan Lammers (Editor)

Computer games

.
  • The only legitimate use of a computer is to play games.^ Only in (b) do computational aspects play a role.
    • Computability in Artificial Intelligence « Machine Learning (Theory) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC hunch.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Playing Smart Artificial Intelligence in Computer Games This document presents an overview of artificial intelligence in general and artificial intelligence in the context of its use in modern computer games in particular.
    • Artificial Intelligence: Definition and additional resources from BNET 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.bnet.com [Source type: Academic]
    • Artificial Intelligence: Definition and additional resources from BNET 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.bnet.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In a tactical game, past history can decide the best tactics to use against a player team, such as defensive, offensive, berserk, or some balanced means of play.
    • Designing Artificial Intelligence for Games (Part 1) - Intel® Software Network 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC software.intel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Programming

.
  • The primary duty of an exception handler is to get the error out of the lap of the programmer and into the surprised face of the user.^ A fter some trial and error, we found a way to get the model out of gmax and into David R's modeling program, Lightwave.

    .

Unix

.
  • Your job is being a professor and researcher: That's one hell of a good excuse for some of the brain-damages of Minix.^ When AI was more logic oriented, some good logicians helped develop the foundations of “deductive” AI. Where are the researchers giving modern “inductive” AI its foundation?
    • Computability in Artificial Intelligence « Machine Learning (Theory) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC hunch.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Often, they do so to demonstrate how ridiculous it is to assume that one can run an exact simulation of a human, for example a downloaded brain, without it being conscious.

    ^ One fairly good guess is that they would turn their intelligence toward designing the next generation of brain-computer interfaces.
    • Future Current » Blog Archive » Artificial Intelligence and Society 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.acceleratingfuture.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Will journalling become prevalent in the Unix world at large?^ Linux: A free Unix- type operating system originally created by Linus Torvalds with the assistance of developers around the world.
    • Pharmaceutical Computing & Computers glossary taxonomy 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.genomicglossaries.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The development of World Wide Web has become a field of endeavor in itself, with important ramifications for the world at large, although these are noticed more by industry than philosophy.
    • The Semantic Web: The Origins of Artificial Intelligence Redux 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Probably not. After all, it's nonstandard. .
    • The UNIX Hater's Handbook, 1994, ISBN 1568842031, unidentified chapter/page
  • Linux users think Abraham was ordered to sacrifice Linus as a burnt offering, GNU users think Abraham was ordered to sacrifice Stallman as a burnt offering.^ Sponsored by the free software Foundation, the gnu.org site offers an explanation of the GNU project, as well as a "Free Software Directory", licenses for GNU/Linux releases, and other free software resources.

    ^ Opera Mobile 10 (Beta 2) offers Windows Mobile and Symbian device owners snappy performance, a transparent user interface, and accurate page rendering.
    • Technology Product Reviews, News, Prices & Downloads | PCMag.com | PC Magazine 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pcmag.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Is there any point to making a web page that offers a graphical user interface to the web, running inside your web-browser, which already provides a graphical user interface to the web?
    • memepool.com: Computing archive 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

    .Linux users believe in the holy trinity of GNU/Linux/NvidiaBlobs, BSD users believe in the one and only UNIX. Linux users are fine with Tux toys and stickers, BSD users believe in no graven images.^ That's only true of high-end 3D games, most online games, card games and children's games will play just fine on one of these.
    • Computer and Laptop Buying Advice: Laptop and Desktop Computer Buying Tips to avoid wasting your money. 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.computerbuyadvice.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The only unfairness during the course of both games was that enemies knew where the player was, even if no one saw where the player hid.
    • Game artificial intelligence - Xbox Wiki 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC xbox.wikia.com [Source type: General]

    ^ They dethroned Nintendo...no one believed this would happen.
    • Hey! The PS3 is a Computer, Not a Game System: News from 1UP.com 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.1up.com [Source type: General]

    .Linux users are subdivided into those that argue about interpretations of freedom and whether the establishment is corrupt, BSD users are subdivided according to which BSD is the true descendant of UNIX(pbuh).^ According to Gizmodo , Apple customer support is handing over about $300 cash to say ‘sorry’ to all of those Americans afflicted by yellow and flickering screens.

    ^ Though traditional interpretation holds that the action test attempts to determine whether an agent is acting upon principles, I argue that the action test is best understood as a test of common ( ...
    • Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence - Bibliography | PhilPapers 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC philpapers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ According to iPhone analytics company Pinch Media, about 30% of those two billion downloads fall into the premium app category, and they generated total developer revenues of US$900 million.
    • Pen Computing and Rugged PC Review - your source for mobile and rugged computing reviews and specs 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC pencomputing.com [Source type: General]

    .
  • UNIX is user-friendly, it just chooses its friends.^ I was teaching a new user some basic UNIX commands just so she could get around on the computer when she needed to.
    • Computer Stupidities: Operating Systems 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.rinkworks.com [Source type: General]

Unsourced

.
  • If you think you can solve your security problems, then you don’t understand the problems and you don’t understand the technology.^ Why do you think I don't argue with you?
    • artificial intelligence 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cs.trinity.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The key is to understand the security-related problems that you need to think about and solve.
    • Home Computer Security 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.cert.org [Source type: General]

    ^ I don't think he ever got the chance to solve the obvious problems in the story structure...
    • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 2 February 2010 13:21 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
  • The most likely way for the world to be destroyed, most experts agree, is by accident.^ Because just like the conversation at home, most Internet conversations are in the clear, meaning that the information exchanged between computer systems is not concealed or hidden in any way.
    • Home Computer Security 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.cert.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Well, we could run our AGI on a centralized server farm and have it connect with a P2P virtual world like Croquet… but that’s not the most interesting way to do things..
    • Artificial General Intelligence in Second Life | UgoTrade 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.ugotrade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It should not be necessary to learn a programming language like C++ or BASIC. The most simple version of Programming by Demonstration is accomplished by Macro Recorders which provide users with a way to record their actions.
    • Stottler Henke - Artificial Intelligence Glossary 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.stottlerhenke.com [Source type: Reference]

    .That's where we come in; we're computer professionals.^ Additional training may come from professional development seminars offered by professional computing societies.
    • Computer Systems Analysts 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.bls.gov [Source type: Reference]

    We cause accidents. .
  • Computer games don't affect kids, I mean if Pac Man affected us as kids, we'd all be running around in darkened rooms, munching pills and listening to repetitive music.^ It is, by no means, only a kids game.
    • Jason Doucette - Artificial Intelligence - Chess, Checkers, Tic-Tac-Toe 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.jasondoucette.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Young man working on computer in darkened room .
    • Computer technology Video and Stock Footage. 1420 Computer technology videos and royalty free movie clips available to download from over 20 stock motion companies. 15 September 2009 5:36 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ After all, he quips, “running around and killing is really a very small part of human interaction.” November 28, 2007, 6 p.m.
    • BUniverse - Artificial Intelligence in Video Games 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.bu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .
  • Quantum mechanic Seth Lloyd says the universe is one giant, hackable computer.^ Network Computing Network Computing www.networkcomputing.com .

    ^ Request you to kindly look at my site at http://www.infosecminds.com and let me know how I can align my right side box along with the left ones.
    • WP Theme: Artificial Intelligence | Smashing Free Wordpress Themes 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC ericulous.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ VOTE MOVEMENT - DJ MAG BEST BRITISH SMALL CLUB-http://www.djmag.com/index.php?op=bestofbritish ( view more ) .
    • Artificial Intelligence on MySpace Music - Free Streaming MP3s, Pictures & Music Downloads 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Let's hope it's not running Windows.
  • On two occasions I have been asked [by members of parliament!], "Pray, Mr. Babbage, if you put into the machine wrong figures, will the right answers come out?" .I am not rightly able to apprehend the kind of confusion that could provoke such a question.
  • Computers make it easier to do a lot of things, but most of the things they make it easier to do don't need to be done.^ Most RFID tags don't have batteries (How could they?
    • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I had that very question for a lot of things in that movie.
    • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 2 February 2010 13:21 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Used computers/electronics still have value to people that can't afford new We don't need to throw stuff away just cause we don't want it or don't use it.
    • Donate a Computer to Computer Recycling Center 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC crc.org [Source type: General]

  • Anyone who slaps a 'this page is best viewed with Browser X' label on a Web page appears to be yearning for the bad old days, before the Web, when you had very little chance of reading a document written on another computer, another word processor, or another network.^ If you can, read this entire document before you begin to secure your computer.
    • Home Computer Security 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.cert.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Computer networking is another form of I/O. .
    • Computer (Linux Reviews) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Word processors, Mobile Phones and Web browsers.
    • CSIS - LM051 - B.Sc. in Computer Systems 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.csis.ul.ie [Source type: Reference]

    .
  • [Software are among the] things which can be copied infinitely over and over again, without any further costs.^ Technology Review, July 1994, pp.
    • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The first category of projects is related to the Semantic Web, a vision for a smarter Web laid out in the late 1990s by World Wide Web creator Tim Berners-Lee.
    • IFTF's Future Now: Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC future.iftf.org [Source type: General]

    ^ This review will concentrate on logical AI in relation to philosophical logic, without further comment on relations to philosophy in general or to the feasibility of developing human-level intelligent systems.
    • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .
  • A world full of computers which you can't understand, can't fix and can't use [because it is controlled by inaccessible proprietorial software] is a world controlled by machines.^ Are you tired of fixing your computer?
    • Computer Magazines: Top 100 Computer & Software Magazines 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.netvalley.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Computer: I didnt understand you.
    • The Secret Guide to Computers - Artificial Intelligence 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.secretguide.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ We all use software because we have to.

    .
  • .HELP SEX: This system is a computer and as such is not able to help with enquiries of this nature.^ Nature and history in Operating systems for computer .

    ^ As such, everything is computer-based by nature.
    • Computers in the Re-imagined Series - Battlestar Wiki 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC en.battlestarwiki.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The goal is to create an automated “Reading System” that serves as a bridge between knowledge contained in natural texts and the formal reasoning systems that need such knowledge.
    • Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.deepmarket.com [Source type: General]

    For details on reproduction, see the Xerox documentation. .
    • Famous Help text from Essex Dec 10
  • Computers in the future may weigh no more than 1.5 tons.^ Computers are no dumber than we.
    • The Secret Guide to Computers - Artificial Intelligence 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.secretguide.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ No more than 10 percent of computer crime gets reported.
    • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ No More Top 10 Lists .
    • Technology Product Reviews, News, Prices & Downloads | PCMag.com | PC Magazine 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pcmag.com [Source type: General]

  • Computers are useless. .They can only give you answers.^ And when you describe it to a player it sounds amazing, but the problem is it’s essentially invisible to the player - they won’t see this glorious narrative, they’ll only see a few outcomes.
    • DESIGNER NOTES » Blog Archive » AI and Designers Discussion 2 February 2010 13:21 UTC www.designer-notes.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Just figured I'd give you a bit more info on the problem only a few of us seem to be experiencing.
    • AI -- Neverwinter Nights 2 Vault 2 February 2010 13:21 UTC nwvault.ign.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Memory cards, because they're the only way you can save a game!
    • Hey! The PS3 is a Computer, Not a Game System: News from 1UP.com 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.1up.com [Source type: General]

    .
  • Don't trust a computer you can't throw out a window.^ Used computers/electronics still have value to people that can't afford new We don't need to throw stuff away just cause we don't want it or don't use it.
    • Donate a Computer to Computer Recycling Center 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC crc.org [Source type: General]

    ^ If you want to know everything about the the different computer ports here is our guide to help you out.
    • Computer Hardware - Gadgetophilia 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC gadgetophilia.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Find out how service automation can help you navigate technologies such as server virtualization, as well as legacy distributed and mainframe computing environments.
    • Computer Systems Design Services White Papers ( Computer Design Services, Systems Design Services, Computer-Aided Engineering Services ) Software Downloads, Definition and Webcasts - Bitpipe 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.bitpipe.com [Source type: News]

    .
  • A computer is like air conditioning; it becomes useless when you open Windows.^ "Computer are like air conditioners: they stop working when you open windows."
    • Computer Quotes 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.gdargaud.net [Source type: General]

    ^ Steve Wozniak invitation, movies from our opening day and a personal tour of the museum by curator Bruce Damer.
    • DigiBarn Computer Museum: The Collections! 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.digibarn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ How exactly do you write a computer program that can think like a human?
    • Futurist Interviews 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.wfs.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • "I'm not afraid of computers taking over the world.^ The mind could be a type of physical system that cannot be recreated by computer So why are predictions about robots taking over the world so common?
    • AI // Current 2 February 2010 13:21 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Nothing in the world is going to make the computer "decide" not to add those numbers (not taking software bugs or hardware failure into the equation).
    • How artificial intelligence mimics the human brain 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC digg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ FREE TECH TIPS Micro 2000 Tech Tips cover a broad variety of subjects helping to take the frustration out of the day to day dealing with the world of computers!
    • Basic Computer Hardware Information from Micro 2000 UK 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.micro2000.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .They're just sitting there.^ They're just less tiresome.
    • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Whether you're actively looking for a job, researching a new industry, or just want to see what's out there, we are your career management resource.
    • Computer "systems analyst" Jobs | Boston.com 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC boston.monster.com [Source type: News]

    ^ In Roger Ebert's review he talks about the difference between human and machines and basically says they're just different.
    • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 2 February 2010 13:21 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    I can hit them with a two by four."

Misattributed

.
  • I think there is a world market for maybe five computers.^ "I think there is a world market for maybe five computers."
    • Computer Quotes 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.gdargaud.net [Source type: General]

    ^ Needless to say, this result lead many to reasses their thinking about the roles of human beings in a world where ever more powerful computing machines are being designed and built.
    • artificial intelligence 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cs.trinity.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Maybe, just maybe, Lotus would have benefitted much more and been able to direct its marketing efforts much more successfully if it were to have run ideajams with IBM mainstream staff and non-Lotus users out there in the real world.
    • Mainstream matters - a blog from computing.co.uk 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC freeform.computing.co.uk [Source type: General]

    .
    • Commonly attributed to Thomas J. Watson (1874–1956), general manager and chairman of IBM, but there is no evidence he ever said or wrote this.^ "IBM chairman Thomas Watson Sr.
      • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Thomas Watson , chairman of IBM, 1943.
      • Computer Quotes 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.gdargaud.net [Source type: General]

      ^ IBM Corporate Advertising (1948-1954) UNIVAC Ads: The Men Who Manage Stand Alone (1956) and You are trying to Divide by Zero (195?
      • DigiBarn Computer Museum: The Collections! 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.digibarn.com [Source type: General]

      The earliest known citations occurred in the 1980s.[2]

See also

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

Computer was invented by Charles Babbage. .We can Define a Computer as an Electronic machine which can perform arithmetic and logical operations.^ ALU involves arithmetic operations and logical operations .

^ Involves arithmetic operations and logical comparisons.

^ Necroserpent Posted: 2006-06-07 22:41:18.45 If a computer is something "that computes, especially a programmable electronic machine that performs high-speed mathematical or logical operations or that assembles, stores, correlates, or otherwise processes information."
  • Hey! The PS3 is a Computer, Not a Game System: News from 1UP.com 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.1up.com [Source type: General]

.Logical part related to decision making power of a Computer.^ For this reason, systems of nonmonotonic inheritance tend to be expressively weak, and their relations to the more powerful nonmonotonic logic has never been fully clarified.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The relations between AI and philosophical logic are part of a larger story.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Making super-fast, super-powerful computers more widely available can only empower such individuals.
  • The Speculist: Artificial Intelligence Archives 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC www.blog.speculist.com [Source type: Original source]

.And Arithmetic part deals with Mathematical Calculations.^ In the final analysis, logic deals with reasoning—and relatively little of the reasoning we do is mathematical, while almost all of the mathematical reasoning that nonmathematicians do is mere calculation.
  • Logic and Artificial Intelligence (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also computer

Contents

German

Pronunciation

Noun

Computer m. (genitive Computers, plural Computer)
  1. computer

Synonyms


Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Wikibooks:Computing department article)

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

Bookshelves
.Biology | Computer Science | Computer Software | Education | Health science | History | Humanities | Language and Literature | Languages | Law | Mathematics | Natural Sciences | Physics | Programming Languages | Social Sciences | Study Guides | Misc.^ CLASSIFIED ADS ** Tutors Help Wanted Books for Sale For Sale (Misc) Classroom Supplies Items Wanted Fundraising Tutors Wanted Teacher Created Computers Educational Software Educational Games Continuing Education Distance Learning Manipulatives .
  • COMPUTER TEACHERS (Teachers.Net) - Computer Lesson Plans, Computer Teachers Chatboard, Computer Teachers Mailing Lists, and other computer teachers resources. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC computer.teachers.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Computer system is a combined functional unit of hardware equipments and software programs which work together to process meaningful data.
  • Computer Systems, Computer Systems Manufacturers, Computer Systems Suppliers, Computer Systems Wholesale 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.digitivity.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Vint is a Fellow of the IEEE, ACM, AAAS, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the International Engineering Consortium, the Computer History Museum and the National Academy of Engineering.
  • Corporate Information - Google Management 16 September 2009 12:56 UTC www.google.com [Source type: News]

| Wikibooks Help
Computer Science
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Gaming

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

.From Wikia Gaming, your source for walkthroughs, games, guides, and more!^ I recommend: There is a great guide to getting more life out of your rechargeable batteries at legalandrew.com .
  • Computer Hardware: Computer Parts and Components | Business.com 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

The computer, or as the french say, l'ordinateur, is a device that computes. .Especially, say, a programmable electronic machine that performs high-speed mathematical or logical operations or that assembles, stores, correlates, or otherwise processes information.^ Necroserpent Posted: 2006-06-07 22:41:18.45 If a computer is something "that computes, especially a programmable electronic machine that performs high-speed mathematical or logical operations or that assembles, stores, correlates, or otherwise processes information."
  • Hey! The PS3 is a Computer, Not a Game System: News from 1UP.com 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.1up.com [Source type: General]

^ Manufacturer of high speed signal processing boards.
  • Computer Hardware: Computer Parts and Components | Business.com 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ This time lag is all the more pronounced with technology that is general in purpose, and is especially true of the computer, which is programmable to perform an almost unlimited variety of tasks.
  • Music and Artificial Intelligence 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC music.arts.uci.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Comes in a variety of colors. .Why, you're using one right now.^ Now you can use it all the time !
  • memepool.com: Computing archive 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

^ You're probably running one of the hundreds of spyware applications right now.
  • memepool.com: Computing archive 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

^ His pages kept telling me, "You're using Windows , contact Red Hat for an upgrade."
  • memepool.com: Computing archive 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

No, seriously, you are, I'm not kidding. Look down.
.In our more narrow definition here at Encyclopedia Gamia, the definition of a computer can be narrowed down to a Personal Computer.^ Feds Shut Down Media Motor Spyware Scam More than 15 million computers infected.
  • Consumer Complaints about Computers and Software 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.consumeraffairs.com [Source type: General]

^ More mundane technical considerations of computer processing speed and memory size might also affect our decisions, but I'm assuming these are not problematic in this instance.
  • Music and Artificial Intelligence 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC music.arts.uci.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First, if more than one person uses your computer, you can adjust the ACLs that control access to sensitive files and folders.
  • Home Computer Security 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.cert.org [Source type: General]

.In essence all video game consoles are computers, each capable of logical operations, but a Personal Computer differs because it offers a full Keyboard/Mouse setup, in addition to a few other customization aspects that only Personal Computer can offer.^ Only a few brief comments are offered.
  • Artificial Intelligence 3 February 2010 14:27 UTC kryten.mm.rpi.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Full version not upgrade) And games will be able to use Keyboard and Mouse.
  • Hey! The PS3 is a Computer, Not a Game System: News from 1UP.com 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC www.1up.com [Source type: General]

^ Pilot: An operating system for a personal computer.
  • Hints for computer system design 3 February 2010 14:59 UTC research.microsoft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


This article uses material from the "Computer" article on the Gaming wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

File:Computer-aj aj ashton
A drawing of a typical desktop computer.

A computer is a machine that changes information according to well defined rules. Computers have existed for much of human history. Examples of early computers are the astrolabe and the abacus. Modern computers have changed very much. They are able to control traffic lights, cars or locks. Most modern computers can be used to play music or video. The basic principle is still the same though: the computer has a set of rules, usually called an algorithm. The computer changes information based on these rules.

A person uses a computer by telling it to do things, like playing movies or going to Wikipedia. Computers do not know English, so people must tell their computers to do things by speaking the computer's language. The computer's language is called a programming language. Programmers know this computer's language, and use it to write programs that tell the computer what to do. Normal people use the programs that a programmer wrote to tell the computer what to do.

Computers can do anything that someone can tell them to do. Computers are able to solve mathematical problems because a programmer has told them how to solve math problems. Because computers are very fast, modern computers can solve billions of math problems per second. Computers are used to control factories, which in the past were controlled by humans. They are also in homes, where they are used for things such as listening to music, reading the news, and writing.

Contents

History of computing

File:Jacquard.loom.full.
The Jacquard loom was one of the first programmable devices.

Invention

Nobody knows who built the first computer. This is because the word "computer" used to mean a person who did math as their job (a human computer). Because of this, some people say that humans were the first computers. Human computers got bored doing the same math over and over again, and made tools (mostly mechanical calculating devices like abacuses) to help them get the answers to their problems.

Automation

Humans have a problem with math. To show this, try doing five hundred eighty-four times three thousand two hundred twenty in your head. It is hard to remember all the steps! People made tools to help them remember where they were in a math problem. The other problem people have is that they have to do the same problem over and over and over again. A cashier used to make change every day in her head or with a piece of paper. That took a lot of time and people made mistakes. So people made machines that did those same things over and over. This part of computer history is called the "history of automated calculation," which is a fancy phrase for "the history of machines that make it easy for me to do this same math problem over and over without making mistakes."

The abacus, the slide rule, the astrolabe and the Antikythera mechanism (which dates from about 150-100 BC) are examples of automated calculation machines.

Programming

Some people did not want a machine that would do the same thing over and over again. For example, a music box is a machine that plays the same music over and over again. Some people wanted to be able to tell their machine to do different things. For example, they wanted to tell the music box to play different music every time. They wanted to be able to program the music box- to order the music box to play different music. This part of computer history is called the "history of programmable machines" which is a fancy phrase for "The history of machines that I can order to do different things if I know how to speak their language."

One of the first examples of this was built by Hero of Alexandria (c. 10–70 AD). He built a mechanical theater which performed a play lasting 10 minutes and was operated by a complex system of ropes and drums. These ropes and drums were the language of the machine- they told what the machine did and when. Some people argue that this is the first programmable machine.[1]

Most historians agree that the "castle clock", an astronomical clock invented by Al-Jazari in 1206, is the first known programmable analog computer.[2] It showed the zodiac, the solar and lunar orbits, a crescent moon-shaped pointer travelling across a gateway that made some doors to open every hour,[3][4] and five robotic musicians who play music when levers hit them. The length of day and night could be changed (AKA re-programmed) every day in order to account for the changing lengths of day and night throughout the year.[2] Some people[who?] consider Ada Lovelace to be the first programmer.[needs proof]

The Computing Era

At the end of the Middle Ages, people in Europe thought math and engineering were more important. In 1623, Wilhelm Schickard made a mechanical calculator. Other Europeans made more calculators after him. They were not modern computers because they could only add, subtract, and multiply- you could not change what they did to make them do something like play tetris. Because of this, we say they were not programmable.

In 1801, Joseph Marie Jacquard used punched paper cards to tell his textile loom what kind of pattern to weave. He could use punch cards to tell the loom what to do, and he could change the punch cards, which means he could program the loom to weave the pattern he wanted. This means the loom was programmable.

Modern computers were made when someone (Charles Babbage) had a bright idea. He wanted to make a machine that could do all the boring parts of math, (like the automated calculators) and could be told to do them different ways (like the programmable machines.) Charles Babbage was the first to make a design of a fully programmable mechanical computer. He called it the "The Analytical Engine".[5] Because Babbage did not have enough money and always changed his design when he had a better idea, he never built his Analytical Engine.

As time went on, computers got more and more popular. And that stands out at the beginning. This is because people get bored easily doing the same thing over and over. Imagine spending your life writing things down on index cards, storing them, and then having to go find them again. The U.S. Census Bureau in 1890 had hundreds of people doing just that. People got very bored and very frustrated, and would say, "There HAS to be an easier way to do this." Then some bright person figured out how to make machines do a lot of the work. Herman Hollerith figured out how to make a machine that would automatically add up information that the Census bureau collected. The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation(which later became IBM) made his machines, and everyone was happy. At least, they were happy until their machines broke down, got jammed, and had to be repaired. This is when the Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation invented tech support.

Because of machines like this, new ways of talking to these machines were invented, and new types of machines were invented, and eventually the computer that we all know and love today was born.

Analog and Digital Computers

In the first half of the 20th century, scientists started using computers, mostly because scientists had a lot of math to figure out and wanted to spend more of their time thinking about the secrets of the universe instead of spending hours adding numbers together. If you remember getting bored doing your times tables, you will know exactly how they felt.

So they put together computers. These computers used analog circuits, which made them very hard to program. Then, in the 1930s, they invented digital computers, which made them easier to program.

High-scale computers

Scientists figured out how to make and use digital computers in the 1930s and 1940s. Scientists made a lot of digital computers, and as they did, they figured out how to ask them the right sorts of questions to get the most out of them. Here are a few of the computers they built:

Defining characteristics of some early digital computers of the 1940s (In the history of computing hardware)
Name First operational Numeral system Computing mechanism Programming Turing complete
Zuse Z3 (Germany) May 1941 Binary Electro-mechanical Program-controlled by punched film stock Yes (1998)
Atanasoff–Berry Computer (US) mid-1941 Binary Electronic Not programmable—single purpose No
Colossus (UK) January 1944 Binary Electronic Program-controlled by patch cables and switches No
Harvard Mark I – IBM ASCC (US) 1944 Decimal Electro-mechanical Program-controlled by 24-channel punched paper tape (but no conditional branch) No
ENIAC (US) November 1945 Decimal Electronic Program-controlled by patch cables and switches Yes
Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine (UK) June 1948 Binary Electronic Stored-program in Williams cathode ray tube memory Yes
Modified ENIAC (US) September 1948 Decimal Electronic Program-controlled by patch cables and switches plus a primitive read-only stored programming mechanism using the Function Tables as program ROM Yes
EDSAC (UK) May 1949 Binary Electronic Stored-program in mercury delay line memory Yes
Manchester Mark 1 (UK) October 1949 Binary Electronic Stored-program in Williams cathode ray tube memory and magnetic drum memory Yes
CSIRAC (Australia) November 1949 Binary Electronic Stored-program in mercury delay line memory Yes
File:EDSAC (10).jpg
EDSAC was one of the first computers that remembered what you told it even after you turned the power off. This is called (von Neumann) architecture.
  • Konrad Zuse's electromechanical "Z machines". The Z3 (1941) was the first working machine that used binary arithmetic. Binary arithmetic means using "Yes" and "No." to add numbers together. You could also program it. In 1998 the Z3 was proved to be Turing complete. Turing complete means that it is possible to tell this particular computer anything that it is mathematically possible to tell a computer. It is the world's first modern computer.
  • The non-programmable Atanasoff–Berry Computer (1941) which used vacuum tubes to store "yes" and "no" answers, and regenerative capacitor memory.
  • The secret British Colossus computers (1943)[6], which you could kind of sort of program. It showed that even though it had thousands of tubes, it still worked most of the time. It was used for breaking German wartime codes.
  • The Harvard Mark I (1944), A big computer that you could kind of program.
  • The U.S. Army's Ballistics Research Laboratory ENIAC (1946), which could add numbers the way people do (using the numbers 0 through 9) and is sometimes called the first general purpose electronic computer (since Konrad Zuse's Z3 of 1941 used electromagnets instead of electronics). At first, however, the only way you could reprogram ENIAC was by rewiring it.

Several developers of ENIAC saw its problems. They invented a way to for a computer to remember what they had told it, and a way to change what it remembered. This is known as "stored program architecture" or von Neumann architecture. John von Neumann talked about this design in the paper First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC, distributed in 1945. A number of projects to develop computers based on the stored-program architecture started around this time. The first of these was completed in Great Britain. The first to be demonstrated working was the Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM or "Baby"), while the EDSAC, completed a year after SSEM, was the first really useful computer that used the stored program design. Shortly afterwards, the machine originally described by von Neumann's paper—EDVAC—was completed but was not ready for two years.

Nearly all modern computers use the stored-program architecture in some form. It has become the main concept which defines a modern computer. Most of the technologies used to build computers have changed since the 1940s, but many current computers still use the von-Neumann architecture.

[[File:|thumb|right|200px|Microprocessors are miniaturized devices that often implement stored program CPUs.]]

In the 1950's computers were built out of mostly vacuum tubes. Transistors replaced vacuum tubes in the 1960's because they were smaller and cheaper. They also need less power and do not break down as much as vacuum tubes. In the 1970s, technologies were based on integrated circuits. Microprocessors, such as the Intel 4004 made computers smaller and cheaper. They also made computers faster and more reliable. By the 1980s, computers became small and cheap enough to replace mechanical controls in things like washing machines. The 1980s also saw home computers and personal computer. With the evolution of the Internet, personal computers are becoming as common as the television and the telephone in the household.

In 2005 Nokia started to call some of its mobile phones (the N-series) "multimedia computers" and after the launch of the Apple iPhone in 2007, many are now starting to add the smartphone category among "real" computers. In 2008, if the category of smartphones are included in the numbers of computers in the world, the biggest computer maker by units sold, is no longer Hewlett-Packard, but rather Nokia.[needs proof]

Kinds of computers

There are three types of computers: desktop computers, mainframes, and embedded computers.

A "desktop computer" is a small machine that has a screen (which is not part of the computer). Most people keep them on top of a desk, which is why they are called "desktop computers." "Laptop computers" are computers small enough to fit on your lap. This makes them easy to carry around. Both laptops and desktops are called personal computers, because one person at a time uses them for things like playing music, surfing the web, or playing video games.

There are bigger computers that many people at a time can use. These are called "Mainframes," and these computers do all the things that make things like the internet work. You can think of a personal computer like this: the personal computer is like your skin: you can see it, other people can see it, and through your skin you feel wind, water, air, and the rest of the world. A mainframe is more like your internal organs: you (hopefully) never see them, and you barely even think about them, but if they suddenly went missing, you would have some very big problems.

There is another type of computer, called an embedded computer. An embedded computer is a computer that does one thing and one thing only, and usually does it very well. For example, an alarm clock is a embedded computer: it tells the time. Unlike your personal computer, you cannot use your clock to play Tetris. Because of this, we say that embedded computers cannot be programmed, because you cannot install programs like Tetris on your clock. Some mobile phones, automatic teller machines, microwave ovens, CD players and cars are examples of embedded computers.

Common uses of home computers

Working methods

Computers store data and the instructions telling them what to do with the data as numbers, because computers can do things with numbers very quickly. These data are stored as binary symbols (1s and 0s). A 1 or a 0 symbol stored by a computer is called a bit, which comes from the words binary digit. Computers can use many bits together to represent instructions and the data that these instructions use. A list of these instructions is called a program and stored on the computer's hard disk. Computers use memory called "RAM" as a space to carry out the instructions and store data while it is doing these instructions. When the computer wants to store the results of the instructions for later, it uses the hard disk.

An operating system tells the computer how to understand what jobs it has to do, how to do these jobs, and how to tell people the results. It tells the electronics inside the computer, or "hardware", how to work to get the results it needs. This lets most computers have the same operating system, or list of orders to tell it how to talk to the user, while each computer can have its own computer programs or list of jobs to do what its user needs. Having different programs and operating systems makes it easy to learn how to use computers for new things. When a user needs to use a computer for something different, the user can learn how to use a new program.

The Internet

One of the most important jobs that computers do for people is helping with communication. Communication is how people share information. Computers have helped people move forward in science, medicine, business, and learning, because they let experts from anywhere in the world work with each other and share information. They also let other people communicate with each other, do their jobs almost anywhere, learn about almost anything, or share their opinions with each other. The Internet is the thing that lets people communicate between their computers.

Computers and waste

A computer is now almost always an electronic device. It usually contains materials that will become toxic waste when disposed of. When a new computer is bought in some places, laws require that the cost of its waste management must also be paid for. This is called product stewardship.

Computers can become obsolete quickly, depending on what programs the user runs. Very often, they are thrown away within two or three years, because newer programs require a more powerful computer. This makes the problem worse, so computer recycling happens a lot. Many projects try to send working computers to developing nations so they can be re-used and will not become waste as quickly, as most people do not need to run new programs.

Main hardware

Computers come in different forms, but most of them have a common architecture.

  • All computers have a CPU
  • All computers have some kind of data bus which lets them get inputs or output things to the environment.
  • All computers have some form of memory. These are usually chips (integrated circuits) which can hold information.
  • Many computers have some kind of sensors, which lets them get input from their environment.
  • Many computers have some kind of display device, which lets them show output. They may also have other peripheral devices connected.

A computer has several main parts. When comparing a computer to a human body, the CPU is like a brain. It does most of the 'thinking' and tells the rest of the computer how to work. The CPU is on the Motherboard, which is like the skeleton. It provides the basis for where the other parts go, and carries the nerves that connect them to each other and the CPU. The motherboard is connected to a power supply, which provides electricity to the entire computer. The various drives (CD drive, floppy drive, and on many newer computers, USB drive) act like eyes, ears, and fingers, and allow the computer to read different types of storage, in the same way that a human can read different types of books. The hard drive is like a human's memory, and keeps track of all the data stored on the computer. Most computers have a sound card or another method of making sound, which is like vocal cords, or a voice box. Connected to the sound card are speakers, which are like a mouth, and are where the sound comes out. Computers might also have a graphics card, which helps the computer to create visual effects, such as 3D environments, or more realistic colors, and more powerful graphics cards can make more realistic or more advanced images, in the same way a well trained artist can.

References

  1. "Heron of Alexandria". http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/HeronAlexandria2.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-15. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Ancient Discoveries, Episode 11: Ancient Robots, History Channel, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rxjbaQl0ad8, retrieved 2008-09-06 
  3. Howard R. Turner (1997), Science in Medieval Islam: An Illustrated Introduction, p. 184, University of Texas Press, ISBN 0-292-78149-0
  4. Donald Routledge Hill, "Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval Near East", Scientific American, May 1991, pp. 64-9 (cf. Donald Routledge Hill, Mechanical Engineering)
  5. Don't confuse the Analytical Engine with Babbage's difference engine which was a non-programmable mechanical calculator.
  6. B. Jack Copeland, ed., Colossus: The Secrets of Bletchley Park's Codebreaking Computers, Oxford University Press, 2006

krc:Компьютер


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 07, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Computer, which are similar to those in the above article.








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