Computer data storage: Wikis

  

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1 GB of SDRAM mounted in a personal computer.
^ Jump to: navigation , search 1 GB of SDRAM mounted in a personal computer .
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

An example of primary storage.
40 GB hard disk drive (HDD); when connected to a computer it serves as secondary storage.
.
160 GB SDLT tape cartridge, an example of off-line storage.
^ Examples of Off-Line Storage include magnetic tapes, disk cartridges, optical disks, and floppy diskettes.
  • Chapter Six Memory Architecture 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Off-line storage .
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ GB SDLT tape cartridge, an example of off-line storage.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

When used within a robotic tape library, it is classified as tertiary storage instead.
.Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, refers to computer components, devices, and recording media that retain digital data used for computing for some interval of time.^ Secondary storages can be used as input and output devices for the computer.
  • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Computer data storage devices refers to computer components which can retain the data in digital format, to be used for computing at some point of time in the future.
  • Data Storage: Types of Computer Data Storage Devices 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also called computer memory , storage.
  • Storage Definition | Definition of Storage at Dictionary.com 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

.Computer data storage provides one of the core functions of the modern computer, that of information retention.^ Storage provides one of the core functions of the modern computer — that of information retention.
  • Storage - The IT Law Wiki 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC itlaw.wikia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Posts Tagged ‘Computer data storage’ .
  • ‘’ Computer data storage 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC blog.datalight.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Computer data storage .
  • Computer data storage — Flickerdown Dave Graham's Weblog 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC flickerdown.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is one of the fundamental components of all modern computers, and coupled with a central processing unit (CPU, a processor), implements the basic computer model used since the 1940s.^ Memory and the CPU combine in the basic computer model in use since the 1940's.
  • Define Memory - What is Computer Data Storage Memory 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC www.wdpi.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Central Processing Unit is the computer's brain.
  • Introduction to Computer Storage and Memory 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.itnewb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Every computer has at least one Central Processing Unit (CPU) with an extensive set of electronic circuitry.
  • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.In contemporary usage, memory usually refers to a form of semiconductor storage known as random-access memory (RAM) and sometimes other forms of fast but temporary storage.^ RAM is the “fast” type of memory.
  • Tag » storage « @ Neuron Computer Services Blog 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC blog.neuroncomputers.com [Source type: General]

^ It is called Random Access Memory because any of the data in RAM can be accessed just as fast as any of the other data, hence the designation Random Access .
  • Introduction to Computer Storage and Memory 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.itnewb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It usually refers to a form of solid state storage known as random access memory (RAM) and sometimes other forms of fast but temporary storage.
  • Data Recovery Comparison - Computer Storage in general, definitions, terms, classification. 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.datarecoverycompare.com [Source type: Reference]

.Similarly, storage today more commonly refers to mass storageoptical discs, forms of magnetic storage like hard disk drives, and other types slower than RAM, but of a more permanent nature.^ See more Hard Drives .
  • D-Link DNS-321 2-Bay Network Storage Enclosure in Computer Drive Enclosures at JR.com 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.jr.com [Source type: General]

^ Just like your hard drive, cloud storage is fallible.
  • Online data storage and synchronisation 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.mistywindow.com [Source type: General]

^ Optical disk drives manufacturing .
  • 334112 Computer Storage Device Manufacturing 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.naics.com [Source type: Reference]
  • 2002 NAICS Definitions: 334112 Computer Storage Device Manufacturing 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.census.gov [Source type: Reference]

.Historically, memory and storage were respectively called main memory and secondary storage.^ Also called computer memory , storage.
  • Storage Definition | Definition of Storage at Dictionary.com 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This is also called backing storage or secondary storage .
  • Auxiliary Memory 【Secondary storage】 - e-Words - A Glossary of Computers and Internet 16 September 2009 3:15 UTC e-words.us [Source type: Academic]

^ Secondary Storage is called Auxiliary Storage .
  • Teach me computers - lesson 4 - Memory Storage 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC teachmecomputers.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The terms internal memory and external memory are also used.^ Cache memory is a special type of internal memory used by many central processing units to increase their performance or "throughput".
  • RAM main Computer Storage | Data Recovery Corporation - We Recover any data storage media. 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.chicagodatarecoverycorp.com [Source type: Reference]

^ RAM and ROM --Vendors, users and manufactures use the term Random Access Memory for main memory.
  • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The term memory as used in a computer context originally referred to the magnetic core memory devices that were used beginning in the 1950s.
  • Memory definition by The Linux Information Project (LINFO) 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.linfo.org [Source type: Reference]

.
The contemporary distinctions are helpful, because they are also fundamental to the architecture of computers in general.
^ These distinctions reflect computer architecture.
  • Define Memory - What is Computer Data Storage Memory 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC www.wdpi.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The contemporary distinctions are helpful, because they are also fundamental to the architecture of computers in general.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Because HP LeftHand SANs are built with a superior architecture, they are more scalable and offer higher availability , more...
  • Data Storage - Related Computer Terminology Information - Technology Guide for Enterprise Solutions 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC itresources.whatis.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The distinctions also reflect an important and significant technical difference between memory and mass storage devices, which has been blurred by the historical usage of the term storage.^ TERM: computer storage devices .
  • Results: computer storage devices 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC search.nasa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ What are the major differences between memory and storage?
  • English for Computer Hardware ( Storage and Memory ) - English 4 IT Reading Activity 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.english4it.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Okay now you know the difference between memory and storage.
  • English for Computer Hardware ( Storage and Memory ) - English 4 IT Reading Activity 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.english4it.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nevertheless, this article uses the traditional nomenclature.^ Nevertheless, this article uses the traditional nomenclature.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

Contents

Purpose of storage

.Many different forms of storage, based on various natural phenomena, have been invented.^ Many different forms of storage, based on various natural phenomena, have been invented.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Computer Storage comes in many forms.
  • Computer Storage – Towards File Management 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Many of the storage vendors and trade publications are using the following terms in different and often conflicting ways.
  • Backup Definitions - Understanding the Terminology 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC www.teradactyl.com [Source type: Reference]

.So far, no practical universal storage medium exists, and all forms of storage have some drawbacks.^ Block by block copy of all blocks in a storage medium.
  • Data Recovery Dictionary by Ibas — Data Recovery, Disk Recovery and Computer Forenics by Ibas 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ibas.com [Source type: Reference]

^ So far, no practical universal storage medium exists, and all forms of storage have some drawbacks.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Standards-based, plug-and-play integration -- no need to reprogram your storage interfaces, existing applications already work.
  • Zetta Exhibits Enterprise Cloud Storage for Primary Data at Gartner Data Center Conference 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.prweb.com [Source type: General]

.Therefore a computer system usually contains several kinds of storage, each with an individual purpose.^ Usually it contains a network operating system.
  • Data Recovery Dictionary by Ibas — Data Recovery, Disk Recovery and Computer Forenics by Ibas 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ibas.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Data Recovery Dictionary by Ibas — Data Recovery, Disk Recovery and Computer Forenics by Ibas 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ibas.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Therefore a computer system usually contains several kinds of storage, each with an individual purpose.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Storage quotas vary between computer systems and individual accounts.
  • Supercomputing and Visualization Facility - Hardware - Data Storage 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC sc.jpl.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A digital computer represents data using the binary numeral system.^ A byte represents numeric digits or characters.
  • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Computers store data in a digital format.
  • Document Management System, Solution, Software -Guides,Tips,Resources 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC dmsguide.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A digital computer represents data using the binary numeral system .
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Text, numbers, pictures, audio, and nearly any other form of information can be converted into a string of bits, or binary digits, each of which has a value of 1 or 0. The most common unit of storage is the byte, equal to 8 bits.^ Text, numbers, pictures, audio, and nearly any other form of information can be converted into a string of bits , or binary digits, each of which has a value of 1 or 0.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The unit of storage in a data storage device is byte.
  • Data Storage Devices, Data Storage Devices Manufacturers, Data Storage Devices Suppliers, Data Storage Devices Wholesale 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.digitivity.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A Byte This is the unit of measure for computer storage.
  • Computer Storage – Towards File Management 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Reference]

.A piece of information can be handled by any computer whose storage space is large enough to accommodate the binary representation of the piece of information, or simply data.^ Offline Data Storage and computer backup storage .
  • Offline Data Storage and computer backup storage | CoreVault 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.corevault.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Data storage devices in computer?
  • WikiAnswers - What is the five storage devices of computer 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Posts Tagged ‘Computer data storage’ .
  • ‘’ Computer data storage 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC blog.datalight.com [Source type: Reference]

.For example, using eight million bits, or about one megabyte, a typical computer could store a short novel.^ One megabyte is about one million of bytes/characters (1024 2 ).
  • Data Recovery Dictionary by Ibas — Data Recovery, Disk Recovery and Computer Forenics by Ibas 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ibas.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For example, using eight million bits, or about one megabyte , a typical computer could store a small novel.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ About a million bytes is a megabyte (Mb).
  • Introduction to Computers - Computer Software 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.grassrootsdesign.com [Source type: Reference]

.Traditionally the most important part of every computer is the central processing unit (CPU, or simply a processor), because it actually operates on data, performs any calculations, and controls all the other components.^ Part of a computer's primary storage system are the registers inside the Central Processing Unit.
  • Introduction to Computer Storage and Memory 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.itnewb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main components of the CPU are the control unit and the arithmetic/logic unit.
  • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The Central Processing Unit is the computer's brain.
  • Introduction to Computer Storage and Memory 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.itnewb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Without a significant amount of memory, a computer would merely be able to perform fixed operations and immediately output the result.^ Without a significant amount of memory, a computer would merely be able to perform fixed operations and immediately output the result.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The amount of main memory on a computer is crucial because it determines how many programs can be executed at one time and how much data can be readily available to a program.
  • main memory - Webopedia.com 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC serverwatch.webopedia.com [Source type: General]
  • EnterpriseVoIPplanet - main memory - voipplanet.webopedia.com 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC voipplanet.webopedia.com [Source type: General]
  • main memory definition - isp.webopedia.com - The Glossary for Internet Service Providers 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC isp.webopedia.com [Source type: General]
  • main memory - Webopedia.com 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC itmanagement.webopedia.com [Source type: General]
  • eSecurity Planet: Software & Internet Security Trends, Virus Alerts 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC esecurity.webopedia.com [Source type: General]

^ Because the BIOS checks the computer memory every time the system boots, memory failures often result in an unbootable system that may present with a blank screen and a system beep.

.It would have to be reconfigured to change its behavior.^ It would have to be reconfigured to change its behavior.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.This is acceptable for devices such as desk calculators or simple digital signal processors.^ This is acceptable for devices such as desk calculators or simple digital signal processors .
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The second are optically recorded disks such as CD and DVD. The third are the portable memory devices that, although often called drives, are simple memory components.
  • MavensWorld - Computer Storage - Introduction Page 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.mavensworld.com [Source type: General]

^ The card products are used in a range of consumer electronics devices, such as mobile phones, digital cameras, gaming devices and laptop computers.
  • Computer Storage Devices Companies and Executive Information 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.onesource.com [Source type: Reference]

.Von Neumann machines differ in that they have a memory in which they store their operating instructions and data.^ Von Neumann machines differ in that they have a memory in which they store their operating instructions and data.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Especially with smaller companies, if they can reduce the cost of their production stores, they can scale back their overall costs.” Solix views classification as the key for data management.
  • Processor Editorial Article - Energy-Efficient Data Storage 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.processor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only Storage Guardian data backup and data storage services include " bare metal restores " – restoring the entire operating system, applications, settings and data for an entire computer – onto a new machine with different hardware than the original one.
  • Remote Data Backup Software Data Recovery Service Storage Guardian 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.storageguardian.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such computers are more versatile in that they do not need to have their hardware reconfigured for each new program, but can simply be reprogrammed with new in-memory instructions; they also tend to be simpler to design, in that a relatively simple processor may keep state between successive computations to build up complex procedural results.^ Computer hardware news , Computer networking news , Distributed computing news .
  • COMPUTER-STORAGE.LOVE.COM | All Things computer storage 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC computer-storage.love.com [Source type: General]

^ Such computers are more versatile in that they do not need to have their hardware reconfigured for each new program, but can simply be reprogrammed with new in-memory instructions; they also tend to be simpler to design, in that a relatively simple processor may keep state between successive computations to build up complex procedural results.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Memory keeps instructions temporarily for execution.
  • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Most modern computers are von Neumann machines.^ Most modern computers are von Neumann machines.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Computers are the most complex machines that have ever been created.
  • How Computers Work: Microprocessor and Main Memory: Tutorial 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.fastchip.net [Source type: General]

^ Display Electronics     The Shuttle's display system, built by the Norden Division of United Technologies Corporation, is the most complex ever used on a flying machine and contains computers of its own.
  • Ch4-3 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.hq.nasa.gov [Source type: Reference]

.In practice, almost all computers use a variety of memory types, organized in a storage hierarchy around the CPU, as a trade-off between performance and cost.^ Also called computer memory , storage.
  • Storage Definition | Definition of Storage at Dictionary.com 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Computer Memory 1st Storage .
  • RAM main Computer Storage | Data Recovery Corporation - We Recover any data storage media. 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.chicagodatarecoverycorp.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Hard Drive Computer Storage | Data Recovery Corporation - We Recover any data storage media. 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.chicagodatarecoverycorp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What are the major differences between memory and storage?
  • English for Computer Hardware ( Storage and Memory ) - English 4 IT Reading Activity 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.english4it.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Generally, the lower a storage is in the hierarchy, the lesser its bandwidth and the greater its access latency is from the CPU. This traditional division of storage to primary, secondary, tertiary and off-line storage is also guided by cost per bit.^ If the file is in primary storage, move it to the secondary storage .
  • 29.2.7. Files and directories 16 September 2009 3:15 UTC base.thep.lu.se [Source type: Reference]

^ Examples of this category are secondary, tertiary, and off-line storage.
  • Storage 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC it.toolbox.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In modern computers, secondary, tertiary and off-line storage use file systems.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

Hierarchy of storage

.
Various forms of storage, divided according to their distance from the central processing unit.
^ A "host" is a central processing unit serviced by a secondary storage subsystem.
  • US Patent 4434487 - Disk format for secondary storage system 16 September 2009 3:15 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Various forms of storage, divided according to their distance from the central processing unit .
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The Central Processing Unit is the computer's brain.
  • Introduction to Computer Storage and Memory 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.itnewb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The fundamental components of a general-purpose computer are arithmetic and logic unit, control circuitry, storage space, and input/output devices.^ Secondary storages can be used as input and output devices for the computer.
  • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ A typical computer operation consists of input, execution, output and storage.
  • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Logical storage unit .
  • Data Recovery Dictionary by Ibas — Data Recovery, Disk Recovery and Computer Forenics by Ibas 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ibas.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Data Recovery Dictionary by Ibas — Data Recovery, Disk Recovery and Computer Forenics by Ibas 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ibas.com [Source type: Reference]

Technology and capacity as in common home computers around 2005.

Primary storage

Direct links to this section: Primary storage, Main memory, Internal Memory.
.Primary storage (or main memory or internal memory), often referred to simply as memory, is the only one directly accessible to the CPU. The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them as required.^ Memory refers to storage that can be accessed by the processor directly (using memory addressing instructions).

^ They are often referred to as Mutable storage.
  • Storage 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC it.toolbox.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It refers to a memory chip that permanently stores instructions and data, without requiring power.

.Any data actively operated on is also stored there in uniform manner.^ Any data actively operated on is also stored there in uniform manner.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ No doubt there are various techniques and devices that are capable of storing large amount of data like hard drives, optical disks, tapes etc.

^ There are many types of data storage that are used to store information and act as memory devices.
  • Data Storage - Data Backup 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Historically, early computers used delay lines, Williams tubes, or rotating magnetic drums as primary storage.^ Historically, early computers used delay lines , Williams tubes , or rotating magnetic drums as primary storage.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It is technically known as mass storag e or just, storage or external memory, which is different from primary storage, and is not directly accessible to CPU. Computer use its input/output channels to access the information from secondary storage.
  • Hard Drive Computer Storage | Data Recovery Corporation - We Recover any data storage media. 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.chicagodatarecoverycorp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Tape Storage medium can be used to create and maintain data backups on a wide range of computing machines from single computer to enterprise level networking environment.

.By 1954, those unreliable methods were mostly replaced by magnetic core memory, which was still rather cumbersome.^ By 1954, those unreliable methods were mostly replaced by magnetic core memory , which was still rather cumbersome.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ IBM decided to discontinue the development of magnetic core memory in favor of volatile monolithic semiconductor memory chips with much faster data access and lower cost.
  • History of Storage -- USByte 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.usbyte.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How can you write an article about the history of computer storage and not mention magnetic core memory?
  • The history of computer data storage, in pictures | Royal Pingdom 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

.Undoubtedly, a revolution was started with the invention of a transistor, that soon enabled then-unbelievable miniaturization of electronic memory via solid-state silicon chip technology.^ Collections of transistors were miniaturized onto a silicon 'chip'.
  • Encyclopedia of 20th Century Technology 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.routledge-ny.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Ultimately it was the solid-state semiconductor that was to provide the memory technology of the computer revolution.
  • Encyclopedia of 20th Century Technology 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.routledge-ny.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Undoubtedly, a revolution was started with the invention of a transistor , that soon enabled then-unbelievable miniaturization of electronic memory via solid-state silicon chip technology.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.This led to a modern random-access memory (RAM).^ Dynamic random access memory.
  • COMPUTER ENVIRONMENT - RAM 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.computerschool.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This led to a modern random access memory (RAM).
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Random Access Memory, or RAM for short) .
  • Computer Memory (aka. Random Access Memory, or RAM for short) 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is small-sized, light, but quite expensive at the same time.^ It is small-sized, light, but quite expensive at the same time.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Small- and medium-sized businesses (SMBs) need and deserve the same level of quality found in the data backup and recovery systems of their larger "enterprise" counterparts.
  • Data Storage White Papers, Videos, Webcasts, Podcasts and Case Studies 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC searchsmbstorage.bitpipe.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Take a tweezer or any small metal object and touch this contact and the battery at the same time.
  • Seiko Computer Watch: Data 2000, UC-2000, UC-2001,UC-2002, UC-3000, RC-1000, RC-4000, RC-4500 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC pocketcalculatorshow.com [Source type: General]

(The particular types of RAM used for primary storage are also volatile, i.e. they lose the information when not powered).
As shown in the diagram, traditionally there are two more sub-layers of the primary storage, besides main large-capacity RAM:
.
  • Processor registers are located inside the processor.^ Processor registers are located inside the processor.
    • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Multi-level hierarchical cache setup is also commonly used— primary cache being smallest, fastest and located inside the processor; secondary cache being somewhat larger and slower.
    • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

    .Each register typically holds a word of data (often 32 or 64 bits).^ Each register typically holds a word of data (often 32 or 64 bits).
    • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ When reading about PCs and servers, you'll often see the CPU described by the number of bits (e.g., 32-bit or 64-bit), here's a little info about what that means.
    • computer - Enterprise Storage Forum, Leading Edge Coverage of the Storage Industry 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC enterprisestorageforum.webopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • computer - Enterprise Storage Forum, Leading Edge Coverage of the Storage Industry 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC enterprisestorageforum.webopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ On 32 bit systems it is 4 GB(2^32) and for 64 bit systems it is 2^64 bytes.
    • Overview of Database Cache, High performance main memory database cache 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC csql.sourceforge.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .CPU instructions instruct the arithmetic and logic unit to perform various calculations or other operations on this data (or with the help of it).^ The decoder unit decodes the instruction and the control unit transfers the instruction to the arithmetic/logic unit.
    • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Arithmetic/logic unit performs operation on the instructions.
    • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The main components of the CPU are the control unit and the arithmetic/logic unit.
    • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

    .Registers are technically among the fastest of all forms of computer data storage.
  • Processor cache is an intermediate stage between ultra-fast registers and much slower main memory.^ Main memory then passes this data through the caches to the CPU. .
    • Chapter Six Memory Architecture 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Also called computer memory , storage.
    • Storage Definition | Definition of Storage at Dictionary.com 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Computer Memory 1st Storage .
    • Hard Drive Computer Storage | Data Recovery Corporation - We Recover any data storage media. 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.chicagodatarecoverycorp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It's introduced solely to increase performance of the computer.^ It's introduced solely to increase performance of the computer.
    • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

    .Most actively used information in the main memory is just duplicated in the cache memory, which is faster, but of much lesser capacity.^ Is cache memory cheaper than main memory ?
    • Questions about Main Memory - Ask.com 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]

    ^ And 5.5MB main memory are really not much if you use textures.
    • PS2Linux memorycard main-memory maximisation tutorial (4m-cloop tutorial) 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC playstation2-linux.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Most actively used information in the main memory is just duplicated in the cache memory, which is faster, but of much lesser capacity.
    • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

    .On the other hand it is much slower, but much larger than processor registers.^ On the other hand it is much slower, but much larger than processor registers.
    • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ In the PDP-11/60 and in many other processors, the cache is not updated if memory is altered by a device other than the CPU (for example when a disk stores new data in memory).
    • Cache memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.cs.mun.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The crux of the issue is that program memory usually is much bigger in terms of number of transistors or other devices than the processor.
    • Stack Computers: 9.4 THE LIMITS OF MEMORY BANDWIDTH 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.ece.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Multi-level hierarchical cache setup is also commonly used—primary cache being smallest, fastest and located inside the processor; secondary cache being somewhat larger and slower.
.Main memory is directly or indirectly connected to the CPU via a memory bus.^ For example, the CPU rarely accesses main memory directly.
  • Chapter Six Memory Architecture 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main memory is directly or indirectly connected to the CPU via a memory bus , today sometimes referred to as a front side bus .
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ To use a memory card, just plug that memory card into the proper card slot, located either directly on the PC's console or via a memory card adapter attached to a USB port.
  • Data Storage - For Dummies 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.dummies.com [Source type: General]

.It is actually two buses (not on the diagram): an address bus and a data bus.^ The memory bus is made up of two parts: the data bus and the address bus.
  • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ It is actually comprised of two buses (not on the diagram): an address bus and a data bus .
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The CPU firstly sends a number through an address bus, a number called memory address , that indicates the desired location of data.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.The CPU firstly sends a number through an address bus, a number called memory address, that indicates the desired location of data.^ The memory bus is made up of two parts: the data bus and the address bus.
  • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The CPU firstly sends a number through an address bus, a number called memory address , that indicates the desired location of data.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Each separately- addressable unit of memory (2) in which data can be stored is called a memory location .

.Then it reads or writes the data itself using the data bus.^ Then it reads or writes the data itself using the data bus.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It reads data from a disk and writes data to a disk.
  • Teach me computers - lesson 4 - Memory Storage 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC teachmecomputers.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It also has the technology to read the data after its writing.
  • Data Storage - Data Backup 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Additionally, a memory management unit (MMU) is a small device between CPU and RAM recalculating the actual memory address, for example to provide an abstraction of virtual memory or other tasks.^ In this example we will say you have 5 units of memory.
  • Computer Memory (aka. Random Access Memory, or RAM for short) 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Memory management hardware ( MMUs , RAM , etc.

^ These devices include RAM, MMUs (memory management units), caches (1) , disks, and processor registers .

.As the RAM types used for primary storage are volatile (cleared at start up), a computer containing only such storage would not have a source to read instructions from, in order to start the computer.^ Modern computers typically use read/write storage also for secondary storage.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Hence, non-volatile primary storage containing a small startup program ( BIOS ) is used to bootstrap the computer, that is, to read a larger program from non-volatile secondary storage to RAM and start to execute it.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Why use external computer storage?
  • External Computer Storage 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: General]

.Hence, non-volatile primary storage containing a small startup program (BIOS) is used to bootstrap the computer, that is, to read a larger program from non-volatile secondary storage to RAM and start to execute it.^ Modern computers typically use read/write storage also for secondary storage.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Secondary storages can be used as input and output devices for the computer.
  • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Magnetic storage is non-volatile .
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.A non-volatile technology used for this purpose is called ROM, for read-only memory (the terminology may be somewhat confusing as most ROM types are also capable of random access).^ The most prominent optical technology is the CD-ROM, for compact disk read-only memory.
  • How Computers Work: Disks And Secondary Storage 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC homepage.cs.uri.edu [Source type: General]
  • How Computers Work: Disks And Secondary Storage 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC homepage.cs.uri.edu [Source type: General]

^ Dynamic random access memory.
  • COMPUTER ENVIRONMENT - RAM 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.computerschool.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They can only be read by laser technology.
  • Computer and How They Work 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.crews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many types of "ROM" are not literally read only, as updates are possible; however it is slow and memory must be erased in large portions before it can be re-written.^ DVD-ROM (digital video disk, read-only memory) .
  • Computer and How They Work 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.crews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DVD-ROM Read only.
  • Introduction to Computer Storage and Memory 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.itnewb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many types of "ROM" are not literally read only , as updates are possible; however it is slow and memory must be erased in large portions before it can be re-written.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Some embedded systems run programs directly from ROM (or similar), because such programs are rarely changed.^ Some embedded systems run programs directly from ROM (or similar), because such programs are rarely changed.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ One benefit of such architecture is that the data storage extension system 104 can be implemented at a lower (development and test) cost because the harm caused by mistakes in their design/implementation are not as harmful as they would be if they were directly incorporated in the primary storage system 102.
  • COMPRESSED CACHE IN A CONTROLLER PARTITION - Patent 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When your computer is in normal operation, its memory usually contains the main parts of the operating system and some or all of the application programs and related data that are being used.
  • Memory ( Memory ICs, Memory Integrated Circuits, Computer Storage, Memory Chips, FIFO Memory, and Computer Memory) Definition 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.bitpipe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Standard computers do not store non-rudimentary programs in ROM, rather use large capacities of secondary storage, which is non-volatile as well, and not as costly.^ Secondary storages can be used as input and output devices for the computer.
  • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The secondary memory is used to store the data permanently in the computer.

^ File Storage also uses disk media to store program data.
  • Chapter Six Memory Architecture 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Recently, primary storage and secondary storage in some uses refer to what was historically called, respectively, secondary storage and tertiary storage.^ Nowadays used for most of secondary, tertiary, and off-line storage.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Recently, primary storage and secondary storage in some uses refer to what was historically called, respectively, secondary storage and tertiary storage .
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Institutions can use NAS as primary or secondary storage within a network.
  • Advanced Data Storage Solutions 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ffiec.gov [Source type: Reference]

[1]

Secondary storage

A hard disk drive with protective cover removed.
.Secondary storage (or external memory) differs from primary storage in that it is not directly accessible by the CPU. The computer usually uses its input/output channels to access secondary storage and transfers the desired data using intermediate area in primary storage.^ Modern computers typically use read/write storage also for secondary storage.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Secondary storages can be used as input and output devices for the computer.
  • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Data in a computer's primary storage is stored for very fast retrieval.
  • Introduction to Computer Storage and Memory 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.itnewb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Secondary storage does not lose the data when the device is powered down—it is non-volatile.^ The unit of storage in a data storage device is byte.
  • Data Storage Devices, Data Storage Devices Manufacturers, Data Storage Devices Suppliers, Data Storage Devices Wholesale 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.digitivity.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Magnetic storage is non-volatile .
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It does not have direct access to data in secondary storage.
  • Introduction to Computer Storage and Memory 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.itnewb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Per unit, it is typically also an order of magnitude less expensive than primary storage.^ Per unit, it is typically also an order of magnitude less expensive than primary storage.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In reality the take-up of so-called tier-zero flash storage will be slow, because flash will remain hugely more expensive than disk per unit of capacity.
  • Computer Storage Research 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.infoedge.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This in turn means that any off-chip memory is slower by up to an order of magnitude than on-chip memory solely because of the delays introduced by going between chips.
  • Stack Computers: 9.4 THE LIMITS OF MEMORY BANDWIDTH 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.ece.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Consequently, modern computer systems typically have an order of magnitude more secondary storage than primary storage and data is kept for a longer time there.^ Modern computers typically use read/write storage also for secondary storage.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Would that imply more data storage?
  • Computer Graphics World - ILM’s state-of-the-art (storage) studio 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.angstrom.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Data in a computer's primary storage is stored for very fast retrieval.
  • Introduction to Computer Storage and Memory 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.itnewb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In modern computers, hard disk drives are usually used as secondary storage.^ Modern computers typically use read/write storage also for secondary storage.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Secondary storages can be used as input and output devices for the computer.
  • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The hard disk drive .
  • The history of computer data storage, in pictures | Royal Pingdom 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

.The time taken to access a given byte of information stored on a hard disk is typically a few thousandths of a second, or milliseconds.^ The time taken to access a given byte of information stored on a hard disk is typically a few thousandths of a second, or milliseconds.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The amount of information, measured in bytes that can be stored on a hard drive.
  • Data Recovery Dictionary by Ibas — Data Recovery, Disk Recovery and Computer Forenics by Ibas 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ibas.com [Source type: Reference]

^ By contrast, the time taken to access a given byte of information stored in random access memory is measured in billionths of a second, or nanoseconds.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.By contrast, the time taken to access a given byte of information stored in random access memory is measured in billionths of a second, or nanoseconds.^ The time taken to access a given byte of information stored on a hard disk is typically a few thousandths of a second, or milliseconds.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Dynamic random access memory.
  • COMPUTER ENVIRONMENT - RAM 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.computerschool.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By contrast, the time taken to access a given byte of information stored in random access memory is measured in billionths of a second, or nanoseconds.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.This illustrates the very significant access-time difference which distinguishes solid-state memory from rotating magnetic storage devices: hard disks are typically about a million times slower than memory.^ Also, memory may use more power than hard disks.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Magnetic Storage Magnetic Storage: Hard disks, floppy disks and digital audiotape are examples of Magnetic storage.
  • Data Storage Media � A Guide to Selecting Media For Storing and Backing Up Computer Data 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.articlealley.com [Source type: General]

^ The general term memory card applies to all the different types of solid-state storage devices.
  • Data Storage - For Dummies 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.dummies.com [Source type: General]

.Rotating optical storage devices, such as CD and DVD drives, have even longer access times.^ Like CDs, DVDs are optical discs used for data storage.
  • Get Backup — Data Backup and Storage 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.belightsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ Optical data storage, such as CDs and DVDs, is extremely important, as well.
  • Computer Power User Article - X-ray Vision: Future Storage Technologies 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.computerpoweruser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CD / DVD storage .
  • Computer Desk Station Furniture - CD ROM Storage Cabinet 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC cdcabinet.com [Source type: General]

.With disk drives, once the disk read/write head reaches the proper placement and the data of interest rotates under it, subsequent data on the track are very fast to access.^ Important disk terminology: Flying read/write heads.
  • Secondary Storage 16 September 2009 3:15 UTC phoenix.goucher.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Used when the read/write head is unable to follow the right track.
  • Data Recovery Dictionary by Ibas — Data Recovery, Disk Recovery and Computer Forenics by Ibas 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ibas.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Version tracking of disk write operations .
  • Computer data storage physical ... - Google Patent Search 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

.As a result, in order to hide the initial seek time and rotational latency, data are transferred to and from disks in large contiguous blocks.^ One key technology in greenByte's approach is what the company calls 'probabilistic constant time searching,' in which the system can determine whether it has seen a particular chunk (block) of data before in "constant" time, regardless of how large the file system gets.
  • Consider data reduction for primary storage 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC www.infostor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A flat charge per file is made each time files are transferred to or retrieved from archival storage, and a separate charge is made for storing archived data based on the amount of such data stored each day.
  • DRS: Ruling 93-15, Sales and Use Taxes / Computer and Data Processing Services 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ct.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ The periotest s device the measured results can be stored on a chip card, the storage data consist of the periotest values of the measured teeth / implants, patient number, date and time of the measurment.
  • Data Storage Devices, Data Storage Devices Manufacturers, Data Storage Devices Suppliers, Data Storage Devices Wholesale 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.digitivity.com [Source type: Reference]

.When data reside on disk, block access to hide latency offers a ray of hope in designing efficient external memory algorithms.^ Flash memory, Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM), and hard disk drive (HDD) technologies.
  • Computer Storage Equipment : computer storage systems Information 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.zoominfo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ With the paging method, programs and data are divided into equal-sized pages on the hard disk while main memory is divided into equal-sized page frames.
  • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The designated radial zone of the disk, usually at the inner part of the disk, where the heads are stored to avoid contact with the data cylinders when power to the drive is off.
  • Data Recovery Dictionary by Ibas — Data Recovery, Disk Recovery and Computer Forenics by Ibas 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ibas.com [Source type: Reference]

.Sequential or block access on disks is orders of magnitude faster than random access, and many sophisticated paradigms have been developed to design efficient algorithms based upon sequential and block access .^ The typical disk access speeds are many orders of magnitude lower than any kind of physical memory access speeds.
  • Determining Free Physical RAM and Using It to Improve Your Application 20 September 2009 18:54 UTC developers.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The access time on a hard disk is much faster than that of a diskette.
  • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ A storage-area network differs from network-attached storage in that the latter uses file-based protocols, whereas SANs access individual disk blocks via ethernet or optical connection.
  • Atlanta Storage Area Network - Computer Resource Center 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.crcivr.com [Source type: General]

.Another way to reduce the I/O bottleneck is to use multiple disks in parallel in order to increase the bandwidth between primary and secondary memory.^ Physical memory usage goes up and is exceeded causing the computer to use virtual memory on the hard disk which is massively slower .
  • Computer Memory Upgrades - Free Pc Memory Advisor Scan - Pc Memory Upgrade 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.computerrepairuk.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ So the challenge is to figure out a way to determine the amount of free physical memory and use it productively while not causing any paging to disk.
  • Determining Free Physical RAM and Using It to Improve Your Application 20 September 2009 18:54 UTC developers.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Introduces a variation of mirroring, where the secondary copy of data is distributed across the disks in a different manner than the primary copy of data.
  • Annotated Bibliography: RAID: High-Performance, Reliable Secondary Storage 16 September 2009 3:15 UTC www.pdl.cmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[2]
.Some other examples of secondary storage technologies are: flash memory (e.g.^ Flash memory does have some limitations.

^ Some other examples of secondary storage technologies are: flash memory (e.g.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ CDs/DVDs and flash memory cards are secondary storage solutions.
  • ComputorEdge - External Data Storage Solutions for Your Computer: Picking the right device to store, back up and move your data. 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC webserver.computoredge.com [Source type: General]

.USB flash drives or keys), floppy disks, magnetic tape, paper tape, punched cards, standalone RAM disks, and Iomega Zip drives.^ Iomega 250MB Zip Drive Internal .
  • computers storage and media storage controllers price comparison at Findtarget Shopping 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC shopping.findtarget.com [Source type: General]

^ Germany USB's flash drives wanted .
  • Storage Computer buy offer Storage Computer deal - Alibaba.com 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

^ Examples: floppy drive, tape drive.
  • Data Recovery Dictionary by Ibas — Data Recovery, Disk Recovery and Computer Forenics by Ibas 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ibas.com [Source type: Reference]

.The secondary storage is often formatted according to a file system format, which provides the abstraction necessary to organize data into files and directories, providing also additional information (called metadata) describing the owner of a certain file, the access time, the access permissions, and other information.^ The file system assigns all secondary storage dynamically as needed.
  • A General-Purpose File System For Secondary Storage 16 September 2009 3:15 UTC www.multicians.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Fourth, data in primary storage can be accessed as quickly as any of the other data in primary storage.
  • Introduction to Computer Storage and Memory 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.itnewb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It does not have direct access to data in secondary storage.
  • Introduction to Computer Storage and Memory 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.itnewb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most computer operating systems use the concept of virtual memory, allowing utilization of more primary storage capacity than is physically available in the system.^ Used in IBM System/360 and /370 mainframes as primary storage.
  • The history of computer data storage, in pictures | Royal Pingdom 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ Storage capacity is unquestionably one of the most valuable assets of the computer.
  • How Computers Work: Disks And Secondary Storage 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC homepage.cs.uri.edu [Source type: General]
  • How Computers Work: Disks And Secondary Storage 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC homepage.cs.uri.edu [Source type: General]

^ Also, memory may use more power than hard disks.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.As the primary memory fills up, the system moves the least-used chunks (pages) to secondary storage devices (to a swap file or page file), retrieving them later when they are needed.^ Secondary storages can be used as input and output devices for the computer.
  • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ A file system table used by the FAT-file systems.
  • Data Recovery Dictionary by Ibas — Data Recovery, Disk Recovery and Computer Forenics by Ibas 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ibas.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The file system assigns all secondary storage dynamically as needed.
  • A General-Purpose File System For Secondary Storage 16 September 2009 3:15 UTC www.multicians.org [Source type: Reference]

.As more of these retrievals from slower secondary storage are necessary, the more the overall system performance is degraded.^ It will noticeably degrade the performance of your system.
  • Data Storage Software Vendors | Business.com 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.business.com [Source type: General]

^ Is the data storage system a performance bottleneck?
  • Method for identifying ways to improve performance in computer data storage systems - Patent 5623598 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When the secondary storage system fails, the secondary cluster also fails.
  • Novell Doc: BCC 1.2: Administration Guide for Linux - Resolving Business Continuity Cluster Failures 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC www.novell.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Tertiary storage

.
Large tape library.
^ Large tape library .
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Tape cartridges placed on shelves in the front, robotic arm moving in the back.^ Tape cartridges placed on shelves in the front, robotic arm moving in the back.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Next, the computer will instruct a robotic arm to fetch the medium and place it in a drive.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When the computer has finished reading the information, the robotic arm will return the medium to its place in the library.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

Visible height of the library is about 180 cm.
.Tertiary storage or tertiary memory,[3] provides a third level of storage.^ Tertiary storage or tertiary memory , [ 2 ] provides a third level of storage.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Holographic Memory and Storage While CD and DVD discs provide bountiful amounts of storage space but holographic data storage is no longer a fantasy.

^ The Enterprise Operations function Capacity Management Branch uses Distributed Systems Management Branch-provided information to prepare high-level storage briefing reports for IRS management.
  • Mid-range Computer Storage Resources Need Better Administration toEnsure Effective and Efficient Utilization and Accurate Reporting 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.treas.gov [Source type: Reference]

.Typically it involves a robotic mechanism which will mount (insert) and dismount removable mass storage media into a storage device according to the system's demands; this data is often copied to secondary storage before use.^ Also unlike today, magnetic tape was often used for secondary storage.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Modern computers typically use read/write storage also for secondary storage.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Secondary storages can be used as input and output devices for the computer.
  • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.It is primarily used for archival of rarely accessed information since it is much slower than secondary storage (e.g.^ It is primarily used for archival of rarely accessed information since it is much slower than secondary storage (e.g.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Access latencies for primary storage are generally much more stringent than for secondary storage.
  • Primary storage optimization moves forward 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC www.infostor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Access latencies for primary storage are generally much more stringent than for secondary storage."
  • Consider data reduction for primary storage 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC www.infostor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

5–60 seconds vs. 1-10 milliseconds). .This is primarily useful for extraordinarily large data stores, accessed without human operators.^ This is primarily useful for extraordinarily large data stores, accessed without human operators.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Tapes are often used for backup and storing large amounts of data.
  • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ A computer used primarily to store data and providing access to shared resources.
  • Data Recovery Dictionary by Ibas — Data Recovery, Disk Recovery and Computer Forenics by Ibas 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ibas.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Data Recovery Dictionary by Ibas — Data Recovery, Disk Recovery and Computer Forenics by Ibas 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ibas.com [Source type: Reference]

.Typical examples include tape libraries and optical jukeboxes.^ Typical examples include tape libraries and optical jukeboxes .
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Typical computer digital data storage devices include computer hard drives, optical disk drives, solid state memory devices, tape drives, computers, or any other device which can actively read and write digital data with the intent of storing and retrieving computerized digital data.
  • Fire resistant and/or water resistant enclosure for operable computer digital data storage device - Patent application 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Peripheral Storage Solutions   -  http://www.peripheralstorage.com/ Offers network storage products, tape libraries, backup software, optical storage, and portable backup.
  • Google Directory - Computers > Hardware > Storage 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC directory.google.com [Source type: Reference]

.When a computer needs to read information from the tertiary storage, it will first consult a catalog database to determine which tape or disc contains the information.^ When a computer needs to read information from the tertiary storage, it will first consult a catalog database to determine which tape or disc contains the information.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ All computers need storage.
  • Computer Storage - For Dummies 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.dummies.com [Source type: General]

^ Typical computer digital data storage devices include computer hard drives, optical disk drives, solid state memory devices, tape drives, computers, or any other device which can actively read and write digital data with the intent of storing and retrieving computerized digital data.
  • Fire resistant and/or water resistant enclosure for operable computer digital data storage device - Patent application 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Next, the computer will instruct a robotic arm to fetch the medium and place it in a drive.^ Next, the computer will instruct a robotic arm to fetch the medium and place it in a drive.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When the computer has finished reading the information, the robotic arm will return the medium to its place in the library.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Place an order before 2:30PM EST and your Compaq Computer Zip Drive, Tape Drive, or Other Storage usually ships the same day.

.When the computer has finished reading the information, the robotic arm will return the medium to its place in the library.^ Next, the computer will instruct a robotic arm to fetch the medium and place it in a drive.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When the computer has finished reading the information, the robotic arm will return the medium to its place in the library.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Reads and writes information quickly, allowing computer users to back up their entire hard drive in minutes.
  • Staples | Learn More About Data Storage 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.staples.com [Source type: General]

Off-line storage

.Off-line storage is a computer data storage on a medium or a device that is not under the control of a processing unit.^ The unit of storage in a data storage device is byte.
  • Data Storage Devices, Data Storage Devices Manufacturers, Data Storage Devices Suppliers, Data Storage Devices Wholesale 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.digitivity.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Understanding of computer storage devices.
  • Data storage company jobs - Quick Online Jobs Search 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC jobs.quickonlinetips.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Central Processing Unit is the computer's brain.
  • Introduction to Computer Storage and Memory 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.itnewb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] .The medium is recorded, usually in a secondary or tertiary storage device, and then physically removed or disconnected.^ The medium is recorded, usually in a secondary or tertiary storage device, and then physically removed or disconnected.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Typically it involves a robotic mechanism which will mount (insert) and dismount removable mass storage media into a storage device according to the system's demands; this data is often copied to secondary storage before use.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Secondary storages can be used as input and output devices for the computer.
  • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.It must be inserted or connected by a human operator before a computer can access it again.^ When an operator requests a part from the carousel's computer system, the carousel rotates to deliver the correct shelf to an access window in the cabinet.
  • Automated storage and retrieval system (AS/RS) basics - 2007-08-01 06:00:00 | Modern Materials Handling 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.mmh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I/O Devices and Secondary Storage: Input/Output (I/O) devices provide opportunity for the user to access and to utilize the computer's resources and operational power.
  • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ During connection, the user should not be forced to wait for long before she is allowed to perform I/O operations.
  • PersonalRAID: Mobile Storage forDistributed and Disconnected Computers1 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.usenix.org [Source type: Reference]

.Unlike tertiary storage, it cannot be accessed without human interaction.^ Unlike tertiary storage, it cannot be accessed without human interaction.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This is primarily useful for extraordinarily large data stores, accessed without human operators.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In modern computers, location-addressable storage usually limits to primary storage, accessed internally by computer programs, since location-addressability is very efficient, but burdensome for humans.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Off-line storage is used to transfer information, since the detached medium can be easily physically transported.^ Nowadays used for most of secondary, tertiary, and off-line storage.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Off-line storage .
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Immutable storage is used for tertiary and off-line storage.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Additionally, in case a disaster, for example a fire, destroys the original data, a medium in a remote location will probably be unaffected, enabling disaster recovery.^ Additionally in case a disaster, for example a fire, destroys the original data, a medium in a remote location will be probably unaffected, enabling disaster recovery .
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Small- and medium-sized businesses (SMBs) need and deserve the same level of quality found in the data backup and recovery systems of their larger "enterprise" counterparts.
  • Data Storage White Papers, Videos, Webcasts, Podcasts and Case Studies 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC searchsmbstorage.bitpipe.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A copy of your data is stored in a secure, remote location for safekeeping, so that in the event of disaster your data is still retrievable.
  • Save Your Sanity ... Backup Your Computer | Food Storage Made Easy 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC foodstoragemadeeasy.net [Source type: General]

.Off-line storage increases general information security, since it is physically inaccessible from a computer, and data confidentiality or integrity cannot be affected by computer-based attack techniques.^ Data in secondary storage is basically safe, since secondary storage is physically reliable.
  • How Computers Work: Disks And Secondary Storage 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC homepage.cs.uri.edu [Source type: General]

^ The history of computer data storage, in pictures .
  • The history of computer data storage, in pictures | Royal Pingdom 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ Computer data storage physical backup and logical restore .
  • Computer data storage physical ... - Google Patent Search 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

.Also, if the information stored for archival purposes is accessed seldom or never, off-line storage is less expensive than tertiary storage.^ Nowadays used for most of secondary, tertiary, and off-line storage.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Off-line storage .
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Immutable storage is used for tertiary and off-line storage.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.In modern personal computers, most secondary and tertiary storage media are also used for off-line storage.^ Modern computers typically use read/write storage also for secondary storage.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Secondary storages can be used as input and output devices for the computer.
  • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Most modern personal computers do not have floppy drives anymore.
  • Introduction to Computer Storage and Memory 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.itnewb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Optical discs and flash memory devices are most popular, and to much lesser extent removable hard disk drives.^ The most popular removable disk media is the Zip drive from Iomega (Figure 3).
  • How Computers Work: Disks And Secondary Storage 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC homepage.cs.uri.edu [Source type: General]
  • How Computers Work: Disks And Secondary Storage 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC homepage.cs.uri.edu [Source type: General]

^ Hard disk drives topics .
  • Computer memory architecture, Data storage devices, how computer memory works 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.educypedia.be [Source type: Reference]

^ Hard disk (drive) or HD .
  • Computer and How They Work 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.crews.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In enterprise uses, magnetic tape is predominant.^ In enterprise uses, magnetic tape is predominant.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Also unlike today, magnetic tape was often used for secondary storage.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This drawback limits the current use magnetic tape to archival purposes, although historically tape was the media of choice for data processing jobs.
  • Understanding Computer Storage 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

.Older examples are floppy disks, Zip disks, or punched cards.^ Older examples are floppy disks, Zip disks, or punched cards.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In comparison to Zip disks, Floppy disks hold 1.4MB and cost about 50 cents each.
  • How Computers Work: Disks And Secondary Storage 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC homepage.cs.uri.edu [Source type: General]

^ The older version, the floppy disk, is 5.25 inches square and flexible.
  • Data Storage Media - A Guide to Selecting Media For Storing and Backing Up Computer Data 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: General]

Characteristics of storage

A 1GB DDR RAM memory module
.Storage technologies at all levels of the storage hierarchy can be differentiated by evaluating certain core characteristics as well as measuring characteristics specific to a particular implementation.^ A 1GB DDR RAM memory module Storage technologies at all levels of the storage hierarchy can be differentiated by evaluating certain core characteristics as well as measuring characteristics specific to a particular implementation.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ For any particular implementation of any storage technology, the characteristics worth measuring are capacity and performance.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In certain of the implementations, a portion of the data in the secondary storages 32a and 32b may be common data maintained at all remote locations A and B, and other of the data at the remote sites may be specific to the particular location.
  • SYSTEM AND ARTICLE OF MANFUACTURE FOR MAINTAINING DATA IN A DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING ENVIRONMENT FOR PROCESSING TRANSACTION REQUESTS - Patent 16 September 2009 3:15 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]
  • US 7130874 - Method, system, and program for maintaining data in a distributed computing environment for processing transaction requests 16 September 2009 3:15 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Academic]

.These core characteristics are volatility, mutability, accessibility, and addressibility.^ These core characteristics are volatility, mutability, accessibility, and addressibility.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.For any particular implementation of any storage technology, the characteristics worth measuring are capacity and performance.^ Selling Proposition Important selling proposition of the data storage devices include capacity of the devices to store data, data accessibility, mutability (Read/write storage or mutable storage), address ability, security and performance.
  • Data Storage Devices, Data Storage Devices Manufacturers, Data Storage Devices Suppliers, Data Storage Devices Wholesale 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.digitivity.com [Source type: Reference]

^ I expect that it will be welcome technology for the Linux community who are looking for open, inexpensive ways to increase capacity allocation efficiency and to improve storage performance in their operating environments."
  • Storage Computer in Bid for the Linux NAS Market; First Network Attached Storage Software Available at No Cost | Business Wire | Find Articles at BNET 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC findarticles.com [Source type: News]

^ Technologies to improve storage utilization rates : Learn how to improve storage utilization rates using storage optimization and capacity reduction technologies such as dedupe, thin ...
  • Data storage technology and management resources - SearchStorage.com 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC searchstorage.techtarget.com [Source type: General]

Volatility

Non-volatile memory 
Will retain the stored information even if it is not constantly supplied with electric power. It is suitable for long-term storage of information. Nowadays used for most of secondary, tertiary, and off-line storage. In 1950s and 1960s, it was also used for primary storage, in the form of magnetic core memory.
Volatile memory 
Requires constant power to maintain the stored information. The fastest memory technologies of today are volatile ones (not a universal rule). Since primary storage is required to be very fast, it predominantly uses volatile memory.

Differentiation

Dynamic random access memory 
A form of volatile memory which also requires the stored information to be periodically re-read and re-written, or refreshed, otherwise it would vanish.
Static memory 
A form of volatile memory similar to DRAM with the exception that it never needs to be refreshed as long as power is applied. (It looses its content if power is removed).

Mutability

Read/write storage or mutable storage 
Allows information to be overwritten at any time. A computer without some amount of read/write storage for primary storage purposes would be useless for many tasks. Modern computers typically use read/write storage also for secondary storage.
Read only storage 
Retains the information stored at the time of manufacture, and write once storage .(Write Once Read Many) allows the information to be written only once at some point after manufacture.^ Read/write storage or mutable storage Allows information to be overwritten at any time.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Read-only media are recorded on by the manufacturer and can be read from but not written to by the user.
  • How Computers Work: Disks And Secondary Storage 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC homepage.cs.uri.edu [Source type: General]
  • How Computers Work: Disks And Secondary Storage 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC homepage.cs.uri.edu [Source type: General]

^ Read only storage Retains the information stored at the time of manufacture, and write once storage ( Write Once Read Many ) allows the information to be written only once at some point after manufacture.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.These are called immutable storage.^ These are called immutable storage .
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Immutable storage is used for tertiary and off-line storage.^ Near-Line Storage uses the same media as Off-Line Storage, the difference is that the system holds the media in a special robotic jukebox device that can automatically mount the desired media when some program requests it.
  • Chapter Six Memory Architecture 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore, during ordinary operation in the absence of fire, PC board temporarily shuts off power to data storage device 1410 whenever it is not in use.
  • Fire resistant and/or water resistant enclosure for operable computer digital data storage device - Patent application 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Examples of Off-Line Storage include magnetic tapes, disk cartridges, optical disks, and floppy diskettes.
  • Chapter Six Memory Architecture 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Examples include CD-ROM and CD-R.^ Products includes enclosures for RAID and CD-ROM storage, fibre channel rackmounts and towers.
  • Google Directory - Computers > Hardware > Storage 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC directory.google.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Open Directory - Computers: Hardware: Storage 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.dmoz.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Devices include portable hard drives,mini ZIP drives,CD-ROM drives and DVD drives.
  • Computer and Network Security : Computers/Hardware/Storage 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC infosyssec.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Devices include portable hard drives, mini ZIP drives, CD-ROM drives and DVD drives.
  • Google Directory - Computers > Hardware > Storage 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC directory.google.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Open Directory - Computers: Hardware: Storage 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.dmoz.org [Source type: Reference]

Slow write, fast read storage 
Read/write storage which allows information to be overwritten multiple times, but with the write operation being much slower than the read operation. Examples include .CD-RW and flash memory.^ Examples include CD-RW and flash memory .
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ PC , router , CD News Flash memory moves forward .
  • data storage news, reviews and downloads on CNET 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC computershopper.com.com [Source type: General]

^ Designs,manufactures,and markets a variety of portable systems for hard disks,CD-ROM,CD-RW,and flash memory cards with all interfaces.
  • Computer and Network Security : Computers/Hardware/Storage 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC infosyssec.com [Source type: Reference]

Accessibility

Random access 
Any location in storage can be accessed at any moment in approximately the same amount of time. Such characteristic is well suited for primary and secondary storage.
Sequential access 
The accessing of pieces of information will be in a serial order, one after the other; therefore the time to access a particular piece of information depends upon which piece of information was last accessed. Such characteristic is typical of off-line storage.

Addressability

Location-addressable 
Each individually accessible unit of information in storage is selected with its numerical memory address. .In modern computers, location-addressable storage usually limits to primary storage, accessed internally by computer programs, since location-addressability is very efficient, but burdensome for humans.^ In modern computers, location-addressable storage usually limits to primary storage, accessed internally by computer programs, since location-addressability is very efficient, but burdensome for humans.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In modern computers, hard disks are usually used as secondary storage.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Memory is also known as primary memory and internal storage.
  • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

File addressable 
Information is divided into .files of variable length, and a particular file is selected with human-readable directory and file names.^ A group of related files are stored under a common name, the directory name.
  • Data Recovery Dictionary by Ibas — Data Recovery, Disk Recovery and Computer Forenics by Ibas 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ibas.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Uses traces to generate hints based on the program running and the directory and name of files accessed.
  • Annotated Bibliography: RAID: High-Performance, Reliable Secondary Storage 16 September 2009 3:15 UTC www.pdl.cmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ While the size of a record may be variable, a data file record is typically one byte (i.e., byte addressable) and a directory record is typically the size needed to store that information associated with a directory node (e.g., 1000 to 4000 bytes).
  • Self-healing computer system storage - Patent 6530036 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.The underlying device is still location-addressable, but the operating system of a computer provides the file system abstraction to make the operation more understandable.^ Computer file directory system .
  • Computer data storage physical ... - Google Patent Search 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The underlying device is still location-addressable, but the operating system of a computer provides the file system abstraction to make the operation more understandable.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When your computer is in normal operation, its memory usually contains the main parts of the operating system and some or all of the application programs and related data that are being used.
  • Memory ( Memory ICs, Memory Integrated Circuits, Computer Storage, Memory Chips, FIFO Memory, and Computer Memory) Definition 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.bitpipe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In modern computers, secondary, tertiary and off-line storage use file systems.^ Modern computers typically use read/write storage also for secondary storage.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Secondary storages can be used as input and output devices for the computer.
  • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ A file system table used by the FAT-file systems.
  • Data Recovery Dictionary by Ibas — Data Recovery, Disk Recovery and Computer Forenics by Ibas 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ibas.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Data Recovery Dictionary by Ibas — Data Recovery, Disk Recovery and Computer Forenics by Ibas 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ibas.com [Source type: Reference]

Content-addressable 
Each individually accessible unit of information is selected based on the basis of (part of) the contents stored there. Content-addressable storage can be implemented using software .(computer program) or hardware (computer device), with hardware being faster but more expensive option.^ Content-addressable storage can be implemented using software (computer program) or hardware (computer device), with hardware being faster but more expensive option.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When your computer is in normal operation, its memory usually contains the main parts of the operating system and some or all of the application programs and related data that are being used.
  • Memory ( Memory ICs, Memory Integrated Circuits, Computer Storage, Memory Chips, FIFO Memory, and Computer Memory) Definition 15 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.bitpipe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As additional memory (i.e., storage devices) is added to computer system 300 , the new memory may be managed by one or more existing IOMs, one or more additional (new) IOMs, or any combination of new and existing IOMs.
  • Self-healing computer system storage - Patent 6530036 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.Hardware content addressable memory is often used in a computer's CPU cache.^ The computer uses SRAM in its L1, L2, and L3 cache memory.
  • Introduction to Computer Storage and Memory 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.itnewb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Operating system memory management is concerned with using the memory management hardware to manage the resources of the storage hierarchy and allocating them to the various activities running on a computer.

^ To make the best use of this limited main memory cache, we propose a caching policy that prefers caching of small documents.
  • Main Memory Caching of Web Documents 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC archvlsi.ics.forth.gr [Source type: Reference]

Capacity

Raw capacity 
The total amount of stored information that a storage device or medium can hold. It is expressed as a quantity of bits or bytes (e.g. 10.4 megabytes).
Memory storage density 
The compactness of stored information. It is the storage capacity of a medium divided with a unit of length, area or volume (e.g. 1.2 megabytes per square inch).

Performance

Latency 
The time it takes to access a particular location in storage. The relevant unit of measurement is typically .nanosecond for primary storage, millisecond for secondary storage, and second for tertiary storage.^ The relevant unit of measurement is typically nanosecond for primary storage, millisecond for secondary storage, and second for tertiary storage.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When someone removes a book from the shelves and sits down at a table in the library to read it, we can say the data has been removed from secondary storage and moved to primary storage.
  • Introduction to Computer Storage and Memory 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.itnewb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If (at block 312) the requested data is not within the secondary storage 32a, 32b, then the secondary server 30a, 30b requests (at block 314) therequested data from the primary server 2 and stores the returned data in the secondary storage 32a, 32b.
  • US 7130874 - Method, system, and program for maintaining data in a distributed computing environment for processing transaction requests 16 September 2009 3:15 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Academic]

.It may make sense to separate read latency and write latency, and in case of sequential access storage, minimum, maximum and average latency.^ Selling Proposition Important selling proposition of the data storage devices include capacity of the devices to store data, data accessibility, mutability (Read/write storage or mutable storage), address ability, security and performance.
  • Data Storage Devices, Data Storage Devices Manufacturers, Data Storage Devices Suppliers, Data Storage Devices Wholesale 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.digitivity.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This accelerates writes to the distorted copy while preserving the ability to sequentially read large files.
  • Annotated Bibliography: RAID: High-Performance, Reliable Secondary Storage 16 September 2009 3:15 UTC www.pdl.cmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This matters only because a read or write of a double or long variable may be handled by an actual main memory as two 32-bit read or write actions that may be separated in time, with other actions coming between them.
  • Threads and Locks 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC java.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Throughput 
The rate at which information can be read from or written to the storage. In computer data storage, throughput is usually expressed in terms of megabytes per second or MB/s, though bit rate may also be used. .As with latency, read rate and write rate may need to be differentiated.^ As with latency, read rate and write rate may need to be differentiated.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This feature allows us to decouple the amount of write-behind buffering from the segment size, which may need to be based on other considerations such as segment-cleaning performance.
  • PersonalRAID: Mobile Storage forDistributed and Disconnected Computers1 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.usenix.org [Source type: Reference]

^ At an effective read/write rate of about 35 bytes per second (600 baud with long inter-record gaps), reading or writing a file took forever.
  • The history of computer data storage, in pictures | Royal Pingdom 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

.Also accessing media sequentially, as opposed to randomly, typically yields maximum throughput.^ Also accessing media sequentially, as opposed to randomly, typically yields maximum throughput.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It may make sense to separate read latency and write latency, and in case of sequential access storage, minimum, maximum and average latency.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

Environmental Impact

.The impact of a storage device on the environment.^ The impact of a storage device on the environment.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Storage virtualization is the consolidation of multiple network storage devices into what appears to be a single storage unit (i.e., a virtual storage pool ) and is often used in SAN environments.
  • Mid-range Computer Storage Resources Need Better Administration toEnsure Effective and Efficient Utilization and Accurate Reporting 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.treas.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Finally, to evaluate the impact of a faster mobile storage device, we replay from a local partition-based VVA (as described in Section  3.7 ) to another local partition, both of which are log-structured.
  • PersonalRAID: Mobile Storage forDistributed and Disconnected Computers1 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.usenix.org [Source type: Reference]

Energy 
.
  • Energy Star certified power adapters for storage devices reduce power consumption 30 percent on average[5]
  • Storage devices that reduce fan usage, automatically shut-down during inactivity, and low power hard drives can reduce energy consumption 90 percent.^ In addition the Prestige Desktop Hard Drive is powered by an Energy Star qualified adapter for a better environment!
    • Computer Disks and Storage 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ardan.net [Source type: General]

    ^ Energy Energy star certified power adapters for storage devices reduce power consumption 30 percent on average [ 4 ] Storage devices that reduce fan usage, automatically shut-down during inactivity, and low power hard drives can reduce energy consumption 90 percent.
    • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Seagate A popular manufacturer of hard drives and other storage devices.
    • Get Backup — Data Backup and Storage 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.belightsoft.com [Source type: General]

    .[6]
  • 2.5 inch hard disk drives often consume less power than larger ones.^ Also, memory may use more power than hard disks.
    • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The hard disk drive .
    • The history of computer data storage, in pictures | Royal Pingdom 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

    ^ A hard disk has one or more disk platters.
    • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

    [7][8] .Low capacity solid-state drives have no moving parts and consume less power than hard disks.^ Solid State Drives are optimized for speed and capacity.
    • External Drives extend Mac computer storage capacity., Western Digital Corp. 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC news.thomasnet.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Low capacity solid-state drives consume less power than DRAM , because they have no moving parts.
    • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Also, memory may use more power than hard disks.
    • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

    [9][10][11] .Also, memory may use more power than hard disks.^ Also, memory may use more power than hard disks.
    • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Used synonymous with hard disk.
    • Data Recovery Dictionary by Ibas — Data Recovery, Disk Recovery and Computer Forenics by Ibas 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ibas.com [Source type: Reference]
    • Data Recovery Dictionary by Ibas — Data Recovery, Disk Recovery and Computer Forenics by Ibas 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ibas.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ A hard disk has one or more disk platters.
    • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

    [11]
Recycling 
  • Some devices are made of recyclable materials like aluminum, bamboo, or plastics
  • Easily disassembled devices are easier to recycle if only certain parts are recyclable
  • Packaging may be recyclable and some companies print instructions on the box or use recyclable paper for the instructions instead of waxed paper
Manufacturing 
  • The amount of raw materials (metals, aluminum, plastics, lead) used to manufacture the device
  • Excess waste materials and if they are recycled
  • Chemicals used in manufacturing
  • Shipping distance for the device itself and parts
  • Amount of packaging materials and if they are recyclable

Fundamental storage technologies

.As of 2008, the most commonly used data storage technologies are semiconductor, magnetic, and optical, while paper still sees some limited usage.^ Like CDs, DVDs are optical discs used for data storage.
  • Get Backup — Data Backup and Storage 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.belightsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ While most of the newer handhelds use flash ROM, some still do not.

^ As of 2008, the most commonly used data storage technologies are semiconductor, magnetic, and optical, while paper still sees some limited usage.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Some other fundamental storage technologies have also been used in the past or are proposed for development.^ Some other fundamental storage technologies have also been used in the past or are proposed for development.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Some other examples of secondary storage technologies are: flash memory (e.g.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Fundamental storage technologies .
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

Semiconductor

.Semiconductor memory uses semiconductor-based integrated circuits to store information.^ Semiconductor memory uses semiconductor -based integrated circuits to store information.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Molecular memory stores information in polymers that can store electric charge.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Dynamic memory A form of volatile memory which also requires the stored information to be periodically re-read and re-written, or refreshed , otherwise it would vanish.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.A semiconductor memory chip may contain millions of tiny transistors or capacitors.^ A semiconductor memory chip may contain millions of tiny transistors or capacitors .
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Undoubtedly, a revolution was started with the invention of a transistor , that soon enabled then-unbelievable miniaturization of electronic memory via solid-state silicon chip technology.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ For example, a motherboard on a computer contains chips for the BIOS, CPU, memory, expansion slots, and other components; this collection of chips is the motherboard’s chipset.
  • Computer Storage - For Dummies 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.dummies.com [Source type: General]

.Both volatile and non-volatile forms of semiconductor memory exist.^ Both volatile and non-volatile forms of semiconductor memory exist.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Dynamic memory A form of volatile memory which also requires the stored information to be periodically re-read and re-written, or refreshed , otherwise it would vanish.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Phase-change memory would be non-volatile, random access read/write storage, and might be used for primary, secondary and off-line storage.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.In modern computers, primary storage almost exclusively consists of dynamic volatile semiconductor memory or dynamic random access memory.^ This led to a modern random access memory (RAM).
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Memory is also known as primary memory and internal storage.
  • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Memory in primary storage can be accessed quickly by the CPU .
  • Introduction to Computer Storage and Memory 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.itnewb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since the turn of the century, a type of non-volatile semiconductor memory known as flash memory has steadily gained share as off-line storage for home computers.^ Magnetic storage is non-volatile .
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Off-line storage .
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Memory is also known as primary memory and internal storage.
  • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Non-volatile semiconductor memory is also used for secondary storage in various advanced electronic devices and specialized computers.^ Modern computers typically use read/write storage also for secondary storage.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Secondary storages can be used as input and output devices for the computer.
  • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Magnetic storage is non-volatile .
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

Magnetic

.Magnetic storage uses different patterns of magnetization on a magnetically coated surface to store information.^ Magnetic storage uses different patterns of magnetization on a magnetically coated surface to store information.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Magneto-optical disc storage is optical disc storage where the magnetic state on a ferromagnetic surface stores information.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The Enterprise Operations function Capacity Management Branch uses Distributed Systems Management Branch-provided information to prepare high-level storage briefing reports for IRS management.
  • Mid-range Computer Storage Resources Need Better Administration toEnsure Effective and Efficient Utilization and Accurate Reporting 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.treas.gov [Source type: Reference]

.Magnetic storage is non-volatile.^ Magnetic storage is non-volatile .
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Optical disc storage is non-volatile .
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Phase-change memory would be non-volatile, random access read/write storage, and might be used for primary, secondary and off-line storage.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.The information is accessed using one or more read/write heads which may contain one or more recording transducers.^ The information is accessed using one or more read/write heads which may contain one or more recording transducers.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Used when the read/write head is unable to follow the right track.
  • Data Recovery Dictionary by Ibas — Data Recovery, Disk Recovery and Computer Forenics by Ibas 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ibas.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Data Recovery Dictionary by Ibas — Data Recovery, Disk Recovery and Computer Forenics by Ibas 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ibas.com [Source type: Reference]

^ There are two electric read/write heads for reading and writing information.
  • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.A read/write head only covers a part of the surface so that the head or medium or both must be moved relative to another in order to access data.^ However, only one read/write head can operate at any one time.
  • How Computers Work: Disks And Secondary Storage 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC homepage.cs.uri.edu [Source type: General]
  • How Computers Work: Disks And Secondary Storage 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC homepage.cs.uri.edu [Source type: General]

^ Read/write head .
  • Data Recovery Dictionary by Ibas — Data Recovery, Disk Recovery and Computer Forenics by Ibas 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ibas.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Data Recovery Dictionary by Ibas — Data Recovery, Disk Recovery and Computer Forenics by Ibas 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ibas.com [Source type: Reference]

^ See read/write head .
  • Data Recovery Dictionary by Ibas — Data Recovery, Disk Recovery and Computer Forenics by Ibas 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ibas.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Data Recovery Dictionary by Ibas — Data Recovery, Disk Recovery and Computer Forenics by Ibas 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ibas.com [Source type: Reference]

In modern computers, magnetic storage will take these forms:
.In early computers, magnetic storage was also used for primary storage in a form of magnetic drum, or core memory, core rope memory, thin-film memory, twistor memory or bubble memory.^ Selectrons were used for primary data storage, like a modern computer’s RAM. Other interesting forms of data storage include bubble memory, magnetic core memory, twistor memory, and thin film memory.
  • The history of computer data storage, in pictures | Royal Pingdom 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ It was used as random access memory in early computers.
  • The history of computer data storage, in pictures | Royal Pingdom 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ Memory is also known as primary memory and internal storage.
  • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Also unlike today, magnetic tape was often used for secondary storage.^ Also unlike today, magnetic tape was often used for secondary storage.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In enterprise uses, magnetic tape is predominant.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Tape is often used as backup media.
  • Data Recovery Dictionary by Ibas — Data Recovery, Disk Recovery and Computer Forenics by Ibas 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ibas.com [Source type: Reference]

Optical

.Optical storage, the typical Optical disc, stores information in deformities on the surface of a circular disc and reads this information by illuminating the surface with a laser diode and observing the reflection.^ Holographic storage stores information optically inside crystals or photopolymers .
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Optical storage , the typical Optical disc , stores information in deformities on the surface of a circular disc and reads this information by illuminating the surface with a laser diode and observing the reflection.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Magneto-optical disc storage is optical disc storage where the magnetic state on a ferromagnetic surface stores information.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Optical disc storage is non-volatile.^ Magnetic storage is non-volatile .
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Optical disc storage is non-volatile .
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The motivation behind developing this technology was the possibility of far greater storage capacities than either magnetic tape or optical discs.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.The deformities may be permanent (read only media ), formed once (write once media) or reversible (recordable or read/write media).^ The deformities may be permanent (read only media ), formed once (write once media) or reversible (recordable or read/write media).
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This matters only because a read or write of a double or long variable may be handled by an actual main memory as two 32-bit read or write actions that may be separated in time, with other actions coming between them.
  • Threads and Locks 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC java.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Having a read-only phase simplified the deletion implementation, because such approach lets us eliminate the impact of writes on marking blocks for removal.
  • HYDRAstor: a Scalable Secondary Storage 16 September 2009 3:15 UTC www.usenix.org [Source type: Academic]

The following forms are currently in common use:[12]
.Magneto-optical disc storage is optical disc storage where the magnetic state on a ferromagnetic surface stores information.^ Holographic storage stores information optically inside crystals or photopolymers .
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Magnetic storage uses different patterns of magnetization on a magnetically coated surface to store information.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Magneto-optical disc storage is optical disc storage where the magnetic state on a ferromagnetic surface stores information.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.The information is read optically and written by combining magnetic and optical methods.^ The information is read optically and written by combining magnetic and optical methods.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Dynamic memory A form of volatile memory which also requires the stored information to be periodically re-read and re-written, or refreshed , otherwise it would vanish.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Optical tape is a medium for optical storage generally consisting of a long and narrow strip of plastic onto which patterns can be written and from which the patterns can be read back.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Magneto-optical disc storage is non-volatile, sequential access, slow write, fast read storage used for tertiary and off-line storage.^ Modern computers typically use read/write storage also for secondary storage.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Like CDs, DVDs are optical discs used for data storage.
  • Get Backup — Data Backup and Storage 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.belightsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ Phase-change memory would be non-volatile, random access read/write storage, and might be used for primary, secondary and off-line storage.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.3D optical data storage has also been proposed.^ D optical data storage has also been proposed.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Like CDs, DVDs are optical discs used for data storage.
  • Get Backup — Data Backup and Storage 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.belightsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ As of 2008, the most commonly used data storage technologies are semiconductor, magnetic, and optical, while paper still sees some limited usage.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

Paper

.Paper data storage, typically in the form of paper tape or punched cards, has long been used to store information for automatic processing, particularly before general-purpose computers existed.^ Modern computers typically use read/write storage also for secondary storage.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Paper data storage , typically in the form of paper tape or punch cards , has long been used to store information for automatic processing, particularly before general-purpose computers existed.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It should be noted that the use of punch cards predates computers.
  • The history of computer data storage, in pictures | Royal Pingdom 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

.Information was recorded by punching holes into the paper or cardboard medium and was read mechanically (or later optically) to determine whether a particular location on the medium was solid or contained a hole.^ Information was recorded by punching holes into the paper or cardboard medium and was read mechanically (or later optically) to determine whether a particular location on the medium was solid or contained a hole.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Optical tape is a medium for optical storage generally consisting of a long and narrow strip of plastic onto which patterns can be written and from which the patterns can be read back.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The information is accessed using one or more read/write heads which may contain one or more recording transducers.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.A few technologies allow people to make marks on paper that are easily read by machine—these are widely used for tabulating votes and grading standardized tests.^ A few technologies allow people to make marks on paper that are easily read by machine -- these are widely used for tabulating votes and grading standardized tests.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A detailed discussion of the impact of these factors on read performance is beyond the scope of this paper.
  • HYDRAstor: a Scalable Secondary Storage 16 September 2009 3:15 UTC www.usenix.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hurricane on July 31, 2009 2:54 PM The reason you don't use paper is because the acid in the paper makes everything disappear (relatively) quickly.
  • Coding Horror: The Paper Data Storage Option 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.codinghorror.com [Source type: General]

.Barcodes made it possible for any object that was to be sold or transported to have some computer readable information securely attached to it.^ The transaction object may comprise a record in adatabase table providing information on a client transaction prior to finalization or some data structure maintaining information on a client initiated transaction.
  • US 7130874 - Method, system, and program for maintaining data in a distributed computing environment for processing transaction requests 16 September 2009 3:15 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Typically, some or all of an organization's computers may be interconnected to form a network whereby two or more computer systems are interconnected so that they are capable of exchanging information.
  • Self-healing computer system storage - Patent 6530036 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The transaction object may comprise a record in a database table providing information on a client transaction prior to finalization or some data structure maintaining information on a client initiated transaction.
  • SYSTEM AND ARTICLE OF MANFUACTURE FOR MAINTAINING DATA IN A DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING ENVIRONMENT FOR PROCESSING TRANSACTION REQUESTS - Patent 16 September 2009 3:15 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

Uncommon

Vacuum tube memory 
A .Williams tube used a cathode ray tube, and a Selectron tube used a large vacuum tube to store information.^ Vacuum tube memory A Williams tube used a cathode ray tube , and a Selectron tube used a large vacuum tube to store information.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This is primarily useful for extraordinarily large data stores, accessed without human operators.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Element use to create and access the information stored magnetically on the platters/tape.
  • Data Recovery Dictionary by Ibas — Data Recovery, Disk Recovery and Computer Forenics by Ibas 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ibas.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Data Recovery Dictionary by Ibas — Data Recovery, Disk Recovery and Computer Forenics by Ibas 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ibas.com [Source type: Reference]

.These primary storage devices were short-lived in the market, since Williams tube was unreliable and Selectron tube was expensive.^ These primary storage devices were short-lived in the market, since Williams tube was unreliable and Selectron tube was expensive.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ One consequence of these dramatic technological advances is the emergence of highly compact secondary storage, which can be seamlessly integrated into devices of all shapes and forms.
  • PersonalRAID: Mobile Storage forDistributed and Disconnected Computers1 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.usenix.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In modern computers, location-addressable storage usually limits to primary storage, accessed internally by computer programs, since location-addressability is very efficient, but burdensome for humans.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

Electro-acoustic memory 
.Delay line memory used sound waves in a substance such as mercury to store information.^ Semiconductor memory uses semiconductor -based integrated circuits to store information.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Electro-acoustic memory Delay line memory used sound waves in a substance such as mercury to store information.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Molecular memory stores information in polymers that can store electric charge.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Delay line memory was dynamic volatile, cycle sequential read/write storage, and was used for primary storage.^ Modern computers typically use read/write storage also for secondary storage.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Phase-change memory would be non-volatile, random access read/write storage, and might be used for primary, secondary and off-line storage.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Since primary storage is required to be very fast, it predominantly uses volatile memory.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

Optical tape 
is a medium for optical storage generally consisting of a long and narrow strip of plastic onto which patterns can be written and from which the patterns can be read back. It shares some technologies with cinema film stock and optical discs, but is compatible with neither. The motivation behind developing this technology was the possibility of far greater storage capacities than either magnetic tape or optical discs.
Phase-change memory 
uses different mechanical phases of .Phase Change Material to store information in an X-Y addressable matrix, and reads the information by observing the varying electrical resistance of the material.^ Phase-change memory uses different mechanical phases of phase change material to store information in an X-Y addressable matrix, and reads the information by observing the varying electric resistance of the material.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Molecular memory stores information in polymers that can store electric charge.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Dynamic memory A form of volatile memory which also requires the stored information to be periodically re-read and re-written, or refreshed , otherwise it would vanish.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Phase-change memory would be non-volatile, random access read/write storage, and might be used for primary, secondary and off-line storage.^ Modern computers typically use read/write storage also for secondary storage.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Phase-change memory would be non-volatile, random access read/write storage, and might be used for primary, secondary and off-line storage.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Magnetic storage is non-volatile .
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Most rewritable and many write once optical disks already use phase change material to store information.^ Most rewritable and many write once optical disks already use phase change material to store information.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Typical computer digital data storage devices include computer hard drives, optical disk drives, solid state memory devices, tape drives, computers, or any other device which can actively read and write digital data with the intent of storing and retrieving computerized digital data.
  • Fire resistant and/or water resistant enclosure for operable computer digital data storage device - Patent application 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The time taken to access a given byte of information stored on a hard disk is typically a few thousandths of a second, or milliseconds.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

Holographic data storage 
stores information optically inside crystals or photopolymers. .Holographic storage can utilize the whole volume of the storage medium, unlike optical disc storage which is limited to a small number of surface layers.^ Holographic storage can utilize the whole volume of the storage medium, unlike optical disc storage which is limited to a small number of surface layers.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Optical disc storage is non-volatile .
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The breakthrough, GE says , is based on holographic storage technology that uses the entire volume of the disc material, rather than only its surface, as today's optical storage formats like DVDs and Blu-ray discs do.
  • Consumer Reports Electronics Blog: Computer Storage/Hard Drives 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC blogs.consumerreports.org [Source type: General]

.Holographic storage would be non-volatile, sequential access, and either write once or read/write storage.^ This accelerates writes to the distorted copy while preserving the ability to sequentially read large files.
  • Annotated Bibliography: RAID: High-Performance, Reliable Secondary Storage 16 September 2009 3:15 UTC www.pdl.cmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Clients 302 and 304 generate/initiate memory access transactions such as object create, object read, object write, and object delete operations.
  • Self-healing computer system storage - Patent 6530036 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The mode consists of five attributes , named TRAP, READ, EXECUTE, WRITE and APPEND, each of which is either ON or OFF. In performing access control, the TRAP attribute is examined first.
  • A General-Purpose File System For Secondary Storage 16 September 2009 3:15 UTC www.multicians.org [Source type: Reference]

.It might be used for secondary and off-line storage.^ Secondary storages can be used as input and output devices for the computer.
  • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ During on-line interaction, user owned off-line detachable storage media such as cards and tape become highly undesirable.
  • A General-Purpose File System For Secondary Storage 16 September 2009 3:15 UTC www.multicians.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Furthermore, during ordinary operation in the absence of fire, PC board temporarily shuts off power to data storage device 1410 whenever it is not in use.
  • Fire resistant and/or water resistant enclosure for operable computer digital data storage device - Patent application 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.See Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD).^ See Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD).
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

Molecular memory 
stores information in polymers that can store electric charge. .Molecular memory might be especially suited for primary storage.^ Memory is also known as primary memory and internal storage.
  • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Molecular memory might be especially suited for primary storage.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Phase-change memory would be non-volatile, random access read/write storage, and might be used for primary, secondary and off-line storage.
  • Computer storage (Linux Reviews) 16 September 2009 11:47 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.The theoretical storage capacity of molecular memory is 10 terabits per square inch.^ CD ROM: Compact Disk Read-Only Memory (CD-ROM) is a high-capacity, read-only storage system.
  • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The DiamondMax 10 is also Maxtor's first hard drive with 100GB of storage per platter (80GB per platter defined previous generations).

[13]

Related technologies

Network connectivity

.A secondary or tertiary storage may connect to a computer utilizing computer networks.^ Secondary storages can be used as input and output devices for the computer.
  • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ I/O Devices and Secondary Storage: Input/Output (I/O) devices provide opportunity for the user to access and to utilize the computer's resources and operational power.
  • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ As additional memory (i.e., storage devices) is added to computer system 300 , the new memory may be managed by one or more existing IOMs, one or more additional (new) IOMs, or any combination of new and existing IOMs.
  • Self-healing computer system storage - Patent 6530036 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.This concept does not pertain to the primary storage, which is shared between multiple processors in a much lesser degree.^ The ability to distribute objects across multiple processors, in turn, may contribute significantly to the expandability of a distributed storage system in accordance with the invention.
  • Self-healing computer system storage - Patent 6530036 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In further implementations, the primary site may comprise multiple primary servers and primary storages.
  • US 7130874 - Method, system, and program for maintaining data in a distributed computing environment for processing transaction requests 16 September 2009 3:15 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Academic]

.
  • Direct-attached storage (DAS) is a traditional mass storage, that does not use any network.^ Note: Don't bother looking for the bandwidth used by a Mass Storage device like a flash drive.
    • 10 things you should know about USB 2.0 and 3.0 : TechGuides : Enterprise Servers & Storage : ZDNet Asia 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.zdnetasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In this example, I have attached a flash drive and it is displayed as a USB Mass Storage Device.
    • 10 things you should know about USB 2.0 and 3.0 : TechGuides : Enterprise Servers & Storage : ZDNet Asia 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.zdnetasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Enterprise Architecture prohibits application and data file storage on direct attached storage and allows, during a transition period, operating system software storage on direct attached storage.
    • Mid-range Computer Storage Resources Need Better Administration toEnsure Effective and Efficient Utilization and Accurate Reporting 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.treas.gov [Source type: Reference]

    This is still a most popular approach. .This term was coined lately, together with NAS and SAN.
  • Network-attached storage (NAS) is mass storage attached to a computer which another computer can access at file level over a local area network, a private wide area network, or in the case of online file storage, over the Internet.^ Storage area network .
    • Computer Storage Equipment Information | ZoomInfo 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.zoominfo.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ SAN and NAS storage technologies and...
    • Data Storage Jobs | Indeed.com 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.indeed.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Heavy Storage Area Networking (SAN and NAS) experience required Storage , SAN Admin...
    • Data Storage Jobs | Indeed.com 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.indeed.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .NAS is commonly associated with the NFS and CIFS/SMB protocols.
  • Storage area network (SAN) is a specialized network, that provides other computers with storage capacity.^ Storage area network .
    • Computer Storage Equipment Information | ZoomInfo 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.zoominfo.com [Source type: Reference]
    • Computer Storage Manufacturers & Suppliers | Global Sources 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.globalsources.com [Source type: General]

    ^ SAN and NAS storage technologies and...
    • Data Storage Jobs | Indeed.com 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.indeed.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Heavy Storage Area Networking (SAN and NAS) experience required Storage , SAN Admin...
    • Data Storage Jobs | Indeed.com 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.indeed.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The crucial difference between NAS and SAN is the former presents and manages file systems to client computers, whilst the latter provides access at block-addressing (raw) level, leaving it to attaching systems to manage data or file systems within the provided capacity.^ The first block of an UNIX-file system.
    • Data Recovery Dictionary by Ibas — Data Recovery, Disk Recovery and Computer Forenics by Ibas 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ibas.com [Source type: Reference]
    • Data Recovery Dictionary by Ibas — Data Recovery, Disk Recovery and Computer Forenics by Ibas 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ibas.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ At the level of the file system, a file is formatless.
    • A General-Purpose File System For Secondary Storage 16 September 2009 3:15 UTC www.multicians.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ (DR) Finding a system to isolate files from raw data.
    • Data Recovery Dictionary by Ibas — Data Recovery, Disk Recovery and Computer Forenics by Ibas 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ibas.com [Source type: Reference]
    • Data Recovery Dictionary by Ibas — Data Recovery, Disk Recovery and Computer Forenics by Ibas 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ibas.com [Source type: Reference]

    SAN is commonly associated with Fibre Channel networks.

Robotic storage

.Large quantities of individual magnetic tapes, and optical or magneto-optical discs may be stored in robotic tertiary storage devices.^ The tape has a magnetic surface where data may be stored.
  • Data Recovery Dictionary by Ibas — Data Recovery, Disk Recovery and Computer Forenics by Ibas 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ibas.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Data Recovery Dictionary by Ibas — Data Recovery, Disk Recovery and Computer Forenics by Ibas 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ibas.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Optical storage device for storing data and sound.
  • Data Recovery Dictionary by Ibas — Data Recovery, Disk Recovery and Computer Forenics by Ibas 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ibas.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Data Recovery Dictionary by Ibas — Data Recovery, Disk Recovery and Computer Forenics by Ibas 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.ibas.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Typical computer digital data storage devices include computer hard drives, optical disk drives, solid state memory devices, tape drives, computers, or any other device which can actively read and write digital data with the intent of storing and retrieving computerized digital data.
  • Fire resistant and/or water resistant enclosure for operable computer digital data storage device - Patent application 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.In tape storage field they are known as tape libraries, and in optical storage field optical jukeboxes, or optical disk libraries per analogy.^ Typical computer digital data storage devices include computer hard drives, optical disk drives, solid state memory devices, tape drives, computers, or any other device which can actively read and write digital data with the intent of storing and retrieving computerized digital data.
  • Fire resistant and/or water resistant enclosure for operable computer digital data storage device - Patent application 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ FIELD OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to the field of data processing systems and, in particular, to the formatting of disk type mass storage facilities in such systems.
  • US Patent 4434487 - Disk format for secondary storage system 16 September 2009 3:15 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Devices which are removable from the storage complex, such as tapes, data cells and disk packs which are used by the file system as an extension of the on-line facilities, are called the file backup storage system .
  • A General-Purpose File System For Secondary Storage 16 September 2009 3:15 UTC www.multicians.org [Source type: Reference]

.Smallest forms of either technology containing just one drive device are referred to as autoloaders or autochangers.^ One consequence of these dramatic technological advances is the emergence of highly compact secondary storage, which can be seamlessly integrated into devices of all shapes and forms.
  • PersonalRAID: Mobile Storage forDistributed and Disconnected Computers1 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.usenix.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In the description below, reference is occasionally made simply to a hard drive as an example of a computer data storage device.
  • Fire resistant and/or water resistant enclosure for operable computer digital data storage device - Patent application 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Each SCC can contain one or more chain-adjacent synchrun components, and as a result, SCCs form also chains similar to synchrun component chains.
  • HYDRAstor: a Scalable Secondary Storage 16 September 2009 3:15 UTC www.usenix.org [Source type: Academic]

.Robotic-access storage devices may have a number of slots, each holding individual media, and usually one or more picking robots that traverse the slots and load media to built-in drives.^ The word main is used to distinguish it from external mass storage devices such as disk drives .

^ Mass storage devices , such as disk drives and tapes, are sometimes called secondary storage.

^ Note: Don't bother looking for the bandwidth used by a Mass Storage device like a flash drive.
  • 10 things you should know about USB 2.0 and 3.0 : TechGuides : Enterprise Servers & Storage : ZDNet Asia 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.zdnetasia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The arrangement of the slots and picking devices affects performance. .Important characteristics of such storage are possible expansion options: adding slots, modules, drives, robots.^ Such a storage scheme is certainly worthy of dream machine status, but our storage options weren't always as fanciful, fast, and fat as they are today.
  • Computer Data Storage Through the Ages -- From Punch Cards to Blu-Ray | Maximum PC 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.maximumpc.com [Source type: General]

^ We identify three important desirable features of such a mobile storage solution.
  • PersonalRAID: Mobile Storage forDistributed and Disconnected Computers1 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.usenix.org [Source type: Reference]

^ BACKGROUND AND SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Secondary storage subsystems, such as disk drives, are an important part of modern data processing systems.
  • US Patent 4434487 - Disk format for secondary storage system 16 September 2009 3:15 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Reference]

.Tape libraries may have from 10 to more than 100,000 slots, and provide terabytes or petabytes of near-line information.^ In alternative implementations, the update frequency may comprise one or more threshold triggersother than a time interval.
  • US 7130874 - Method, system, and program for maintaining data in a distributed computing environment for processing transaction requests 16 September 2009 3:15 UTC www.patents.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A single reel of the oxide coated half-inch tape could store as much information as 10,000 punch cards, and most commonly came in lengths measuring anywhere from 2400 to 4800 feet.
  • Computer Data Storage Through the Ages -- From Punch Cards to Blu-Ray | Maximum PC 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.maximumpc.com [Source type: General]

^ More than one user may have the same working directory at one time.
  • A General-Purpose File System For Secondary Storage 16 September 2009 3:15 UTC www.multicians.org [Source type: Reference]

Optical jukeboxes are somewhat smaller solutions, up to 1,000 slots.
.Robotic storage is used for backups, and for high-capacity archives in imaging, medical, and video industries.^ There are two types of DVD: DVD-ROM and DVD-VIDEO. A DVD-ROM is a storage device that is used with a computer system, while a DVD-VIDEO is used for digital movies.
  • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The Industry - Average for the storage in use as a percentage of capacity assigned metric is 81.8 percent, and the Industry - Best Practice is 93.7 percent.
  • Improvements in Mainframe Computer Storage Management Practices andReporting Are Needed to Promote Effective and Efficient Utilization of DiskResources 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.treas.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ It is cheap and reliable storage for backup, reducing paper use.
  • Main Memory 11 September 2009 7:58 UTC www.bsu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Hierarchical storage management is a most known archiving strategy of automatically migrating long-unused files from fast hard disk storage to libraries or jukeboxes.^ The storage administrators manage the disk storage by the number of cycles kept on disk for each file.
  • Improvements in Mainframe Computer Storage Management Practices andReporting Are Needed to Promote Effective and Efficient Utilization of DiskResources 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.treas.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ The storage management module insures that an adequate amount of secondary storage is available to the basic file system at all times.
  • A General-Purpose File System For Secondary Storage 16 September 2009 3:15 UTC www.multicians.org [Source type: Reference]

^ For purposes of the disk storage reports, in use means the assigned maximum database and file sizes.
  • Improvements in Mainframe Computer Storage Management Practices andReporting Are Needed to Promote Effective and Efficient Utilization of DiskResources 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.treas.gov [Source type: Reference]

.If the files are needed, they are retrieved back to disk.^ This implies that small files, which occupy at least one disk block, in the future will probably occupy significantly more space than needed.
  • Secondary Storage Management for Web Proxies 16 September 2009 3:15 UTC archvlsi.ics.forth.gr [Source type: Reference]

^ This allows these files to be reloaded as needed by the retrieval mechanism which is discussed later in this paper.
  • A General-Purpose File System For Secondary Storage 16 September 2009 3:15 UTC www.multicians.org [Source type: Reference]

^ How often have you actually *needed* to retrieve anything that you have backed up?
  • Coding Horror: The Paper Data Storage Option 10 February 2010 13:39 UTC www.codinghorror.com [Source type: General]

See also

Primary storage topics

Secondary, tertiary and off-line storage topics

Data storage conferences

References

. This article incorporates public domain material from the General Services Administration document "Federal Standard 1037C".^ This report has cleared the Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration disclosure review process and information determined to be restricted from public release has been redacted from this document.
  • Mid-range Computer Storage Resources Need Better Administration toEnsure Effective and Efficient Utilization and Accurate Reporting 30 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.treas.gov [Source type: Reference]


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