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Conch (pronounced /ˈkɒŋk/ conk),[1] is a slang term for native Bahamians of European descent.

Several theories have been proposed for the origin of the term:

  • After the American Revolution, many loyalists migrated to the Bahamas. Being more affluent and educated than the earlier settlers, the loyalists came to look down on the early settlers, and called them conchs because shellfish was a prominent part of their diet.
  • The Bahamians told the British authorities that they would eat conch before paying taxes levied by the Crown.
  • The adventurers from St. Augustine, Florida (then part of British East Florida) who recaptured Nassau from the Spanish in 1782 hoisted a flag with a shell rampant on a field of canvas.[2]

Contents

Use in Florida

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Florida Keys

Old photo depicting Conchs in Key West, circa 1900

By extension, the term "Conch" has also been applied to the descendants of Bahamian immigrants in Florida. Bahamians began visiting the Florida Keys in the Eighteenth Century to catch turtles, cut timber and salvage wrecks. During the Nineteenth Century and the first half of the Twentieth Century most of the permanent residents in the Florida Keys outside of Key West, and many in Key West, were Bahamian in origin.

The white Bahamians in the keys continued to be known as "conchs". Other residents of the Florida Keys, especially in Key West, began applying the term "Conch" to themselves, and it is now applied generally to all residents of Key West. See: Conch Republic.[3] To distinguish between natives and non-natives, the terms "Salt Water Conch" (native) and "Fresh Water Conch" (non-native) have been used.[1]

Elsewhere in Florida

Riviera Beach, Florida was known as "Conchtown" in the first half of the Twentieth Century because of the number of Bahamian immigrants who settled there. Unlike the situation in Key West and the rest of the Florida Keys, where being Conch became a matter of pride and community identification, Conch was used by outsiders (in particular the residents of West Palm Beach) in a pejorative manner to describe the Bahamian community in Riviera Beach. The usage there also carried the connotation that at least some of the Conchs were of mixed racial heritage. As a result, some of the Bahamians in Riviera Beach denied being Conchs when interviewed by the WPA's Florida Writers Project in the late 1930s.[2] WPA worker Veronica Huss (with assistance from Stetson Kennedy) and photographer Charles Foster wrote a book on the Conchs and their culture entitled "Conch Town," but the WPA chose not to publish (Foster eventually published a version of it in 1991). Also, many white Bahamian immigrants settled in the Coconut Grove area of Miami, Florida.

Other uses

The term "Conchy Joe" is also sometimes used (derogatorily) to refer to a native Bahamian of European descent or a person of non-European or mixed descent who acts white.[4]

References

  1. ^ a b Speaking the Conch Lingo in Key West URL retrieved June 13, 2007
  2. ^ a b Foster, Charles C. 1991. Conchtown USA, with Folk songs & tales collected by Veonica Huss. Boca Raton, Florida: Florida Atlantic University Press. ISBN 0-8130-1042-X
  3. ^ Viele, John. 1996. The Florida Keys: a History of the Pioneers. Sarasota, Florida: Pineapple Press, Inc. ISBN 1-56164-101-4
  4. ^ Bahamian expressions URL retrieved April 5, 2006

External links


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