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Concord, New Hampshire
—  City  —

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Location in Merrimack County, New Hampshire
Coordinates: 43°12′24″N 71°32′17″W / 43.20667°N 71.53806°W / 43.20667; -71.53806Coordinates: 43°12′24″N 71°32′17″W / 43.20667°N 71.53806°W / 43.20667; -71.53806
Country United States
State New Hampshire
County Merrimack
Incorporated 1733
Government
 - Mayor Jim Bouley
 - City Manager Thomas J. Aspell, Jr.
 - Legislative body City Council
Area
 - Total 67.5 sq mi (174.9 km2)
 - Land 64.3 sq mi (166.5 km2)
 - Water 3.2 sq mi (8.4 km2)  4.78%
Elevation 288 ft (88 m)
Population (2008[1])
 - Total 42,255
 Density 657.2/sq mi (253.8/km2)
Time zone Eastern (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) Eastern (UTC-4)
Area code(s) 603
FIPS code 33-14200
GNIS feature ID 0873303
Website www.concordnh.gov

The city of Concord (pronounced /ˈkɒnkərd/, often mispronounced as "concorde") is the capital of the state of New Hampshire in the United States. It is also the county seat of Merrimack County. As of the 2000 census, its population was 40,765, with an estimated 2008 population of 42,255.[2]

Concord includes the villages of Penacook, East Concord and West Concord. The city is home to the Franklin Pierce Law Center, New Hampshire's only law school; St. Paul's School, a private preparatory school; New Hampshire Technical Institute, a two-year community college; and the Granite State Symphony Orchestra.

Contents

History

Downtown in 2005

The land was originally settled thousands of years ago by Abenaki Native Americans called the Pennacook.[3] The tribe fished for migrating salmon, sturgeon and alewives with nets strung across the rapids of the Merrimack River. The stream was also the transportation route for their birch bark canoes, which could travel from Lake Winnipesaukee to the Atlantic Ocean. The broad sweep of the Merrimack River valley floodplain provided good soil for farming beans, gourds, pumpkins, melons and maize.

On January 17, 1725, the Province of Massachusetts Bay, which then held jurisdiction over New Hampshire, granted it as the Plantation of Penacook.[4] It was settled between 1725 and 1727 by Captain Ebenezer Eastman and others from Haverhill, Massachusetts. On February 9, 1734, the town was incorporated as Rumford,[5] from which Sir Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford would take his title. It was renamed Concord in 1765 by Governor Benning Wentworth following a bitter boundary dispute between Rumford and the town of Bow; the city name was meant to reflect the new concord, or harmony, between the disputant towns.[6] Citizens displaced by the resulting border adjustment were given land elsewhere as compensation. In 1779, New Pennacook Plantation was granted to Timothy Walker, Jr. and his associates at what would be incorporated in 1800 as Rumford, Maine, the site of Pennacook Falls.

Concord grew in prominence throughout the 18th century, and some of its earliest houses survive at the northern end of Main Street. In the years following the Revolution, Concord's central geographical location made it a logical choice for the state capital, particularly after Samuel Blodget in 1807 opened a canal and lock system to allow vessels passage around the Amoskeag Falls downriver, connecting Concord with Boston by way of the Middlesex Canal. In 1808, Concord was named the official seat of state government,[7] its 1819 State House the oldest capitol in which legislative branches meet in their original chambers. The city would become noted for furniture-making and granite quarrying. In 1828, Lewis Downing joined J. Stephens Abbot to form Abbot-Downing Coaches.[8] Their most famous coach was the Concord Coach, modeled after the coronation coach of King George III. In the 19th century, Concord became a hub for the railroad industry, with Penacook a textile manufacturing center using water power from the Contoocook River. Today, the city is a center for health care and several insurance companies. It is also home to Concord Litho, one of the largest independently owned commercial printing companies in the country.

Geography and climate

Aerial view of downtown Concord (looking east)

Concord is located at 43°12′24″N 71°32′17″W / 43.20667°N 71.53806°W / 43.20667; -71.53806 (43.2070, -71.5371).[9]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 67.5 square miles (175 km2). 64.3 sq mi (167 km2) of it is land and 3.2 sq mi (8.3 km2) of it is water, comprising 4.78% of the city. Concord is drained by the Merrimack River. Penacook Lake is in the west. The highest point in Concord is 860 feet (260 m) above sea level on Oak Hill, just west of the hill's 970-foot (300 m) summit in neighboring Loudon.

Concord lies fully within the Merrimack River watershed[10], and is centered on the river, which runs from northwest to southeast through the city. Downtown is located on a low terrace to the west of the river, with residential neighborhoods climbing hills to the west and extending southwards towards the town of Bow. To the east of the Merrimack, atop a 100-foot (30 m) bluff, is a flat, sandy plain known as Concord Heights, which has seen most of the city's commercial development since 1960. The eastern boundary of Concord (with the town of Pembroke) is formed by the Soucook River, a tributary of the Merrimack. The Turkey River winds through the southwestern quarter of the city, passing through the campus of St. Paul's School before entering the Merrimack River in Bow. In the northern part of the city, the Contoocook River enters the Merrimack at the village of Penacook. Other village centers in the city include West Concord (actually north of downtown, on the west side of the Merrimack) and East Concord (also north of downtown, but on the east side of the Merrimack).

The city's neighboring communities are Bow to the south, Pembroke to the southeast, Loudon to the northeast, Canterbury, Boscawen, and Webster to the north, and Hopkinton to the west.

Interstate 89 and Interstate 93 are the two main Interstate highways serving Concord, and join just south of the city limits. Interstate 89 links Concord with Lebanon and the state of Vermont to the northwest, while Interstate 93 connects the city to Plymouth, Littleton, and the White Mountains to the north and Manchester to the south. Interstate 393 is a spur highway leading east from Concord and merging with U.S. Route 4 as a direct route to New Hampshire's seacoast. North-south U.S. Route 3 serves as Concord's Main Street, while U.S. Route 202 and New Hampshire Route 9 cross the city from east to west.

Monthly Normal and Record High and Low Temperatures
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Rec High °F (°C) 68 (20) 67 (19.4) 89 (31.6) 95 (35) 97 (36.1) 98 (36.6) 102 (38.8) 101 (38.3) 98 (36.6) 90 (32.2) 80 (26.6) 73 (22.7)
Norm High °F (°C) 30.6 (-0.7) 34.1 (1.2) 43.8 (6.5) 56.9 (13.8) 69.6 (20.8) 77.9 (25.5) 82.9 (28.3) 80.8 (27.1) 72.1 (22.3) 60.5 (15.8) 47.6 (8.6) 35.6 (2)
Norm Low °F (°C) 9.7 (-12.4) 12.6 (-10.7) 22.7 (-5.2) 32.2 (0.1) 42.4 (5.7) 51.8 (11) 57.1 (13.9) 55.6 (13.1) 46.6 (8.1) 35.1 (1.7) 27.6 (-2.4) 16.2 (-8.7)
Rec Low °F (°C) -33 (-36.1) -37 (-38.3) -16 (-26.6) 8 (-13.3) 21 (-6.1) 30 (-1.1) 35 (1.6) 29 (-1.6) 21 (-6.1) 10 (-12.2) -5 (-20.5) -22 (-30)
Precip in (mm) 2.97 (75.4) 2.36 (59.9) 3.04 (77.2) 3.07 (78.0) 3.33 (84.6) 3.1 (78.7) 3.37 (85.6) 3.21 (81.5) 3.16 (80.3) 3.46 (87.9) 3.57 (90.7) 2.96 (75.2)
Source: USTravelWeather.com [1]

Demographics

Old Post Office in 1910

As of the census[11] of 2000 , there were 40,687 people, 16,281 households, and 9,622 families residing in the city. The population density was 632.9 people per square mile (244.4/km²). There were 16,881 housing units at an average density of 262.6/sq mi (101.4/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 95.52% White, 1.03% Black or African American, 0.29% Native American, 1.47% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.34% from other races, and 1.31% from two or more races. 1.45% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 16,281 households out of which 30.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.3% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.9% were non-families. 32.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.95.

Old Library c. 1915

In the city the population was spread out with 23.1% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 33.0% from 25 to 44, 22.0% from 45 to 64, and 13.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 98.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.0 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $42,447, and the median income for a family was $52,418. Males had a median income of $35,504 versus $27,348 for females. The per capita income for the city was $21,976. About 6.2% of families and 8.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.3% of those under age 18 and 5.4% of those age 65 or over.

Government

Concord is governed via the mayor-council system. The city council consists of fourteen members, ten of which are elected from single-member wards, while the other four are elected at large. The mayor is elected directly every two years.

Media

The Concord area is served by the daily newspaper The Concord Monitor and its weekly publication The Concord Insider as well as the weekly alternative The Hippo. Other newspapers with circulation in Concord include The Union Leader and the Boston Globe, among others.

Concord is home to one AM radio station, WKXL, and several FM radio stations, WCNH-LP, WEVO, WJYY, WMLL, and WWHK.

The Ion Television-affiliated WPXG-TV broadcasts from Concord on UHF channel 21.

New Hampshire Public Radio is headquartered in Concord.

Concord TV is the city's public-access station, operating Education Channel 6, Government Channel 17, and Public Channel 22.

Sites of interest

Capitol sign in 2005

Concord has many landmarks and other tourist attractions in it. Probably the largest is the New Hampshire State House, which was designed by architect Stuart Park and constructed between 1815 and 1818, is the oldest state house in which the legislature meets in its original chambers. The building was remodeled in 1866, and the third story and west wing were added in 1910.

Located directly across from the State House is the Eagle Hotel, which has been downtown landmark for nearly 150 years. Presidents Ulysses S. Grant, Rutherford Hayes, and Benjamin Harrison all dined here, and Franklin Pierce spent the night here before departing for his inauguration. Other well-known guests included Jefferson Davis, Charles Lindbergh, Eleanor Roosevelt, Richard Nixon, and Thomas Dewey. The hotel closed its doors in 1961 .

South from there on Main Street is Phenix Hall, which is a building that replaced "Old" Phenix Hall (which burned in 1893). Both the old and new buildings featured multi-purpose auditoriums used for political speeches, theater productions, and fairs. Abraham Lincoln spoke at the old hall in 1860; Theodore Roosevelt spoke at the new hall in 1912.

Walker-Woodman House, built in 1733-1735, as it appeared c. 1908

North from there on Main Street is the Walker-Woodman House, which is the oldest standing house in Concord. It was built for the Rev. Timothy Walker on North Main Street between 1733 and 1735.

North from there on the north end of Main Street is the Pierce Manse, which is where President Franklin Pierce lived in Concord before and following his presidency. The mid-1830s Greek Revival house was moved from Montgomery Street to North Main Street in 1971 to prevent its demolition.

Beaver Meadow Golf Course, located in the northern part of Concord, is the oldest golf course in the state of New Hampshire. The 18 hole public course has been around for over 100 years and contains a pro shop, driving range, putting green and banquet hall.

Other sites of interest include the New Hampshire Historical Society, which has two facilities in Concord, and the Christa McAuliffe Planetarium, which was named after the Concord teacher who died during the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster in 1986.

Education

Concord has many different schools. Most of its public schools are run by the Concord School District, except for Merrimack Valley High School, which covers the Penacook area and several towns north of Concord. The only public high school in the Concord School District is Concord High School, which has about 2000 students. The only public middle school in the Concord School District is Rundlett Middle School, which has about 1500 students. Concord School District has many different elementary schools, the largest of which is Broken Ground Elementary School. Broken Ground serves grades three to five. Students heading into Broken Ground come from either Eastman Elementary School or Dame Elementary School. Other public elementary schools in the Concord School District include Kimball School, Walker School, Beaver Meadow Elementary School and Conant Elementary School.

Concord has two parochial schools, Bishop Brady High School and Saint John Regional School.

Other area schools include Concord Christian Academy, Parker Academy, Trinity Christian School, Shaker Road School, and St. Paul's School.

Concord is also home to Franklin Pierce Law Center, New Hampshire Technical Institute, and a branch of Hesser College.

Notable inhabitants

References

  1. ^ "City-Data: Concord, NH". http://www.city-data.com/city/Concord-New-Hampshire.html. 
  2. ^ "City-Data: Concord, NH". http://www.city-data.com/city/Concord-New-Hampshire.html. 
  3. ^ Lyford, James; Amos Hadley, Howard F. Hill, Benjamin A. Kimball, Lyman D. Stevens, and John M. Mitchell (1903) (PDF). History of Concord, N.H.. Concord, N.H.: The Rumford Press. pp. 65. http://www.onconcord.com/books/lyford/lyford_vol1/LyfordV1chapt1.pdf. 
  4. ^ Lyford et al., p. 107
  5. ^ Lyford et al., p. 147
  6. ^ Moore, Jacob (1824). Annals of the Town of Concord. Concord, N.H.: Jacob B. Moore. pp. 31–34. 
  7. ^ Lyford et al., p. 324–326
  8. ^ Lyford et al., p. 339–340
  9. ^ "Topo Map: Concord, New Hampshire, United States 01 July 1985". The National Map. U.S. Geological Survey. http://msrmaps.com/map.aspx?t=2&s=12&lon=-71.538056&lat=43.206667&w=600&h=400. Retrieved 2008-06-09. 
  10. ^ Foster, Debra H.; Batorfalvy, Tatianna N.; and Medalie, Laura (1995). Water Use in New Hampshire: An Activities Guide for Teachers. U.S. Department of the Interior and U.S. Geological Survey. http://nh.water.usgs.gov/Publications/nh.intro.html. 
  11. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 

External links

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

CONCORD, the capital of New Hampshire, U.S.A., and the county-seat of Merrimack county, on both sides of the Merrimac river, about 75 m. N.W. of Boston, Massachusetts. Pop. (1890) 17,004; (1900) 19,632, of whom 3813 were foreign-born; (estimated, 1906) 21,210. Concord is served by the Boston & Maine railway. The area of the city in 1906 was 45.16 sq. m. Concord has broad streets bordered with shade trees; and has several parks, including Penacook, White, Rollins and the Contoocook river. Among the principal buildings are the state capitol, the state library, the city hall, the county court-house, the post-office, the Fowler public library, the state hospital, the state prison, the Centennial home for the aged, the Margaret Pillsbury memorial hospital, the Rolfe and Rumford asylum for orphan girls, founded by the countess Rumford, and several fine churches, including the Christian Science church built by Mrs Eddy. There are a soldiers' memorial arch, a statue of Daniel Webster by Thomas Ball, and statues of John P. Hale, John Stark, and Commodore George H. Perkins, the last by Daniel C. French; and at Penacook, 6 m. N.W. of Concord, there is a monument to Hannah Dustin (see Haverhill). Among the educational institutions are the well-known St Paul's school for boys (Protestant Episcopal, 1853), about 2 m. W. of the city, and St Mary's school for girls (Protestant Episcopal, 1885). From 1847 to 1867 Concord was the seat of the Biblical Institute (Methodist Episcopal), founded in Newbury, Vermont, in 1841, removed to Boston as the Boston Theological Seminary in 1867, and after 1871 a part of Boston University. The city has various manufactures, including flour and grist mill products, silver ware, cotton and woollen goods, carriages, harnesses and leather belting, furniture, wooden ware, pianos and clothing; the Boston & Maine Railroad has a large repair shop in the city, and there are valuable granite quarries in the vicinity. In 1905 Concord ranked third among the cities of the state in the value of its factory products, which was $6,387,372, being an increase of 51.7% since 1900. When first visited by the English settlers, the site of Concord was occupied by Penacook Indians; a trading post was built here about 1660. In, 1725 Massachusetts granted the land in this vicinity to some of her citizens; but this grant was not recognized by New Hampshire, whose legislature issued (1727) a grant (the Township of Bow) overlapping the Massachusetts grant, which was known as Penacook or Penny Cook. The New Hampshire grantees undertook to establish here a colony of Londonderry Irish; but the Massachusetts settlers were firmly established by the spring of 1727, Massachusetts definitely assumed jurisdiction in 1731, and in 1734 her general court incorporated the settlement under the name of Rumford. The conflicting rights of Rumford and Bow gave rise to one of the most celebrated of colonial land cases, and although the New Hampshire authorities enforced their claims of jurisdiction, the privy council in 1755 confirmed the Rumford settlers in their possession. In 1765 the name was changed to the "parish of Concord," and in 1784 the town of Concord was incorporated. Here, for some years before the War of American Independence, lived Benjamin Thompson, later Count Rumford. In 1778 and again in 1781-1782 a state constitutional convention met here; the first New Hampshire legislature met at Concord in 1782; the convention which ratified for New Hampshire the Federal Constitution met here in 1788; and in 1808 the state capital was definitely established here. The New Hampshire Patriot, founded here in 1808 (and for twenty years edited) by Isaac Hill (1788-1851), who was a member of the United States Senate in 1831-1836, and governor of New Hampshire in 1836-1839, became one of the leading exponents of Jacksonian Democracy in New England. In 1814 the Middlesex Canal, connecting Concord with Boston, was completed. A city charter granted by the legislature in 1849 was not accepted by the city until 1853.

See J. O. Lyford, The History of Concord, New Hampshire (City History Commission) (2 vols., Concord, 1903); Concord Town Records, 1732-1820 (Concord, 1894); J. B. Moore, Annals of Concord, 1726-1823 (Concord, 1824); and Nathaniel Bouton, The History of Concord (Concord, 1856).


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Simple English

Concord, New Hampshire
New Hampshire State Capitol
Coordinates: 43°12′24″N 71°32′17″W / 43.20667°N 71.53806°W / 43.20667; -71.53806
Country United States
State New Hampshire
County Merrimack County
Incorporated 1733
Government
 - City Manager Thomas J. Aspell, Jr.
 - Legislative body City Council
Elevation 288 ft (88 m)
Population (2000)
 - Total 40,687
Time zone Eastern (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) Eastern (UTC-4)
Website www.onconcord.com/

Concord is the capital city of the U.S. state of New Hampshire. The land which Concord now occupies along the banks of the Merrimack River was settled thousands of years ago by Native Americans. The broad sweeps of the river valley, good soil for farming, and easy transportation on the Merrimack made the site of Concord equally inviting to English-speaking settlers in the eighteenth century. Settled by immigrants from Massachusetts in 1725, the community grew in prominence during the eighteenth century. Some of Concord's earliest houses remain today at the north end of Main Street. In the years following the American Revolution, the City's central location made it a logical choice for the state capital, and in 1808 Concord was named the official seat of state government. Today the 1819 State House is the oldest state capitol in which the legislative branches meet in their original chambers.

History

This area's first settlement in 1659 was named Penacook, for the Indian name Pannukog, meaning crooked place or bend in the river. The first land grant was in 1725, and the town was incorporated as Rumford in 1733. The name was changed to Concord in 1765 upon resolution of a bitter boundary dispute between Rumford and Bow. Its central location was the logical choice for state capital, and Concord was so named in 1808. The State House, built in 1818 and first occupied in 1819, is the oldest in continuous use in the country. In 1853, the State granted Concord a city charter. It was in Concord that the Abbotts built the famous Concord Coach, modeled after the coronation coach for King George III. Granite quarrying has been another major industry, and Concord's quarries supplied granite for the US Library of Congress. Concord was home to Franklin Pierce, 14th President of the United States, following his presidency.

Population Trends

Concord had the tenth largest numeric change in population, totaling 12,777 over 50 years, from 27,988 in 1950 to 40,765 in 2000. The largest decennial percent change was a 22 percent increase between 1980 and 1990; all other decades increased by ten percent or less. The 2005 Census estimate for Concord was 42,336 residents, which ranked third among New Hampshire's incorporated cities and towns.


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