Condoleezza Rice: Wikis

  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Condoleezza Rice

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Condoleezza Rice


In office
January 26, 2005 – January 20, 2009
President George W. Bush
Deputy Richard Armitage (2005)
Robert Zoellick (2005–2006)
John Negroponte (2007–2009)
Preceded by Colin Powell
Succeeded by Hillary Rodham Clinton

In office
January 20, 2001 – January 26, 2005
President George W. Bush
Deputy Stephen Hadley
Preceded by Sandy Berger
Succeeded by Stephen Hadley

In office
1993–1999
Preceded by Gerald J. Lieberman
Succeeded by John L. Hennessy

Born November 14, 1954 (1954-11-14) (age 55)
Birmingham, Alabama
Political party Republican
Alma mater University of Denver
University of Notre Dame
Profession Professor, Provost, Diplomat, Politician
Religion Presbyterian
Signature

Condoleezza Rice (pronounced /kɒndəˈliːzə/; born November 14, 1954) is a professor, diplomat and author. She served as the 66th United States Secretary of State, and was the second to hold that office in the administration of President George W. Bush. Rice was the first African-American woman secretary of state, as well as the second African American (after Colin Powell), and the second woman (after Madeleine Albright). Rice was President Bush's National Security Advisor during his first term. Before joining the Bush administration, she was a professor of political science at Stanford University where she served as Provost from 1993 to 1999. Rice served as the Soviet and East European Affairs Advisor to President George H.W. Bush during the dissolution of the Soviet Union and German reunification.

When beginning as Secretary of State, Rice pioneered a policy of Transformational Diplomacy, with a focus on democracy in the greater Middle East. Her emphasis on supporting democratically elected governments faced challenges as Hamas captured a popular majority in Palestinian elections yet supported Islamist militants, and influential countries including Saudi Arabia and Egypt maintained authoritarian systems with U.S. support. While Secretary of State, she chaired the Millennium Challenge Corporation's board of directors.[1]

In March 2009, Rice returned to Stanford University as a political science professor and the Thomas and Barbara Stephenson Senior Fellow on Public Policy at the Hoover Institution.[2][3]

Contents

Early life

Condoleezza Rice (whose given name is derived from the Italian musical expression, Con dolcezza, which means "with sweetness")[4] was born in Birmingham, Alabama, and grew up in the neighborhood of Titusville. She traces her roots to pre-Civil War African Americans in the American South,[5] where her family worked as sharecroppers. She is the only child of Presbyterian minister Reverend John Wesley Rice, Jr., and wife, Angelena Ray. Reverend Rice was a guidance counselor at Ullman High School and minister of Westminster Presbyterian Church, which had been founded by his father. Angelena was a science, music, and oratory teacher at Ullman.[6]

Early education

Condoleezza Rice as an undergraduate student at the University of Denver

Rice started learning French, music, figure skating and ballet at age three.[7] At age 15, she began classes with the goal of becoming a concert pianist. Her plans changed when she realized that she did not play well enough to support herself through music alone.[8] While Rice is not a professional pianist, she still practices often and plays with a chamber music group. Rice made use of her pianist training to accompany cellist Yo-Yo Ma for Brahms's Violin Sonata in D Minor at Constitution Hall in April 2002 for the National Medal of Arts Awards.[9]

High school and university education

In 1967, the family moved to Denver, Colorado. She attended St. Mary's Academy, a private all-girls Catholic high school in Cherry Hills Village, Colorado. After studying piano at the Aspen Music Festival and School, Rice enrolled at the University of Denver, where her father served as an assistant dean and taught a class called "The Black Experience in America." Dean John Rice opposed institutional racism, government oppression, and the Vietnam War.

Rice attended a course on international politics taught by Josef Korbel, the father of future Secretary of State Madeleine Albright. This experience sparked her interest in the Soviet Union and international relations and made her call Korbel "one of the most central figures in my life."[10]

Rice graduated from St. Mary's Academy in 1970. In 1974, at age 19, Rice earned her BA degree in political science, Phi Beta Kappa, from the University of Denver. In 1975, she obtained her Master's Degree in political science from the University of Notre Dame. She first worked in the State Department in 1977, during the Carter administration, as an intern in the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. In 1981, at the age of 26, she received her PhD degree in Political Science from the Josef Korbel School of International Studies at the University of Denver. Her dissertation, along with some of her earlier publications, centered on military policy and politics in Czechoslovakia.[11]

Early political views

Rice was a Democrat until 1982 when she changed her political affiliation to Republican after growing averse to former President Jimmy Carter's foreign policy.[12][13] She cites influence from her father, John Wesley, in this decision, who himself switched from Democrat to Republican after being denied voting registration by the Democratic registrar. In her words to the 2000 Republican National Convention, "My father joined our party because the Democrats in Jim Crow Alabama of 1952 would not register him to vote. The Republicans did."[14]

Academic career

Condoleezza Rice during a 2005 interview on ITV in London

Rice was hired by Stanford University as an Assistant Professor of Political Science (1981–1987). She was promoted to Associate Professor in 1987, a post she held until 1993. She was a specialist on the Soviet Union and gave lectures on the subject for the Berkeley-Stanford joint program led by UC Berkeley Professor George Breslauer in the mid-1980s.

At a 1985 meeting of arms control experts at Stanford, Rice's performance drew the attention of Brent Scowcroft, who had served as National Security Advisor under Gerald Ford.[15] With the election of George H. W. Bush, Scowcroft returned to the White House as National Security Adviser in 1989, and he asked Rice to become his Soviet expert on the United States National Security Council. According to R. Nicholas Burns, President Bush was "captivated" by Rice, and relied heavily on her advice in his dealings with Mikhail Gorbachev and Boris Yeltsin.[15]

Because she would have been ineligible for tenure at Stanford if she had been absent for more than two years, she returned to Stanford in 1991. She was taken under the wing of George P. Shultz (Ronald Reagan's Secretary of State from 1982–1989), who was a fellow at the Hoover Institution. Shultz included Rice in a "luncheon club" of intellectuals who met every few weeks to discuss foreign affairs.[15] In 1992, Shultz, who was a board member of Chevron Corporation, recommended Rice for a spot on the Chevron board. Chevron was pursuing a $10 billion development project in Kazakhstan and, as a Soviet specialist, Rice knew the President of Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev. She traveled to Kazakhstan on Chevron's behalf and, in honor of her work, in 1993, Chevron named a 129,000-ton supertanker SS Condoleezza Rice.[15] During this period, Rice was also appointed to the boards of Transamerica Corporation (1991) and Hewlett-Packard (1992).

At Stanford, in 1992, Rice volunteered to serve on the search committee to replace outgoing president Donald Kennedy. The committee ultimately recommended Gerhard Casper, the Provost of the University of Chicago. Casper met Rice during this search, and was so impressed that in 1993, he appointed her as Stanford's Provost, the chief budget and academic officer of the university in 1993[15] and she also was granted tenure and became full Professor[16] Rice was the first female, first minority, and youngest Provost at Stanford.[17] She was also named a Senior Fellow of the Institute for International Studies, and a Senior Fellow (by courtesy) of the Hoover Institution.

Provost promotion

Former Stanford President Gerhard Casper said the university was "most fortunate in persuading someone of Professor Rice's exceptional talents and proven ability in critical situations to take on this task. Everything she has done, she has done well; I have every confidence that she will continue that record as provost."[18] Acknowledging Rice's unique character, Casper told the New Yorker in 2002 that it "would be disingenuous for me to say that the fact that she was a woman, the fact that she was black and the fact that she was young weren't in my mind."[19]

Balancing school budget

As Stanford's Provost, Rice was responsible for managing the university's multi-billion dollar budget. The school at that time was running a deficit of $20 million. When Rice took office, she promised that the budget deficit would be balanced within "two years." Coit Blacker, Stanford's deputy director of the Institute for International Studies, said there "was a sort of conventional wisdom that said it couldn't be done... that [the deficit] was structural, that we just had to live with it." Two years later, Rice announced that the deficit had been eliminated and the university was holding a record surplus of over $14.5 million.[20]

Special interest issues

Rice drew protests when, as provost, she departed from the practice of applying affirmative action to tenure decisions and unsuccessfully sought to consolidate the university's ethnic community centers.[21]

Return to Stanford

During a farewell interview in early December 2008, Rice indicated she would return to Stanford and the Hoover Institution, "back west of the Mississippi where I belong", but beyond writing and teaching did not specify what her role would be.[22] Rice's plans for a return to campus were elaborated in an interview with the Stanford Report in January 2009.[23] She returned to Stanford as a political science professor and senior fellow at the Hoover Institution on March 1, 2009.[24]

Music

Yo-Yo Ma with Rice after performing together at the 2001 National Medal of Arts and National Humanities Medal Awards

Rice is an accomplished pianist and has performed in public since she was a young girl. At the age of 15, she played Mozart with the Denver Symphony, and to this day she plays regularly with a chamber music group in Washington.[9] She does not play professionally, but has performed at diplomatic events at embassies, including a performance for Queen Elizabeth II,[25][26] and she has performed in public with cellist Yo-Yo Ma. She has stated that her favorite composer is Johannes Brahms, because she thinks Brahms's music is "passionate but not sentimental." On a complementary note, on Friday, April 10, 2009 on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno, she stated that her favorite band is Led Zeppelin.

Private sector

Rice headed Chevron's committee on public policy until she resigned on January 15, 2001, to become National Security Advisor to President George W. Bush. Chevron, for unspecified reasons, honored Rice by naming an oil tanker Condoleezza Rice after her, but controversy led to its being renamed Altair Voyager.[27]

She also served on the board of directors for the Carnegie Corporation, the Charles Schwab Corporation, the Chevron Corporation, Hewlett Packard, the Rand Corporation, the Transamerica Corporation, and other organizations.

In 1992, Rice founded the Center for New Generation, an after-school program created to raise the high school graduation numbers of East Palo Alto and eastern Menlo Park, California.[28] After her tenure as secretary of state, Rice was approached in February 2009 to fill an open position as a Pac-10 Commissioner,[29] but chose instead to return to Stanford University as a political science professor and the Thomas and Barbara Stephenson Senior Fellow on Public Policy at the Hoover Institution.

Early political career

In 1986, while an international affairs fellow of the Council on Foreign Relations, Rice served as Special Assistant to the Director of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

From 1989 through March 1991 (the period of the fall of Berlin Wall and the final days of the Soviet Union), she served in President George H.W. Bush's administration as Director, and then Senior Director, of Soviet and East European Affairs in the National Security Council, and a Special Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs. In this position, Rice helped develop Bush's and Secretary of State James Baker's policies in favor of German reunification. She impressed Bush, who later introduced her to Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev as the one who "tells me everything I know about the Soviet Union."[30]

In 1991, Rice returned to her teaching position at Stanford, although she continued to serve as a consultant on the former Soviet Bloc for numerous clients in both the public and private sectors. Late that year, California Governor Pete Wilson appointed her to a bipartisan committee that had been formed to draw new state legislative and congressional districts in the state.

In 1997, she sat on the Federal Advisory Committee on Gender-Integrated Training in the Military.

During George W. Bush's 2000 presidential election campaign, Rice took a one-year leave of absence from Stanford University to help work as his foreign policy advisor. The group of advisors she led called itself The Vulcans in honor of the monumental Vulcan statue, which sits on a hill overlooking her hometown of Birmingham, Alabama. Rice would later go on to give a noteworthy speech at the 2000 Republican National Convention. The speech asserted that "...America's armed forces are not a global police force. They are not the world's 911."[14][31]

National Security Advisor (2001–2005)

On December 17, 2000, Rice was named as National Security Advisor and stepped down from her position at Stanford.[32] She was the first woman to occupy the post. Rice earned the nickname of "Warrior Princess," reflecting strong nerve and delicate manners.[33]

On January 18, 2003, the Washington Post reported that Rice was involved in crafting Bush's position on race-based preferences. Rice has stated that "while race-neutral means are preferable," race can be taken into account as "one factor among others" in university admissions policies.[34]

Terrorism

During the summer of 2001, Rice met with CIA Director George Tenet to discuss the possibilities and prevention of terrorist attacks on American targets. Notably, on July 10, 2001, Rice met with Tenet in what he referred to as an "emergency meeting"[35] held at the White House at Tenet's request to brief Rice and the NSC staff about the potential threat of an impending al Qaeda attack. Rice responded by asking Tenet to give a presentation on the matter to Secretary Donald Rumsfeld and Attorney General John Ashcroft.[36]

When asked about the meeting in 2006, Rice asserted she did not recall the specific meeting, commenting that she had met repeatedly with Tenet that summer about terrorist threats. Moreover, she stated that it was "incomprehensible” to her that she had ignored terrorist threats two months before the September 11 attacks.[35]

Subpoenas

In March 2004, Rice declined to testify before the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (the 9/11 Commission). The White House claimed executive privilege under constitutional separation of powers and cited past tradition. Under pressure, Bush agreed to allow her to testify[37] so long as it did not create a precedent of presidential staff being required to appear before United States Congress when so requested. Her appearance before the commission on April 8, 2004, was accepted by the Bush administration in part because she was not appearing directly before Congress. She thus became the first sitting National Security Advisor to testify on matters of policy.

In April 2007, Rice rejected, on grounds of executive privilege, a House subpoena regarding the prewar claim that Iraq sought yellowcake uranium from Niger.[38]

Iraq

Rice was a proponent of the 2003 invasion of Iraq. After Iraq delivered its declaration of weapons of mass destruction to the United Nations on December 8, 2002, Rice wrote an editorial for The New York Times entitled "Why We Know Iraq Is Lying".[39]

Leading up to the 2004 presidential election, Rice became the first National Security Advisor to campaign for an incumbent president. She stated that while: "Saddam Hussein had nothing to do with the actual attacks on America, Saddam Hussein's Iraq was a part of the Middle East that was festering and unstable, [and] was part of the circumstances that created the problem on September 11."[40]

Weapons of mass destruction

In a January 10, 2003 interview with CNN's Wolf Blitzer, Rice made headlines by stating regarding Iraqi WMD: "The problem here is that there will always be some uncertainty about how quickly he can acquire nuclear weapons. But we don't want the smoking gun to be a mushroom cloud."[41]

After the invasion, when it became clear that Iraq did not have nuclear WMD capability, critics called Rice's claims a "hoax," "deception" and "demagogic scare tactic."[42][43] "Either she missed or overlooked numerous warnings from intelligence agencies seeking to put caveats on claims about Iraq's nuclear weapons program, or she made public claims that she knew to be false," wrote Dana Milbank and Mike Allen in the Washington Post.[44]

Rice characterized the August 6, 2001 President's Daily Brief Bin Ladin Determined To Strike in US as historical information. Rice indicated "It was information based on old reporting."[45] Sean Wilentz of Salon magazine suggested that the PDB contained current information based on continuing investigations, including that Bin Laden wanted to "bring the fighting to America."[46]

Role in authorizing use of torture techniques

A Senate Intelligence Committee reported that on July 17, 2002, Rice met with CIA director George Tenet to personally convey the Bush administration's approval of the proposed waterboarding of alleged Al Qaeda leader Abu Zubaydah. "Days after Dr Rice gave Mr Tenet her approval, the Justice Department approved the use of waterboarding in a top secret August 1 memo." [47] Waterboarding is considered to be torture by a wide range of authorities, including legal experts,[48][49][50][51] war veterans,[52][53] intelligence officials,[54] military judges,[55] human rights organizations,[56][57][58][59] [60][61][62][63] the U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder,[64] and many senior politicians, including U.S. President Barack Obama.[65]

In 2003 Rice, Vice President Dick Cheney and Attorney General John Ashcroft met with the CIA again and were briefed on the use of waterboarding and other methods including week-long sleep deprivation, forced nudity and the use of stress positions. The Senate report says that the Bush administration officials "reaffirmed that the CIA program was lawful and reflected administration policy".[47]

The Senate report also "suggests Miss Rice played a more significant role than she acknowledged in written testimony to the Senate Armed Services Committee submitted in the autumn."[47] At that time, she had acknowledged attending meetings to discuss the CIA interrogations, but she claimed that she could not recall the details, and she "omitted her direct role in approving the programme in her written statement to the committee."[66]

In a conversation with a student at Stanford University in April 2009, Rice stated that she did not authorize the CIA to use the enhanced interrogation techniques. Said Rice, "I didn't authorize anything. I conveyed the authorization of the administration to the agency that they had policy authorization, subject to the Justice Department's clearance. That's what I did."[67] She added, “We were told, nothing that violates our obligations under the Convention Against Torture. And so, by definition, if it was authorized by the president, it did not violate our obligations under the Conventions Against Torture.”[67]

Secretary of State (2005–2009)

Rice signs official papers after receiving the oath of office during her ceremonial swearing in at the Department of State. Watching on are, from left, Laura Bush, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, President George W. Bush.

On November 16, 2004, Bush nominated Rice to be Secretary of State. On January 26, 2005, the Senate confirmed her nomination by a vote of 85-13. The negative votes, the most cast against any nomination for Secretary of State since 1825, came from Senators who, according to Senator Barbara Boxer, wanted "to hold Dr. Rice and the Bush administration accountable for their failures in Iraq and in the war on terrorism." Their reasoning was that Rice had acted irresponsibly in equating Hussein's regime with Islamist terrorism and some could not accept her previous record. Senator Robert Byrd voted against Rice’s appointment, indicating that she "has asserted that the President holds far more of the war power than the Constitution grants him."[68]

As Secretary of State, Rice championed the expansion of democratic governments. Rice stated that the September 11 attacks in 2001 were rooted in "oppression and despair" and so, the US must advance democratic reform and support basic rights throughout the greater Middle East.[69] Rice also reformed and restructured the department, as well as US diplomacy as a whole. "Transformational Diplomacy" is the goal that Rice describes as "work[ing] with our many partners around the world... [and] build[ing] and sustain[ing] democratic, well-governed states that will respond to the needs of their people and conduct themselves responsibly in the international system."[70]

As Secretary of State, Rice traveled widely and initiated many diplomatic efforts on behalf of the Bush administration. Her diplomacy relied on strong presidential support and is considered to be the continuation of style defined by former Republican secretaries of state Henry Kissinger and James Baker.[71]

Speculation on 2008 presidential campaign, views on successor

There had been previous speculation that Rice would run for the Republican nomination in the 2008 primaries, which she ruled out on Meet the Press. On February 22, 2008, Rice played down any suggestion that she may be on the Republican vice presidential ticket, saying, "I have always said that the one thing that I have not seen myself doing is running for elected office in the United States."[72] During an interview with the editorial board of the Washington Times on March 27, 2008, Rice said she was "not interested" in running for vice president.[73] However, in a Gallup poll from March 24 to 27, 2008, Rice was mentioned by eight percent of Republican respondents to be their first choice to be Senator John McCain's Republican Vice-Presidential running mate, slightly behind Mike Huckabee and Mitt Romney.[74] There was speculation that she was not chosen as a Vice-Presidential candidate because of rumors that she was a lesbian, which could have soured evangelicals to the ticket.[75]

Republican strategist Dan Senor said on ABC's This Week on April 6, 2008, that "Condi Rice has been actively, actually in recent weeks, campaigning for" the vice presidential nomination. He based this assessment on her attendance of Grover Norquist's Americans for Tax Reform conservative leader's meeting on March 26, 2008.[76] In response to Senor's comments, Rice's spokesperson denied that Rice is seeking the vice presidential nomination, saying, "If she is actively seeking the vice presidency, then she's the last one to know about it."[77]

In August 2008, the speculation about a potential McCain-Rice ticket finally ended when Governor Sarah Palin was selected as McCain's running-mate.

In early December 2008, Rice praised President-elect Barack Obama's selection of New York Senator Hillary Clinton to succeed her as Secretary of State, saying "she's terrific". Rice, who has spoken to Clinton since her selection, said Clinton "is someone of intelligence and she'll do a great job".[78]

Political positions

Terrorism

Rice's policy as Secretary of State views counter-terrorism as a matter of being preventative, and not merely punitive. In an interview that took place on December 18, 2005, Rice stated: "We have to remember that in this war on terrorism, we're not talking about criminal activity where you can allow somebody to commit the crime and then you go back and you arrest them and you question them. If they succeed in committing their crime, then hundreds or indeed thousands of people die. That's why you have to prevent, and intelligence is the long pole in the tent in preventing attacks."[79]

Rice meets with Afghan Foreign Minister Spanta to discuss anti-terrorism efforts

Rice has also been a frequent critic of the intelligence community's inability to cooperate and share information, which she believes is an integral part of preventing terrorism. In 2000, one year after Osama bin Laden told Time “[h]ostility toward America is a religious duty,”[31] and a year before the September 11 terrorist attacks, Rice warned on WJR Detroit: "You really have to get the intelligence agencies better organized to deal with the terrorist threat to the United States itself. One of the problems that we have is a kind of split responsibility, of course, between the CIA and foreign intelligence and the FBI and domestic intelligence." She then added: "There needs to be better cooperation because we don't want to wake up one day and find out that Osama bin Laden has been successful on our own territory."[80]

Rice also has promoted the idea that counterterrorism involves not only confronting the governments and organizations that promote and condone terrorism, but also the ideologies that fuel terrorism. In a speech given on July 29, 2005, Rice asserted that "[s]ecuring America from terrorist attack is more than a matter of law enforcement. We must also confront the ideology of hatred in foreign societies by supporting the universal hope of liberty and the inherent appeal of democracy."[81]

In January 2005, during Bush's second inaugural ceremonies, Rice first used the term "outposts of tyranny" to refer to countries felt to threaten world peace and human rights. This term has been called a descendant of Bush's phrase, "Axis of Evil," used to describe Iraq, Iran and North Korea. She identified six such "outposts" in which she said the United States has a duty to foster freedom: Cuba, Zimbabwe, Burma and Belarus, as well as Iran and North Korea.

Abortion

Rice said "If you go back to 2000 when I helped the president in the campaign. I said that I was, in effect, kind of libertarian on this issue. And meaning by that, that I have been concerned about a government role in this issue. I am a strong proponent of parental choice - of parental notification. I am a strong proponent of a ban on late-term abortion. These are all things that I think unite people and I think that that's where we should be. I've called myself at times mildly pro-choice."[82] She would not want the federal government "forcing its views on one side or the other."[83]

Rice said she believes President Bush "has been in exactly the right place" on abortion, "which is we have to respect the culture of life and we have to try and bring people to have respect for it and make this as rare a circumstance as possible" However, she added that she has been "concerned about a government role" but has "tended to agree with those who do not favor federal funding for abortion, because I believe that those who hold a strong moral view on the other side should not be forced to fund" the procedure.[83]

Discrimination

Rice experienced firsthand the injustices of Birmingham's discriminatory laws and attitudes. She was instructed to walk proudly in public and to use the facilities at home rather than subject herself to the indignity of "colored" facilities in town. As Rice recalls of her parents and their peers, "they refused to allow the limits and injustices of their time to limit our horizons."[84]

However, Rice recalls various times in which she suffered discrimination on account of her race, which included being relegated to a storage room at a department store instead of a regular dressing room, being barred from going to the circus or the local amusement park, being denied hotel rooms, and even being given bad food at restaurants.[4] Also, while Rice was mostly kept by her parents from areas where she might face discrimination, she was very aware of the civil rights struggle and the problems of Jim Crow laws in Birmingham. A neighbor, Juliemma Smith, described how "[Condi] used to call me and say things like, 'Did you see what Bull Connor did today?' She was just a little girl and she did that all the time. I would have to read the newspaper thoroughly because I wouldn’t know what she was going to talk about."[4] Rice herself said of the segregation era: "Those terrible events burned into my consciousness. I missed many days at my segregated school because of the frequent bomb threats."[4]

During the violent days of the Civil Rights Movement, Reverend Rice armed himself and kept guard over the house while Condoleezza practiced the piano inside. According to J.L. Chestnut, Reverend Rice called local civil rights leader Fred Shuttlesworth and his followers "uneducated, misguided Negroes."[85][86] Also, Reverend Rice instilled in his daughter and students that black people would have to prove themselves worthy of advancement, and would simply have to be "twice as good" to overcome injustices built into the system.[87] Rice said “My parents were very strategic, I was going to be so well prepared, and I was going to do all of these things that were revered in white society so well, that I would be armored somehow from racism. I would be able to confront white society on its own terms.”[88] While the Rices supported the goals of the civil rights movement, they did not agree with the idea of putting their child in harm's way.[4]

Rice was eight when her schoolmate Denise McNair, aged 11, was killed in the bombing of the primarily black Sixteenth Street Baptist Church by white supremacists on September 15, 1963. Rice has commented upon that moment in her life:

I remember the bombing of that Sunday School at 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham in 1963. I did not see it happen, but I heard it happen, and I felt it happen, just a few blocks away at my father’s church. It is a sound that I will never forget, that will forever reverberate in my ears. That bomb took the lives of four young girls, including my friend and playmate, Denise McNair. The crime was calculated to suck the hope out of young lives, bury their aspirations. But those fears were not propelled forward, those terrorists failed.[89]

Condoleezza Rice, Commencement 2004, Vanderbilt University, May 13, 2004

Rice states that growing up during racial segregation taught her determination against adversity, and the need to be "twice as good" as non-minorities.[90] Segregation also hardened her stance on the right to bear arms; Rice has said in interviews that if gun registration had been mandatory, her father's weapons would have been confiscated, leaving them defenseless against Ku Klux Klan nightriders.[4]

Public perception and criticisms

Rice makes an appearance at Boston College, where she is greeted by Father William Leahy.

Rice has been criticized for her involvement in the George W. Bush administration both in the United States and abroad. Protesters have sought to exclude her from appearing at schools such as Princeton University[91] and Boston College,[92] which prompted the resignation of an adjunct professor at Boston. There has also been an effort to protest her public speeches abroad.[93]

Time and Forbes magazines

Rice has appeared on the Time 100, Time magazine's list of the world's 100 most influential people, four times Rice is one of only nine people in the world whose influence has been considered enduring enough to have made the list—first compiled in 1999 as a retrospective of the twentieth century and made an annual feature in 2004—so frequently. However, the list contains people who have the influence to change for better or for worse, and Time has also accused her of squandering her influence, stating in February 1, 2007, that her "accomplishments as Secretary of State have been modest, and even those have begun to fade" and that she "has been slow to recognize the extent to which the U.S.'s prestige has declined."[94] In its March 19, 2007 issue it followed up stating that Rice was "executing an unmistakable course correction in U.S. foreign policy."[95]

In 2004 and 2005, she was ranked as the most powerful woman in the world by Forbes magazine and number two in 2006 (following the Chancellor of Germany, Angela Merkel).[96]

Criticisms from Senator Barbara Boxer

California Democratic Senator Barbara Boxer has also criticized Rice in relation to the war in Iraq: "I personally believe — this is my personal view — that your loyalty to the mission you were given, to sell the war, overwhelmed your respect for the truth."[97]

On January 11, 2007, Boxer, in a debate over the war in Iraq, said, "Now, the issue is who pays the price, who pays the price? I’m not going to pay a personal price. My kids are too old, and my grandchild is too young. You’re not going to pay a particular price, as I understand it, within immediate family. So who pays the price? The American military and their families, and I just want to bring us back to that fact.”

The New York Post and White House Press Secretary Tony Snow considered this an attack on Rice's status as a single, childless female and referred to Boxer's comments as "a great leap backward for feminism."[98] Rice later echoed Snow's remarks, saying "I thought it was okay to not have children, and I thought you could still make good decisions on behalf of the country if you were single and didn’t have children." Boxer responded to the controversy by saying "They’re getting this off on a non-existent thing that I didn’t say. I’m saying, she’s like me, we do not have families who are in the military."[99]

Criticisms from John R. Bolton

According to the Washington Post in late July 2008, former Undersecretary of State and U.N. Ambassador John R. Bolton was referring to Rice and her allies in the Bush Administration who he believes have abandoned earlier hard-line principles when he said: "Once the collapse begins, adversaries have a real opportunity to gain advantage. In terms of the Bush presidency, this many reversals this close to the end destroys credibility... It appears there is no depth to which this administration will not sink in its last days."[100]

Other criticism

Rice has also been criticized by other conservatives. Stephen Hayes of the Weekly Standard accused her of jettisoning the Bush Doctrine.[101] Christian Whiton, who served as an envoy under Rice, asserted she "devised diplomatic theories that sounded smart in the salons of academe but did not work in the real world." Other conservatives criticized her for her approach to Russia policy and other issues.[102] Many criticize Rice in particular for her opposition to the change of strategy in Iraq and surge in U.S. forces that began in 2007.[103]

Views within the black community

Rice's approval ratings from January 2005 to September 2006

Rice's ratings decreased following a heated battle for her confirmation as Secretary of State and following Hurricane Katrina in August 2005. Rice's rise within the George W. Bush administration initially drew a largely positive response from many in the black community. In a 2002 survey, then National Security Advisor Rice was viewed favorably by 41% of black respondents, but another 40% did not know Rice well enough to rate her and her profile remained comparatively obscure.[104] As her role increased, some black commentators began to express doubts concerning Rice's stances and statements on various issues. In 2005, Washington Post columnist Eugene Robinson asked, "How did [Rice] come to a worldview so radically different from that of most black Americans?"[105]

Rice and Australian Foreign Minister Alexander Downer participate in a news conference at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library in Simi Valley, California, May 23, 2007.

Other writers have also noted what they perceive to be a distance between Rice and the black community. The Black Commentator magazine described sentiments given in a speech by Rice at a black gathering as "more than strange — they were evidence of profound personal disorientation. A black woman who doesn’t know how to talk to black people is of limited political use to an administration that has few black allies."[106] When Rice invoked the civil rights movement to clarify her position on the invasion of Iraq, Margaret Kimberley, another writer for The Black Commentator, felt that her use of the rhetoric was "offensive." Stan Correy, an interviewer from the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, characterized many blacks involved with civil rights and politics as viewing this rhetoric as "cynical."[107] Rice was also described by Bill Fletcher, Jr., the former leader of the TransAfrica Forum, a foreign policy lobbying organization in Washington, D.C., as "very cold and distant and only black by accident."[104] In August 2005, American musician, actor, and social activist Harry Belafonte, who serves on the Board of TransAfrica, referred to blacks in the Bush administration as "black tyrants."[108] Belafonte's comments received mixed reactions.[104]

Rice has defended herself from such criticisms on several occasions. During a September 14, 2005 interview, she said, "Why would I worry about something like that? ... The fact of the matter is I've been black all my life. Nobody needs to tell me how to be black."[109]

Notable black commentators have defended Rice from across the aisle, including Mike Espy,[110] Andrew Young, C. Delores Tucker (chair of the National Congress of Black Women),[111] Clarence Page,[112] Colbert King,[113] Dorothy Height (chair and president emerita of the National Council of Negro Women)[113] and Kweisi Mfume (former Congressman and former CEO of the NAACP).[114]

Family and personal life

Condoleezza Rice is an only child. Her mother, Angelena Rice, died of breast cancer in August 1985, aged 61. In July 1989, Condoleezza's father, John Wesley Rice, married Clara Bailey,[115] to whom he remained married until his death, in December 2000, aged 77.[5] He was a football and basketball coach throughout his life.[116]

Rice has never married, and has no children. She has been engaged once, to Rick Upchurch, in the 1970s.[117]

Rice claims to be a "sports fanatic", and that she would love to own or manage a team. She was the honorary game captain for Stanford's 2009 football game against Notre Dame.[118]

Cultural references

Notes

  1. ^ "Board of Directors". Millennium Challenge Corporation. Archived from the original on 2008-06-07. http://web.archive.org/web/20080607012010/http://www.mcc.gov/about/boardofdirectors/index.php. Retrieved January 21, 2009. "The Secretary of State is the Chair of the Board..." 
  2. ^ "Condi Rice website at Stanford University". Fsi.stanford.edu. http://fsi.stanford.edu/people/condoleezzarice/. Retrieved 2009-05-27. 
  3. ^ Condoleezza Rice. "Condi Rice website at the Hoover Institution". Hoover.org. http://www.hoover.org/bios/rice.html. Retrieved 2009-05-27. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Felix, Antonia (2004-11-21). "Condi: The girl who cracked the ice". The Sunday Times (London). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/article393371.ece. Retrieved 2008-10-26. 
  5. ^ a b Reitwiesner, William Addams. "Ancestry of Condoleezza Rice". http://www.wargs.com/political/rice.html. Retrieved 2010-03-08. 
  6. ^ "Condoleezza Rice". Encyclopedia of World Biography. http://www.notablebiographies.com/news/Ow-Sh/Rice-Condoleezza.html. Retrieved 2008-10-26. 
  7. ^ Hawkins, B. Denise (September/October 2002). "Condoleezza Rice's Secret Weapon". Today's Christian. Archived from the original on 2008-01-09. http://web.archive.org/web/20080109235721/http://www.christianitytoday.com/tc/2002/005/1.18.html. Retrieved 2008-10-26. 
  8. ^ "Condoleezza Rice". Mad About Music. 2005-01-02. Transcript. Retrieved on 2008-10-26.
  9. ^ a b Tommasini, Anthony (2006-04-09). "Condoleezza Rice on Piano". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/09/arts/music/09tomm.html?_r=1. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  10. ^ Dobbs, Michael (2000-12-28). "Josef Korbel's Enduring Foreign Policy Legacy; Professor Mentored Daughter Albright and Student Rice". The Washington Post. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-552426.html. Retrieved 2008-11-02. 
  11. ^ Rice, Condoleezza (1981). The Politics of Client Command: Party-Military Relations in Czechoslovakia, 1948–1975.. PhD dissertation. University of Denver. http://130.253.4.23/record=b2587932~S3. 
  12. ^ Balz, Dan (August 1, 2000). "The Republicans Showcase a Rising Star; Foreign Policy Fueled Rice's Party Switch and Her Climb to Prominence". Washington Post. http://www.highbeam.com/The+Washington+Post/publications.aspx?date=20000801&pageNumber=2. Retrieved 2009-04-21. 
  13. ^ Becker, Maki (2004-04-04). "20 Things You Probably Didn't Know About". Daily News. http://www.nydailynews.com/archives/news/2004/04/04/2004-04-04_20_things_you_probably_didn_.html. Retrieved 2008-11-02. 
  14. ^ a b Condoleezza, Rice (2000-08-01). "Text: Condoleezza Rice at the Republican National Convention". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/onpolitics/elections/ricetext080100.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 
  15. ^ a b c d e Baker, Russell (2008-04-03). "Condi and the Boys". New York Review of Books 55 (5): 9–11. ISSN 0028-7504. http://www.nybooks.com/articles/21192. Retrieved 2008-03-19. 
  16. ^ "Condoleezza Rice". Forbes. 2001-10-18. http://www.forbes.com/2001/10/15/crice.html. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 
  17. ^ "Condoleezza Rice: U.S. national security adviser". CNN. February 2002. http://edition.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2002/black.history/stories/13.rice/index.html. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 
  18. ^ Stanford University (1993-05-19). "Casper selects Condoleezza Rice to be next Stanford provost". Press release. http://news-service.stanford.edu/pr/93/930519Arc3267.html. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 
  19. ^ "Condoleezza Rice". New Yorker. 14 October 2002. p. 181. 
  20. ^ Robinson, James (1999-06-09). "Velvet-glove forcefulness: Six years of provostial challenges and achievements". Stanford Report (Stanford University). http://news-service.stanford.edu/news/1999/june9/rice-69.html. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 
  21. ^ Barabak, Mark Z. (2005-01-16). "Not Always Diplomatic in Her First Major Post; Condoleezza Rice, about to become secretary of State, was a divisive figure while at Stanford". Los Angeles Times: p. A1. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/latimes/access/779273571.html?dids=779273571:779273571&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Jan+16%2C+2005&author=Mark+Z.+Barabak&pub=Los+Angeles+Times&edition=&startpage=A.1&desc=Not+Always+Diplomatic+in+Her+First+Major+Post. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 
  22. ^ Stephanopoulos, George (2008-12-07). "This Week (ABC TV series)". ABC News. 
  23. ^ Condoleezza Rice on returning to campus. Stanford Report, January 28, 2009.
  24. ^ Krieger, Lisa M. (March 1, 2009). "Former Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice returns to Stanford University". Mercury News. http://www.mercurynews.com/education/ci_11815118?nclick_check=1. Retrieved March 2, 2009. 
  25. ^ Condoleezza Rice plays piano for the Queen, Daily Telegraph, 1 December 2008
  26. ^ Rice performs recital for the Queen, BBC News, 2 December 2008
  27. ^ Marinucci, Carla (2001-05-05). "Chevron redubs ship named for Bush aide". San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2001/05/05/MN223743.DTL. Retrieved 2008-10-13. 
  28. ^ "Condoleezza Rice to visit program she started". Palo Alto Online News. 2007-05-22. http://www.paloaltoonline.com/news/show_story.php?id=5083. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 
  29. ^ "Rice not interested in being Pac-10 commissioner". Associated Press. February 3, 2009. http://www.etaiwannews.com/etn/news_content.php?id=855740&lang=eng_news. 
  30. ^ Kettmann, Steve (2000-05-20). "Bush's secret weapon". Salon.com. http://archive.salon.com/politics2000/feature/2000/03/20/rice/index.html. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  31. ^ a b "Exclusive Interview: Conversation with Terror". Time. 1999-01-11. http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,174550,00.html. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  32. ^ Kuempel, George; Dodge, Robert (December 17, 2000). "Bush selects three key staff members.". The Dallas Morning News. http://www.accessmylibrary.com/article-1G1-122113753/bush-selects-three-key.html. Retrieved 2009-02-23. 
  33. ^ Serafin, Tatiana (November 2005). "#1 Condoleezza Rice". The Most Powerful Women. Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/lists/2005/11/MTNG.html. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  34. ^ "Rice says race can be 'one factor' in considering admissions". CNN. 2003-01-18. http://edition.cnn.com/2003/ALLPOLITICS/01/17/rice.action/. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  35. ^ a b Shenon, Philip; Mark Mazzetti (2006-10-02). "Records Show Tenet Briefed Rice on Al Qaeda Threat". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/10/02/washington/03ricecnd.html. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  36. ^ Landay, Jonathan S.; Warren P. Strobel, John Walcott, Matt Stearns and Drew Brown (2006-10-02). "Rumsfeld, Ashcroft said to have received warning of attack". The McClatchy Company. http://www.mcclatchydc.com/2006/10/02/14890/rumsfeld-ashcroft-said-to-have.html. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  37. ^ "Transcript of Rice's 9/11 commission statement". CNN. 2004-05-19. http://edition.cnn.com/2004/ALLPOLITICS/04/08/rice.transcript/. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  38. ^ "Rice says Saddam questions answered". The Washington Times. 2007-04-26. http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2007/apr/26/20070426-120513-8451r/. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  39. ^ Rice, Condoleezza (2003-01-23). "Why We Know Iraq Is Lying". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E01E5DF1E30F930A15752C0A9659C8B63. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  40. ^ "Rice defends decision to go to war in Iraq". Associated Press. CNN. 2004-10-22. Archived from the original on 2004-11-17. http://web.archive.org/web/20041117054631/http://www.cnn.com/2004/ALLPOLITICS/10/22/rice.speech.ap/. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  41. ^ Blitzer, Wolf (2003-01-10). "Search for the 'smoking gun'". CNN. http://edition.cnn.com/2003/US/01/10/wbr.smoking.gun/. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  42. ^ "Report: No WMD stockpiles in Iraq". CNN. 2004-10-07. http://edition.cnn.com/2004/WORLD/meast/10/06/iraq.wmd.report/. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  43. ^ Morris, Roger (2005-07-27). "Condoleezza Rice at the Center of the Plame Scandal". CounterPunch. http://www.counterpunch.org/morris07272005.html. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  44. ^ Milbank, Dana; Mike Allen (2003-07-27). "Iraq Flap Shakes Rice's Image". The Washington Post: p. A0. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&contentId=A51224-2003Jul26. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  45. ^ "Excerpts from April 8, 2004 Testimony of Dr. Condoleezza Rice Before the 9/11 Commission Pertaining to The President's Daily Brief of August 6, 2001". National Security Archive. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB116/testimony.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  46. ^ Wilentz, Sean (2004-04-13). "Don't know much about history". Salon.com. http://dir.salon.com/story/opinion/feature/2004/04/13/rice/index.html. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  47. ^ a b c Hines, Nico (2009-04-23). "Condoleezza Rice gave nod for 'torture' techniques". The Times. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/5208701/Condoleezza-Rice-approved-torture-techniques.html. Retrieved 2009-04-33. 
  48. ^ "Open Letter to Attorney General Alberto Gonzales". Human Rights Watch. 5 April 2006. http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2006/04/05/open-letter-attorney-general-alberto-gonzales. Retrieved 17 April 2009. 
  49. ^ Davis, Benjamin (8 October 2007). "Endgame on Torture: Time to Call the Bluff". JURIST. http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/forumy/2007/10/endgame-on-torture-time-to-call-bluff.php. Retrieved 18 December 2007. 
  50. ^ Wallach, Evan (2007). "Drop by Drop: Forgetting the History of Water Torture in U.S. Courts". The Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 45 (2): 468–506. ISSN 0010-1931. http://direct.bl.uk/bld/PlaceOrder.do?UIN=208094762&ETOC=RN.  A rough draft is also available.
  51. ^ National Lawyers Guild, ed. "White Paper on the Law of Torture and Holding Accountable Those Who Are Complicit in Approving Torture of Persons in U.S. Custody". National Lawyers Guild, International Association of Democratic Lawyers. http://www.nlg.org/news/statements/White%20Paper%20-%20Yoo%20hearing.doc. Retrieved 8 May 2009. 
  52. ^ "French Journalist Henri Alleg Describes His Torture Being Waterboarded by French Forces During Algerian War". Democracy Now!. 5 November 2007. http://www.democracynow.org/2007/11/5/french_journalist_henri_alleg_describes_his. Retrieved 18 December 2007. 
  53. ^ McCain, John (21 November 2005). "Torture's Terrible Toll". Newsweek. http://www.newsweek.com/id/51200. Retrieved 17 April 2009. 
  54. ^ Grey, Stephen (2006). Ghost plane: the true story of the CIA torture program. New York City: St. Martin's Press. p. 226. ISBN 0-312-36023-1. OCLC 70335397. "As one former CIA official, once a senior official for the directorate of operations, told me: 'Of course it was torture. Try it and you'll see.' Another, also a former higher-up in the directorate of operations, told me: 'Yes, it's torture…'" 
  55. ^ Bell, Nicole (2 November 2007). "Retired JAGs Send Letter To Leahy: 'Waterboarding is inhumane, it is torture, and it is illegal.'". Crooks and Liars. http://www.crooksandliars.com/2007/11/03/retired-jags-send-letter-to-leahy-waterboarding-is-inhumane-it-is-torture-and-it-is-illegal/. Retrieved 17 April 2009. 
  56. ^ "CIA Whitewashing Torture". Human Rights Watch. 21 November 2005. http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2005/11/20/cia-whitewashing-torture. Retrieved 17 April 2009. 
  57. ^ Amnesty International (26 October 2006). "Amnesty International Response to Cheney's 'No-Brainer' Comment". Press release. http://www.amnestyusa.org/document.php?lang=e&id=ENGUSA20061026002. Retrieved 17 April 2009. 
  58. ^ "Torture can never, ever be accepted" by Thomas Hammarberg, Commissioner for Human Rights, Council of Europe
  59. ^ UK Commons report casts doubt on US denial of torture techniques by Andrew Gilmore, JURIST, July 20, 2008
  60. ^ UK 'must check' US torture denial, BBC News, 19 July 2008
  61. ^ Torture and America's Crisis of Faith - The Senate's retreat from its initial demand that now-Attorney General Michael Mukasey denounce waterboarding is detrimental to the country's moral fabric. For the first time, torture bears an imprimatur of democratic approval by Jonathan Hafetz, The American Prospect, November 28, 2007
  62. ^ White House nears completion of new torture guidelines; Critics say administration's endorsement of 'enhanced interrogation' is 'immoral,' draw comparisons to Nazi war crimes By Arthur Bright, The Christian Science Monitor, May 31, 2007
  63. ^ The U.S. Has a History of Using Torture. By Alfred W. McCoy. History News Network
  64. ^ "Holder: Water-boarding is torture; president can't authorize it". USA Today. 15 January 2009. http://content.usatoday.com/communities/theoval/post/2009/01/61401940/1. Retrieved 1 July 2009. 
  65. ^ "Raw Data: Transcript of Obama's News Conference". Fox News. 29 Apr 2009. http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2009/04/29/raw-data-transcript-obamas-news-conference/. Retrieved 7 May 2009. 
  66. ^ Associated Press (22 Apr 2009). "As Bush Adviser, Rice Gave OK to Waterboard". Fox News. http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2009/04/22/bush-adviser-rice-gave-ok-waterboard/. Retrieved 8 May 2009. 
  67. ^ a b Kessler, Glenn, "Rice Defends Use Of Enhanced Techniques", Washington Post, May 1, 2009, p. 4.
  68. ^ Robert Byrd (2005-01-25). "Standing for the Founding Principles of the Republic: Voting No on the Nomination of Dr. Rice as Secretary of State". Press release. http://byrd.senate.gov/speeches/byrd_speeches_2005_january/byrd_speeches_2005_january_lis/byrd_speeches_2005_january_lis_0.html. Retrieved 2008-11-04. 
  69. ^ United States Department of State (2005-09-30). "Princeton University's Celebration of the 75th Anniversary Of the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs". Press release. Archived from the original on 2008-07-08. http://web.archive.org/web/20080708212932/http://www.state.gov/secretary/rm/2005/54176.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  70. ^ United States Department of State (2006-01-18). "Transformational Diplomacy". Press release. Archived from the original on 2008-07-08. http://web.archive.org/web/20080708213206/http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2006/59339.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-03.  United States Department of State (2006-01-18). "Georgetown University address". Press release. http://www.state.gov/secretary/rm/2006/59306.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  71. ^ "Rice travel diplomacy year - up close and personal". Reuters. 2005-10-11. http://www.redorbit.com/news/general/326857/rice_travel_diplomacy_year__up_close_and_personal/. Retrieved 2009-09-11. 
  72. ^ "Rice says has no plan to run for vice president". Reuters. 2008-02-22. http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSN2262518020080222?feedType=RSS&feedName=politicsNews&rpc=22&sp=true. Retrieved 2008-03-28. "I have always said that the one thing that I have not seen myself doing is running for elected office." 
  73. ^ "Transcript of Secretary Condoleezza Rice's Interview with the Washington Times Editorial Board". The Washington Times (United States Department of State). 2008-03-28. http://www.state.gov/secretary/rm/2008/03/102757.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-28. Question: "And would you consider vice president?" Rice: "Not interested."
  74. ^ "Gallup Polls on GOP VP Preferences", Gallup, 2008-04-04.
  75. ^ "Gay rumours eclipse Condi’s glory moment". Sunday Times (London). 2008-02-22. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/us_and_americas/article2983771.ece. Retrieved 2009-05-21. "“It is widely believed in gay circles that Condi is a lesbian,” Roifes commented. “That could be one reason she will not run.”" 
  76. ^ "Dan Senor: Condoleezza Rice Is Pursuing the VP Spot". ABC News. 2008-04-06. http://blogs.abcnews.com/politicalradar/2008/04/dan-senor-condo.html. 
  77. ^ Kessler, Glenn (2008-04-07). "Rice: Still Not Running for VP". The Washington Post. http://blog.washingtonpost.com/44/2008/04/07/rice_still_not_running_for_vp.html. Retrieved 2008-11-03. "McCormack dismissed both as perfectly ordinary. 'I think if you look back at her tenure, in terms of her activities, you will find all of these activities perfectly normal and consistent with the way she has done her job over the past three years or so,' he said. 'If she is actively seeking the vice presidency, then she's the last one to know about it.'" 
  78. ^ Stephanopoulos, George (2008-12-07). "Rice on Hillary: 'She's Terrific'". ABC News. http://blogs.abcnews.com/george/2008/12/rice-on-hillary.html. Retrieved 2008-12-07. 
  79. ^ U.S. State Department Interview on Fox News Sunday With Chris Wallace. December 18, 2005.
  80. ^ Rice Quotes Contradict Clarke Account. NewsMax. March 24, 2004.
  81. ^ U.S. State Department Remarks With Senator Richard Lugar on the U.S. Department of State and the Challenges of the 21st century. July 29, 2005.
  82. ^ "Washington Post, March 2005". Washingtonpost.com. 2005-03-13. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A30282-2005Mar12.html. Retrieved 2009-05-27. 
  83. ^ a b 2008 run, abortion engage her politically Washington Post, March 2005
  84. ^ "Birmingham native Condoleezza Rice confirmation vote delayed as next U.S. Secretary of State" Birmingham Times January 20, 2005.
  85. ^ Chestnut 2005. Chestnut, J. L., Jr. "Condi Rice's Disdain for the Civil Rights Movement." Black Commentator. Retrieved August 2, 2006.
  86. ^ Chestnut, J.L. Jr.. Condi Rice's disdain for Civil Rights movement Catholic New Times, December 18, 2005. Retrieved April 12, 2007.
  87. ^ Profile: Condoleezza Rice. BBC News. September 25, 2001. Retrieved August 2, 2006.
  88. ^ Russakoff, Dale Lessons of Might and Right: How Segregation and an Indomitable Family Shaped National Security Adviser Condoleezza Rice Washington Post Magazine Published September 9, 2001. Retrieved April 2, 2007.
  89. ^ Stan Correy. Condoleezza, Condoleezza. Australian Broadcasting Corporation's Radio National, April 3, 2005. Retrieved July 26, 2006.
  90. ^ Derrick Z. Jackson. A lesson from Condoleezza Rice. November 20, 2002. Retrieved February 21, 2006.
  91. ^ Michael Juel-Larsen. Students, community members protest Rice's visit. Daily Princetonian, September 30, 2005.
  92. ^ Steve Almond. Condoleezza Rice at Boston College? I quit. The Boston Globe, May 12, 2006.
  93. ^ Rice visit meets with protests BBC News, March 31, 2006. February 9, 2006.
  94. ^ "Rice's Toughest Mission", Time, February 1, 2007.
  95. ^ "Cheney In Twilight", Time, March 19, 2007.
  96. ^ MacDonald, Elizabeth and Chana R. Schoenberger."The World's Most Powerful Women", Forbes, September 1, 2006.
  97. ^ Why the Crass Remarks About Rice?. The Washington Post, January 22, 2005.
  98. ^ "White House Spokesman Blasts Sen. Boxer's Exchange With Secretary Rice", Fox News, January 12, 2006.
  99. ^ "Exchange Turns Into Political Flashpoint", The New York Times, January 12, 2007
  100. ^ Eggen, Dan (2008-07-20). "U.S. Talks With Iran Exemplify Bush's New Approaches". Washington Post. p. A4. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/07/19/AR2008071901597.html?hpid=topnews. Retrieved 2008-07-21. 
  101. ^ Hayes, Stephen F. (2006-10-09). "In the Driver's Seat". Weekly Standard 13 (36). http://www.weeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/015/145jmmdg.asp. Retrieved 2009-05-27. 
  102. ^ Rosett, Claudia (2008-08-12). "Georgia and the American Cowboy". National Review. http://article.nationalreview.com/366040/georgia-and-the-american-cowboy/claudia-rosett. Retrieved 2009-05-27. 
  103. ^ Johnson, Scott (2008-05-24). "Fried Rice". Power Line. http://www.powerlineblog.com/archives/2008/05/020591.php. Retrieved 2009-05-27. 
  104. ^ a b c Jonathon Tilove. For Black America, The Thrill of Powell and Rice Is Gone. Newhouse News Service, March 11, 2004.
  105. ^ Eugene Robinson. What Rice Can't See. The Washington Post, October 25, 2005.
  106. ^ Condoleezza's Crimes. The Black Commentator, April 1, 2004.
  107. ^ Stan Correy. Condoleezza, Condoleezza. ABC Radio National, April 3, 2005.
  108. ^ Marc Merano. Harry Belafonte Calls Black Republicans 'Tyrants'. Cybercast News Service, August 8, 2005
  109. ^ Interview with Bill O'Reilly of the O'Reilly Factor on Fox News. September 14, 2005.
  110. ^ Mrs President. October 25, 2005.
  111. ^ Susan Jones. Black Democrats Don't Like Senate's Treatment of Rice. CNS News, January 26, 2005.
  112. ^ Page, Clarence (2006-01-10). "Why Condi's star is rising". Chicago Tribune. http://jewishworldreview.com/0106/page011006.php3. Retrieved 2006-07-29. 
  113. ^ a b King, Colbert (2005-01-22). "Why the Crass Remarks About Rice?". Washington Post. p. A17. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A27818-2005Jan21.html. Retrieved 2006-08-29. 
  114. ^ Associated Press. NAACP: Calling Rice ‘Aunt Jemima’ is wrong. November 22, 2004.
  115. ^ John Wesley Rice Jr., 77, Father of Bush Adviser New York Times. Published December 29, 2000. Retrieved January 20, 2009.
  116. ^ "Give and Take with Condoleezza Rice", The Viking, May 12, 2009
  117. ^ "Race 4 2012". Race42008.com. http://race42008.com/condoleezza-rice. Retrieved 2009-05-27. 
  118. ^ "Photo of Condoleezza Rice with Stanford Football Team Captains". Clixtr. http://clixtr.com/photo/4a1ba8e1-e6c2-49bd-9330-21dab58c3010. Retrieved 2010-03-07. 
  119. ^ "The odd couples - This Britain, UK". The Independent. 2006-04-01. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/this-britain/the-odd-couples-472333.html. Retrieved 2009-05-27. 
  120. ^ "3.23 - Hiatus, Part I - NCIS". Wetpaint. MSN/CBS. http://cbsncis.wetpaint.com/page/3.23+-+Hiatus,+Part+I. Retrieved March 13, 2010. 

References

Bibliography

Further reading

Academic studies

  • John P. Burke; "Condoleezza Rice as NSC Advisor A Case Study of the Honest Broker Role" Presidential Studies Quarterly v 35 #3 pp 554+.
  • James Mann. Rise of the Vulcans: The History of Bush's War Cabinet (2004)

Popular books and commentary

  • Cunningham, Kevin (2005). Condoleezza Rice: U.S. Secretary Of State (Journey to Freedom) Child's World ISBN 1-59296-231-9
  • Ditchfield, Christin (2003). Condoleezza Rice: National Security Advisor (Great Life Stories) middle school audience Franklin Watts ISBN 0-531-12307-3
  • Felix, Antonia (2002). Condi: The Condoleezza Rice Story. Newmarket Press. ISBN 1-55704-539-9
  • Flanders, Laura. (2004). Bushwomen: Tales of a Cynical Species (Verso) ISBN 978-1859845875
  • Kessler, Glenn (2007). The Confidante: Condoleezza Rice and the Creation of the Bush Legacy. [1] ISBN 978-0312363802
  • Kettmann, Steve. Bush's Secret Weapon Salon.com
  • Morris, Dick with Eileen McGann. (2005) Condi vs. Hillary: The Next Great Presidential Race Regan Books ISBN 0-06-083913-9
  • Ryan, Bernard, Jr. (2003). Condoleezza Rice: National Security Advisor and Musician (Ferguson Career Biographies) Facts on File ISBN 0-8160-5480-0
  • Wade, Linda R. (2002). Condoleezza Rice: A Real-Life Reader Biography (Real-Life Reader Biography) Mitchell Lane Publishers ISBN 1-58415-145-5, middle school audience
  • Wade, Mary Dodson (2003). Condoleezza Rice: Being The Best Millbrook Press Lerner Books ISBN 0-7613-1927-1, middle school audience

External links

Academic offices
Preceded by
Gerald J. Lieberman
Provost of Stanford University
1993–1999
Succeeded by
John L. Hennessy
Legal offices
Preceded by
Sandy Berger
United States National Security Advisor
2001–2005
Succeeded by
Stephen Hadley
Political offices
Preceded by
Colin Powell
United States Secretary of State
Served under: George W. Bush

2005–2009
Succeeded by
Hillary Rodham Clinton


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954), National Security Advisor and Secretary of State to George W. Bush.

Contents

Sourced

  • The growth of entrepreneurial classes throughout the world is an asset in the promotion of human rights and individual liberty, and it should be understood and used as such. Yet peace is the first and most important condition for continued prosperity and freedom. America's military power must be secure because the United States is the only guarantor of global peace and stability. The current neglect of America's armed forces threatens its ability to maintain peace.
  • But in terms of Saddam Hussein being there, let's remember that his country is divided, in effect. He does not control the northern part of his country. We are able to keep arms from him. His military forces have not been rebuilt.
  • I don't think that anybody could have predicted that these people would take an airplane and slam it into the World Trade Center, take another one and slam it into the Pentagon, that they would try to use an airplane as a missile
  • This is your baby. Go do it.
    • Regarding directives to the CIA on which torture techniques should be used. Summer 2002 [1] [2]
  • In light of 50 years of bondage of Eastern Europe, [invading the Soviet Union in 1948 to prevent it from acquiring nuclear weapons] was probably a reasonable thing to do.
  • Oh, indeed there is a tie between Iraq and what happened on 9/11. It’s not that Saddam Hussein was somehow himself and his regime involved in 9/11, but, if you think about what caused 9/11, it is the rise of ideologies of hatred that lead people to drive airplanes into buildings in New York.
  • ...it is a longstanding principle that sitting national security advisers do not testify before the Congress.
  • People may oppose you, but when they realize you can hurt them, they'll join your side.
    • Advice given to her protégée, Kiron Skinner, while serving as Provost at Stanford University; quoted in James Mann, Rise of the Vulcans (Penguin Books, New York: 2004, ISBN 0-143-03489-8), p. 227
  • The United States doesn't and can't condone torture. And I want to make very clear that that's the view and the policy of the administration, the policy of the president, and that he's made very clear to American personnel that we will not condone torture....Senator, under no circumstances should we or have we condoned torture. And the president has been very clear that he expects everyone to live up to our international obligations and to American law.
  • And so the administration, I think, has said to the American people that it is a generational commitment to Iraq.
  • When are we going to stop making excuses for the terrorists and saying that somebody is making them do it? No, these are simply evil people who want to kill.
  • Well, that's not how I read the statement ... After all, do Iraqis really want to -- any Iraqi, sitting around that table, want to suggest that killing an innocent Iraqi child standing at a bus stop is legitimate? Or that killing Iraqi soldiers who are lining up at recruitment centers is legitimate? Or even that multinational forces -- who by the way are there under a UN mandate -- are somehow legitimate targets?
  • We have had some bad incidents and there continue to be allegations of others which will be investigated; but overwhelmingly American forces there, putting their lives on the line every day, protecting Iraqis, helping to liberate them, that is appreciated by the Iraqi people and by the Prime Minister.
  • I don't know anyone who is more admired and respected in the international community than President Karzai, for his strength, for his wisdom and for his courage to lead this country, first in defeat of the Taliban and now a democratic and unified Afghanistan. And I can tell you I am with foreign ministers and with heads of state all over the world. I sit in the councils of NATO. I sit with the EU. I sit with people all over the world and there is great admiration for your president and also for what the Afghan people are doing here.
  • ...those hostilities were not very well contained, as we found out on September 11th, and so the notion that somehow policies that finally confront extremism are actually causing extremism I find grotesque.
  • The United States has been very clear that we did have to have some political basis to make clear that that cessation of hostilities was not going to countenance a return to the status quo ante. This resolution does that. And now we're going to see who is for peace and who isn't.
  • ...there have been plenty of markers that show that this is a country that is worth the investment because once it emerges as a country that is a stabilizing factor, you'll have a very different kind of Middle East. And I know that from the point of view of not just monetary costs, but the sacrifice of American lives, a lot has been sacrificed for Iraq, a lot has been invested in Iraq.
  • Ron Paul: We are escalating our sharp rhetoric toward Iran, We're deploying additonal carrier group and Patriot missiles to the region. And, although Iran has approached the United States to establish serious dialog two times since 9/11, they have been rebuffed both times...
    Condelezza Rice: ...When we have a carrier strike group into the gulf, or provide PAC-3, which is a defensive system, it's simply to demonstrate that the United States remains determined to defend its interests in the gulf, and the interests of its allies. And that, congressman, is a position that has been held by American presidents going back for nearly 60 years. I would just note that these are discrete respones to Iranian activities that are really deeply concerning, not just for us, but for the rest of the world as well. Now as to Tehran, and whether we can talk to them. I offered in May to reverse 27 years of American policy, and to meet my counterpart any place, any time, to talk about any set of issues that Iran wishes to talk about, if they would just do one thing. And that is, adhere to the demand that the international community is making, that they stop enrichment and reprocessing, so that we that while we're talking, they're not improving their capability to get a nuclear weapon. So I think, congressman, the question isn't why won't we talk to Tehran, the question is why won't they talk to us.
  • ...the consolidation of a stable and democratic Iraq after the overthrow of Saddam Hussein is a part of what America owes to the Iraqi people, owes to the region, and owes to ourselves so that our own security is there. Chris, it would be like saying that after Adolf Hitler was overthrown, we needed to change then the resolution that allowed the United States to do that so that we could deal with creating a stable environment in Europe after he was overthrown.
  • Condoleezza Rice: I think that these historical circumstances require a very detailed and sober look from historians and what we've encouraged the Turks and the Armenians to do is to have joint historical commissions that can look at this, to have efforts to examine their past and, in examining their past, to get over their past.
    Adam Schiff: ...you come out of academia... is there any reputable historian you're aware of that takes issue with the fact that the murder of 1.5 million Armenians constituted genocide?
    Condoleezza Rice: Congressman, I come out of academia, but I'm secretary of state now and I think that the best way to have this proceed is for the United States not to be in the position of making this judgment, but rather for the Turks and the Armenians to come to their own terms about this.
    Adam Schiff: ...Why is it only this genocide? Is it because Turkey is a strong ally? Is that an ethical and moral reason to ignore the murder of 1.5 million people? Why is it we don't say, "Let's relegate the Holocaust to historians" or "relegate the Cambodian genocide or Rwandan genocide ?" Why is it only this genocide that we should let the Turks acknowledge or not acknowledge?
    Condoleezza Rice: Congressman, we have recognized and the president recognizes every year in a resolution that he himself issues the historical circumstances and the tragedy that befell the Armenian people at that time...
    Adam Schiff: ...You recognize more than anyone, as a diplomat, the power of words. And I'm sure you supported the recognition of genocide in Darfur, not calling it tragedy, not calling it atrocity, not calling it anything else, but the power and significance of calling it genocide. Why is that less important in the case of the Armenian genocide?
    Condoleezza Rice: Congressman, the power here is in helping these people to move forward... And, yes, Turkey is a good ally and that is important. But more important is that like many historical tragedies, like many historical circumstances of this kind, people need to come to terms with it and they need to move on.
    Adam Schiff: ...Iran hosts conferences of historians on the Holocaust. I don't think we want to get in the business of encouraging conferences of historians on the undeniable facts of the Armenian genocide.
  • I'm very glad that there was, in fact, a consequence. I think that this kind of coarse language doesn't belong anywhere in reasonable dialogue between reasonable people. ... It gets ruined by this disgusting -- and I'll use the word 'disgusting' -- comment which doesn't belong in any polite company and certainly doesn't belong on any radio station that I would listen to.
  • Now, six years ago, al-Qaida was planning to attack the Twin Towers. It wasn't a very nice world. And I think that if you think about six years ago, al-Qaida was preparing to attack the Twin Towers, Pakistan was allied with the Taliban, Afghanistan was the base from which al-Qaida was going to operate; the Israelis and the Palestinians had given up on a chance for -- or let me put it, the Palestinians had walked away from a chance for a Palestinian state, launched the second intifada, elected Ariel Sharon who basically said there would never be a Palestinian state and there will be a greater Israel; the North Korean were cheating on a deal that they had just signed; China and others were indifferent to that because it was a U.S.-North Korea bilateral deal; Iran was cheating on the IAEA out of sight. I could go on and on and on. That was the world in 2000 and 2001. And there is no doubt that by confronting -- oh, by the way, and Saddam Hussein was shooting at our pilots regularly in the no-fly zone and making a mockery of the Oil-for-Peace -- Oil-for-Food program and corruption was running rampant in that program. So, a worse world? I think so.
  • This test has much in common with the other great challenges that are defining this young century -- from weapons proliferation, to the spread of disease, to transnational terrorism. These are truly global problems, and no one nation, no matter how much power or political will it possesses, can succeed alone. We all need partners, and we all need to work in concert.
  • ...I am proud of the decision of this Administration to overthrow Saddam Hussein. I am proud of the liberation of 25 million Iraqis. And I’m proud to see an Iraq that is now emerging with a stronger government, a truly multiethnic, multi-sectarian government that’s about to have its second set of elections, that’s inviting private investment into Iraq, and that is making peace with its Arab neighbors.
  • This is not 1968 and the invasion of Czechoslovakia, where Russia can threaten its neighbors, occupy a capital, overthrow a government, and get away with it. Things have changed.
  • In terms of the enhanced interrogation and so forth, anything that was legal and was going to make this country safer, the president wanted to do. Nothing that was illegal. And nothing that was going to make the country less safe. Unless you were there, in a position of responsibility after September 11th, you cannot possibly imagine the dilemmas that you faced in trying to protect Americans. You were determined to do anything that you could that was legal to prevent that from happening again... We were told, nothing that violates our obligations under the Convention Against Torture. And so, by definition, if it was authorized by the president, it did not violate our obligations under the Conventions Against Torture.

Unsourced

  • We need a common enemy to unite us.
    • March 2000 [3]

Quotes about Condoleezza Rice

  • ...the idea that she belongs in front of a war tribunal is not something I can dignify with a response. Miss Rice presides over a wide range of choices, a wide range of policies. She's handled that vast duty with dignity, with honor.
    • Marc Landy, May 10, 2006 [4]
  • Hi Condoleezza, how are you? You've forgotten about me, my little girl.
  • Condoleezza Rice serves an administration that has trashed the basic values of academia: reason, science, expertise, and honesty. Stanford should not welcome her back.
    • Don Ornstein, May 31, 2007 [6]
  • They are welcome to all the money I have in America. Rice should take half of it to improve the way she looks. She should have her teeth straightened and her face fixed, and should make herself look nice. I donate what is left to George Bush, because I know he will soon be admitted to a mental asylum because of his policies.
    • Wiam Wahhab, November 7, 2007 [7]
  • Rice remained pretty embarrassed – in the end she didn't end up voting in favor of a resolution she organized.

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Simple English

Condoleezza Rice
File:Condoleezza Rice


In office
January 26, 2005 – January 20, 2009
President George W. Bush
Deputy Richard Armitage (2005)
Robert Zoellick (2005–2006)
John Negroponte (2007–2009)
Preceded by Colin Powell
Succeeded by Hillary Rodham Clinton

In office
January 20, 2001 – January 26, 2005
President George W. Bush
Deputy Stephen Hadley
Preceded by Sandy Berger
Succeeded by Stephen Hadley

In office
1993 – 1999
Preceded by Gerald J. Lieberman
Succeeded by John L. Hennessy

Born November 14, 1954 (1954-11-14) (age 56)
Birmingham, Alabama
Political party Republican
Alma mater University of Denver
University of Notre Dame
Profession Professor, Provost, Diplomat, Politician
Religion Presbyterian

Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954 in Birmingham, Alabama) was the 66th United States Secretary of State. She was the second Secretary of State under former President George W. Bush. She took over from Colin Powell on January 26, 2005, after he stepped down. Rice was the first African American woman, second African American (after Powell), and second woman (after Madeleine Albright) to serve as Secretary of State.

Before she became Secretary of State, Condoleezza Rice was Bush's National Security Advisor during his first term (2001–2005). Before she did this, she was a Professor of political science at Stanford University from 1993 to 1999, where she also was the Provost.

Other websites

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Error creating thumbnail: sh: convert: command not found
Wikimedia Commons has images, video, and/or sound related to:









Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message