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A conductor conducting at a ceremony
A conductor's score and batons

Conducting is the act of directing a musical performance by way of visible gestures. Orchestras, choirs, concert bands and other musical ensembles often have conductors.

Contents

Nomenclature

The principal conductor of an orchestra or opera company is sometimes referred to as a music director or chief conductor, or by the German word, Kapellmeister. Conductors of choirs or choruses are sometimes referred to as choral director, chorus master, or choirmaster, particularly for choirs associated with an orchestra. Conductors of military bands and other bands may hold the title of bandmaster, or drum major. Respected senior conductors are sometimes referred to by the Italian word, maestro ("master").

History of conducting

An early form of conducting is cheironomy, the use of hand gestures to indicate melodic shape. This has been practiced at least as far back as the Middle Ages. In the Christian church, the person giving these symbols held a staff to signify his role, and it seems that as music became more rhythmically involved, the staff was moved up and down to indicate the beat, acting as an early form of baton.

In the 17th century, other devices to indicate the passing of time came into use. Rolled up sheets of paper, smaller sticks and unadorned hands are all shown in pictures from this period. The large staff was responsible for the death of Jean-Baptiste Lully, who stabbed his foot with one while conducting a Te Deum for the king's recovery from illness. The wound became gangrenous, and despite the efforts of doctors the gangrene spread to his leg and he died two months later.[1]

A modern wooden conducting baton

In instrumental music, a member of the ensemble usually acted as the conductor. This was sometimes the principal violinist, who could use his bow as a baton, or a lutenist who would move the neck of his instrument in time with the beat. It was common to conduct from the harpsichord in pieces that had a basso continuo part. In opera performances, there were sometimes two conductors - the keyboard player was in charge of the singers, and the principal violinist was in charge of the orchestra.

By the early 19th century, it became the norm to have a dedicated conductor, who did not also play an instrument during the performance. The size of the usual orchestra expanded during this period, and the use of a baton became more common, as it was easier to see than bare hands or rolled-up paper. Among the earliest notable conductors were Louis Spohr, Carl Maria von Weber, Louis Antoine Jullien and Felix Mendelssohn, all of whom were also composers. Although unlikely, Mendelssohn is claimed to have been the first conductor to utilize a wooden baton to keep time,[citation needed] a practice still generally in use today. Amongst prominent conductors who did not or do not use a baton are Leopold Stokowski, Pierre Boulez, Dimitri Mitropoulos, Kurt Masur, Leonard Bernstein and Nikolaus Harnoncourt.[2] Hans von Bülow is sometimes considered the first professional musician whose principal career was as a conductor.

Hector Berlioz and Richard Wagner were also great conductors, and they wrote two of the earliest essays dedicated to the subject. Berlioz is considered the first virtuoso conductor. Wagner was largely responsible for shaping the conductor's role as one who imposes his own view of a piece onto the performance rather than one who is just responsible for ensuring entries are made at the right time and that there is a unified beat.

Technique

An officer conducting the mounted band of the British Household Cavalry.

Conducting is a means of communicating artistic directions to performers during a performance. There are no absolute rules on how to conduct correctly, and a wide variety of different conducting styles exist. The primary responsibilities of the conductor are to set the tempo, execute clear preparations and beats, and to listen critically and shape the sound of the ensemble.

An understanding of the basic elements of musical expression (tempo, dynamics, articulation) and the ability to communicate them effectively to an ensemble is necessary in order to conduct. The ability to communicate nuances of phrasing and expression through gesture is also beneficial. Conducting gestures may be choreographed beforehand by the conductor while studying the score, or may be spontaneous.

A distinction is sometimes made between orchestral conducting and choral conducting. Stereotypically, orchestral conductors use a baton more often than choral conductors (though not always: this is up to the conductor's personal preference), and favor the use of beat patterns over gestural conducting, which concentrates more on musical expression and shape. Also stereotypically, an orchestra will play "behind" the conductor's beat, while choral ensembles will sing "on" the beat.

The grip of the baton varies from conductor to conductor. Despite a wide variety of styles, a number of standard conventions have developed.

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Beat and tempo

2/4, 2/2, or fast 6/8 time
3/4 or 3/8 time
4/4 time
slow 6/8 time

The beat of the music is typically indicated with the conductor's right hand, with or without a baton. The hand traces a shape in the air in every bar (measure) depending on the time signature, indicating each beat with a change from downward to upward motion. The images show the most common beat patterns, as seen from the conductor's point of view.

The downbeat indicates the first beat of the bar, and the upbeat indicates the last beat of the bar. The instant at which the beat occurs is called the ictus (plural: ictus or ictuses), and is usually indicated by a sudden (though not necessarily large) click of the wrist or change in baton direction. In some instances, "ictus" is also used to refer to a horizontal plane in which all the ictuses are physically located, such as the top of a music stand where a baton is tapped at each ictus. The gesture leading up to the ictus is called the "preparation", and the continuous flow of steady beats is called the "takt".

If the tempo is slow or slowing, or if the time signature is compound, a conductor will sometimes indicate "subdivisions" of the beats. The conductor can do this by adding a smaller movement in the same direction as the movement for the beat that it belongs to.

Changes to the tempo are indicated by changing the speed of the beat. To carry out and to control a rallentando, a conductor may introduce beat subdivisions.

Some conductors use both hands to indicate the beat, with the left hand mirroring the right, though others view this as redundant and therefore to be avoided. The second hand may be used for cueing the entrances of individual players or sections, and to aid indications of dynamics, phrasing, expression, and other elements.

Dynamics

Dynamics are indicated in various ways. The dynamic may be communicated by the size of the conducting movements, larger shapes representing louder sounds. Changes in dynamic may be signaled with the hand that is not being used to indicate the beat: an upward motion (usually palm-up) indicates a crescendo; a downward motion (usually palm-down) indicates a diminuendo. Changing the size of conducting movements may result in unintended tempo changes because larger movements require the beat to traverse more space in the same amount of time.

Dynamics can be fine-tuned using various gestures: showing one's palm to the performers or leaning away from them may demonstrate a decrease in volume. In order to adjust the overall balance of the various instruments or voices, these signals can be combined or directed towards a particular section or performer.

Cueing

The indication of entries, when a performer or section should begin playing (perhaps after a long period of silence), is called "cueing". A cue must forecast with certainty the exact moment of the coming ictus, so that all the players or singers affected by the cue can begin playing simultaneously. Cueing is achieved by engaging the players before their entry and executing a clear preparation, often directed towards the specific players. An inhalation, which may or may not be a semi-audible "sniff" from the conductor, is a common element in the cueing technique of many conductors. Mere eye contact or a look in the general direction of the players may be sufficient in many instances, as when more than one section of the ensemble enters at the same time. Larger musical events may warrant the use of a larger or more emphatic cue designed to encourage emotion and energy.

Other musical elements

Articulation may be indicated by the character of the ictus, ranging from short and sharp for staccato, to long and fluid for legato. Many conductors change the tension of the hands: strained muscles and rigid movements may correspond to marcato, while relaxed hands and soft movements may correspond to legato or espressivo.

Phrasing may be indicated by wide overhead arcs or by a smooth hand motion either forwards or side-to-side. A held note is often indicated by a hand held flat with palm up. The end of a note, called a "cutoff" or "release", may be indicated by a circular motion, the closing of the palm, or the pinching of finger and thumb. A release is usually preceded by a preparation and concluded with a complete stillness.

Conductors aim to maintain eye contact with the ensemble as much as possible, encouraging eye contact in return and increasing the dialogue between players/singers and conductor. Facial expressions may also be important to demonstrate the character of the music or to encourage the players.

See also

References

  • Norman Lebrecht, The Maestro Myth: Great Conductors in Pursuit of Power, 2nd Rev&Up edition, Citadel Press 2001
  • Brock McElheran, "Conducting Technique"
  • Ilya Musin, The Technique of Conducting (Техника дирижирования), Muzyka Publishing House, Moscow, 1967
  • Ennio Nicotra, "Introduction to the orchestral conducting technique in accordance with the orchestral conducting school of Ilya Musin " book+DVD; English, Italian, Spanish text (Edizioni Curci Milano, Italy 2007)
  • Ben Proudfoot, "Conducting as an Art"
  • Frederik Prausnitz, "Score and Podium"
  • Max Rudolf, "The Grammar Of Conducting"
  • Larry G. Curtis and David L. Kuehn, "A Guide To Successful Instrumental Conducting."
  • Michel Faul, "Louis Jullien, musique, spectacle et folie au XIXe siècle" (editions Atlantica, France 2006). Dedicated site: http://louisjullien.site.voila.fr

Notes

  1. ^ Jérôme de La Gorce (2007–08). "(1) Jean-Baptiste Lully (Lulli, Giovanni Battista) (i)" (Subscription required for online access). Oxford Music Online (New Grove). Oxford University Press. http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/42477pg1?q=lully+gangrene&search=quick&pos=1&_start=1#firsthit. Retrieved 2008-10-08. 
  2. ^ Martin, David. The Baton: Necessity or Obstacle? (archived). Orchestra Conductors Blog. October 6, 2006.

Further reading

  • Elliott W. Galkin, History of Orchestral Conducting, Pendragon Press (New York, NY), 1988.

External links


Simple English

[[File:|thumb|Lorin Mazzel, a conductor]]

Conducting in the musical sense means: beating time to help a group of musicians to play well together.

If a large orchestra are playing music, it is important that they all play exactly together. They need to know exactly when to start, what speed to go, how loud or quietly to play and what the mood of the music should be. If two, three or four people play music together they can talk about this amongst themselves and one person can nod with his/her head or with a violin bow or flute to help the group to start and finish together. With an orchestra there are so many people that they need a conductor.

Contents

History

In the 17th century orchestras were very small so they did not need a conductor. But as orchestras grew in size it became more and more necessary to have someone in front to lead. The French composer Lully (1632-1687) used to beat time by banging a big stick (like a walking stick) on the floor to the time of the music. One day he banged his stick very hard and it went through his foot and he became ill and died.

Conducting as we know it had become normal by the 19th century. The composer Mendelssohn (1809-1847) was a very good conductor. Some conductors in Victorian times were very conceited and behaved like showmen. The conductor Louis Antoine Jullien (1812-1860) was a French conductor who often came to England. He wore white kid gloves which were presented to him on a silver tray at the start of the concert. He dressed in expensive clothes and his long black hair waved all over the place as he conducted. His success was immense, in France at first, in the UK afterwards and then even in the US where he worked with the showman P.T. Barnum. His concerts were a mix of dance and "classical" music, always with the best musicians. his life is so peculiar that a biography (in French) has been published (see http://louisjullien.site.voila.fr). The conductor Sir Henry Wood (1869-1944), who was famous for conducting The Proms was a well-liked man who was respected and loved by orchestras and audiences.

Technique of conducting

Conductors usually beat time with their right hand. This leaves their left hand free to show the various instruments when they have entries (when they start playing) or to show them to play louder or softer. Most conductors have a stick called a “baton”. It makes it easier for people at the back of large orchestras or choirs to see the beat. Other conductors prefer not to use a baton. A conductor stands on a small platform called a “rostrum”.

To be a good conductor is not easy. It is not just a question of giving a steady beat. A good conductor has to know the music extremely well so that they can hear any wrong notes. They need to be able to imagine exactly the sound they want the orchestra to make. They also have to communicate this to the orchestra so that they know what the conductor wants. Some conductors speak very little during their rehearsals. They make everything clear through the way they conduct.

Famous conductors

Some of the most famous conductors of the past were: Gustav Mahler, Hans Richter, Arthur Nikisch, Arturo Toscanini, Bruno Walter, Wilhelm Furtwängler, Herbert von Karajan, Leopold Stokowski, Georg Solti, John Barbirolli, Otto Klemperer, George Szell and Leonard Bernstein.

Some of the most famous conductors today are: Claudio Abbado, Marin Alsop, Vladimir Ashkenazy, Sir Colin Davis, Sir Andrew Davis, Valery Gergiev and Bernard Haitink.

Titles

The main conductor who is in charge of an orchestra is often given the title "musical director". This will usually mean that he has a lot of power in the organization of the orchestra. Orchestras may give honorary titles to their conductor such as "conductor laureate". A "guest conductor" is one who conducts an orchestra regularly but is not the main conductor. An "assistant conductor" will often be a young conductor who helps the main conductor and gets the chance to conduct some of the concerts.


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