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State of Connecticut
Flag of Connecticut State seal of Connecticut
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): The Constitution State; The Nutmeg State;
The Provisions State[1]
Motto(s): Qui transtulit sustinet.[1] (Latin)
before statehood, known as
the Connecticut Colony
Map of the United States with Connecticut highlighted
Official language(s) De jure: None
De facto: English
Demonym Connecticuter,[2] Nutmegger[3]
Capital Hartford
Largest city Bridgeport[4]
Largest metro area Greater Hartford[5]
Area  Ranked 48th in the US
 - Total 5,543 sq mi
(14,356 km2)
 - Width 70 miles (113 km)
 - Length 110 miles (177 km)
 - % water 12.6
 - Latitude 40°58′ N to 42°03′ N
 - Longitude 71°47′ W to 73°44′ W
Population  Ranked 29th in the US
 - Total 3,518,288 (2009 est.)[6]
3,405,565 (2000)
 - Density 702.9/sq mi  (271.40/km2)
Ranked 4th in the US
 - Median income  $55,970 (4th)
Elevation  
 - Highest point South slope of Mount Frissell[7]
Note: The summit of Mount Frissell
is in Massachusetts
2,380 ft  (726 m)
 - Mean 500 ft  (152 m)
 - Lowest point Long Island Sound[7]
0 ft  (0 m)
Admission to Union  January 9, 1788 (5th)
Governor M. Jodi Rell (R)
Lieutenant Governor Michael Fedele (R)
U.S. Senators Christopher Dodd (D)
Joe Lieberman (ID)
U.S. House delegation 5 Democrats (list)
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4
Abbreviations CT Conn. US-CT
Website http://www.ct.gov

Connecticut (Listeni /kəˈnɛtɪkət/)[8] (state code CT) is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, and New York to the west and south (because various islands of New York span Connecticut's entire coast).

Southwestern Connecticut is part of the New York metropolitan area; three of Connecticut's eight counties, including most of the state's population, are in the New York City combined statistical area, commonly called the Tri-State Region. Connecticut's center of population is in Cheshire, New Haven County.[9]

Connecticut is the 29th most populous state, with 3.4 million residents, and is ranked 48th in size by area, making it the 4th most densely populated state. Called the Constitution State and the Nutmeg State,[1] Connecticut has a long history dating from early colonial times and was influential in the development of the federal government.

Connecticut's first European settlers were Dutch and established a small, short-lived settlement in present-day Hartford at the confluence of the Park and Connecticut rivers, called Huys de Goede Hoop. Initially, half of Connecticut was a part of the Dutch colony, New Netherland, which included much of the land between the Connecticut and Delaware rivers.

The first major settlements were established in the 1630s by the English. Thomas Hooker led a band of followers overland from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and founded what would become the Connecticut Colony; other settlers from Massachusetts founded the Saybrook Colony and the New Haven Colony. Both the Connecticut and New Haven Colonies established documents of Fundamental Orders, considered the first constitutions in North America. In 1662, the three colonies were merged under a royal charter, making Connecticut a crown colony. This colony was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution.

Connecticut enjoys a temperate climate due to its long coastline on Long Island Sound. This has given the state a strong maritime tradition. Modern Connecticut is also known for its wealth. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Connecticut had ready access to raw materials which helped to develop a strong manufacturing industry, and financial organizations flourished: first insurance companies in Hartford, then hedge funds in Fairfield county. This prosperity has helped give Connecticut the highest per capita income, Human Development Index, and median household income in the country.[10][11][12]

Contents

Geography

Connecticut is bordered on the south by Long Island Sound, on the west by New York State, on the north by Massachusetts, and on the east by Rhode Island. The state capital is Hartford, and the other major cities include Bridgeport, New Haven, Stamford, Waterbury, Danbury and New London. There are 169 incorporated towns in Connecticut.

Bear Mountain, highest peak in Connecticut.

The highest peak in Connecticut is Bear Mountain in Salisbury in the northwest corner of the state. The highest point is just east of where Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New York meet (42° 3' N; 73° 29' W), on the southern slope of Mount Frissell, whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts.[13]

The Connecticut River cuts through the center of the state, flowing into Long Island Sound, Connecticut's outlet to the Atlantic Ocean.

Highest point in Connecticut on slope of Mount Frissell, as seen from Bear Mountain.

Despite its size, the state has regional variations in its landscape and culture from the estates of Fairfield County's "Gold Coast" to the rolling mountains and horse-farms of the Litchfield Hills of northwestern Connecticut. Connecticut's rural areas and small towns in the northeast and northwest corners of the state contrast sharply with its industrial cities, located along the coastal highways from the New York border to New Haven, then northward to Hartford, as well as further up the coast near New London. Many towns center around a "green," such as the New Haven Green, Litchfield Green, Simsbury Green, Lebanon Green (the largest in the state), and Wethersfield Green (the oldest in the state). Near the green typically stand historical visual symbols of New England towns, such as a white church, a colonial meeting house, a colonial tavern or "inne," several colonial houses, etc., establishing a scenic historic appearance maintained for both historic preservation and tourism.

Due to the climate, degree of urbanization, and economic status of the state, it offers easily accessed forests, rivers, lakes, waterfalls and a coastline, all developed for recreation.

The northern boundary of the state with Massachusetts is marked by the distinctive Southwick Jog or Granby Notch, an approximately 2.5 mile (4.0 km) square detour into Connecticut. The actual origin of this anomaly is clearly established in a long line of disputes and temporary agreements which was finally concluded in 1804, when southern Southwick, (whose residents sought to leave Massachusetts), was split in half.[14][15]

Although Connecticut has a long maritime history, and a reputation based on that history, Connecticut has no direct access to the sea. The jurisdiction of New York actually extends east at Fishers Island, where New York shares a sea border with Rhode Island dividing Narragansett Bay. Although Connecticut has easy access to the Atlantic, between Long Island Sound and Block Island Sound, Connecticut has no direct ocean coast.

Windsor's Town Hall and Fountain on the Town Green.

The southwestern border of Connecticut, where it abuts New York State, is marked by a panhandle in Fairfield County, containing the towns of Greenwich, Stamford, New Canaan, Darien and part of Norwalk. This irregularity in the boundary is the result of territorial disputes in the late 1600s, culminating with New York giving up its claim to the area, whose residents considered themselves part of Connecticut, in exchange for an equivalent area extending northwards from Ridgefield to the Massachusetts border as well as undisputed claim to Rye, New York.[16]

Areas maintained by the National Park Service include: Appalachian National Scenic Trail; Quinebaug and Shetucket Rivers Valley National Heritage Corridor; and Weir Farm National Historic Site.[17]

The Scoville Memorial Library is the United States oldest public library.[citation needed] The library collection began in 1771, when Richard Smith, owner of a local blast furnace, used community contributions to buy 200 books in London. Patrons could borrow and return books on the third Monday of every third month. Fees were collected for damages, the most common being "greasing" by wax dripped from the candles by which the patrons read.

Climate

Interior portions of Connecticut have a humid continental climate, while other parts, especially the Connecticut shoreline(southern four counties), have a humid subtropical climate with seasonal extremes tempered by proximity to the Atlantic Ocean. The city of Bridgeport (on Long Island Sound), like most other areas in metropolitan New York, has a humid subtropical climate under the Koppen Climate Classification system. Hartford (35 miles inland) has a humid continental climate. The coast of Southern Connecticut is often considered to be the farthest north on the U.S. east coast that subtropical "indicator" species such as the Dwarf Palmetto, Needle Palm,Windmill Palm, Crape Myrtle and the Southern Magnolia can be successfully cultivated.

Winters are generally considered to be cold, with average temperatures ranging from 31°F (−1°C) in the maritime influenced southeast to 23°F (−5°C) in the northwest in January. The average yearly snowfall is about 25–100" (64–254 cm) across the state, with higher totals in the northwest. Spring has variable temperatures with frequent rainfall. Summer is hot and humid throughout the state, with average highs in New London of 81°F (27°C) and 87°F (31°C) in Windsor Locks. Fall months are mild and bring colorful foliage across the state in October and November. During hurricane season, tropical cyclones occasionally affect the region. Thunderstorms are most frequent during the summer, occurring on average 30 times annually. These storms can be severe, and the state usually averages 1 tornado per year.[18]

Monthly Normal High and Median Temperatures for Various Connecticut Cities
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Bridgeport 37/23 39/25 47/32 57/41 67/51 76/60 82/66 81/65 74/58 63/46 53/38 42/28
Hartford 34/17 38/20 48/28 60/38 72/48 80/57 85/62 82/61 74/52 63/41 51/33 39/23
[19]

History

A map of the Connecticut, New Haven, and Saybrook colonies.

The Connecticut region was inhabited by the Mohegan tribe prior to European colonization. The first European explorer in Connecticut was the Dutch explorer Adriaen Block. After he explored this region in 1614, Dutch fur traders sailed up the Connecticut River (then known by the Dutch as Versche Rivier—" Fresh River") and built a fort at Dutch Point near present-day Hartford, which they called "House of Hope" (Dutch: Huis van Hoop).

John Winthrop, then of Massachusetts, received permission to create a new colony at Old Saybrook at the mouth of the Connecticut River in 1635. This was the first of three distinct colonies that later would be combined to make up Connecticut. Saybrook Colony was a direct challenge to Dutch claims. The colony was not more than a small outpost and never matured. In 1644, the Saybrook Colony merged itself into the Connecticut Colony.

The first English settlers came in 1633 and settled at Windsor and then Wethersfield in 1634. However, the main body of settlers came in one large group in 1636. The settlers were Puritans from Massachusetts, led by Thomas Hooker. Hooker had been prominent in England and was a professor of theology at Cambridge. He was also an important political writer and made a significant contribution to Constitutional theory. He broke with the political leadership in Massachusetts, and, just as Roger Williams created a new polity in Rhode Island, Hooker and his cohort did the same and established the Connecticut Colony at Hartford in 1636. This was the second of the three colonies.

The third colony was founded in March 1638. New Haven Colony (originally known as the Quinnipiack Colony) was established by John Davenport, Theophilus Eaton, and others at New Haven. The New Haven Colony had its own constitution, "The Fundamental Agreement of the New Haven Colony", which was signed on 4 June 1639.

Because the Dutch were outnumbered by the flood of English settlers from Massachusetts, they left their fort in 1654.

Neither the establishment of the Connecticut Colony or the Quinnipiack Colony was carried out with the sanction of the English Crown, and they were independent political entities. They naturally were presumptively English, but in a legal sense, they were only secessionist outposts of Massachusetts Bay. In 1662, Winthrop took advantage of this void in political affairs and obtained in England the charter by which the colonies of Connecticut and Quinnipiack were united. Although Winthrop's charter favored the Connecticut colony, New Haven remained a seat of government with Hartford until after the American Revolution.

Winthrop was very politically astute and secured the charter from the newly restored Charles II, who granted the most liberal political terms.

Historically important colonial settlements included:

Windsor (1633)
Wethersfield (1634)
Saybrook (1635)
Hartford (1636)
New Haven (1638)
Fairfield (1639)
Stratford (1639)
Farmington (1640)
Stamford (1640)
New London (1646)
Middletown (1647)
Manchester (1672)

Its first constitution, the "Fundamental Orders", was adopted on January 14, 1639, while its current constitution, the third for Connecticut, was adopted in 1965. Connecticut is the fifth of the original thirteen states. The original constitutions influenced the US Constitution as one of the leading authors was Roger Sherman of New Haven.

The western boundaries of Connecticut have been subject to change over time. According to the Hartford Treaty with the Dutch, signed on September 19, 1650, but never ratified by the British, the western boundary of Connecticut ran north from Greenwich Bay for a distance of 20 miles[20][21] "provided the said line come not within 10 miles (16 km) [16 km] of Hudson River. This agreement was observed by both sides until war erupted between England and The Netherlands in 1652. No other limits were found. Conflict over uncertain colonial limits continued until the Duke of York captured New Netherland in 1664."[20][21] On the other hand, Connecticut's original Charter in 1662 granted it all the land to the "South Sea", i.e. the Pacific Ocean.[22][23] Most colonial royal grants were for long east-west strips. Connecticut took its grant seriously, and established a ninth county between the Susquehanna and Delaware Rivers, named Westmoreland County. This resulted in the brief Pennamite Wars with Pennsylvania.

Connecticut's lands also extended across northern Ohio, called the Western Reserve lands. The Western Reserve section was settled largely by people from Connecticut, and they brought Connecticut place names to Ohio. Agreements with Pennsylvania and New York extinguished the land claims by Connecticut within its neighbors, and the Western Reserve lands were relinquished to the federal government, which brought the state to its present boundaries.

Names and symbols

Connecticut State Symbols
Flag of Connecticut.svg
The Flag of Connecticut.

Animate insignia
Bird(s) American Robin
Fish American shad
Flower(s) Mountain Laurel
Insect European Mantis
Mammal(s) Sperm whale
Tree Charter White oak

Inanimate insignia
Dance Square dance
Fossil Dinosaur tracks
Mineral Garnet
Shell Eastern Oyster
Ship(s) USS Nautilus (SSN-571), Freedom Schooner Amistad
Slogan(s) Full of Surprises
Song(s) Yankee Doodle,
The Nutmeg
Tartan Connecticut State Tartan

Route marker(s)
Connecticut Route Marker

State Quarter
Quarter of Connecticut
Released in 1999

Lists of United States state insignia

The name "Connecticut" originates from the Mohegan word quinnitukqut, meaning "place of long tidal river".[24] Connecticut's official nickname, adopted in 1959, is "The Constitution State," based on its colonial constitution of 1638–1639 which was the first in America and, arguably, the world.[1] Unofficially (but popularly) Connecticut is also known as "The Nutmeg State".[1] The origins of the nutmeg connection to Connecticut are unknown. It may have come from its sailors returning from voyages with nutmeg (which in the 18th and 19th centuries was a very valuable spice). It may have originated in the early machined sheet tin nutmeg grinders sold by early Connecticut peddlers. It is also facetiously said to come from Yankee peddlers from Connecticut who would sell small carved nobs of wood shaped to look like nutmeg to unsuspecting customers.[25] George Washington gave Connecticut the title of "The Provisions State"[1] because of the material aid the state rendered to the Revolutionary War effort. Connecticut is also known as "The Land of Steady Habits".[1]

According to Webster's New International Dictionary, 1993, a person who is a native or resident of Connecticut is a "Connecticuter". There are numerous other terms coined in print, but not in use, such as: "Connecticotian" - Cotton Mather in 1702. "Connecticutensian" - Samuel Peters in 1781. "Nutmegger" is sometimes used,[26] as is "Yankee" (the official State Song is "Yankee Doodle"), though this usually refers someone from the wider New England region (and in the Southern United States, to anyone who lives north of the Mason-Dixon Line).[27] Linguist Allen Walker Read reports a more playful term, 'connecticutie.' The traditional abbreviation of the state's name is "Conn."; the official postal abbreviation is CT.

Commemorative stamps issued by the United States Postal Service with Connecticut themes include Nathan Hale, Eugene O'Neill, Josiah Willard Gibbs, Noah Webster, Eli Whitney, the whaling ship the Charles W. Morgan which is docked in Mystic Seaport, and a decoy of a broadbill duck.

The Charter Oak.
Connecticut state insignia and historical figures[1] except where noted
State hero Nathan Hale
State heroine Prudence Crandall
State composer Charles Edward Ives
State statues in Statuary Hall Roger Sherman and Jonathan Trumbull[28]
State poet laureate John Hollander
Connecticut State Troubadour Lara Herscovitch[29]
State composer laureate Jacob Druckman

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1790 237,946
1800 251,002 5.5%
1810 261,942 4.4%
1820 275,248 5.1%
1830 297,675 8.1%
1840 309,978 4.1%
1850 370,792 19.6%
1860 460,147 24.1%
1870 537,454 16.8%
1880 622,700 15.9%
1890 746,258 19.8%
1900 908,420 21.7%
1910 1,114,756 22.7%
1920 1,380,631 23.9%
1930 1,606,903 16.4%
1940 1,709,242 6.4%
1950 2,007,280 17.4%
1960 2,535,234 26.3%
1970 3,031,709 19.6%
1980 3,107,576 2.5%
1990 3,287,116 5.8%
2000 3,405,565 3.6%
Est. 2009[6] 3,518,288 3.3%
Sources:[30][31]
Connecticut Population Density Map.

As of 2005, Connecticut has an estimated population of 3,510,297,[32] which is an increase of 11,331, or 0.3%, from the prior year and an increase of 104,695, or 3.1%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 67,427 people (that is 222,222 births minus 154,795 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 41,718 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 75,991 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 34,273 people. Based on the 2005 estimates, Connecticut moves from the 29th most populous state to 30th.[32]

6.6% of its population was reported as being under 5 years old, 24.7% under 18 years old, and 13.8% were 65 years of age or older. Females made up approximately 51.6% of the population, with 48.4% male.

In 1790, 97% of the population in Connecticut was classified as "rural". The first census in which less than half the population was classified as rural was 1890. In the 2000 census, it was only 12.3%. Most of western and southern Connecticut is strongly associated with New York City; this area is the most affluent and populous region of the state. Eastern Connecticut is more culturally influenced by the greater New England area, including the cities of Boston and Providence. Some cite this cultural split when noting the state's lack of professional sports teams, i.e., NHL (hockey) since the mid 1990s, NFL (football), MLS (soccer), and men's basketball.

The center of population of Connecticut is located in the town of Cheshire.[33]

Most populated cities

Race, ancestry, and language

Demographics of Connecticut (csv)
By race White Black AIAN* Asian NHPI*
2000 (total population) 87.09% 10.46% 0.73% 2.83% 0.13%
2000 (Hispanic only) 8.31% 1.04% 0.14% 0.07% 0.04%
2005 (total population) 86.09% 10.88% 0.76% 3.56% 0.15%
2005 (Hispanic only) 9.74% 1.09% 0.16% 0.07% 0.05%
Growth 2000–05 (total population) 1.89% 7.19% 6.59% 29.77% 15.41%
Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only) -0.11% 7.16% 3.74% 30.12% 16.21%
Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only) 20.87% 7.40% 18.36% 14.98% 13.68%
* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander

As of 2004, 11.4% of the population (400,000) was foreign-born, and 10% of the foreign-born in the state were illegal aliens (about 1.1% of the population). In 1870, native-born Americans had accounted for 75% of the state's population, but that had dropped to 35% by 1918.

As of 2000, 81.69% of Connecticut residents age 5 and older spoke English at home and 8.42% spoke Spanish, followed by Italian at 1.59%, French at 1.31% and Polish at 1.20%.[34]

The five largest reported ancestries in the state are: Italian (18.6%), Irish (16.6%), English (10.3%), German (9.9%), and French/French Canadian (9.9%).

Connecticut has large Italian American, Irish American and English American populations, as well as German American and Portuguese American populations, second highest percentage of any state behind Rhode Island (19.3%). Italian is the largest ancestry group in five of the state's counties, while the Irish are the largest group in Tolland county, French Canadians the largest group in Windham county, and old stock New England Yankees are present throughout. African Americans and Hispanics (mostly Puerto Ricans) are numerous in the urban areas of the state. Like Ohio and New York, Connecticut is also known for its relatively large Hungarian American population, the majority of which live in and around Fairfield, Stamford, Naugatuck and Bridgeport. Connecticut also has a sizable Polish American population, with New Britain containing the largest Polish American population in the state.

More recent immigrant populations include those from Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, Mexico, Brazil, Guatemala, Panama, Jamaica, Haiti, Cape Verde and former Soviet countries.

Religion

A 2001 survey of Connecticut residents' religious self-identification showed the following distribution of affiliations:[35]

Jewish congregations had 108,280 (3.2%) members in 2000;[36] The Jewish population is concentrated in the towns near Long Island Sound between Greenwich and New Haven, in Greater New Haven and in Greater Hartford, especially the suburb of West Hartford. According to the Association of Religion Data Archives, the largest Christian denominations, by number of adherents, in 2000 were: the Catholic Church, with 1,372,562; the United Church of Christ, with 124,770; and the Episcopal Church, with 73,550.[36]

Recent immigration has brought other non-Christian religions to the state, but the numbers of adherents of other religions are still low.

Connecticut is also home to New England's largest Protestant Church: The First Cathedral in Bloomfield, Connecticut located in Hartford County.

Economy

Connecticut welcome sign being updated as Rell takes office on July 1, 2004.
Connecticut state welcome sign. Entering Enfield, CT.
Entering the Merritt Parkway from New York. Entering Greenwich, CT.
Connecticut quarter, reverse side, 1999.jpg

The total gross state product for 2006 was $204 billion. The per capita income for 2007 was $54,117, ranking first among the states.[37] There is, however, a great disparity in incomes throughout the state; although New Canaan has one of the highest per capita incomes in America, Hartford is one of the ten cities with the lowest per capita incomes in America. As with Bridgeport, New Haven and other cities in the state, Hartford is surrounded by wealthier suburbs.

New Canaan is the wealthiest town in Connecticut, with a per capita income of $85,459. Darien, Greenwich, Weston, Westport and Wilton also have per capita incomes over $65,000. Hartford is the poorest municipality in Connecticut, with a per capita income of $13,428 in 2000.[38] There are other lower-income and blue-collar towns, mostly parts of towns, in the eastern part of the State.

Taxation

Prior to 1991, Connecticut had a highly populist income tax system. Income from employment was untaxed, but income from investments was taxed at the highest rate in the U.S. at 13%. And this burden was further increased by the method of calculation: no deductions were allowed for the cost (for example, interest on borrowing) of producing the investment income. Under Governor Lowell P. Weicker, Jr., an Independent, this was reformed to the present system. The system made it an attractive haven for high-salaried earners fleeing the heavy taxes of New York State, but highly unattractive for members of Wall Street partnerships. It put an enormous burden on Connecticut property tax payers, particularly in the cities with their more extensive municipal services.

With Weicker's 1991 tax reform, the tax on employment and investment income were equalized at a maximum rate of 4%. Since then, Greenwich, Connecticut, has become the headquarters of choice for a large number of America's largest hedge funds. Today the income tax rate on Connecticut individuals is divided into two tax brackets of 3% and 5%.[39] All wages of a Connecticut resident are subject to the state's income tax, even when the resident works outside of the state. However, in those cases, Connecticut income tax must be withheld only to the extent the Connecticut tax exceeds the amount withheld by the other jurisdiction. Since New York state and Massachusetts have higher tax rates than Connecticut, this effectively means that Connecticut residents that work in those states pay no income tax to Connecticut.

Connecticut levies a 6% state sales tax on the retail sale, lease, or rental of most goods. Some items and services in general are not subject to sales and use taxes unless specifically enumerated as taxable by statute. There are no additional sales taxes imposed by local jurisdictions. During the summer there is one week during which sales tax on certain items and quantities of clothing is not imposed in order to assist those with children returning to school.

All real and personal property located within the state of Connecticut is taxable unless specifically exempted by statute. All assessments are at 70% of fair market value. Another 20% of the value may be taxed by the local government though. The maximum property tax credit is $500 per return and any excess may not be refunded or carried forward.[39] Connecticut does not levy an intangible personal property tax.

Real estate

Homes in Connecticut vary widely with a median price of approximately $226,000. By contrast, the median value for a home in Fairfield County, for example, is about $370,000.[40][41] Connecticut has the most multi-million dollar homes in the Northeast, and the second most in the nation after California, with 3.3% of homes in Connecticut priced over $1 million in 2003.[42]

Industries

The agricultural produce of the state includes nursery stock; eggs; clams and lobster (shellfish); dairy products; cattle; and tobacco. Its industrial output includes transportation equipment, especially helicopters, aircraft parts, and nuclear submarines; heavy industrial machinery and electrical equipment; military weaponry; fabricated metal products; chemical and pharmaceutical products; and scientific instruments.

Due to the prominence of the aircraft industry in the state, Connecticut has an official state aircraft, the F4U Corsair, and an official Connecticut Aviation Pioneer, Igor Sikorsky. The state officially recognizes aircraft designer Gustav Whitehead as "Father of Connecticut Aviation" for his research into powered flight in Bridgeport, Connecticut in 1901, two years before the Wright brothers at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.[43] Governor John Dempsey also declared August 15 to be "Gustave Whitehead Day".[44]

A report issued by the Connecticut Commission on Culture & Tourism on December 7, 2006, demonstrated that the economic impact of the arts, film, history and tourism generated more than $14 billion in economic activity and 170,000 jobs annually. This provides $9 billion in personal income for Connecticut residents and $1.7 billion in state and local revenue.[45]

Transportation

Map of Connecticut showing major highways.

Roads

The Interstate highways in the state are I-95 (the Connecticut Turnpike) running southwest to northeast along the coast, I-84 running southwest to northeast in the center of the state, I-91 running north to south in the center of the state, and I-395 running north to south near the eastern border of the state. The other major highways in Connecticut are the Merritt Parkway and Wilbur Cross Parkway, which together form State Route 15, running from the Hutchinson River Parkway in New York State parallel to I-95 before turning north of New Haven and running parallel to I-91, finally becoming a surface road in Berlin, Connecticut. Route 15 and I-95 were originally toll roads; they relied on a system of toll plazas at which all traffic stopped and paid fixed tolls. A series of terrible crashes at these plazas eventually contributed to the decision to remove the tolls in 1988.[46] Other major arteries in the state include U.S. Route 7 in the west running parallel to the NY border, State Route 8 farther east near the industrial city of Waterbury and running north-south along the Naugatuck River Valley nearly parallel with U.S. 7, and State Route 9 in the east. See List of State Routes in Connecticut for an overview of the state's highway system.

Between New Haven and the New York City, I-95 is one of the most congested highways in the United States. Many people now drive longer distances to work in the New York City area. This strains the three lanes of traffic capacity, resulting in lengthy rush hour delays. Frequently, the congestion spills over to clog the parallel Merritt Parkway. The state has encouraged traffic reduction schemes, including rail use and ride-sharing.[47]

Connecticut also has a very active bicycling community, with one of the highest rates of bicycling ownership and use in the United States. New Haven's cycling community, organized in a local advocacy group called ElmCityCycling, is particularly active. According to the U.S. Census 2006 American Community Survey, New Haven has the highest percentage of commuters who bicycle to work of any major metropolitan center on the East Coast.

Public transportation

Rail

Southwestern Connecticut is served by MTA's Metro-North Railroad New Haven Line, providing commuter service to New York City and New Haven, with branches servicing New Canaan, Danbury, and Waterbury. Connecticut lies along Amtrak's Northeast Corridor which features frequent Northeast Regional and Acela Express service. Towns between New Haven and New London are also served by the Shore Line East commuter line. Operation of commuter trains from New Haven to Springfield on Amtrak's New Haven-Springfield Line is under consideration.[48][49] Amtrak also operates a shuttle service between New Haven and Springfield, Massachusetts, servicing Hartford and other towns on the corridor.

Bus

Statewide bus service is supplied by Connecticut Transit, owned by the Connecticut Department of Transportation, with smaller municipal authorities providing local service. Bus networks are an important part of the transportation system in Connecticut, especially in urban areas like Hartford, Stamford, Norwalk, Bridgeport and New Haven. A three-year construction project to build a busway from New Britain to Hartford began in August 2009.[50][51]

Air

Bradley International Airport is located in Windsor Locks, 15 miles (24 km) north of Hartford. Regional air service is provided at Tweed New Haven Regional Airport. Larger civil airports include Danbury Municipal Airport and Waterbury-Oxford Airport in western Connecticut. Sikorsky Memorial Airport is located in Stratford and mostly services cargo, helicopter and private aviation. The Westchester County Airport in Harrison, New York serves much of southwestern Connecticut.

Law and government

The Connecticut State Capitol in downtown Hartford.

Hartford has been the sole capital of Connecticut since 1875. Before then, New Haven and Hartford alternated as capitals.[24]

Constitutional history

Connecticut is known as the "Constitution State". While the origin on this title is uncertain, the nickname is assumed to refer to the Fundamental Orders of 1638–39. These Fundamental Orders represent the framework for the first formal government written by a representative body in Connecticut. The government has operated under the direction of four separate documents in the course of Connecticut Constitutional History. After the Fundamental Orders, Connecticut was granted governmental authority by King Charles II of England through the Connecticut Charter of 1662. While these two documents acted to lay the ground work for the state’s government, either document could be altered simply by a majority vote of the General Assembly.[citation needed] Separate branches of government did not exist during this period, and the General Assembly acted as the supreme authority. A constitution similar to the modern U.S. Constitution was not adopted in Connecticut until 1818. Finally, the current state constitution was implemented in 1965. The 1965 constitution absorbed a majority of its 1818 predecessor, but incorporated a handful of important modifications. Another possible source of the nickname "constitution state" comes from Connecticut's pivotal role in the federal constitutional convention of 1787, during which Roger Sherman and Oliver Ellsworth helped to orchestrate what became known as the Connecticut Compromise, or the Great Compromise. This plan combined the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan to form a bicameral legislature, a form copied by almost every state constitution since the adoption of the federal constitution.

Executive

The governor heads the executive branch. The current Governor of Connecticut is M. Jodi Rell (Republican). The current Lieutenant Governor is Michael Fedele. From 1639 until the adoption of the 1818 constitution, the governor presided over the General Assembly. Connecticut was the first state in the United States to elect a woman as governor without electing her husband first, Ella Grasso in 1974.

There are several executive departments: Administrative Services, Agriculture, Banking, Children and Families, Consumer Protection, Correction, Economic and Community Development, Developmental Services, Education, Environmental Protection, Higher Education, Information Technology, Insurance, Labor, Mental Health and Addiction Services, Military, Motor Vehicles, Public Health, Public Safety, Public Utility Control, Public Works, Revenue Services, Social Services, Transportation, and Veterans Affairs. In addition to these departments, there are other independent bureaus, offices and commissions.[52]

In addition to the Governor and Lieutenant Governor, there are four other executive officers named in the state constitution that are elected directly by voters: Secretary of the State, Treasurer, Comptroller and Attorney General. All executive officers are elected to four year terms.[24]

Legislative

The legislature is the General Assembly. The General Assembly is a bicameral body consisting of an upper body, the State Senate (36 senators); and a lower body, the House of Representatives (151 representatives).[24] Bills must pass each house in order to become law. The governor can veto the bill, but this veto can be overridden by a two-thirds majority in each house. Senators and representatives, all of whom must be at least eighteen years of age, are elected to two-year terms in November on even-numbered years. The Lieutenant Governor presides over the Senate, except when absent from the chamber, when the President pro tempore presides. The Speaker of the House presides over the House; Chris Donovan is the current Speaker of the House of Connecticut. The Democrats currently hold a two-thirds super-majority in both houses of the General Assembly.

Connecticut's U.S. senators are Christopher J. Dodd (Democrat) and Joseph I. Lieberman (Connecticut for Lieberman, Independent Democrat) who is part of the Democratic Caucus. Connecticut currently has five representatives in the U.S. House, all of whom are Democrats. Connecticut and Vermont remain the only two states with Independent Senators.

Judicial

The highest court of Connecticut's judicial branch is the Connecticut Supreme Court, headed by the Chief Justice of Connecticut. The Supreme Court is responsible for deciding on the constitutionality of the law or cases as they relate to the law. Its proceedings are similar to those of the United States Supreme Court, with no testimony given by witnesses, and the lawyers of the two sides each present oral arguments no longer than thirty minutes. Following a court proceeding, the court may take several months to arrive at a judgment. The current Chief Justice is Chase T. Rogers.

In 1818, the court became a separate entity, independent of the legislative and executive branches.[53] The Appellate Court is a lesser state-wide court and the Superior Courts are lower courts that resemble county courts of other states.

Local government

and several lists: List of municipalities of Connecticut by population, List of towns in Connecticut, List of cities in Connecticut, Borough (Connecticut), List of counties in Connecticut

Connecticut has 169 towns, which serve as the fundamental local political subdivision of the state; the entire state is divided into towns.[24] Connecticut shares a local form of government with the rest of New England called the New England town. There are also 21 cities,[24] most of which are coterminous with their namesake towns and have a merged city-town government. There are two exceptions: City of Groton, which is a subsection of the Town of Groton and the City of Winsted in the Town of Winchester. There are also nine incorporated boroughs which may provide additional services to a section of town.[24][54] One, Naugatuck, is a consolidated town and borough.

Unlike most other states, Connecticut does not have county government. Connecticut county governments were mostly eliminated in 1960, with the exception of sheriffs elected in each county.[55] In 2000, the county sheriff was abolished and replaced with the state marshal system, which has districts that follow the old county territories. The judicial system is divided, at the trial court level, into judicial districts which largely follow the old county lines.[56] The eight counties are still widely used for purely geographical and statistical purposes, such as weather reports, and census reporting.

The state is divided into 15 planning regions defined by the state Office of Planning and Management.[57] The Intragovernmental Policy Division of this Office coordinates regional planning with the administrative bodies of these regions. Each region has an administrative body known as either a regional council of governments, a regional council of elected officials, or a regional planning agency. The regions are established for the purpose of planning "coordination of regional and state planning activities; designation or redesignation of logical planning regions and promotion of the continuation of regional planning organizations within the state; and provision for technical aid and the administration of financial assistance to regional planning organizations."[57]

Politics

Presidential elections results[58]
Year Republican Democratic
2008 38.77% 620,210 61.23% 979,316
2004 43.95% 693,826 54.31% 857,488
2000 38.44% 561,094 55.91% 816,015
1996 34.69% 483,109 52.83% 735,740
1992 35.78% 578,313 42.21% 682,318
1988 51.98% 750,241 46.87% 676,584
1984 60.73% 890,877 38.83% 569,597
1980 48.16% 677,210 38.52% 541,732
1976 52.06% 719,261 46.90% 647,895
1972 58.57% 810,763 40.13% 555,498
1968 44.32% 556,721 49.48% 621,561
1964 32.09% 390,996 67.81% 826,269
1960 46.27% 565,813 53.73% 657,055

Connecticut recently leans strongly towards the Democratic Party. However, Connecticut has a high number of voters who are not registered with a major party. As of 2004, 33.7% of registered voters were registered Democratic, 22.0% were registered Republican, and 44.0% were unaffiliated with any party, with 0.2% registered with a minor party.[59]

Many Connecticut towns show a marked preference for moderate candidates of either party. Democrats hold a registration edge especially in the cities of Hartford; New Haven; and Bridgeport, where Democratic machines have held power since the great immigration waves of the 1800s.[citation needed] The state's Republican-leaning areas are the rural Litchfield County and adjoining towns in the west of Hartford County, the industrial towns of the Naugatuck River Valley, and some of the affluent Fairfield County towns near the New York border. The suburban towns of New Canaan and Darien in Fairfield County are considered the most Republican areas in the state. Westport, a wealthy town a few miles to the east, is often considered one of the most loyally-Democratic, liberal towns in Fairfield County. The historically Republican-leaning wealthy town of Wilton voted in the majority for Barack Obama in the 2008 Presidential Election. Norwalk and Stamford, two larger, affluent communities in Fairfield County, have in many elections favored moderate Republicans including former Governor John G. Rowland and former Congressman Chris Shays, however they have favored Democrats in recent US presidential candidates, the latter being defeated by Democrat Jim Himes in the 2008 election year. Waterbury has a Democratic registration edge, but usually favors conservative candidates in both parties. In Danbury unaffiliated voters outnumber voters registered with either major party. Other smaller cities including Meriden, New Britain, Norwich and Middletown favor Democratic candidates.

Democrats hold veto-proof majorities in both houses of the Connecticut General Assembly. In July, 2009 the Connecticut legislature overrode a veto by Governor M. Jodi Rell to pass SustiNet, the first significant public-option health care reform legislation in the nation.[60]

In 2008, Democrats controlled all five federal congressional seats. The remaining Republican, Chris Shays, lost his seat to Democrat Jim Himes in the Congressional Election of that year. Christopher Dodd and Joseph Lieberman are Connecticut's U.S. senators. The senior Dodd is a Democrat while the junior Lieberman serves as an Independent Democrat caucusing with Senate Democrats after his victory on the Connecticut for Lieberman ballot line in the 2006 general election. Lieberman's predecessor, Lowell P. Weicker, Jr., was the last Connecticut Republican to serve as Senator. Weicker was known as a liberal Republican. He broke with President Richard Nixon during Watergate and successfully ran for governor in 1990 as an independent, creating A Connecticut Party as his election vehicle. Before Weicker, the last Republican to represent Connecticut in the Senate was Prescott Bush, the father of former President George H.W. Bush and the grandfather of former President George W. Bush. He served from 1953–1963.

Education

Connecticut is well known as the home of Yale University (1701), which maintains a consistent ranking as one of the world's most renowned universities and has one of the most selective undergraduate programs of any university in the United States (a 7.5% acceptance rate in 2009).[61] Yale is one of the largest employers in the state, and its research activity has recently spun off dozens of growing biotechnology companies.

Connecticut is also the host of many other academic institutions, including Trinity College (1823), Wesleyan University (1832), University of Hartford (1877), Post University (1890), Connecticut College (1911), the United States Coast Guard Academy (1915), University of Bridgeport (1927), Quinnipiac University (1929), Fairfield University (1942), Sacred Heart University (1964), and the Connecticut State University System. The University of Connecticut (1881) has been the highest ranked public university in New England for eight years running, according to U.S. News and World Report.[citation needed]

The state has many noted boarding schools, including Avon Old Farms (1927), Canterbury School (1915), Cheshire Academy (1794), Choate Rosemary Hall (1890), Ethel Walker School (1911), The Gunnery (1850), Hotchkiss School (1891), Kent School (1906), Loomis Chaffee (1874), Miss Porter's School (1843), Pomfret School (1894), Salisbury School (1901), Suffield Academy (1833), The Taft School (1890), and the Westminster School (1888), which draw students from all over the world.

Connecticut has many noted private day schools such as Brunswick School (1902) in Greenwich, Fairfield College Preparatory School (1942) in Fairfield, Academy of Our Lady of Mercy Lauralton Hall (1905) in Milford, Greens Farms Academy (1925) in Greens Farms, Hamden Hall Country Day School (1912) in Hamden, Holy Cross High School (1968) in Waterbury, Hopkins School (1660) in New Haven, Kingswood-Oxford School (1909) in West Hartford, Notre Dame Catholic High School (1955) in Fairfield, King Low Heywood Thomas (1865) in Stamford, the Norwich Free Academy (1854) in Norwich, St. Lukes School (1928) in New Canaan, St. Joseph High School (1962) in Trumbull, and the Williams School (1891) in New London.

Connecticut was also home to the nation's first law school, Litchfield Law School, which operated from 1773 to 1833 in Litchfield. Hartford Public High School (1638) is the third-oldest secondary school in the nation after the Collegiate School (1628) in Manhattan and the Boston Latin School (1635). The Hopkins School (1660) is the fifth-oldest after these three and the Roxbury Latin School (1645) in Boston.

The Connecticut State Department of Education manages the state's public schools. Avon High School, Conard High School, Enfield High School, Farmington High School, Greenwich High School, Simsbury High School, and Staples High School have been nationally recognized for their excellence.[citation needed]

for a comprehensive listing.

Sports

Since 1952, a PGA Tour golf tournament has been played in the Hartford area. Originally called the "Insurance City Open" and later the "Greater Hartford Open," the event is now known as the Travelers Championship.

Lime Rock Park is a motorsport track home of American Le Mans Series, Grand-Am Rolex Sports Car Series and NASCAR Camping World East Series races.

The Pilot Pen Tennis Tournament is held annually at the Connecticut Tennis Center at Yale University.

The Connecticut Interscholastic Athletic Conference (CIAC) is the state's sanctioning body for high school sports.

New Haven had minor league hockey teams from 1936 through 1993, and also from 1997 to 2001, but does not have a suitable arena following the demise of the New Haven Coliseum in 2001.

Professional sports teams

Club Sport League
Bridgeport Sound Tigers Ice hockey American Hockey League
Danbury Mad Hatters Ice hockey Eastern Professional Hockey League
Hartford Wolf Pack Ice hockey American Hockey League
New Britain Rock Cats Baseball Minor League Baseball (AA)
Bridgeport Bluefish Baseball Atlantic League
Manchester Silkworms Baseball New England Collegiate Baseball League
Danbury Westerners Baseball New England Collegiate Baseball League
Stamford Robins Baseball Atlantic Collegiate Baseball League
Connecticut Sun Basketball Women's National Basketball Association
New Haven Warriors Rugby League American National Rugby League
Connecticut Wildcats Rugby League American National Rugby League
Hartford Wanderers Rugby Union New England Rugby Football Union
New Haven Old Black Rugby Union New England Rugby Football Union
Hartford Colonials Football United Football League
Connecticut Yankees Rugby Union New England Rugby Union and MetroNY (MetNY) Rugby Union
Nutmeg BMX BMX Racing National Bicycle League
CT RollerGirls Roller derby Women's Flat Track Derby Association

Famous residents

- George Walker Bush, the forty-third President of the United States, was born in Connecticut. He is a member of the Bush political family, with roots in the state extending three generations.

- American author Mark Twain resided in his innovative Hartford home from 1871 until 1891, during which time he published The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. He lived in Redding from 1908 until his death in 1910.[63]

- Noah Webster was born in Hartford in an area that is now part of West Hartford and was the author of the "Blue Backed Speller," now known as Webster's Dictionary. The Speller was used to teach spelling to five generations of Americans.

- Many music stars, radio and television personalities, and athletes have made temporary homes in the wealthy suburbs of Fairfield County. Singer Gene Pitney was born in Hartford and grew up in Rockville. Actor Dylan McDermott was born and raised in Waterbury. Meg Ryan lived in Bethel while growing up. Paul Newman, before his death in 2008, lived in Connecticut for most of his life and it is often referred to as his "adopted state".[citation needed]

- Other notable figures from the state span American political and cultural history, including Roger Sherman, Benedict Arnold, Nathan Hale, Eli Whitney, John Brown, Prudence Crandall, P. T. Barnum, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Florence Griswold, Charles Ives, Wallace Stevens, Eugene O'Neill, Katharine Hepburn, Leroy Anderson, Joanne Woodward, Ralph Nader, Jacques Pépin, Christopher Walken, Phil Donahue, Marlo Thomas, Mia Farrow, Jane Curtin, Jamey Jasta, Patti LuPone, Meryl Streep, Michael Bolton, 50 Cent, Emily Saliers, James Blake and John Mayer.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "SOTS: Sites, Seals & Symbols". http://www.sots.ct.gov/sots/cwp/view.asp?A=3188&QUESTION_ID=392608. Retrieved 2008-06-12. 
  2. ^ United States Government Printing Office Style Manual (2000), §5.23, http://www.gpoaccess.gov/stylemanual/index.html
  3. ^ SHG Resources, http://www.shgresources.com/resources/symbols/names/residentnames/
  4. ^ Population Estimates for All Places: 2000 to 2006: Connecticut SUB-EST2006-04-09.xls. United States Census Bureau. Last accessed 2007-10-16.
  5. ^ State Data from the State and Metropolitan Area Data Book: 2006. United States Census Bureau. Last accessed 2007-10-16.
  6. ^ a b "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/popest/states/NST-ann-est.html. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  7. ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S Geological Survey. 29 April 2005. http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html#Highest. Retrieved 2006-11-03. 
  8. ^ "Connecticut - Definitions from Dictionary.com". http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/connecticut. Retrieved 2007-09-17. 
  9. ^ "State of Connecticut Center of Population - From ngs.noaa.gov". http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/INFO/COP/ct_links.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-30. 
  10. ^ "Highest wages in East, lowest in South". USA Today. 29 November 2005. http://www.usatoday.com/money/economy/2005-11-29-wage_x.htm. 
  11. ^ "Census 2000". United States Census Bureau. 18 March 2000. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/GCTTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&-_box_head_nbr=GCT-P14&-ds_name=DEC_2000_SF3_U&-format=US-9. 
  12. ^ "US slips down development index". BBC. 17 July 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7511426.stm. 
  13. ^ "Mount Frissell-South Slope". peakbagger.com. http://peakbagger.com/peak.aspx?pid=7083. 
  14. ^ "The Southwick Jog" (PDF). http://www.southwickma.org/Public_Documents/F000102F9/S00476B50-00476B5B.0/The%20Southwick%20Jog.pdf. 
  15. ^ "Connecticut's Southwick Jog". Connecticut State Library. http://www.cslib.org/jog.htm. 
  16. ^ "Connecticut's "Panhandle"". Connecticut State Library. http://www.cslib.org/panhandle.htm. 
  17. ^ "Connecticut". National Park Service. http://www.nps.gov/state/ct. Retrieved 2008-07-15. 
  18. ^ "Annual average number of tornadoes". NOAA National Climatic Data Center. http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/img/climate/research/tornado/small/avgt5304.gif. Retrieved 2006-10-24. 
  19. ^ http://www.ustravelweather.com/weather-connecticut/
  20. ^ a b Bowen, Clarence Winthrop: Boundary Disputes of Connecticut: Boston, Massachusetts: 1882. P. 17–18.
  21. ^ a b Flick, Alexander C., Editor: History of the State of New York. Volume 2: New York, New York: Columbia University Press, 1933–1937: P. 50–57.
  22. ^ Connecticut Colony Charter of 1662
  23. ^ Migration from Connecticut By Barbara Lacey, Connecticut's Heritage Gateway website.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g "CT.gov: About Connecticut". http://www.ct.gov/ctportal/cwp/view.asp?a=843&q=246434. Retrieved 2005-12-18. 
  25. ^ "roadscape.com/nutmeg.html". http://www.roadescape.com/nutmeg.html. 
  26. ^ "Connecticut's Nicknames". Connecticut State Library. http://www.cslib.org/nicknamesCT.htm. 
  27. ^ See Yankee main article.
  28. ^ See National Statuary Hall Collection
  29. ^ Connecticut State Troubadour; CT Commission on Culture & Tourism Arts Division website; retrieved January 4, 2007
  30. ^ Population: 1790 to 1990 census.gov
  31. ^ Resident Population of the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico: Census 2000 census.gov
  32. ^ a b "Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States and States, and for Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2005" (CSV). 2005 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. June 21, 2006. http://www.census.gov/popest/states/tables/NST-EST2005-01.csv. Retrieved 2006-11-17. 
  33. ^ "Population and Population Centers by State - 2000". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/cenpop/statecenters.txt. Retrieved 2008-12-04. 
  34. ^ "Most spoken languages in Connecticut". MLA Language Map. The Modern Language Association. http://www.mla.org/map_data_results&state_id=9&mode=state_tops&order=r. Retrieved 2007-01-16. 
  35. ^ Mayer, Egon; Kosmin, Barry A., Keysar, Ariela (2001). "American Religious Identification Survey, Key Findings, Exhibit 15". City University of New York. http://www.gc.cuny.edu/faculty/research_briefs/aris/key_findings.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-04. 
  36. ^ a b The Association of Religion Data Archives Maps & Reports - State Membership Report / Kansas / Denominational Groups, 2000
  37. ^ "CT Named Richest State". The Hartford Courant. 2008-03-26. http://www.courant.com/news/custom/topnews/hcu-ctrichstate,0,6885224.story. 
  38. ^ Connecticut per capita income, median household income, and median family income at State, County and Town level: Census 2000 data
  39. ^ a b Connecticut income tax instructions
  40. ^ http://www.thewarrengroup.com/portal/Solutions/PressReleases/tabid/190/newsid751/2311/Default.aspx
  41. ^ http://www.hartfordbusiness.com/news8814.html
  42. ^ Christie, Les (2006-02-23). "Million Dollar Homes". CNN.com. http://money.cnn.com/2006/02/22/real_estate/february_million_dollar_homes/index.htm?section=money_topstories. Retrieved 2007-01-23. 
  43. ^ O'Dwyer, Maj. William J. (October 1998). "The "Who Flew First" Debate" ( – Scholar search). Flight Journal (Air Age Media). http://www.flightjournal.com/articles/wff/wff2.asp. Retrieved 2007-01-23. 
  44. ^ Delear, Frank (March 1996). "Gustave Whitehead and the First-Flight Controversy". Aviation History. http://www.historynet.com/air_sea/aviation_history/3032816.html?page=7&c=y. Retrieved 2007-01-23. 
  45. ^ The Economic Impact of the Arts, Film, History, and Tourism Industries in Connecticut (Highlights) Connecticut Commission on Culture and Tourism
  46. ^ Connecticut Turnpike (I-95) nycroads.com
  47. ^ ctrides.com
  48. ^ Reitz, Stephanie (2006-07-30). "Conn. looks into building rail line from Springfield to New Haven". The Boston Globe (The New York Times Company). http://www.boston.com/news/local/massachusetts/articles/2006/07/30/conn_looks_into_building_rail_line_from_springfield_to_new_haven/. Retrieved 2007-01-29. 
  49. ^ http://www.nhhsrail.com/
  50. ^ State of Connecticut (2006-10-31). "New Britain-to-Hartford ‘Busway’ Receives Final Federal Design Approval". Press release. http://www.ct.gov/governorrell/cwp/view.asp?Q=326626&A=2425. Retrieved 2007-01-29. 
  51. ^ New Britain-Hartford Rapid Transit Project Schedule
  52. ^ "Connecticut's Executive Branch of Government". ct.gov. http://www.ct.gov/ctportal/cwp/view.asp?a=843&q=246450. 
  53. ^ History of the Connecticut Courts. Last retrieved 2007-02-20.
  54. ^ Connecticut's Boroughs and Cities. Connecticut State Library. Accessed 20 January 2007.
  55. ^ "Connecticut State Register and Manual: Counties". http://www.sots.ct.gov/RegisterManual/SectionVI/SecVICounty.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-07. 
  56. ^ State of Connecticut Judicial Branch
  57. ^ a b Regional Planning Coordination at the CT Office of Planning and Management
  58. ^ "Presidential General Election Results Comparison - Connecticut". Dave Leip's Atlas of United States Presidential Elections. 2005. http://www.uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/compare.php?year=2004&fips=9&f=0&off=0&elect=0&type=state. Retrieved 2007-01-20. 
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  60. ^ http://www.aarp.org/states/ct/advocacy/articles/in_historic_vote_legislature_overrides_sustinet_veto.html
  61. ^ "Admit rate falls to record-low 7.5 percent". Yale Daily News. 31 March 2009. http://www.yaledailynews.com/articles/view/28392. Retrieved 2009-04-23. 
  62. ^ Where Do Rivals Draw the Line? - New York Times
  63. ^ [1].

External links

Government
General
Tourism
History
Civic and business organizations

Related information

Preceded by
Georgia
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Ratified Constitution on January 9, 1788 (5th)
Succeeded by
Massachusetts

Coordinates: 41°36′N 72°42′W / 41.6°N 72.7°W / 41.6; -72.7


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Connecticut [1] is a small New England state, full of charm, rural beauty and several major cities. The State's top tourist attractions include Yale University, which maintains numerous world-class museums, Mystic Seaport, the restaurant and nightlife scene in downtown New Haven, The Maritime Aquarium, and two major Native American casinos.

Regions of Connecticut
Regions of Connecticut
Fairfield County
Southwest Connecticut, near New York City. This area has many beaches and lighthouses, and many of the state's biggest cities, such as Bridgeport, Stamford, and Norwalk.
Litchfield Hills
Northwest Connecticut. Here you will find the less dense areas with colorful leaves in the autumn. There are some smaller cities such as Torrington, Danbury, and New Milford.
Greater New Haven
South central Connecticut. Here is the cultural section of the state, home to theaters, museums, and Yale University. It includes cities such as New Haven, Milford, and Guilford.
Connecticut River Valley
From North central Connecticut to the coast. Home to the state capitol Hartford, and many other historic sights.
Mystic-Eastern
New London, Tolland and Windham Counties in eastern Connecticut. A good place to get a view of the Long Island Sound, with beaches, and the famous Mystic Seaport/Aquarium. Has two of the biggest casinos in the world. Includes cities such as New London, Mystic, Uncasville, and Ledyard.
  • Hartford - The state capital.
  • Bridgeport- The most populated city in the state.
  • Danbury - Also known as Hat City, Danbury is home to Western Connecticut State University, Candlewood Lake, and many good restaurants.
  • Greenwich - Ranked the 12th greatest place to live, Greenwich is a quaint town with a great view of Long Island.
  • Mystic - This is one of the most common places to visit, due to the historic seaport and aquarium.
  • New Haven - the state's "creative capital" and home to the greatest amount of pedestrian life, top-rated restaurants and tourist attractions
  • New London - Home to the coast guard acadamy, New London has a historic view of Long Island Sound.
  • Norwalk - home to trendy SoNo with an active night life and The Maritime Aquarium
  • Waterbury - This is a small urban community with lots to do. Look for the Union Station Clocktower that overlooks the city.

Other destinations

Connecticut is rich with history, nature, art and beauty. Truly something for everyone. While many people are drawn each year to Mohegan Sun and Foxwoods Casinos, there is much more in this state. There are a number of beaches at the shore, state parks and forests throughout the state, and many smaller parks as well. Gillette Castle State Park in East Haddam is an excellent family destination. So is the Essex Steam Train and River Boat Ride in Essex.

Beaches

See "Do"

Understand

Geography

Connecticut is split by the Connecticut River, the largest river in New England. The state has 8 counties, and 167 towns and cities. The largest lake, Candlewood lake, is located near the New York border.

Weather

Like most of New England, the weather in Connecticut is varied with the seasons. It can be highly unpredictable in the spring and fall months. The weather in Connecticut is generally stable compared to many other parts of the country. Dangers that plague many regions of the country (e.g., tornadoes, mudslides, earthquakes, etc.,) are not a danger here.

It is recommended to bring clothes for a variety of temperatures when visiting, and to check the weather report closely. Although there are periods of little or no rain, a raincoat or umbrella are good items to pack. Warm clothes in the winter and light clothes in the summer are also important, although it is recommended to pack a light jacket, even in the summer months.

Talk

New Britain, Connecticut is well known for its large Polish community. Large cities in Connecticut, such as Bridgeport, Hartford, New Haven and Waterbury have significant Hispanic populations. Bridgeport also has a small Brazilian area. New Haven's Chinatown caters to Mandarin speakers, and Wooster St serves as the city's "Little Italy."

Many people in Fairfield County have a New York accent with the county's proximity to New York City, while some people in Northern Connecticut have a Boston accent.

Get in

By plane

In state

  • Tweed New Haven Regional Airport, 155 Burr Street, New Haven, +1 203 466-8833, [4]. A smaller airport with flights to Philadelphia.
  • Waterbury-Oxford Airport, popular with private aviation. [5] [6]
  • Sikorsky Mem'l Airport [7] in Stratford is a private aircraft charter service based there.
  • Meriden Airport [8] in Meriden, CT provides private air charter.
  • Danbury Municipal Airport in Danbury is mainly used for general aviation.

Out of state

  • Laguardia, JFK, and Newark in the New York City area are all a common choice for travelers in the western part of the state. These are all larger airports then in-state airports, and have more flight opportunities.
  • Logan International Airport in Boston can be a good choice for travelers going to the northeast corner of the state, but is far away from any of the major cities, such as Hartford and New Haven.
  • The Bridgeport-Port Jefferson Ferry crosses Long Island Sound daily between Port Jefferson, Long Island and Bridgeport, CT. It carries cars and passengers. Cross Sound Ferry connects New London, CT and Orient Point, NY (the easternmost tip of Long Island's North Fork.) It also carries cars and passengers.

By train

Amtrak [9] provides frequent service to Connecticut destinations on trains between Penn Station in New York City and South Station in Boston. MetroNorth [10] provides requent weekday commuter service from Grand Central Station Manhattan and several cities and towns in southwestern Connecticut's Fairfield and New Haven counties.

By bus

As with trains, there are frequent intercity buses between South Station Boston and Port Authority Bus Terminal in Manhattan with stops in Connecticut. Major bus lines serving Connecticut include Peter Pan [11] and Greyhound [12].

By car

Those entering Connecticut by car from the west can choose from three major routes. Interstate 84 enters Danbury, Connecticut from Pennsylvania and the lower Hudson Valley of New York and continues to Waterbury, Hartford and Worcester. The Merrit Parkway, closed to trucks and buses, enters the state from New York's Westchester County, and is considered one of America's most scenic highways because of how its design matches the bucolic leafiness of the suburbs that surround it. An extension of the Parkway tunnels under a hill north of New Haven and continues to Meriden where it merges with Interstate 91 going north towards Hartford and beyond. Interstate 95 traverses the east coast of the United States from Maine to Florida, and runs along Connecticut's coast from east to west. The visitor should be aware I-95 North according to federal road signs is actually going East in Connecticut, and I-95 South is going West in Connecticut. Between New York and New Haven I-95 goes through densely populated suburbs and is heavily congested. East (North according to directional signs on the road) of New Haven I-95 goes through more rural coastal towns and is not so congested.

Entering the state from Boston involves taking the Massachusetts Turnpike also known as Interstate 90 west to I-84, or Route 6, a two-lane road, or Interstate 95 from Rhode Island.

Get around

By car

Car is the easiest way to travel through the state, and the best if you are planning on sightseeing.Several major highways, including I95 and I84, run through the state.

  • Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT), 100 Leibert Road, Hartford, Phone: +1 860 522-8101, Fax: +1 860 247-1810, [13].
  • Bridgeport is served by its own service.
  • New Haven is also served by a free electric trolley system that runs the downtown area.

By Thumb

Hitchhiking along the I-95 corridor is not difficult, as the highway is serviced by a very nice series of rest stops. Walk on, stick out your thumb, and you should have no trouble getting a ride. In addition, the Fairfield service plaza (exit 21) is a frequent stop for buses between New York and Boston, and if there are any empty seats, it is possible to get on, often for free or reduced price if you're a good negotiator.

  • Barlett Arboretum and Gardens is in Stamford.
  • Connecticut College Arboretum is in New London.
  • Dinosaur State Park and Arboretum is in Rocky Hill, south of Hartford.
  • Harkness Memorial State Park is in Waterford, west of New London.
  • Highstead Arboretum is in Redding, near Danbury
  • Marsh Botanical Garden is on the Yale Campus in New Haven
  • New Caanan Nature Center is in New Canaan, near Stamford and Norwalk
  • Yale University is the 3rd oldest university in the country, and is one of the country's 8 Ivy League Schools. This school has been home to many famous people, including presidents, authors, judges, and senators. Yale is in the downtown area of New Haven, overlooking the green.
  • University of Connecticut, more commenly known as UConn, is a good college with a famous basketball team. It is in Storrs, near Hartford
  • The United States Coast Guard Academy and Coast Guard training tallship USCGC Eagle in New London.
  • Connecticut College was founded in 1911 as a college for women, but went co-ed in 1969. The entire campus is an arboretum and is in New London.
  • Avery Point Light is in Groton, near New London
  • Black Rock Harbor Light is in Bridgeport
  • Bridgeport Harbor Light is in Bridgeport.
  • Great Captain Island Light is in Greenwich.
  • Green's Ledge Light is in Norwalk.
  • Falkner Island Light is on the small island of Falkner Island, off the coast of Groton.
  • Five Mile Point Light is in New Haven.
  • Lynde Point Light is in Old Saybrook, near New London.
  • Morgan Point Light is in Noak, a small village in Groton.
  • Mystic Seaport Light is in Mystic.
  • New London Harbor Light is in New London.
  • Pecks Ledge Light is in Norwalk.
  • Saybrook Breakwater Light is in Old Saybrook.
  • Sheffield Island Light is on Sheffield Island, off the coast of Norwalk.
  • Southwest Ledge Light is in New Haven.
  • Stratford Point Light is in Stratford.
  • Tongue Point Light is in Bridgeport.

Sports

Minor League Baseball

  • Brideport Bluefish in Bridgeport
  • Connecticut Defenders in Norwich
  • New Britain Rock Cats in New Britain

Hockey

Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA)

Schools

Colleges such as Yale and UConn have many sports games open to the public.

  • Lake Compounce is the oldest amusement park in the United States. Located in Bristol, this park has dozens of rides for all ages, and good food.
  • Quassy is an old amusement park in Middlebury. This park is more suited for younger children.
  • Maritime Aquarium in Norwalk
  • Mystic Aquarium and Mystic Seaport in Mystic
  • Calf Pasture Beach is a historical beach in Norwalk
  • Cove Island Park is a beach/park in Stamford
  • Cummings Park is a beach/park in Stamford
  • Pleasure Beach is a great family beach/park in Bridgeport
  • Rocky Neck State Park in East Lyme
  • Sherwood Island State Park in Westport
  • Silver Sands State Park in Milford
  • Mohegan Sun is the largest casino in the country, and the second largest in the world. It is in Uncasville
  • Foxwoods is the second largest casino in the country, and the third largest in the world. It is in Ledyard

Eat

Connecticut has an incredible amount of restaurants everywhere you go. There are thousands of restaurants state wide. Downtown New Haven is widely considered the restaurant capital of the state, with more top Zagat-rated restaurants than any other community in Connecticut by a wide margin. Interesting ethnic restaurants, including Eritrean, Malaysian, Turkish, Spanish, French, Mexican, Cuban, Jamaican, Ethiopian, Lebanese, Vietnamese, Thai, Southern and Northern Indian, Nepalese, Cantonese and Italian restaurants can be found throughout the city. Also, the state's large casinos have plenty of dining opportunities.

Drink

Be warned that there are only 78 hours of the week in which alcohol can be purchased, which is 8AM-9PM Monday-Saturday and none on Sunday. If you go to any supermarket on Sunday, you will see that the beer is gated off.

Stay safe

Crime

Although Connecticut is well known for its affluence, and is the third wealthiest state in America, there are sections in the state's largest cities (especially Hartford, Bridgeport, and New Haven) that have dangerous potential, especially at night. Common sense will more than likely keep you far from any signs of trouble in Connecticut, as the state is widely considered to be one of the safest in the country.

Ticks

Connecticut is the infamous birthplace of Lyme Disease. Make sure you know what to do if you are bitten. Tick season is usually from the spring to the fall.

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

CONNECTICUT, one of the thirteen original states of the United States of America, and one of the New England group of states, It is bounded N. by Massachusetts, E. by Rhode Island, S. by Long Island Sound, and W. by New York; the S. W. corner projects along the Sound S. of New York for about 13 m. Situated between 40° 54' and 42° 3' N. lat., and 71° 47' and 73° 43' W. long., its total area is 4965 sq. m., of which 145 are water surface: only two states of the Union, Rhode Island and Delaware, are smaller in area.

Table of contents

Physiography

Connecticut lies in the S. portion of the peneplain region of New England. Its surface is in general that of a gently undulating upland divided near the middle by the lowland of the Connecticut valley, the most striking physiographic feature of the state. The upland rises from the low S. shore at an average rate of about 20 ft. in a mile until it has a mean elevation along the N. border of the state of 1000 ft. or more, and a few points in the N.W. rise to a height of about 2000 ft. above the sea. The lowland dips under the waters of Long Island Sound at the S. and rises slowly to a height of only 100 ft. above them where it crosses the N. border. At the N. this lowland is about 15 m. wide; at the S. it narrows to only 5 m. and its total area is about 600 sq. m. Its formation was caused by the removal of a band of weak rocks by erosion after the general upland surface had been first formed near sea-level and then elevated and tilted gently S. or S.E.; in this band of weak rocks were several sheets of hard igneous rock (trap) inclined from the horizontal several degrees, and so resistant that they were not removed but remained to form the " trap ridges " such as West Rock Ridge near New Haven and the Hanging Hills of Meriden. These are identical in origin and structure with Mt. Tom Range and Holyoke Range of Massachusetts, being the S. continuation of those structures. The ridges are generally deeply notched, but their highest points rise to the upland heights, directly to the E. or W. The W. section of the upland is more broken than the E. section, for in the W. are several isolated peaks lying in line with the S. continuation of the Green and the Housatonic mountain ranges of Vermont and Massachusetts, the highest among them being: Bear Mountain (Salisbury) 2355 ft.; Gridley Mountain (Salisbury), 2200 ft.; Mt. Riga (Salisbury), 2000 ft.; Mt. Ball (Norfolk) and Lion's Head (Salisbury), each 1760 ft.; Canaan Mountain (North Canaan), 1680 ft.; and Ivy Mountain (Goshen), 1640 ft. Just as the surface of the lowland is broken by the notched trap-ridges, so that of the upland is often interrupted by rather narrow deep valleys, or gorges, extending usually from N. to S. or to the S.E. The lowland is drained by the Connecticut river as far S. as Middletown, but here this river turns to the S.E. into one of the narrow valleys in the E. section of the upland, the turn being due to the fact that the river acquired its present course when the land was at a lower level and before the lowland on the soft rocks was excavated. The principal rivers in the W. section of the upland are the Housatonic and its affluent, the Naugatuck; in the E. section is the Thames which is really an outlet for three other rivers (the Yantic, the Shetucket and the Quinebaug). In the central and N. regions of the state the course of the rivers is rapid, owing to a relatively recent tilting of the surface. The Connecticut river is navigable as far as Hartford, and the Thames as far as Norwich. The Housatonic river, which in its picturesque course traverses the whole breadth of the state, has a short stretch of tide-water navigation. The lakes which are found in all parts of the state and the rapids and waterfalls along the rivers are largely due to disturbances of the drainage lines by the ice invasion of the glacial period.

To the glacial action is also due the extensive removal of the original soil from the uplands, and the accumulation of morainic hills in many localities. The sea-coast, about ioo m. in length, has a number of bays which have been created by a depression of small valleys making several good harbours.

The climate of Connecticut, though temperate, is subject to sudden changes, yet the extremes of cold and heat are less than in the other New England states. The mean annual temperature is 49° F., the average temperature of winter being 27°, and that of summer 72°. Since the general direction of the winter winds is from the N.W. the extreme of cold (- io or -15°) is felt in the north-western part of the state, while the prevailing summer winds, which are from the S.W., temper the heat of summer in the coast region, the extreme heat (ioo°) being found in the central part of the state. The annual rainfall varies from 45 to 50 in.

Agriculture

Connecticut is not an agricultural state. Although three-fourths of the land surface is included in farms, only 7% of this three-fourths is cultivated; but agriculture is of considerable economic and historic interest. The accounts of the fertility of the Connecticut valley were among the causes leading to the English colonization, and until the middle of the nineteenth century agriculture was the principal occupation. The soils, which are composed largely of sands, except in the upland valleys where alluvial loams with the sub-soils of clay are found, were not suitable for tillage. However, a thrifty, industrious, self-reliant agricultural life developed, labour was native-born, the women of the household worked in the fields with the men, some employment was found for every season, and a system of neighbourly barter of food products took the place of other modes of exchange. But the development of manufactures in the first half of the 19th century, the competition of the new western states in farm products, and the change in the character of the population incident to the growth of cities, caused a great change in agriculture after 1860. Indeed, during every decade from 1860 to 1890 the total value of farm property and products declined; and the increase of products from 1890 to 1900 was due to the growth of dairy farms, which yielded almost one-third of the total farm product of the state. In the same decade Indian corn, potatoes and tobacco were the only staples whose acreage increased and the production of all cereals except Indian corn and buckwheat declined. Tobacco, which was first grown here between 1640 and 1660, because of a law restricting the use of tobacco to that grown in the colony, was in the decade 1890-1900 the only crop raised for consumption. outside the state; its average yield per acre (1673 lb) was exceeded in the continental United States only in Vermont (1844 lb) and Massachusetts (1674 lb) in 1899, and in 1907 (1510 lb) by New Hampshire (1650 lb), Vermont (1625 lb) and Massachusetts (1525 lb). The total value of Connecticut tobacco in 1907 was $2,501,000 (1906, $4,4 1 5,9 22; 1905, $3,9 11 ,933), and the average farm price was 11 5 cents per lb (in 1906, 18 cents; 1905, 17 cents). But the cultivation of tobacco is confined almost exclusively to the valleys of the Connecticut and Housatonic rivers, and these lands are constantly and expensively treated with nitrogenous fertilizers; the grades raised are the broad-leaf and the Habana seed-leaf wrappers, which, excepting the Florida growth from Sumatra seed, are the nearest domestic approach to the imported Sumatra. The manufacture of cigars was begun in South Windsor, Connecticut, in 1801. Dairying was responsible for the increased production between 1889 and 1899 of Indian corn and the large acreage in hay, which surpassed that of any other crop, but many hay and grain farms were afterwards abandoned. The production of orchard fruits and market vegetables, however, increased during the decade 1890-1900. Other evidences of the transition in agricultural life are that in Tolland and Windham counties the value of farm buildings exceeded that of farm land, that in Middlesex and Fairfield counties the acreage as well as the value of the farms declined, that native farm labour and ownership were being replaced by foreign labour and ownership; while dependent land tenure is insignificant, 87% of the farms being worked by their owners. The state board of agriculture holds annual conventions for the discussion of agricultural problems. Minerals. - The mineral industries of Connecticut have had a fortune very similar to that of agriculture. The early settlers soon discovered metals in the soil and began to work them. About 1730 the production of iron became an important industry in the vicinity of Salisbury, and from Connecticut iron many of the American military supplies in the War of Independence were manufactured. Copper was mined in East Granby as early as 1705 and furnished material for early colonial and United States coins. Gold, silver and lead have also been produced, but the discovery of larger deposits of these metals in other states has caused the abandonment of all metal mines in Connecticut, except those of iron and tungsten. The quarries of granite near Long Island Sound, those of sandstone at Portland, and of feldspar at Branchville and South Glastonbury, however, have furnished building and paving materials for other states; the stone product of the state was valued at $1,386,540 in 1906. Limestone, for the reduction of lime, is also mined; and beryl, clays and mineral springs yield products of minor importance.

On account of the importations from Canada, Chesapeake Bay and the Great Lakes, the mackerel, cod and menhaden fisheries declined, especially after 1860, and the oyster and lobster fisheries are not as important as formerly. In 1905, according to the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries, the fisheries' products of the state were valued at $3,173,948, market oysters being valued at $1,206,217 and seed oysters at $1,603,615.

Manufactures

Manufacturing, however, has encountered none of the vicissitudes of other industries. Manufactures form the principal source of Connecticut's wealth, - manufacturing gave occupation in 1900 to about one-fifth of the total population, and the products in that year ranked the state eleventh among the states of the American Union. Indeed, manufacturing in Connecticut is notable for its early beginning and its development of certain branches beyond that of the other states. Iron products were manufactured throughout the 18th century, nails were made before 1716 and were exported from the colony, and it was in Connecticut that cannon were cast for the Continental troops and the chains were made to block the channel of the Hudson river to British ships. Tinware was manufactured in Berlin, Hartford county, as early as 1770, and tin, steel and iron goods were peddled from Connecticut through the colonies. The Connecticut clock maker and clock peddler was the 18th-century embodiment of Yankee ingenuity; the most famous of the next generation of clock makers were Eli Terry (1772-1852), who made a great success of his wooden clocks; Chauncey Jerome, who first used brass wheels in 1837 and founded in 1844 the works of the New Haven Clock Co.; Gideon Roberts; and Terry's pupil and successor, Seth Thomas (1786-1859), who built the factory at Thomaston carried on by his son Seth Thomas (1816-1888). In 1732 the London hatters complained of the competition of Connecticut hats in their trade. Before 1 749 brass works were in operation at Waterbury - the great brass manufacturing business there growing out of the making of metal buttons. In 1768 paper mills were erected at Norwich, and in 1776 at East Hartford. In 1788 the first woollen mills in New England were established at Hartford, and about 1803 one hundred merino sheep were imported by David Humphreys, who in 1806 built a mill in that part of Derby which is now Seymour and which was practically the first New England factory town; in 1812 steam was first used by the Middletown Woollen Manufacturing Company. In 1804 the manufacture of cotton was begun at Vernon, Hartford county; mills at Pomfret and Jewett City were established in 1806 and 1810 respectively. Silk culture was successfully introduced about 1732; and there was a silk factory at Mansfield, Tolland county, in 1758. The period of greatest development of manufactures began after the war of 1812. The decade of greatest relative development was that of 1860-1870, during which the value of the products increased 96.6%. During the period 1850-1900, when the population increased 145%, the average number of wage-earners lingto'?

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fu,ohon, vr `"' siggtoti .?. tin ?: -?rc C'omwel hPlains rChebter el ontvill ca viil' ave htvi I:70o,000 English Miles County Seats County Boundaries. Railways 73°/5' C Longitude,West 73 of D GlenvilK Pemberwi ?rt Chester Emery Walker se employed in manufacturing establishments increased 248.3%, the number so employed constituting 13.7% of the state's total population in 1850 and 19.5% of that in 1900. The average number of wage-earners employed in establishments conducted under the factory system alone was 13.7% greater in 1905 than in 1900. In 1900 Connecticut led the United States in the manufacture of ammunition, bells, brass and copper (rolled), brass castings and finishings, brass ware and needles and pins. In the automobile industry the state in 1905 ranked second (to Michigan) in capital invested; and was sixth in value of product, but first in the average value per car, which was $2354 ($2917 for gasoline; $2343 for electric; $673 for steam cars). Connecticut has long ranked high in textile manufactures, but the product of cotton goods in 1900 ($15,489,442) and in 1905 ($ 18, 2 39, 1 55) had not materially advanced beyond that of 1890 ($ 1 5,4 0 9,476), this being due to the increase in cotton manufacturing in the South. Between 1890 and 1900 Connecticut's products in dyeing and finishing of textiles, industries which have as yet not developed in the South, increased 21 7.3% from $7 1 5,3 88 in 1890 to $2,269,967 in 1900; in 1905 their value was $2,215,314. The manufacture of woollen goods and silk also increased respectively 33% and 26.5% between 1890 and 1900; the returns for 1900, however, include the fur hat product ($7,54 6, 882), which was not included in the returns for 1890. In 1905 the value of the woollen goods manufactured in the state was $11,166,965; of the silk goods, $15,623,693. The value of the products of all the textile industries combined increased from $46,819,399 in 1900 to $56,933,113 in 1905, when the combined textile product value was greater than that of any other manufactured product in the state. The most important single industry in 1905 was the manufacture of rolled brass and copper with a product value of $41,911,903 (in 1900, $36,325,178)- 80.7% of the total for the United States; the value of the product of the other brass industries was brass ware (1905) $9, 022 ,4 2 7,-5 1.6% of the total for the United States, - (1900) $ 8 ,947,45 1; and brass castings and brass finishing (1905) $2,982,115, (1900) $3,254,239. Hardware ranks next in importance, the output of 1905 being valued at $21,480,652, - which was 46.9% of the total product value of hardware for the entire United States, - as against $16,301,198 in 1900. Then come in rank of product value for 1905: foundry and machine shop products (1905) $20,189384, (1900) $18,991,079; cotton goods; silk and silk goods; ammunition (1905) $ 1 5,394,4 8 5, - bei ng 77.2% of the value of all ammunition made in the United States, - (1900) $9,823,712; and rubber boots and shoes (1905) $12,829,346, (1900) $11,999,038. In 1905 the state ranked first in the United States in the value of clocks manufactured, - $6,158,034, or 69.4% of the total product value of the industry for that year in the United States, - and also in the value of plated ware - $8,125,881, being 66.9% of the product value of the United States.

The decade of greatest absolute increase in the value of manufactures was that ending in 1900, the value of manufactured products in that year being $352,284,116, an increase of $104,487,742 over that of 1890.1 The general tendency was towards the centralization of industry, the number of establishments in the leading industries increasing less than 5%, while the capital and the value of the products increased respectively 33.5% and 42%. Among the new manufactories were a shipbuilding establishment at Groton near New London, which undertook contracts for the United States government, and a compressed-air plant near Norwich. Of the 359 manufactured products classified by the United States census, 249, or almost seven-tenths, were produced in Connecticut.

This prominence in manufactures is due to excellent transportation facilities, to good water powers, to the ease with which labour is got from large cities, to plentiful capital (furnished by the large 1 The figure given above as the gross value of all manufactured products in 1900 includes that of all manufacturing and mechanical establishments. The value of the products of factories alone was $315,106,150. By 1905 this had increased to $369,082,091 or 0 17 I %.

insurance and banking concerns of the state), and to Connecticut's liberal Joint Stock Act of 1837 (copied in Great Britain and elsewhere), permitting small sums to be capitalized in manufactures; and even to a larger extent, possibly it is the result of the ingenuity of the Connecticut people. In the two decades 1880-1900 more patents were secured in Connecticut in proportion to its population than in any other state. It was in Connecticut that Elias Howe and Allen B. Wilson developed the sewing machine; that Charles Goodyear discovered the process of vulcanising rubber; that Samuel Colt began the manufacture of the Colt fire-arms; and it was from near New Haven that Eli Whitney went to Georgia where he invented the cotton gin. The earliest form of manufacturing was that of household industries, nails, clocks, tin ware and other useful articles being made by hand, and then peddled from town to town. Hence Connecticut became known as the " Land of Yankee Notions "; and small wares are still manufactured, the patents granted to inventors in one city ranging from bottle-top handles, bread toasters and lamp holders, to head-rests for church pews and scissors-sharpeners. Then, after a long schooling in ingenuity by the system of household industries, came the division of labour, the introduction of machinery and the modern factory. Transportation of products is facilitated by water routes (chiefly coasting), for which there are ports of entry at New Haven, Hartford, Stonington, New London and Bridgeport, and by 1013 m. (on the 1st of January 1908) of steam railways. One company, the New York, New Haven & Hartford, controlled 87% of this railway mileage in 1904, and practically all the steamboat lines on Long Island Sound. Since 1895 electric railways operated by the trolley system have steadily developed, their mileage in 1909 approximating 895 m. By their influence the rural districts have been brought into close touch with the cities, and many centres of population have been so connected as to make them practically one community.

Population

The population of Connecticut in 1880 was 622,700; in 1890 it was 746,258, - an increase of 19.8%; and in 1900 it had become 908,420, - an increase of 21.7% over that of 1890. Of this population 98.2% were white, 26.2% were foreign born, and 31.1% of the native whites were of foreign parentage. Of the foreign-born element, 29.8% were Irish; there were also many Germans and Austrians, English, and Frenchand English-Canadians. In 1900 there were 24 incorporated cities or boroughs with a population of more than 5000, and on this basis almost three-fifths of the total population of the state was urban. The principal cities, having a population of more than 20,000, were New Haven (108,027), Hartford (79, 8 5 0), Bridgeport (70,966), Waterbury (45,859), New Britain (2 5,99 8), and Meriden (24,296). The industrial development has affected religious conditions. In the early part of the 19th century the Congregational church had the largest number of communicants; in 1906 more than three-fifths of the church population was Roman Catholic; the Congregationalists composed about one-third of the remainder, and next ranked the Episcopalians, Methodists and Baptists.

Government

The present constitution of Connecticut is that framed and adopted in 1818 with subsequent amendments (33 up to 1909). Amendments are adopted after approval by a majority vote of the lower house of the general assembly, a two-thirds majority of both houses of the next general assembly, and ratification by the townships. The executive and legislative officials are chosen by the electors for a term of two years; the attorney general for four years; the judges of the supreme court of errors and the superior court, appointed by the general assembly on nomination by the governor, serve for eight, and the judges of the courts of common pleas (in Hartford, New London, New Haven, Litchfield and Fairfield counties) and of the district courts, chosen in like manner, serve for four years. In providing for the judicial system, the constitution says: " the powers and jurisdiction of which courts shall be defined by law." The general assembly has interpreted this as a justification for interference in legal matters. It has at various times granted divorces, confirmed faulty titles, annulled decisions of the justices of the peace, and validated contracts against which judgment by default had been secured. Qualifications for suffrage are: the age of twenty-one years, citizenship in the United States, residence in the state for one year and in the township for six months preceding the election, a good moral character, and ability " to read in the English language any article of the Constitution or any section of the Statutes of this State." 1 Women may vote for school officials. The right to decide upon a citizen's qualifications for suffrage is vested in the selectmen and clerk of each township. A property qualification, found in the original constitution, was removed in 1845. The Fifteenth Amendment of the Federal Constitution was ratified (1869) by Connecticut, but negroes were excluded from the suffrage by the state constitution until 1876.

The jurisprudence of Connecticut, since the 17th century, has been notable for its divergence from the common law of England. In 1639 inheritance by primogeniture was abolished, and this resulted in conflict with the British courts in the 18th century. 2 At an early date, also, the office of public prosecutor was created to conduct prosecutions, which until then had been left to the aggrieved party. The right of bastards to inherit the mother's property is recognized, and the age of consent has been placed at sixteen years. Neither husband nor wife acquires by marriage any interest in the property of the other; the earnings of the wife are her sole property and she has the right to make contracts as if unmarried. After residence in the state for three years divorce may be obtained on grounds of fraudulent contract, desertion, neglect for three years, adultery, cruelty, intemperance, imprisonment for life and certain crimes. The Joint Stock Act of 1837 furnished the precedent and the principle for similar legislation in other American states and (it is said) for the English Joint Stock Companies Act of 1856. The relations between capital and labour are the subject of a series of statutes, which prohibit the employment of children under fourteen years of age in any mechanical, mercantile or manufacturing establishment, punish with fine or imprisonment any attempt by an employer to influence his employee's vote or to prevent him from joining a labour union, and in cases of insolvency give preference over general liabilities to debts of $100 or less for labour. A homestead entered upon record and occupied by the owner is exempt to the extent of $loon in value from liability for debts.

The government of Connecticut is also notable for the variety of its administrative boards. Among these are a board of pardons, a state library committee, a board of mediation and arbitration for adjustment of labour disputes, a board of education and a railway commission. The bureau of labour statistics has among its duties the giving of information to immigrant labourers regarding their legal rights: it has free employment agencies at Bridgeport, Norwich, Hartford, New Haven and Waterbury. A state board of charities has supervision over all philanthropic and penal institutions in the state, including hospitals, which numbered 103 in 1907; and the board visits the almshouses supported by seventy-eight (of the 168) towns of the state, and investigates and supervises the provision made for the town poor in the other ninety towns of the state; some, as late as 1906, were, with the few paupers maintained by the state, cared for in a private almshouse at Tariffville, which was commonly known as the " state almshouse. " The institutions supported by the state are: a state prison at Wethersfield, the Connecticut industrial school for girls (reformatory) at Middletown and a similar institution for boys at Meriden,the Connecticut hospital for the insane at Middletown, and the Norwich hospital for the insane at Norwich. The state almost entirely supports the Connecticut school for imbeciles, at Lakeville; the American school for the deaf, in Hartford; the oral school for the deaf, 1 The constitution prescribes that " the privileges of an elector shall be forfeited by a conviction of bribery, forgery, perjury, duelling, fraudulent bankruptcy, theft or other offense for which an infamous punishment is inflicted," but this disability may in any case be removed by a two-thirds vote of each house of the general assembly.

2 See an article, " The Connecticut Intestacy Law," by Charles M. Andrews, in the Yale Review, vol. iii.

at Mystic; the Connecticut institute and industrial home for the blind, at Hartford; Fitch's home for soldiers, at Noroton; ten county jails in the eight counties; and eight county temporary homes for dependent and neglected children.

Education

Education has always been a matter of public interest in Connecticut. Soon after the foundation of the colonies of Connecticut and New Haven, schools similar to the English Latin schools were established. The Connecticut Code of 1650 required all parents to educate their children, and every township of 50 householders (later 30) to have a teacher supported by the men of family, while the New Haven Code of 1656 also encouraged education. In 1672 the general court granted 600 acres of land to each county for educational purposes; in 1794 the general assembly appropriated the proceeds from the sale of western lands to education, and in 1837 made a similar disposition of funds received from the Federal treasury. The existing organization and methods in school work began in 1838, when the state board of commissioners of common schools (later replaced by a board of education) was organized, with Henry Barnard at its head. In 1900, 5.9% of the population at least r o years of age was illiterate. All children between 7 and 16 are required to attend school, but those over 14 are excused if they labour; every township of more than ro,000 inhabitants must support an evening school for those over 14; and textbooks are provided by the townships for those unable to purchase them. In 1907-1908 the total school revenue was $5,027,877 or $22.35 for each child enrolled, the enrolment being 78.51% of the total number of children enumerated under school age. Of the school revenue about 2.81% was derived from a permanent school fund, 10.96% from state taxation, 80.43% from local taxation and 5.8% from other sources. The average school term was 186.73 days (in 1899-1900 it was 189.01 days), and the average monthly salary of male teachers $115.07, that of female teachers, $50.5. Supplementing the educative influence of the schools are the public libraries (161 in number in 1907); the state appropriates $200 to establish, and $100 per annum to maintain, a public library (provided the town in which the library is to be established contributes an equal amount), and the Public Library Committee has for its duty the study of library problems. Higher education is provided by Yale University; by Trinity College, at Hartford (nonsectarian), founded in 1823; by Wesleyan University, at Middletown, the oldest college of the Methodist Church in the United States, founded in 1831; by the Hartford Theological Seminary (1834); by the Connecticut Agricultural College, at Storrs (founded 1881), which has a two years' course of preparation for rural teachers and has an experiment station; by the Connecticut Experiment Station at New Haven, which was established in 1875 at Middletown and was the first in the United States; and by normal schools at New Britain (established 1881), Willimantic (1890), New Haven (1894) and Danbury (1903).

Finance

In the year ending on the 30th of September 1908 the receipts of the state treasury were $3,925,492, the expenditure $4,74 1 ,549, and the funded debt, deducting a Civil List Fund of $325,513 in the treasury, was $548,586. The debt was increased in April 1909 by the issue of bonds for $1,000,000 (out of $7,000,000 authorized in 1907). The principal source of revenue was an indirect tax on corporations, the tax on railways, savings banks and life insurance companies, yielding 70% of the state's income. A tax on inheritances ranked next. There is a military commutation tax of $2, and all persons neglecting to pay it or to pay the poll tax are liable to imprisonment. A state board of equalization has been established to insure equitable taxation. More than 130 underwriting institutions have been chartered in the state since r 794. The insurance business centres at Hartford. The legal rate of interest is 6%, and days of grace are not allowed.

History

The first settlement by Europeans in Connecticut was made on the site of the present Hartford in 1633, by a party of Dutch from New Netherland. In the same year a trading post was established on the Connecticut river, near Windsor, by members of the Plymouth Colony, and John Oldham (1600-1636) of Massachusetts explored the valley and made a good report of its resources. Encouraged by Oldham's account of the country, the inhabitants of three Massachusetts towns, Dorchester, Watertown and New Town (now Cambridge), left that colony for the Connecticut valley. The emigrants from Watertown founded Wethersfield in the winter of 1634-1635; those from New Town (now Cambridge) settled at Windsor in the summer of 1635; and in the autumn of the same year people from Dorchester settled at Hartford. These early colonists had come to Massachusetts in the Puritan migration of 1630; their removal to Connecticut, in which they were led principally by Thomas Hooker, Roger Ludlow (c. 1590-1665) and John Haynes (d. 1654), was caused by their discontent with the autocratic character of the government in Massachusetts; but the instrument of government which they framed in 1639, known as the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, reveals no radical departure from the institutions of Massachusetts. The general court - the supreme civil authority - was composed of deputies from the towns, and a governor and magistrates who were chosen at a session of the court attended by all freemen of the towns. It powers were not clearly defined; there was also no separation of the executive, legislative and judicial functions, and the authority of the governor was limited to that of a presiding officer.

The government thus established was not the product of a federation of townships, as has often been stated; indeed, the townships had been governed during the first year by commissioners deriving authority from Massachusetts, and the first general court was probably convened by them. In 1638 the celebrated Fundamental Orders were drawn up, and in 1639 they were adopted. Their most original feature was the omission of a religious test for citizenship, though a precedent for this is to be found in the Plymouth Colony; on the other hand, the union of church and state was presumed in the preamble, and in 1659 a property qualification (the possession of an estate of X30) for suffrage was imposed by the general court.

In the meantime another migration to the Connecticut country had begun in 1638, when a party of Puritans who had arrived in Massachusetts the preceding year sailed from Boston for the Connecticut coast and there founded New Haven. The leaders in this movement were John Davenport (1597-1670) and Theophilus Eaton, and their followers were drawn from the English middle class. Soon after their arrival these colonists drew up a " plantation covenant " which made the Scriptures the supreme guide in civil as well as religious affairs; but no copy of this is now extant. In June 1639, however, a more definite statement of political principles was framed, in which it was clearly stated that the rules of Scripture should determine the ordering of the church, the choice of magistrates, the making and repeal of laws, the dividing of inheritances, and all other matters of public import; that only church members could become free burgesses and officials of the colony; that the free burgesses should choose twelve men who should choose seven others, and that these should organize the church and the civil government. In 1643 the jurisdiction of the New Haven colony was extended by the admission of the townships of Milford, Guilford and Stamford to equal rights with New Haven, the recognition of their local governments, and the formation of two courts for the whole jurisdiction, a court of magistrates to try important cases and hear appeals from " plantation " courts, and a general court with legislative powers, the highest court of appeals, which was similar in composition to the general court of the Connecticut Colony. Two other townships were afterwards added to the colony, Southold, on Long Island, and Branford, Conn.

The religious test for citizenship was continued (except in the case of six citizens of Milford), and in 1644 the general court decided that the "judicial laws of God as they were declared by Moses " should constitute a rule for all courts " till they be branched out into particulars hereafter." The theocratic character of the government thus established is clearly revealed in the series of strict enactments and decisions which constituted the famous " Blue Laws." Of the laws (45 in number) given by Peters, more than one-half really existed in New Haven, and more than four-fifths existed in some form in the New England colonies. Among those of New Haven are the prohibition of trial by jury, the infliction of the death penalty for adultery, and of the same penalty for conspiracy against the jurisdiction, the strict observance of the Sabbath enjoined, and heavy fines for " concealing or entertaining Quaker or other blasphemous hereticks." 1 A third Puritan settlement was established in 1635 at the mouth of the Connecticut river, under the auspices of an English company whose leading members were William Fiennes, Lord Say and Sele (1582-1662) and Robert Greville, Lord Brooke (1608-1643). In their honour the colony was named Saybrook. In 1639 George Fenwick (d. 1657), a member of the company, arrived, and as immigration from England soon afterwards greatly declined on account of the Puritan Revolution, he sold the colony to Connecticut in 1644. This early experiment in colonization at Saybrook and the sale by Fenwick are important on account of their relation to a fictitious land title. The Say and Sele Company secured in 1631 from Robert Rich, earl of Warwick (1587-1658), a quit claim to his interest in the territory lying between the Narragansett river and the Pacific Ocean. The nature of Warwick's right to the land is not stated in any extant document, and no title of his to it was ever shown. But the Connecticut authorities in their effort to establish a legal claim to the country and to thwart the efforts of the Hamilton family to assert its claims to the territory between the Connecticut river and Narragansett Bay - claims derived from a grant of the Plymouth Company to James, marquess of Hamilton (1606-1649) in 1635 - elaborated the theory that the Plymouth Company had made a grant to Warwick, and that consequently his quit claim conferred jurisdiction upon the Say and Sele Company; but even in this event, Fenwick had no right to make his sale, for which he never secured confirmation.

The next step in the formation of modern Connecticut was the union of the New Haven colony with the older colony. This was accomplished by the royal charter of 1662, which defined the boundaries of Connecticut as extending from Massachusetts south to the sea, and from Narragansett bay west to the South Sea (Pacific Ocean). This charter had been secured without the knowledge or consent of the New Haven colonists and they naturally protested against the union with Connecticut. But on account of the threatened absorption of a part of the Connecticut territory by the Colony of New York granted to the duke of York in 1664, and the news that a commission had been appointed in England to settle intercolonial disputes, they finally assented to the union in 1665. Hartford then became the capital of the united colonies, but shared that honour with New Haven from 1701 until 1873.

The charter was liberal in its provisions. It created a corporation under the name of the Governor and Company of the English Colony of Connecticut in New England in America, sanctioned the system of government already existing, provided that all acts of the general court should be valid upon being issued under the seal of the colony, and made no reservation of royal or parliamentary control over legislation or the administration of justice. Consequently there developed in Connecticut an independent, self-reliant colonial government, which looked to its chartered privileges as the supreme source of authority.

Although the governmental and religious influences which moulded Connecticut were similar to those which moulded New England at large, the colony developed certain distinctive characteristics. Its policy "was to avoid notoriety and public attitudes; to secure privileges without attracting needless 1 A collection of these laws was published in his General History of Connecticut (London, 1781), by the Rev. Samuel Peters (1735-1826), a Loyalist clergyman of the Church of England, who in 1774 was forced by the patriots or Whigs to flee from Connecticut. The most extreme (and most quoted) of these laws were never in force in Connecticut, but the substantial genuineness of others was conclusively shown by Walter F. Prince, in The Report of the American Historical Association for 1898. notice; to act as intensely and vigorously as possible when action seemed necessary and promising; but to say as little as possible, and evade as much as possible when open resistance was evident folly." 1 The relations of Connecticut with neighbouring colonies were notable for numerous and continuous quarrels in the 17th century. Soon after the first settlements were made, a dispute arose with Massachusetts regarding the boundary between the two colonies; after the brief war with the Pequot Indians in 1637 a similar quarrel followed regarding Connecticut's right to the Pequot lands, and in the New England Confederation (established in 1643) friction between Massachusetts and Connecticut continued. Difficulty with Rhode Island was caused by the conflict between that colony's charter and the Connecticut charter regarding the western boundary of Rhode Island; and the encroachment of outlying Connecticut settlements on Dutch territory, and the attempt to extend the boundaries of New York to the Connecticut river, gave rise to other disputes. These questions of boundary were a source of continuous discord, the last of them not being settled until 1881. The attempts of Governors Joseph Dudley (1647-1720), of Massachusetts, and Thomas Dongan (1634-1715) of New York, to unite Connecticut with their colonies also caused difficulty.

The relations of Connecticut and New Haven with the mother country were similar to those of the other New England colonies. The period of most serious friction was that during the administration of the New England colonies by Sir Edmund Andros, who in pursuance of the later Stuart policy both in England and in her American colonies visited Hartford on the 31st of October 1687 to execute quo warranto proceedings against the charter of 1662. It is said that during a discussion at night over the surrender of the charter the candles were extinguished, and the document itself (which had been brought to the meeting) was removed from the table where it had been placed. According to tradition it was hidden in a large oak tree, afterwards known as the " Charter Oak." 2 But though Andros thus failed to secure the charter, he dissolved the existing government. After the Revolution of 1688, however, government under the charter was resumed, and the crown lawyers decided that the charter had not been invalidated by the quo warranto proceedings.

Religious affairs formed one of the most important problems in the) life of the colony. The established ecclesiastical system was the Congregational. The Code of 1650 (Connecticut) taxed all persons for its support, provided for the collection of church taxes, if necessary, by civil distraint, and forbade the formation of new churches without the consent of the general court. The New England Half Way Covenant of 1657, which extended church membership so as to include all baptized persons, was sanctioned by the general court in 1664. The custom by which neighbouring churches sought mutual aid and advice, prepared the way for the Presbyterian system of church government, which was established by an ecclesiastical assembly held at Saybrook in 1708, the church constitution there framed being known as the " Saybrook Platform." At that time, however, a liberal policy towards dissent was adopted, the general court granting permission for churches " soberly to differ or dissent " from the establishment. Hence a large number of new churches soon sprang into being. In 1727 the Church of England was permitted to organize in the colony, and in 1729 a similar privilege was granted to the Baptists and Quakers. A religious revival swept the colony in 1741. The very existence of the establishment seemed threatened; consequently in 1742 the general court forbade any ordained minister to enter another parish than his own without an invitation, and decided that only those were legal ministers who were recognized as such by the general court. Throughout the remaining years of the 18th 1 Johnston, Connecticut, p. 130.

2 For a good version of the traditionsee Wadsworth or the Charter Oak (Hartford, 1904), by W. H. Gocher. The tree was blown down in August 1856; in June 1907 a marble shaft was unveiled on its site by the Society of Colonial Wars, of Connecticut.

century there was constant friction between the establishment and the nonconforming churches; but in 1791 the right of free incorporation was granted to all sects.

In the War of American Independence Connecticut took a prominent part. During the controversy over the Stamp Act the general court instructed the colony's agent in London to insist on " the exclusive right of the colonists to tax themselves, and on the privilege of trial by jury," as rights that could not be surrendered. The patriot sentiment was so strong that Loyalists from other colonies were sent to Connecticut, where it was believed they would have no influence; and the copper mines at Simsbury were converted into a military prison; but among the nonconforming sects, on the other hand, there was considerable sympathy for the British cause. Preparations for war were made in 1774; on the 28th of April 1775 the expedition against Ticonderoga and Crown Point was resolved upon by some of the leading members of the Connecticut assembly, and although they had acted in their private capacity funds were obtained from the colonial treasury to raise the force which:on the 8th of May was put under the command of Ethan Allen. Connecticut volunteers were among the first to go to Boston after the battle of Lexington and more than one-half of Washington's army at New York in 1776 was composed of Connecticut soldiers. Yet with the exception of isolated British movements against Stonington in 1775, Danbury in 1777, New Haven in 1779 and New London in 1781 no battles were fought in Connecticut territory.

In 1776 the government of Connecticut was reorganized as a state, the charter of 1662 being adopted by the general court as " the Civil Constitution of this State, under the sole authority of the people thereof, independent of any King or Prince whatever." In the formation of the general government the policy of the state was national. It acquiesced in the loss of western lands through a decision (1782) of a court appointed by the Confederation (see Wyoming Valley); favoured the levy of taxes on imports by federal authority; relinquished (1786) its claims to all western lands, except the Western Reserve (see Ox10); and in the constitutional convention of 1787 the present system of national representation in Congress was proposed by the Connecticut delegates as a compromise between the plans presented by Virginia and New Jersey.

For many years the Federalist party controlled the affairs of the state. The opposition to the growth of American nationality which characterized the later years of that party found expression in a resolution of the general assembly that a bill for incorporating state troops in the Federal army would be " utterly subversive of the rights and liberties of the people of the state, and the freedom, sovereignty and independence of the same," and in the prominent part taken by Connecticut in the Hartford Convention (see Hartford) and in the advocacy of the radical amendments proposed by it. But the development of manufactures, the discontent of nonconforming religious sects with the establishment, and the confusion of the executive, legislative and judicial branches of the government in the existing constitution opened the way for a political revolution. All the discontented elements united with the Democratic party in 1817 and defeated the Federalists in the state election; and in 1818 the existing constitution was adopted. From 1830 until 1855 there was close rivalry between the Democratic and Whig parties for control of the state administration.

In the Civil War Connecticut was one of the most ardent supporters of the Union cause. When President Lincoln issued his first call, for 75,000 volunteers, there was not a single militia company in the state ready for service. Governor William A. Buckingham (1804-1875), one of the ablest and most zealous of the " war-governors," and afterwards, from 1869 until his death, a member of the United States Senate, issued a call for volunteers in April 1861; and soon 54 companies, more than five times the state's quota, were organized. Corporations, individuals and towns made liberal contributions of money. The general assembly made an appropriation of $2,000,000, and the state furnished approximately 48,000 men to the army.

Equally important was the moral support given to the Federal government by the people.

After the war the Republicans were more frequently successful at the polls than the Democrats. Representation in the lower house of the general assembly, by the constitution of 1818, was based on the townships, each township having two representatives, except townships created after 1818, which had only one each; this method constituted a serious evil when, in the transition from agriculture to manufacturing as the leading industry, the population became concentrated to a considerable degree in a few large cities, and the relative importance of the various townships was greatly changed. The township of Marlborough, with a population in 1900 of 322, then had one representative, while the city of Hartford, with a population of 79,850, had only two; and the township of Union, with 428 inhabitants, and the city of New Haven, with 108,027, each had two representatives. The apportionment of representation in the state senate had become almost as objectionable. By a constitutional amendment of 1828 it had been provided that senators should be chosen by districts, and that in the apportionment regard should be had to population, no county or township to be divided and no part of one county to be joined to the whole or part of another county, and each county to have at least two senators; but by 1900 any relation that the districts might once have had to population had disappeared. The system of representation had sometimes put in power a political party representing a minority of the voters: in 1878, 1884, 1886, 1888 and 1890 the Democratic candidates for state executive offices received a plurality vote; but, as a majority was not obtained, these elections were referred to the general assembly, and the Republican party in control of the lower house secured the election of its candidates; in 1901 constitutional amendments were adopted making a plurality vote sufficient for election, increasing the number of senatorial districts, and stipulating that " in forming them regard shall be had " to population. But the greater inequalities in township representation subsisted, although in 1874 an amendment had given all townships of 5000 inhabitants two seats in the lower house, every other one " to be entitled to its present representation," and in 1876 another amendment had provided that no township incorporated thereafter should be entitled to a representative " unless it has at least 2500 inhabitants, and unless the town from which the major portion of its territory is taken has also at least 2500 inhabitants." These provisions did not remedy the grosser defects, and as proposals for an amendment of the constitution could be submitted to the people only after receiving a majority vote of the lower house, all further attempts at effective reform seemed to be blocked, owing to the unwillingness of the representatives of the smaller townships to surrender their unusual degree of power. Therefore, the question of calling a constitutional convention, for which the present constitution makes no provision, was submitted to the people in 1901, and was carried. But the act providing for the convention had stipulated that the delegates thereto should be chosen on the basis of township representation instead of population. The small townships thus secured practical control of the convention, and no radical changes were made. A compromise amendment submitted by the convention, providing for two representatives for each township of 2000 inhabitants, and one more for each 5000 above 50,000, satisfied neither side, and when submitted to a popular vote, on the 16th of June 1902, was overwhelmingly defeated.

Governors Of Connecticut 1 The Colony of Connecticut. John Haynes 1639-1640 Edward Hopkins 1640-1641 John Haynes 1641-1642 George Wyllys.. 1642-1643 John Haynes 1643-1644 Edward Hopkins. 1644-1645 John Haynes . 1645-1646 Edward Hopkins 1646-1647 John Haynes 1647-1648 1 Term of service, one year until 1876; thereafter, two years.

Edward Hopkins John Haynes. Edward Hopkins .

John Haynes. Edward Hopkins John Haynes. Edward Hopkins Thomas Welles John Webster John Winthrop Thomas Welles John Winthrop William Leete Robert Treat. Edmund Andros Robert Treat. Fitz John Winthrop Gurdon Saltonstall Joseph Talcott Jonathan Law Roger Wolcott Thomas Fitch William Pitkin Jonathan Trumbull The New Haven Colony. Theophilus Eaton Francis Newman William Leete State Jonathan Trumbull Matthew Griswold Samuel Huntington Oliver Wolcott. Jonathan Trumbull John Treadwell .

Roger Griswold .

John Cotton Smith Oliver Wolcott .

Gideon Tomlinson John S. Peters .

Henry W. Edwards Samuel A. Foote. Henry W. Edwards. William W. Ellsworth Chauncey F. Cleveland Roger S. Baldwin Isaac Toucey .

Clark Bissell Joseph Trumbull Thomas H. Seymour. Charles H. Pond (Acting) Henry Dutton.. William T. Minor. Alexander H. Holley William A. Buckingham Joseph R. Hawley James E. English Marshall Jewell .

James E. English Marshall Jewell.. Charles R. Ingersoll. Richard D. Hubbard Charles B. Andrews Hobart B. Bigelow. Thomas M. Waller. Henry B. Harrison. Phineas C. Lounsbury Morgan G. Bulkeley Luzon B. Morris .

O. Vincent Coffin .

Lorrin A. Cooke. George E. Lounsbury George P. McLean. Abiram Chamberlain Henry Roberts.. Rollin S. Woodruff .

George L. Lilley. Frank W. Weeks .

Bibliography

. - The " Acorn Club " has recently published a list of books printed in Connecticut between 1709 and 1800 (Hartford, 1904), and Alexander Johnston's Connecticut (Boston, 1887) contains a bibliography of Connecticut's history up to 1886. Information concerning the physical features of the state may be obtained in William M. Davis's Physical Geography of Southern New England (National Geographical Society Publications, 1895). For information concerning industries, &c., see the Twelfth Census of the United States, and the Census of Manufactures of 1905, and a chapter in Johnston's Connecticut. For law and administration, consult the last two chapters on 1648-1649 1 649 - 1 6 50 1650-1651 -1651-1652 1652-1653 -1653-1654 1654-1655.1655-1656 -1656-1657 1657-1658 -1658-1659 1659-1676 -1676-1683 1683-1687 -1687-1689 1689-1698 -1698-1708 -1 1725- 1708-1742 725 1-1 175 7421-1754 175 1754- 1766-1766 -1769 1769-1776 -1639-1657 1658-1660 -1661-1665Governors 1776-1784 -1784-1786 1786-1796 -1796-1797 1797-1809 -1809-1811 1811- 1812-1812 -1817 1817-1827 -1827-1831 1831-1833 -1833-1834 1834-1835 -1835-1838 1838-1842 -1842-1844 1844-1846 -1846-1847 1847-1849 -1849-1850 1850-1853 -1853-1854 1854-1855 -1855-1857 1857-1858 -1858-1866 1866-1867 -1867-1869 1869-1870 -1870-1871 1871-1873 -1873-1877 1877-1879 -1879-1881 1881-1883 -1883-1885 1885-1887 -1887-1889 1889-1893 -1893-1895 1895-1897 -1897-1899 1899-1901 -1901-1903 1903-1905 -1905-1907-1907-1909 1909 1909 Federalist Democrat Federalist Whig Democrat Whig Democrat Whig Democrat Whig Democrat Whig Democrat Whig Know-Nothing Republican Democrat Republican Democrat Republican Democrat Democrat Republican Republican Democrat Republican Democrat Republican The Constitution and Laws of Connecticut " in New England States (vol. i., Boston, 1897); " Town Rule in Connecticut " in Political Science Quarterly, vol. iv.; Bernard Steiner's History of Education in Connecticut (Washington, 1893), and the reports of the administrative boards and officials, especially those of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Board of Education, the Board of Charities and the Treasurer. There is no completely satisfactory history of the state. Johnston's Connecticut is well written, but his theories regarding the relationship between the townships and the state are not generally accepted by historical scholars. There is a good chapter in Herbert L. Osgood's History of the American Colonies in the Seventeenth Century (New York, 1904). Connecticut as a Colony and as a State (Hartford, 1904; 4 vols.) is written from secondary sources, as also is G. H. Hollister's History of Connecticut (to 1818) (2 vols. Hartford, 1857). Perhaps the most satisfactory historical work is that of Benjamin Trumbull, A Complete History of Connecticut from 1630 to 1764 (New Haven, 1804-1818). E. E. Atwater's History of the Colony of New Haven (New Haven, 1881) is also valuable, and the monograph of C. H. Levermore, " The Republic of New Haven," and that of C. M. Andrews " The River Towns of Connecticut " in The Johns Hopkins University Studies (Baltimore, 1886 and1889) should be consulted for the institutions of the colonial period. For the sources, see Colonial Records of Connecticut (15 vols., Hartford, 1850-1890); The Records of the Colony and the Plantation of New Haven (2 vols., Hartford, 1857-1858) and Records of the State of Connecticut (2 vols., Hartford, 1894-1895). The Collections (Hartford 1860 et seq.) of the Connecticut Historical Society contain valuable material, especially the papers of Governor Joseph Talcott; and the Papers (New Haven, 1865 et seq.) of the New Haven Colony Historical Society are extremely valuable for local history; but a vast number of documents relating to the colonial and state periods, now in the state library at Hartford, have never been published.


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English

Map of US highlighting Connecticut

Etymology

EB1911A-pict1.png This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this word, please add it to the page as described here.

Said to be from Mohican (Algonquian) quinnitukqut "at the long tidal river," from *kwen- "long" + *-ehtekw "tidal river" + *-enk "place." (courtesy of the Online Etymological Dictionary)

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Connecticut

Plural
-

Connecticut

  1. A state of the United States of America. Capital: Hartford.

Derived terms

Translations

See also

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Polish

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /kɔˈn̪ɛkt̪ikat̪/

Proper noun

Connecticut n. (indeclinable)

  1. Connecticut (state)
  2. Connecticut (river)

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

State of Connecticut
Flag of Connecticut State seal of Connecticut
Flag of Connecticut Seal of Connecticut
Nickname(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: The Constitution State, The Nutmeg State[1]
Motto(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: Qui transtulit sustinet[1]
Latin meaning "He who is transplanted still sustains"
Map of the United States with Connecticut highlighted
Official language(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif English
CapitalImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Hartford
Largest cityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Bridgeport[2]
Largest metro areaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Hartford Metro Area[3]
AreaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 48thImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total 5,543[4] sq miImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
(14,356 km²Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Width 70 miles (113 kmImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Length 110 miles (177 km)
 - % water 12.6
 - Latitude 40°58′ N to 42°03′ N
 - Longitude 71°47′ W to 73°44′ W
PopulationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 29thImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total (2000Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif) {{{2000Pop}}}
 - DensityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif 702.9/sq mi 
271.40/km² (4th)
 - Median incomeImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  $55,970 (4th)
ElevationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  
 - Highest point South slope of Mount Frissel[5]
Note: The peak of Mount Frissel
is in Massachusetts
2,380 ft  ({{{HighestElev}}} m)
 - Mean 500 ft  (152 m)
 - Lowest point Long Island Sound[5]
0 ft  (0 m)
Admission to UnionImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  January 9, 1788 (5th)
GovernorImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif M. Jodi Rell (R)
U.S. SenatorsImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Christopher Dodd (D)
Joe Lieberman (ID)
Congressional DelegationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif ListImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Time zoneImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Eastern: UTC-5/-4
Abbreviations CT.Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Conn.Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif US-CTImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Web site www.ct.gov

Connecticut (IPA: /kəˈnɛtɪkət/)[6] is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. Southwestern Connecticut is also considered part of the New York metropolitan area. Connecticut is the 29th most populous state with 3.4 million residents and ranked 48th in size by area, making it the 4th most densely populated state.[4]. Called the "Constitution State," Connecticut has a long history dating from the early colonial times, and was influential in the development of early American government.

While Connecticut's first European settlers were Dutch, the first major settlements were established in the 1630s by the English. Thomas Hooker led a band of followers overland from the Massachusetts Bay colony and founded what would become the Connecticut Colony; other settlers from Massachusetts founded the Saybrook Colony and the New Haven Colony. Both the Connecticut and New Haven Colonies established documents of Fundamental Orders, considered the first constitutions in North America. In 1662, the disparate colonies merged under a royal charter, making Connecticut a crown colony. This colony was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution.

Connecticut enjoys a temperate climate thanks to its long coastline on the Long Island Sound. This has given the state a strong maritime tradition. Modern Connecticut is also known for its wealth. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Connecticut had ready access to raw materials which helped to develop a strong manufacturing industry. In the 19th and 20th centuries, financial organizations flourished: first insurance companies in Hartford, then hedge funds along the Gold Coast. This prosperity has helped give Connecticut the highest per capita income and median household income in the country.[7][8]

Contents

Geography

Connecticut is bordered on the south by Long Island Sound, on the west by New York State, on the north by Massachusetts, and on the east by Rhode Island. The state capital is Hartford, and the other major cities include New Haven, New London, New Britain, Norwich, Milford, Norwalk, Stamford, Waterbury, Danbury and Bridgeport. There are 169 incorporated towns in Connecticut. There is an ongoing civic pride and economic competition between Hartford and New Haven, which stems back to the days when the two cities shared the state's capital, and even back to the rivalry between New Haven Colony and Connecticut Colony.

Bear Mountain, highest peak in Connecticut

The highest peak in Connecticut is Bear Mountain in Salisbury in the northwest corner of the state. The highest point is just east of where Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New York meet (42° 3' N; 73° 29' W), on the southern slope of Mount Frissell, whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts.[9]

The Connecticut River cuts through the center of the state, flowing into Long Island Sound, Connecticut's outlet to the Atlantic Ocean.

Despite its size, the state has regional variations in its landscape and culture from the wealthy estates of Fairfield County's "Gold Coast" to the rolling mountains and horse-farms of the Litchfield Hills of northwestern Connecticut. Connecticut's rural areas and
Highest point in Connecticut on slope of Mount Frissell, as seen from Bear Mountain
small towns in the northeast and northwest corners of the state contrast sharply with its industrial cities, located along the coastal highways from the New York border to New Haven, then northwards to Hartford, as well as further up the coast near New London. Many towns center around a small park, known as a "green," (such as the New Haven Green), Litchfield Green, Simsbury Green, and New Milford Green(the largest in the state). Near the green may stand a small white church, a town meeting hall, a tavern and several colonial houses. Forests, rivers, lakes, waterfalls and a sandy shore add to the state's beauty.

The northern boundary of the state with Massachusetts is marked by the distinctive Southwick Jog/Granby Notch, an approximately 2.5 mile (4.0 km) square detour into Connecticut slightly west of the center of the border. Somewhat surprisingly, the actual origin of this anomaly is not absolutely certain, with stories ranging from surveyors who were drunk, attempting to avoid hostile Native Americans, or taking a shortcut up the Connecticut River; Massachusetts residents attempting to avoid Massachusetts' high taxes for the low taxes of Connecticut; Massachusetts' interest in the resources represented by the Congamond Lakes which lie on the border of the jog; and the need to compensate Massachusetts for an amount of land given to Connecticut due to inaccurate survey work.[10][11] The dispute over the border slowed development in the region, since neither state would invest in public services for the area until the dispute had been settled.

The southwestern border of Connecticut, where it abuts New York State, is marked by a panhandle in Fairfield County, containing the towns of Greenwich, Stamford, New Canaan and Darien. This irregularity in the boundary is the result of territorial disputes in the late 1600s, culminating with New York giving up its claim to this area, whose residents considered themselves part of Connecticut, in exchange for an equivalent area extending northwards from Ridgefield to the Massachusetts border as well as undisputed claim to Rye.[12]

Areas maintained by the National Park Service include: Appalachian National Scenic Trail; Quinebaug & Shetucket Rivers Valley National Heritage Corridor; and Weir Farm National Historic Site.

Climate

Connecticut has a Humid Continental Climate, with seasonal extremes tempered by its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean. Winters are cold, with average temperatures ranging from 31 °F (-1 °C) in the southeast to 23 °F (-5 °C) in the northwest in January. The average yearly snowfall is about 25–100" (64–254 cm) across the state, with higher totals in the northwest. Spring has variable temperatures with frequent rainfall. Summer is hot and humid throughout the state, with average highs in New London of 81 °F (27 °C) and 87 °F (31 °C) in Windsor Locks. Fall months are mild, and bring foliage across the state in October and November. During hurricane season, tropical cyclones occasionally affect the region. Thunderstorms are most frequent during the summer, occurring on average 30 times annually. These storms can be severe, though tornadoes are rare.[13]

Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Connecticut Cities
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Bridgeport 37/23 39/25 47/32 57/41 67/51 76/60 82/66 81/65 74/58 63/46 53/38 42/28
Hartford 34/17 38/20 48/28 60/38 72/48 80/57 85/62 82/61 74/52 63/41 51/33 39/23
[1]

History

A map of the Connecticut, New Haven, and Saybrook colonies.

The name "Connecticut" originates from the Mohegan word quinnitukqut, meaning "place of long tidal river."[14] The first European explorer in Connecticut was the Dutch explorer Adriaen Block. After he explored this region in 1614, Dutch fur traders sailed up the Connecticut River (Named Versche Rivier by the Dutch) and built a fort at Dutch Point near present-day Hartford, which they called "House of Hope" (Dutch: Huis van Hoop).

John Winthrop, then of Massachusetts, got permission to create a new colony at Old Saybrook at the mouth of the Connecticut River in 1635. This was the first of three distinct colonies that later would be combined to make up Connecticut. Saybrook Colony was a direct challenge to Dutch claims. The colony was not more than a small outpost and never matured. In 1644, the Saybrook Colony merged itself into the Connecticut Colony.

The first English settlers came in 1633 and settled Windsor and Wethersfield. However the main body of settlers came in one large group in 1636. The settlers were Puritans from Massachusetts, led by Thomas Hooker. Hooker had been prominent in England, and was a professor of Theology at Cambridge. He was also an important political writer, and made a significant contribution to Constitutional theory. He broke with the political leadership in Massachusetts, and, just as Roger Williams created a new polity in Rhode Island, Hooker and his cohort did the same and established the Connecticut Colony at Hartford in 1636. This was the second of the three colonies.

Because the Dutch were outnumbered by the flood of English settlers from Massachusetts, they left their fort in 1654.

The third colony was founded in March of 1638. New Haven Colony, (originally known as the Quinnipiack Colony), was established by John Davenport, Theophilus Eaton and others at New Haven. The New Haven Colony had its own Constitution, 'The Fundamental Agreement of the New Haven Colony' which was signed on June 4, 1639.

Neither the establishment of the Connecticut Colony or the Quinnipiack Colony were done with the sanction of British imperial authorities, and were independent political entities. They naturally were presumptively English, but in a legal sense, they were only secessionist outposts of Massachusetts Bay. In 1662, Winthrop took advantage of this void in political affairs, and obtained in England the charter by which the colonies of Connecticut and Quinnipiack were united. Although Winthrop's charter favored the Connecticut colony, New Haven remained a seat of government with Hartford, until after the American Revolution.

Winthrop was very politically astute, and secured the charter from the newly restored Charles II; who granted the most liberal political terms.

Historically important colonial settlements included:

Windsor (1633),
Wethersfield (1634),
Saybrook (1635),
Hartford (1636),
New Haven (1638),
Fairfield (1639),
Stratford (1639),
New London (1646),
Middletown (1647)

Its first constitution, the "Fundamental Orders," was adopted on January 14, 1639, while its current constitution, the third for Connecticut, was adopted in 1965. Connecticut is the fifth of the original thirteen states. The original constitutions influenced the US Constitution as one of the leading authors was Roger Sherman of New Haven.

The western boundaries of Connecticut have been subject to change over time. According to a 1650 agreement with the Dutch, the western boundary of Connecticut ran north from the west side of Greenwich Bay "provided the said line come not within 10 miles [16 km] of Hudson River." On the other hand, Connecticut's original Charter in 1662 granted it all the land to the "South Sea," i.e. the Pacific Ocean. Most colonial royal grants were for long east-west strips. Connecticut took its grant seriously, and established a ninth county between the Susquehanna and Delaware Rivers, named Westmoreland County. This resulted in the brief Pennamite Wars with Pennsylvania. Connecticut's lands also extended across northern Ohio, called the Western Reserve lands. The Western Reserve section was settled largely by people from Connecticut, and they brought Connecticut place names to Ohio. Agreements with Pennsylvania and New York extinguished the land claims by Connecticut within its neighbors, and the Western Reserve lands were relinquished to the federal government, which brought the state to its present boundaries.

Names and symbols

Connecticut's official nickname, adopted in 1959, is "The Constitution State," based on its colonial constitution of 1638–39.[1] Unofficially (but popularly) Connecticut is also known as "The Nutmeg State".[1] The nutmeg connection to Connecticut may come from its sailors returning from voyages with nutmeg (which in the 18th and 19th centuries was a very valuable spice in New England). It is also said to come from Yankee peddlers from Connecticut who would sell small carved nobs of wood shaped to look like nutmeg to unsuspecting customers.[15] George Washington gave Connecticut the title of "The Provisions State"[1] because of the material aid the state rendered to the Revolutionary War effort. Connecticut is also known as "The Land of Steady Habits".[1]

According to Webster's New International Dictionary, 1993, a person who is a native or resident of Connecticut is a "Connecticuter". There are numerous other terms coined in print, but not in use, such as: "Connecticotian" - Cotton Mather in 1702. "Connecticutensian" - Samuel Peters in 1781. "Nutmegger" is sometimes used,[16] as is "Yankee" (the official State Song is "Yankee Doodle"), though this usually refers someone from the wider New England region.[17] Linguist Allen Walker Read reports a more playful term, 'connecticutie.' The traditional abbreviation of the state's name is "Conn."; the official postal abbreviation is CT.

Commemorative stamps issued by the United States Postal Service with Connecticut themes include Nathan Hale, Eugene O'Neill, Josiah Willard Gibbs, Noah Webster, Eli Whitney, the whaling ship the Charles W. Morgan which is docked in Mystic Seaport, and a decoy of a broadbill duck.

The Charter Oak
The USS Nautilus
Connecticut state insignia and historical figures[1], except where noted
State tree White Oak; or more specifically, the Charter Oak
State bird American Robin
State flower Mountain Laurel
State insect European Mantis
State animal Sperm Whale
State mineral Garnet
State shellfish Eastern Oyster
State fish American Shad
State fossil Eubrontes giganteus
State ship USS Nautilus
State flagship and tall ship ambassador Freedom Schooner Amistad
State aircraft F4U Corsair
State tartan visible here
State song Yankee Doodle
State folk dance Square dance
State cantata The Nutmeg
State hero Nathan Hale
State heroine Prudence Crandall
State composer Charles Edward Ives
State statues in Statuary Hall Roger Sherman and Jonathan Trumbull[18]
State poet laureate John Hollander
Connecticut State Troubadour Pierce Campbell[19]
State composer laureate Jacob Druckman

Demographics

Connecticut Population Density Map

As of 2005, Connecticut has an estimated population of 3,510,297,[20] which is an increase of 11,331, or 0.3%, from the prior year and an increase of 104,695, or 3.1%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 67,427 people (that is 222,222 births minus 154,795 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 41,718 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 75,991 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 34,273 people. Based on the 2005 estimates, Connecticut moves from the 29th most populous state to 30th.[20]

6.6% of its population was reported as being under 5 years old, 24.7% under 18 years old, and 13.8% were 65 years of age or older. Females made up approximately 51.6% of the population, with 48.4% male.

In 1790, 97% of the population in Connecticut were classified as "rural". The first census in which less than half the population was classified as rural was 1890. In the 2000 census, it was only 12.3%. The southwestern coast is all urban and is most widely known from New York City. The eastern half of the state though mostly is associated with Boston because of proximity. This split has caused a lack of more than a few professional sport teams. ie: NHL hockey since the mid 1990s, NFL football, MLS soccer and men's basketball.

The center of population of Connecticut is located in the town of Cheshire.[21]

Race, ancestry, and language

{{US DemogTable|Connecticut|03-09.csv|= | 87.09| 10.46| 0.73| 2.83| 0.13|= | 8.31| 1.04| 0.14| 0.07| 0.04|= | 86.09| 10.88| 0.76| 3.56| 0.15|= | 9.74| 1.09| 0.16| 0.07| 0.05|= | 1.89| 7.19| 6.59| 29.77| 15.41|= | -0.11| 7.16| 3.74| 30.12| 16.21|= | 20.87| 7.40| 18.36| 14.98| 13.68}}

As of 2004, 11.4% of the population (400,000) was foreign-born, and 10% of the foreign-born in the state were illegal aliens (about 1.1% of the population). In 1870, native-born Americans had accounted for 75% of the state's population, but that had dropped to 35% by 1918.

As of 2000, 81.69% of Connecticut residents age 5 and older spoke English at home and 8.42% spoke Spanish, followed by Italian at 1.59%, French at 1.31% and Polish at 1.20%.[22]

The five largest reported ancestries in the state are: Italian (18.6%), Irish (16.6%), English (10.3%), German (9.9%), and French/French Canadian (9.9%).

Connecticut has large Italian-American and Irish-American populations , as well as German and Portuguese-American, second highest percentage of any state behind Rhode Island. Italian is the largest ancestry group in five of the state's counties, while the Irish are the largest group in Tolland county, French-Canadians the largest group in Windham county, and old stock New England Yankees are present throughout. Connecticut is the most Italian-American state percentage-wise, just above Rhode Island. Blacks and Hispanics (mostly Puerto Ricans) are numerous in the urban areas of the state. Connecticut also has a sizable Polish American population, with New Britain containing the largest Polish-American population in the state.

More recent immigrant populations include those from Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, Mexico, Brazil, Guatemala, Panama, and former Soviet countries.

Religion

A 2001 survey of Connecticut residents' religious self-identification showed the following distribution of affiliations:[23]

There is a significant Jewish population in the state, concentrated in the towns near Long Island Sound between Greenwich and New Haven, in Greater New Haven and in Greater Hartford, especially the suburb of West Hartford.

Recent immigration has brought other non-Christian religions to the state, but the numbers of adherents of other religions are still low.

Economy

Connecticut welcome sign being updated as Rell takes office on July 1, 2004.

The total gross state product for 2004 was $187 billion. The per capita income for 2005 was $47,819, ranking first among the states.Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag All wages of a Connecticut resident are subject to the state's income tax, even when the resident works outside of the state. However, in those cases, Connecticut income tax must be withheld only to the extent the Connecticut tax exceeds the amount withheld by the other jurisdiction. Since New York state has higher tax rates than Connecticut, this effectively means that Connecticut residents that work in New York state pay no income tax to Connecticut.

Connecticut levies a 6% state sales tax on the retail sale, lease, or rental of most goods. Some items and services in general are not subject to sales and use taxes unless specifically enumerated as taxable by statute. There are no additional sales taxes imposed by local jurisdictions. During the summer there is one week of duty free buying to spur retail sales.

All real and personal property located within the state of Connecticut is taxable unless specifically exempted by statute. All assessments are at 70% of fair market value. Another 20% of the value may be taxed by the local government though. The maximum property tax credit is $500 per return and any excess may not be refunded or carried forward.[24] Connecticut does not levy an intangible personal property tax.

Real estate

Homes in southwestern Connecticut on the fringes of the New York City metropolitan area are quite expensive. Many towns have median home prices over $500,000, with some more desirable homes exceeding $1 million. Greenwich has the most expensive real estate market, with most houses selling at over $1 million and most condos selling at over $600,000. Connecticut has the most million-dollar homes in the northeast, and the second most in the nation after California, with 3.3% of homes in Connecticut priced over one million dollars in 2003.[25] In 2007, the median price for a house in Connecticut passed $300,000 for the first time, even though most of the country was mired in a real estate slump.[26]

Industries

The agricultural output for the state is nursery stock, eggs, dairy products, cattle, and tobacco. Its industrial outputs are transportation equipment (especially helicopters, aircraft parts, and nuclear submarines), heavy industrial machinery and electrical equipment, military weaponry and fabricated metal products, chemical and pharmaceutical products, and scientific instruments.

Downtown Hartford's Central Business District.

Due to the prominence of the aircraft industry in the state, Connecticut has an official state aircraft, the F4U Corsair, and an official Connecticut Aviation Pioneer, Igor Sikorsky. The state officially recognizes aircraft designer Gustav Whitehead as "Father of Connecticut Aviation" for his research into powered flight in Bridgeport in 1901, two years before the Wright brothers at Kitty Hawk.[27] Governor John Dempsey also declared August 15 to be "Gustave Whitehead Day."[28]

A report issued by the Connecticut Commission on Culture & Tourism on December 7, 2006 demonstrated that the economic impact of the arts, film, history and tourism generated more than $14 billion in economic activity and 170,000 jobs annually. This provides $9 billion in personal income for Connecticut residents and $1.7 billion in state and local revenue.[29]

Transportation

Map of Connecticut showing major highways

Roads

Glaciers carved valleys in Connecticut running north to south; as a result, many more roadways in the state run north to south than do east to west, mimicking the previous use of the many north-south rivers as transportation. The Interstate highways in the state are I-95 (the Connecticut Turnpike) running southwest to northeast along the coast, I-84 running southwest to northeast in the center of the state, I-91 running north to south in the center of the state, and I-395 running north to south near the eastern border of the state. The other major highways in Connecticut are the Merritt Parkway and Wilbur Cross Parkway, which together form State Route 15, running from the Hutchinson River Parkway in New York State parallel to I-95 before turning north of New Haven and running parallel to I-91, finally becoming a surface road in Berlin. Route 15 and I-95 were originally toll roads; they relied on a system of toll plazas at which all traffic stopped and paid fixed tolls. A series of terrible crashes at these plazas eventually contributed to the decision to remove the tolls in 1988.[30] Other major arteries in the state include U.S. Route 7 in the west running parallel to the NY border, State Route 8 farther west near the industrial city of Waterbury and running north-south along the Naugatuck River Valley nearly parallel with U.S. 7, and State Route 9 in the east. See List of State Routes in Connecticut for an overview of the state's highway system.

Between New Haven and the New York City, I-95 is one of the most congested highways in the United States. Many people now drive longer distances to work in the New York City area. This strains the three lanes of traffic capacity, resulting in lengthy rush hour delays. Frequently, the congestion spills over to clog the parallel Merritt Parkway. The state has encouraged traffic reduction schemes, including rail use and ride-sharing.[31]

Public transportation

Rail

Since many Connecticut residents commute to New York City, there is an extensive commuter railway network connecting New York City to New Haven on Metro North Railroad (a commuter railroad based in New York and operated by the Metropolitan Transit Authority) with spurs servicing Waterbury, Danbury, and New Canaan. Rail service does not end with New Haven, however. Connecticut is in the heart of Amtrak's Northeast Corridor and the Amtrak Regional line makes stops in New Haven-State Street, Old Saybrook, New London, and Mystic. Smaller town stops between New Haven and New London are served by Shore Line East, which takes commuters to those stations to catch a main train. These commuter services are heavily utilized during weekday rush hours. Regional rail service is provided by Amtrak, which makes regular stops in Stamford, Bridgeport, New Haven, and Hartford, as well as in Wallingford, Meriden, Berlin, Windsor, and Windsor Locks. There are plans to operate commuter trains from New Haven to Springfield on Amtrak's New Haven-Springfield Line.[32]

Bus

Statewide bus service is supplied by Connecticut Transit, owned by the Connecticut Department of Transportation, with smaller municipal authorities providing local service. Bus networks are an important part of the transportation system in Connecticut, especially in urban areas like Hartford, Stamford, Norwalk, Bridgeport and New Haven. A three-year construction project to build a busway from New Britain to Hartford will begin in August 2009.[33][34]

Air

Bradley International Airport, which became truly 'International' in the summer of 2007 beginning service to Europe, is located in Windsor Locks, 15 miles (24 km) north of Hartford. Regional air service is provided at Tweed-New Haven Airport. Larger civil airports include Danbury Municipal Airport and Waterbury-Oxford Airport in western Connecticut. The Westchester County Airport in Harrison serves part of southwestern Connecticut.

Law and government

See also: Administrative divisions of Connecticut
The Connecticut State Capitol in downtown Hartford

Hartford has been the sole capital of Connecticut since 1875. Before then, New Haven and Hartford alternated as capitals.[14]

Constitutional History

Connecticut is known as the “Constitution State.” While the origin on this title is uncertain, the nickname is assumed to reference the Fundamental Orders of 1638-39. These Fundamental Orders represent the framework for the first formal government written by a representative body in Connecticut. The government has operated under the direction of four separate documents in the course of Connecticut Constitutional History. After the Fundamental Orders, Connecticut was granted governmental authority by King Charles II of England through the Connecticut Charter of 1662. While these two documents acted to lay the ground work for the state’s government, both lacked essential characteristics of a constitution. The Fundamental Orders and the Connecticut Charter could both be altered simply by a majority vote of the General Assembly. Separate branches of government did not exist during this period, and the General Assembly acted as the supreme authority. A true constitution was not adopted in Connecticut until 1818. Finally, the current state constitution was implemented in 1965. The 1965 constitution absorbed a majority of its 1818 predecessor, but incorporated a handful of important modifications. Another possible source of the nickname "constitution state" comes from Connecticut's pivotal role in the federal constitutional convention of 1787, during which Roger Sherman and Oliver Ellsworth helped to orchestrate what became known as the Connecticut Compromise, or the Great Compromise. This plan combined the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan to form a bicameral legislature, a form copied by almost every state constitution since the adoption of the federal constitution.

Executive

The governor heads the executive branch. The current Governor of Connecticut is M. Jodi Rell (Republican). The current Lieutenant Governor is Michael Fedele. From 1639 until the adoption of the 1818 constitution, the governor presided over the General Assembly. Connecticut was the first state in the United States to elect a woman as governor without electing her husband first, Ella Grasso in 1974.

There are several executive departments: Administrative Services, Agriculture, Banking, Children and Families, Consumer Protection, Correction, Economic and Community Development, Developmental Services, Education, Environmental Protection, Higher Education, Information Technology, Insurance, Labor, Mental Health and Addiction Services, Military, Motor Vehicles, Public Health, Public Safety, Public Utility Control, Public Works, Revenue Services, Social Services, Transportation, Veterans Affairs. In addition to these departments, there are other independent bureaus, offices and commissions.[35]

In addition to the Governor and Lieutenant Governor, there are four other executive officers named in the state constitution that are elected directly by voters: Secretary of State, Treasurer, Comptroller and Attorney General. All executive officers are elected to four year terms.[14]

Legislative

The legislature is the General Assembly. The General Assembly is a bicameral body consisting of an upper body, the State Senate (36 senators); and a lower body, the House of Representatives (151 representatives).[14] Bills must pass each house in order to become law. The governor can veto the bill, but this veto can be overridden by a two-thirds majority in each house. Senators and representatives, all of whom must be at least eighteen years of age, are elected to two-year terms in November on even-numbered years. The Lieutenant Governor presides over the senate, except when absent from the chamber, when the President Pro Tempore presides. The Speaker of the House presides over the House; James A. Amann is the current Speaker of the House of Connecticut. The Democrats currently hold the majority in both houses of the General Assembly.

Connecticut's U.S. senators are Christopher J. Dodd (Democrat) and Joseph I. Lieberman (Democrat) who is part of the Democratic Caucus. Connecticut currently has five representatives in the U.S. House, four of whom are Democrats.

Judicial

The highest court of Connecticut's judicial branch is the Supreme Court, headed by the Chief Justice of Connecticut. The Supreme Court is responsible for deciding on the constitutionality of the law or cases as they relate to the law. Its proceedings are similar to those of the United States Supreme Court, with no testimony given by witnesses, and the lawyers of the two sides each present oral arguments no longer than thirty minutes. Following a court proceeding, the court may take several months to arrive at a judgment. The current Chief Justice is Chase T. Rogers.

Before 1818 the highest court in Connecticut was the General Assembly, and later, the Upper House, with the Governor having the title "Chief Judge". In 1818, the court became a separate entity, independent of the legislative and executive branches.[36] The Appellate Court is a lesser state-wide court and the Superior Courts are lower courts that resemble county courts of other states.

Local government

See also: Administrative divisions of Connecticut and several lists: List of municipalities of Connecticut by population, List of towns in Connecticut, List of cities in Connecticut, Borough, List of counties in Connecticut

Connecticut has 169 towns, which serve as the fundamental local political subdivision of the state; the entire state is divided into towns.[14] Connecticut shares a local form of government with the rest of New England called the New England town. There are also 21 cities,[14] most of which are coterminous with their namesake towns and have a merged city-town government. There are two exceptions: City of Groton, which is a subsection of the Town of Groton and the City of Winsted in the Town of Winchester. There are also nine incorporated boroughs which may provide additional services to a section of town.[14][37] One, Naugatuck, is a consolidated town and borough.

Unlike most other states, Connecticut does not have county government. Connecticut county governments were mostly eliminated in 1960, with the exception of the sheriff system.[38] In 2000, the county sheriff was abolished and replaced with the state marshal system, which has districts that follow the old county territories. The judicial system is divided, at the trial court level, into judicial districts.[39] The eight counties are still widely used for purely geographical and statistical purposes, such as weather reports, and census reporting.

The state is divided into 15 planning regions defined by the state Office of Planning and Management.[40] The Intragovernmental Policy Division of this Office coordinates regional planning with the administrative bodies of these regions. Each region has an administrative body known as either a regional council of governments, a regional council of elected officials, or a regional planning agency. The regions are established for the purpose of planning "coordination of regional and state planning activities; designation or redesignation of logical planning regions and promotion of the continuation of regional planning organizations within the state; and provision for technical aid and the administration of financial assistance to regional planning organizations."[40]

Politics

Presidential elections results[41]
Year Republican Democratic
2004 43.95% 693,826 54.31% 857,488
2000 38.44% 561,094 55.91% 816,015
1996 34.69% 483,109 52.83% 735,740
1992 35.78% 578,313 42.21% 682,318
1988 51.98% 750,241 46.87% 676,584
1984 60.73% 890,877 38.83% 569,597
1980 48.16% 677,210 38.52% 541,732
1976 52.06% 719,261 46.90% 647,895
1972 58.57% 810,763 40.13% 555,498
1968 44.32% 556,721 49.48% 621,561
1964 32.09% 390,996 67.81% 826,269
1960 46.27% 565,813 53.73% 657,055

Connecticut is a generally left-leaning state, allotting its electoral votes to Democratic candidates in the past four presidential elections but to Republican presidential candidates five times in the 1970s and 1980s. Connecticut has a high number of voters who are not registered with a major party. As of 2004, 33.7% of registered voters were registered Democratic, 22.0% were registered Republican, and 44.0% were unaffiliated with any party, with 0.2% registered with a minor party.[42] Voters in the state are more supportive of fiscal conservatives and may be considered to be generally socially liberal.

Many Connecticut towns show a marked preference for moderate candidates of either party. Democrats hold a registration edge especially in the cities of Hartford; New Haven; and Bridgeport, where Democratic machines have held power since the great immigration waves of the 1800s. The state's Republican-leaning areas are the rural Litchfield County and adjoining towns in the west of Hartford County, the industrial towns of the Naugatuck River Valley, and some of the affluent Fairfield County towns near the New York border. The suburban towns of New Canaan and Darien in Fairfield County are considered the most Republican areas in the state, the former being the hometown of conservative activist Ann Coulter. Westport, a wealthy town a few miles to the east, is often considered one of the most loyally-Democratic, liberal towns in Fairfield County. Norwalk and Stamford, two larger, affluent communities in Fairfield County, have in many elections favored moderate Republicans including former Governor John G. Rowland and Congressman Chris Shays, however they have favored Democrats in recent US presidential candidates. Waterbury has a Democratic registration edge, but usually favors conservative candidates in both parties. In Danbury unaffiliated voters outnumber voters registered with either major party. Other smaller cities including Meriden, New Britain, and Middletown favor Democratic candidates.

Democrats hold veto-proof majorities in both houses of the state legislature. In 2006, Republicans were reduced from three out of five to one out of five congressional seats. The remaining Republican, Chris Shays, is the only Republican from New England in the House of Representatives in the current Congress and is also one of the most liberal Republicans in the House. Christopher Dodd and Joseph Lieberman are Connecticut's U.S. senators. The senior Dodd is a Democrat while the junior Lieberman serves as an Independent Democrat caucusing with Senate Democrats after his victory on the Connecticut for Lieberman ballot line in the 2006 general election. Lieberman's predecessor, Lowell P. Weicker, was the last Connecticut Republican to serve as Senator. Weicker was known as a liberal Republican. He broke with President Richard Nixon during Watergate and successfully ran for governor in 1990 as an independent, creating A Connecticut Party as his election vehicle. Before Weicker, the last Republican to represent Connecticut in the Senate was Prescott Bush, the father of former President George H.W. Bush and the grandfather of President George W. Bush. He served from 1953–1963.

Political corruption

Several mayors, state legislators, and government employees have been convicted and imprisoned for crimes ranging from bribery to racketeering. In 2004, Governor John G. Rowland, a Republican, was forced to resign when it was discovered he helped steer state contracts to firms that offered him gifts and free vacations.[43] In August 2007 Hartford Mayor Eddie Perez announced he had been investigated for ties to a city contractor. [2]

Several state agencies, including the Department of Transportation (DOT), Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV), and Department of Children and Families (DCF) have been rocked by scandals over the past decade.

A more recent scandal involved a botched construction project on Interstate 84 near Waterbury. An independent audit of the project in late 2006 revealed that over 300 storm drains installed by the now-defunct L.G. DeFelice Construction Company, were either filled with sand, were improperly installed, or were connected with pipes that led to nowhere. In addition to the faulty storm drains, officials discovered light fixtures with defective mounting brackets when one of the fixtures fell off of its support pole and onto the highway. Inspectors also discovered the structural steel for an overpass was not properly installed, raising serious questions about the bridge's structural integrity. Following the uncovering of this scandal, Attorney-General Richard Blumenthal filed suit against L.G. DeFelice, its bonding company USF&G, and the consultants (the Maguire Group) hired by CONNDOT to oversee the project, resulting in a $17.5 million settlement to fix the problems. A federal grand jury and FBI investigation were also launched into the operations of L.G. DeFelice before the company ceased operations in 2004. Several CONNDOT employees were fired after being implicated in the scandal, and are also subjects of state and federal investigations for allegedly taking bribes in exchange for covering up substandard work on the I-84 project. Finally, the scandal prompted the Connecticut General Assembly to consider contract reform legislation and Governor M. Jodi Rell to order a complete reorganization of CONNDOT.

On June 1, 2007, Senate Minority Leader Louis DeLuca (R-Woodbury) was arrested on conspiracy charges after it was discovered he was dealing with a local Mafia boss who is currently facing federal charges stemming from his trash-hauling operations, [44] and allegations that he tried to use these same ties to intimidate the husband of his grandaughter, whom he claimed was abusing her.

Following Rowland's resignation, the state legislature passed a campaign finance reform bill that bans contributions from lobbyists and state contractors in future campaigns.[45]

Education

Connecticut is well-known as the home of Yale University, which maintains a consistent ranking as one of the world's most renowned universities, and has the most selective undergraduate program of any university in the United States (an 8.6% acceptance rate in 2006).[46] Yale is one of the largest employers in the state, and its research activity has recently spun off dozens of growing biotechnology companies.

Connecticut is also the host of many other academic institutions, including Trinity College, (1825), and Wesleyan University, (1832). The University of Connecticut has been the highest ranked public university in New England for eight years running, according to U.S. News and World Report. The State's capital university,University of Hartford, (1877), is a private, independent, and nonsectarian coeducational university located in West Hartford, Connecticut. It was chartered through the joining of the Hartford Art School, Hillyer College, and The Hartt School of Music in 1957.

Additionally, the State has many noted boarding schools, such as Miss Porter's School, Choate Rosemary Hall, Hotchkiss, Pomfret School, Avon Old Farms, Loomis Chaffee, Salisbury School and The Taft School which draw students from all over the world. Also Connecticut has many noted private day schools such as Kingswood-Oxford School located in West Hartford and the Hopkins School based in New Haven.

See also: List of colleges and universities in Connecticut for a comprehensive listing.
See also: List of school districts in Connecticut

Sports

Club Sport League
Bridgeport Sound Tigers Ice hockey American Hockey League
Danbury Trashers Ice hockey United Hockey League
Hartford Wolf Pack Ice hockey American Hockey League
New England Stars Ice hockey North Eastern Hockey League
Connecticut Defenders Baseball Minor League Baseball (AA)
New Britain Rock Cats Baseball Minor League Baseball (AA)
Bridgeport Bluefish Baseball Atlantic League
Manchester Silkworms Baseball New England Collegiate Baseball League
New Haven County Cutters Baseball Canadian-American League
Stamford Robins Baseball Atlantic Collegiate Baseball League
Torrington Twisters Baseball New England Collegiate Baseball League
Connecticut Sun Basketball Women's National Basketball Association
Connecticut Roller Girls Flat Track Roller Derby Women's Flat Track Roller Derby Association
  • From 1979 to 1997, the National Hockey League had a franchise in Hartford, the Hartford Whalers. Their departure to Raleigh, caused great controversy and resentment. The former Whalers are now known as the Carolina Hurricanes.
  • Since 1952, a PGA Tour golf tournament has been played in the Hartford area. Originally called the "Insurance City Open" and later the "Greater Hartford Open," the event is now know as the Travelers Championship.

The Pilot Pen Tennis Tournament is held annually at the Connecticut Tennis Center at Yale University. It is one of the few dual-sex tournaments in professional tennis and is the warm-up tournament to the US Open, played the following week in Queens, New York. The court speed and weather conditions are identical to those at the US Open.

The Connecticut Interscholastic Athletic Conference is the state's sanctioning body for high school sports. Xavier High School claimed the 2005 Class LL football championship. Other state champions in football include Staples (in Westport), Greenwich High School (Greenwich, CT) 2006 state LL champions, Branford, Daniel Hand (in Madison), Woodland Regional (in Beacon Falls), East Lyme High School (in East Lyme), Hyde Leadership (in Hamden), Southington High School (in Southington).

Famous residents

Main article: List of famous residents of Connecticut

George Walker Bush, the current President of the United States, was born in Connecticut. He is a member of the Bush political family, with roots in the state extending three generations. Other notable figures from the state span American political and cultural history, including Ralph Nader, Eli Whitney, Benedict Arnold, Nathan Hale, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Mark Twain, John Brown, Eugene O'Neill, Charles Ives and Katharine Hepburn, and Roger Sherman. The state is home to many actors, entertainers and businesspeople.

See also

References

  1. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named SOTS
  2. ^ Population Estimates for All Places: 2000 to 2006: Connecticut SUB-EST2006-04-09.xls. United States Census Bureau. Last accessed [[2007-10-16|]].
  3. ^ State Data from the State and Metropolitan Area Data Book: 2006. United States Census Bureau. Last accessed [[2007-10-16|]].
  4. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named pop
  5. ^ a b Elevations and Distances in the United States. U.S Geological Survey (29 April 2005). Retrieved on 2006-11-03.
  6. ^ Connecticut - Definitions from Dictionary.com. Retrieved on 2007-09-17.
  7. ^ Highest wages in East, lowest in South. USA Today (29 November 2005).
  8. ^ Census 2000. United States Census Bureau (18 March2000).
  9. ^ Mount Frissell-South Slope. peakbagger.com.
  10. ^ The Southwick Jog.
  11. ^ Connecticut's Southwick Jog. Connecticut State Library.
  12. ^ Connecticut's "Panhandle". Connecticut State Library.
  13. ^ Annual average number of tornadoes. NOAA National Climatic Data Center. Retrieved on 2006-10-24.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g CT.gov: About Connecticut. Retrieved on 2005-12-18.
  15. ^ roadscape.com/nutmeg.html.
  16. ^ Connecticut's Nicknames. Connecticut State Library.
  17. ^ See [[Yankee|]] main article.
  18. ^ See National Statuary Hall Collection
  19. ^ Connecticut State Troubadour; CT Commission on Culture & Tourism Arts Division website; retrieved January 4, 2007
  20. ^ a b {{cite web |date=June 21 2006 | url = http://www.census.gov/popest/states/tables/NST-EST2005-01.csv | title = Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States and States, and for Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2005|format = CSV
  21. ^ Population and Population Centers by State: 2000. US Census Bureau.
  22. ^ Most spoken languages in Connecticut. MLA Language Map. The Modern Language Association. Retrieved on 2007-01-16.
  23. ^ {{cite web |url=http://www.gc.cuny.edu/faculty/research_briefs/aris/key_findings.htm |title=American Religious Identification Survey, Key Findings, Exhibit 15 |accessdate=2007-01-04 |author=Mayer, Egon |coauthors=Kosmin, Barry A., Keysar, Ariela |year=2001 |publisher= [[City University of New York|]]
  24. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named inctax
  25. ^ {{cite news|url=http://money.cnn.com/2006/02/22/real_estate/february_million_dollar_homes/index.htm?section=money_topstories| title=Million Dollar Homes|last=Christie|first=Les| publisher=[[CNN|]]
  26. ^ UConn in the News: August 2007
  27. ^ O'Dwyer, Maj. William J. (October 1998). "The "Who Flew First" Debate". Flight Journal. Retrieved on 2007-01-23. 
  28. ^ Delear, Frank (March 1996). "Gustave Whitehead and the First-Flight Controversy". Aviation History. Retrieved on 2007-01-23. 
  29. ^ The Economic Impact of the Arts, Film, History, and Tourism Industries in Connecticut (Highlights) Connecticut Commission on Culture and Tourism
  30. ^ Connecticut Turnpike (I-95) nycroads.com
  31. ^ ctrides.com
  32. ^ {{cite news |first=Stephanie |last=Reitz |title=Conn. looks into building rail line from Springfield to New Haven |url=http://www.boston.com/news/local/massachusetts/articles/2006/07/30/conn_looks_into_building_rail_line_from_springfield_to_new_haven/ |work=[[2006-07-30|]]
  33. ^ {{cite press release |title=New Britain-to-Hartford ‘Busway’ Receives Final Federal Design Approval |publisher=State of Connecticut |date=[[2006-10-31|]]
  34. ^ New Britain-Hartford Rapid Transit Project Schedule
  35. ^ Connecticut's Executive Branch of Government. ct.gov.
  36. ^ History of the Connecticut Courts. Last retrieved [[2007-02-20|]].
  37. ^ Connecticut's Boroughs and Cities. Connecticut State Library. Accessed 20 January 2007.
  38. ^ Connecticut State Register and Manual: Counties. Retrieved on 2006-11-07.
  39. ^ State of Connecticut Judicial Branch
  40. ^ a b Regional Planning Coordination at the CT Office of Planning and Management
  41. ^ Presidential General Election Results Comparison - Connecticut. Dave Leip's Atlas of United States Presidential Elections (2005). Retrieved on 2007-01-20.
  42. ^ Party Enrollment in Connecticut. Connecticut Office of the Secretary of State. Last retrieved [[2007-02-22|]].
  43. ^ {{cite news|url=http://www.cnn.com/2004/ALLPOLITICS/06/21/connecticut.governor/index.html | title=Connecticut governor announces resignation | publisher=[[Connecticut Post|]]
  44. ^ State Sen. DeLuca arrested. WTNH Channel 8 New Haven, June 1, 2007
  45. ^ Brennan Center for Justice (1 December 2005). Connecticut Legislature Passes Sweeping Campaign Finance Reform Bill. Press releaseImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif. Retrieved on 2007-01-20Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif.
  46. ^ "College acceptance rates: How many get in?", [[Wikipedia:USA Today|]]. | date = 8 November 2006

External links

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Articles on this topic in other Wikimedia projects can be found at: Connecticut

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Preceded by
Georgia
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Ratified Constitution on January 9, 1788 (5th)
Succeeded by
Massachusetts

CoordinatesImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: 41.6° N 72.7° W

This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Connecticut. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.
Facts about ConnecticutRDF feed
Subdivision of country United States  +

This article uses material from the "Connecticut" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

State of Connecticut
File:Flag of File:Seal of
Flag of Connecticut Seal of Connecticut
Also called: The Constitution State, The Nutmeg State
Saying(s): Qui transtulit sustinet
[[File:|center|Map of the United States with Connecticut highlighted]]
Official language(s) English
Capital Hartford
Largest city Bridgeport
Area  Ranked 48th
 - Total 5,549 sq mi
(14,371 km²)
 - Width 70 miles (113 km)
 - Length 110 miles (177 km)
 - % water 12.6
 - Latitude 40°58'N to 42°3'N
 - Longitude 71°47'W to 73°44'W
Number of people  Ranked 30th
 - Total (2010) 3,574,097[1]
 - Density 738.1/sq mi 
284.6/km² (6th)
 - Average income  $55,970 (4th)
Height above sea level  
 - Highest point South slope of Mount Frissel[2]
Note: The peak of Mount Frissel
is in Massachusetts
2,380 ft  (726 m)
 - Average 500 ft  (152 m)
 - Lowest point Long Island Sound[2]
0 ft  (0 m)
Became part of the U.S.  January 9, 1788 (5th)
Governor M. Jodi Rell (R)
U.S. Senators Chris Dodd (D)
Joseph Lieberman (ID)
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4
Abbreviations CT Conn. US-CT
Web site www.ct.gov

Connecticut (kih-NEH-tih-kit) is a state in the United States. Its capital is Hartford, and its largest city is Bridgeport. Connecticut became a state in 1788.

Contents

Economy

Connecticut is a state in New England. Connecticut does not have many natural resources so the people had to make things to make money.

Geography-Climate

Connecticut is bordered on the south by Long Island Sound, on the west by New York State, on the north by Massachusetts, and on the east by Rhode Island. The state capital is Hartford, and the other major cities include New Haven, New London, New Britain, Norwich, Milford, Norwalk, Stamford, Waterbury, Danbury, and Bridgeport. In all, there are a total of 169 towns in Connecticut. There is an ongoing civic pride and economic competition between Hartford and New Haven, which stems back to the days when the two cities shared the state's capital, and even back to the rivalry between New Haven Colony and Connecticut Colony.

The highest peak in Connecticut is Bear Mountain in Salisbury in the northwest corner of the state. The highest point is just east of where Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New York meet (42° 3' N; 73° 29' W), on the southern slope of Mount Frissell, whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts. [3] The Connecticut River cuts through the center of the state, flowing into Long Island Sound, Connecticut's outlet to the Atlantic Ocean. Further information: List of Connecticut rivers The state, although small, has regional variations in its landscape and culture from the wealthy estates of Fairfield County's "Gold Coast" to the rolling mountains and horse-farms of the Litchfield Hills of northwestern Connecticut. Connecticut's rural areas and small towns in the northeast and northwest corners of the state contrast sharply with its industrial cities, located along the coastal highways from the New York border to New Haven, then northwards to Hartford, as well as further up the coast near New London. Many towns center around a small park, known as a "green," (such as the New Haven Green). Near the green may stand a small white church, a town meeting hall, a tavern and several colonial houses. Forests, rivers, lakes, waterfalls and a sandy shore add to the state's beauty. The northern boundary of the state with Massachusetts is marked by the distinctive Southwick Jog/Granby Notch, an approximately 2.5 mile (4.0 km) square detour into Connecticut slightly west of the center of the border. Somewhat surprisingly, the actual origin of this anomaly is not absolutely certain, with stories ranging from surveyors who were drunk, attempting to avoid hostile Native Americans, or taking a shortcut up the Connecticut River; Massachusetts residents attempting to avoid Massachusetts' high taxes for the low taxes of Connecticut; Massachusetts' interest in the resources represented by the Congamond Lakes which lie on the border of the jog; and the need to compensate Massachusetts for an amount of land given to Connecticut due to inaccurate survey work.[4] [5] [6] Perhaps the only suggested reason which can be safely ruled out is that the jog is necessary to prevent Massachusetts from sliding out into the Atlantic Ocean. In any event, the dispute over the border retarded the development of the region, since neither state would invest in even such basic amenities as schools for the area until the dispute had been settled. The southwestern border of Connecticut, where it abuts New York State, is marked by a panhandle in Fairfield County, containing Greenwich, Stamford, Fairfield, Westport, Wilton and Darien, housing some of the wealthiest residents in the world. This irregularity in the boundary is the result of territorial disputes in the late 1600s, culminating with New York giving up its claim to this area, whose residents considered themselves part of Connecticut, in exchange for an equivalent area extending northwards from Ridgefield, Connecticut to the Massachusetts border as well as undisputed claim to Rye, New York.[7] Areas maintained by the National Park Service include: Appalachian National Scenic Trail; Quinebaug & Shetucket Rivers Valley National Heritage Corridor; and Weir Farm National Historic Site

History

The name "Connecticut" comes from the Mohegan Indian word "Quinnehtukqut". It means "Long River Place" or "Beside the Long Tidal River." The first explorer from Europe to come to Connecticut was Adriaen Block, from the Netherlands. After he explored this region in 1614, Dutch fur traders sailed up the Connecticut River (Named Versche Rivier by the Dutch) and built a fort near present-day Hartford, which they called "House of Hope" (Dutch: Huys de Hoop). The first English settlers came in 1633. They were Puritans from Massachusetts, led by the Puritan reverend Thomas Hooker. They founded the Connecticut Colony. Colonies were also established at Old Saybrook and New Haven, which later became part of Connecticut. Historically important colonial settlements included: Windsor (1633), Wethersfield (1634), Saybrook (1635), Hartford (1636), New Haven (1638), and New London (1646). Because the Dutch were outnumbered by the English settlers, they left their fort in 1654. Its first constitution, the "Fundamental Orders," was adopted on January 14, 1639, while its current constitution, the third for Connecticut, was adopted in 1965. Connecticut is the fifth of the original thirteen states. The western boundaries of Connecticut have been subject to change over time. According to a 1650 agreement with the Dutch, the western boundary of Connecticut ran north from the west side of Greenwich Bay "provided the said line come not within 10 miles [16 km] of Hudson River." On the other hand, Connecticut's original Charter in 1662 granted it all the land to the "South Sea," i.e. the Pacific Ocean. This probably added confusion to the early forefathers because the Pacific Ocean is located on the west coast of the United States. Agreements with New York, the "Pennamite Wars" with Pennsylvania over Westmoreland County, followed by Congressional intervention, and the relinquishment and sale of the Western Reserve lands brought the state to its present boundaries.

References

Other websites

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