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.Consciousness is subjective experience or awareness or wakefulness or the executive control system of the mind.^ The Mind's Eye and conscious experience.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It compares conscious experience to a spotlight playing over elements in the nervous system (Lindsay & Norman, 1977; Crick, 1985).
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this view, the world is substantial, real and has the quality of appearing as a consistent objective experience across all subjects of localized individuated consciousness.
  • BEING, CONSCIOUSNESS, AND EVERYTHING 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.goertzel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .It is an umbrella term that may refer to a variety of mental phenomena.^ The words “conscious” and “consciousness” are umbrella terms that cover a wide variety of mental phenomena.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One can refer specifically to phenomenal consciousness, access consciousness, reflexive or meta-mental consciousness, and narrative consciousness among other varieties.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In contrast, we can also use various concepts couched in physical or neurophysiological terms to refer to that same mental state from the third-person point of view.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2] .Although humans realize what everyday experiences are, consciousness refuses to be defined, philosophers note (e.g.^ Such early luminaries as Wilhelm Wundt and William James defined psychology as the quest for the understanding of conscious experience.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We may have a better chance to understand human conscious experience now than ever before.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Interest in the nature of conscious experience has no doubt been around for as long as there have been reflective humans.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

John Searle in The Oxford Companion to Philosophy):[3]
"Anything that we are aware of at a given moment forms part of our consciousness, making conscious experience at once the most familiar and most mysterious aspect of our lives."
—Schneider and Velmans, 2007[4]
.Consciousness in medicine (e.g., anesthesiology) is assessed by observing a patient's alertness and responsiveness, and can be seen as a continuum of states ranging from alert, oriented to time and place, and communicative, through disorientation, then delirium, then loss of any meaningful communication, and ending with loss of movement in response to painful stimulation.^ Dispassion The attainment of that state of consciousness where balance is seen, and neither pleasure or pain dominates.
  • SOULEDOUT.ORG GLOSSARY 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.souledout.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words to state that the universe comes from something is really saying the universe comes from the universe, at a deeper level or an earlier time, or a different place, or in a different state or form, or all of the above.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The sixth state is referred to as God Consciousness , because the individual is capable of perceiving and appreciating the full range and mechanics of creation and experiences waves of love and devotion for the creation and its creator.

[5]
.Consciousness in psychology and philosophy has four characteristics: subjectivity, change, continuity and selectivity.^ Future work in philosophy and science may change the ways in which we think about consciousness so radically that its reduction to physical process begins to look plausible.
  • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Conversely, if the relationships inside the main complex were to change, as could be done by changing the pattern of connections within the color-selective area and with the rest of the complex, so would the conscious experience of blue.
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ But it is not obvious that subjects in this task are continuously conscious of the image.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1][6] .Intentionality or aboutness (that consciousness is about something) has also been suggested by philosopher Franz Brentano.^ Such clear cases suggest that we can indeed speak truthfully about some conscious and unconscious events.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the representations invoked within cognitive science are intentional in Brentano's sense, then these scientists seem committed to denying that consciousness is necessary for intentionality.
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ We assume that when people talk about "consciousness," there is something to be explained.
  • Consciousness and Neuroscience 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.klab.caltech.edu [Source type: Academic]

.However, within the philosophy of mind there is no consensus on whether intentionality is a requirement for consciousness.^ There is no consensus.
  • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is not clear whether this is required for perceptual consciousness.
  • Definitions of Terms Used in the Study of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.klab.caltech.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the mind, there is actually nothing but consciousness.
  • BEING, CONSCIOUSNESS, AND EVERYTHING 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.goertzel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7]
.Consciousness is the subject of much research in philosophy of mind, psychology, neuroscience, cognitive science, cognitive neuroscience and artificial intelligence.^ Two sciences of mind: Readings in cognitive science and consciousness ..
  • CONSCIOUSNESS / PARAPSYCHOLOGY / TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.uwsp.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Consciousness in philosophy and cognitive neuroscience .
  • CONSCIOUSNESS / PARAPSYCHOLOGY / TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.uwsp.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Cognitive neuroscience: The biology of mind .
  • CONSCIOUSNESS / PARAPSYCHOLOGY / TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.uwsp.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Issues of practical concern include how the presence of consciousness can be assessed in severely ill or comatose people;[8] whether non-human consciousness exists and if so how it can be measured; at what point in fetal development consciousness begins; and whether computers can achieve a conscious state.^ How to experiment with conscious states .
  • Edge In Paris: SIGNATURES OF CONSCIOUSNESS — A TALK BY STANISLAS DEHAENE 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.edge.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The explanatory question: How can consciousness exist?
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The theory states that the quantity of consciousness available to a system can be measured as the Φ value of a complex of elements.
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[9][10][11]

Contents

Etymology

.The word "conscious" is derived from Latin conscius meaning "1. having joint or common knowledge with another, privy to, cognizant of; 2. conscious to oneself; esp., conscious of guilt".[12] A related word was conscientia which primarily means moral conscience.^ That is, it is primarily a problem having to do with knowledge or understanding.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All three senses (knowledge shared with another, knowledge shared with oneself and, simply, knowledge) entered the English language with `conscience', the first equivalent of conscientia .
  • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Maharaj: You must have a thorough knowledge of this consciousness, and having known everything about the consciousness you come to the conclusion that it is all unreal, and then it should drop off.
  • Some Dialogues from Conscioiusness and the Absolute 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.prahlad.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the literal sense, "conscientia" means knowledge-with, that is, shared knowledge.^ In its original Latin sense, to be conscious of something was to share knowledge of it, with someone else, or with oneself.
  • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ All three senses (knowledge shared with another, knowledge shared with oneself and, simply, knowledge) entered the English language with `conscience', the first equivalent of conscientia .
  • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A `weakened' sense of conscientia coexisted in Latin with the stronger sense which implies shared knowledge: in this weak sense conscientia was, simply, knowledge.
  • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.The word first appears in Latin juridical texts by writers such as Cicero[citation needed].^ Such texts are claimed to be axiomatically true and cannot be disputed for they are God's Word.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Let's call time zero the point at which the word first appears on the screen, and let's follow this activation from that point.
  • Edge In Paris: SIGNATURES OF CONSCIOUSNESS — A TALK BY STANISLAS DEHAENE 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.edge.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The words `conscious' and `consciousness' first appear early in the 17th century, rapidly followed by `self-conscious' and `self-consciousness' (Lewis, 1960 ).
  • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

Here, conscientia is the knowledge that a witness has of the deed of someone else.
.René Descartes (1596–1650) is generally taken to be the first philosopher to use "conscientia" in a way that does not seem to fit this traditional meaning, although this has recently been countered by Boris Hennig.^ Solving the first problem means that we would know to what extent a physical system can generate consciousness – the quantity or level of consciousness.
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ For Wheeler, the big question of which comes first, the material universe or information, is a way of posing an even bigger question: “How come existence?” How does something arise from nothing?
  • Wired 15.02: What We Don't Know 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are thus many concepts of consciousness, and both “conscious” and “consciousness” are used in a wide range of ways with no privileged or canonical meaning.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13]
.Shortly thereafter, in Britain, the neo-Platonist theologian Ralph Cudworth used the modern meaning of consciousness in his "True Intellectual System of the Universe" (1678) and associated the concept with personal identity, which is assured by the repeated consciousness of oneself.^ Also, the true meaning of a rose differs for each person.
  • Universal Theory - Consciousness A Fundamental Entity 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.universaltheory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sperry R. Consciousness, personal identity and the divided brain.
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ "This book, CONSCIOUSNESS IS ALL, is a constant reminder of your true Identity."

Cudworth's use of the term also remained intertwined with moral agency.
.Twelve years later, Locke offered a definition of consciousness in his Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690) that remained closely intertwined with moral conscience (I may be held morally responsible only for the act of which I am conscious of having achieved; and my personal identity—my self—goes as far as my consciousness extends itself).^ Consciousness, or what is called the Self, really is the only I. .

^ For example, it presupposes the ability to act voluntarily; this is closely related to conscious experience (see Chapter 7).
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The experience of God-consciousness remains the same from generation to generation, but with each advancing epoch in human knowledge the philosophic concept and the theologic definitions of God must change.

In any event, John Locke had much influence on the 18th Century view of consciousness: in Samuel Johnson's celebrated Dictionary (1755), Johnson gives a definition of "conscious" as "endowed with the power of knowing one's own thoughts and actions," and takes Locke's own definition of "consciousness" as "the perception of what passes in a man's own mind."

Philosophical approaches

Representation of consciousness from the 17th century.
.There are many philosophical stances on consciousness, including: behaviorism, dualism, idealism, functionalism, reflexive monism, phenomenalism, phenomenology and intentionality, physicalism, emergentism, mysticism, personal identity, externalism, etc.^ On the latter view, there are phenomenal states unavailable to conscious access, and access and phenomenology have distinct neural correlates.
  • Consciousness@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Emergent property dualism treats conscious properties as arising form complex organizations of physical constituents but as doing so in a radical way such that the emergent result is something over and above its physical causes and is not a priori predictable from nor explicable in terms of their strictly physical natures.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, many philosophers and scientists have put forth other candidates for what, specifically, to identify in the brain with consciousness.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Phenomenal and access consciousness

.Phenomenal consciousness (P-consciousness) is simply experience; it is moving, colored forms, sounds, sensations, emotions and feelings with our bodies and responses at the center.^ Astral body The emotional or feeling body.
  • SOULEDOUT.ORG GLOSSARY 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.souledout.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Damasio AR. The feeling of what happens: body and emotion in the making of consciousness.
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The reader's private experience of this word, his or her mental image of yesterday's breakfast, or the feeling of a toothache -- these are all contents of consciousness.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These experiences, considered independently of any impact on behavior, are called qualia.^ This problem of qualia is what Chalmers (1995) calls "The Hard Problem": a full account of the manner in which subjective experience arises from cerebral processes.
  • Consciousness and Neuroscience 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.klab.caltech.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Reason (1984) calls these modules the "action schemata," which, he writes, "can be independently activated, and behave in an energetic and highly competitive fashion to try to grab a piece of the action."
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The hard problem of consciousness, formulated by David Chalmers in 1996, deals with the issue of "how to explain a state of phenomenal consciousness in terms of its neurological basis".[14]
.Access consciousness (A-consciousness) is the phenomenon whereby information in our minds is accessible for verbal report, reasoning, and the control of behavior.^ The universe is a repository of knowledge, that we have access to and upon which our consciousness has control.
  • Quantum Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is a war on consciousness, a war on our own minds.

^ Model 6: Attention as control of access to consciousness.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.So, when we perceive, information about what we perceive is often access conscious; when we introspect, information about our thoughts is access conscious; when we remember, information about the past (e.g., something that we learned) is often access conscious, and so on.^ Sharing our conscious thoughts is something we have been adjusting to for thousands of years.
  • Edge In Paris: SIGNATURES OF CONSCIOUSNESS — A TALK BY STANISLAS DEHAENE 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.edge.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But we will sound the following note of caution about the use of activation alone to represent access to consciousness.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, at the point where we begin to see conscious access, our records show a synchronization of many areas that begin to work together.
  • Edge In Paris: SIGNATURES OF CONSCIOUSNESS — A TALK BY STANISLAS DEHAENE 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.edge.org [Source type: Original source]

.Chalmers thinks that access consciousness is less mysterious than phenomenal consciousness, so that it is held to pose one of the easy problems of consciousness.^ But each consciousness of "reality" is less than the whole of it.
  • MYSTICALPARADIGM | MEDIATION ADR CONSCIOUSNESS PARADIGM 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC newthought-apps.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are operating on less than one cylinder.
  • Consciousness | 911 We Know 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.911weknow.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Easy Problem, then, is to distinguish conscious from unconscious mental computation, identify its correlates in the brain, and explain why it evolved.
  • Ghosts in the machine | COSMOS magazine 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.cosmosmagazine.com [Source type: Original source]

.Daniel Dennett denies that there is a "hard problem", asserting that the totality of consciousness can be understood in terms of impact on behavior, as studied through heterophenomenology.^ Explaining consciousness: The hard problem .
  • CONSCIOUSNESS / PARAPSYCHOLOGY / TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.uwsp.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It certainly can't be denied there is Consciousness or Life.

^ I don't believe we can explain everything there is in terms of information and computation: I think consciousness doesn't fit in that model.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.There have been numerous approaches to the processes that act on conscious experience from instant to instant.^ There is no conscious experience; there are no qualia.
  • Skeptic » eSkeptic » Wednesday, February 27th, 2008 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.skeptic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There seem to be events that compete with clearly conscious ones for limited capacity, but which are not reportable in the way the reader's experience of these words is reportable.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The process of dying to old ways of understanding and acting and re-birth to new dimensions of being and experience must continue uninterruptedly.
  • Unitive Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.hermes-press.com [Source type: Original source]

.Dennett suggests that what people think of as phenomenal consciousness, such as qualia, are judgments and consequent behavior.^ Although intentional states are sometimes contrasted with phenomenal states, such as pains and color experiences, it is clear that many conscious states have both phenomenal and intentional properties, such as visual perceptions.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such clear cases suggest that we can indeed speak truthfully about some conscious and unconscious events.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most people, if asked why they think familiar animals such as their pets are conscious, would point to similarities between the behavior of those animals and human behavior.
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.July 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] He extends this analysis by arguing that phenomenal consciousness can be explained in terms of access consciousness, denying the existence of qualia, hence denying the existence of a "hard problem."^ The hard problem of qualia remains unsolved.
  • Consciousness, by Mitja Perus 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.goertzel.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Can consciousness be explained in terms of brain activity?
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perhaps the binding problem and the hard problem of consciousness (section 3b.i) are very closely connected.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.July 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Chalmers, on the other hand, argues that Dennett's explanatory processes merely address aspects of the easy problem.^ Objections to these cognitive theories include the charge that they do not really address the hard problem of consciousness (as described in section 3b.i), but only the “easy” problems.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand, intentional consciousness (consciousness about some object of consciousness) cannot be associated merely with a specific quantum-informational state.
  • Consciousness, by Mitja Perus 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.goertzel.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One exciting aspect of this approach is the resulting interdisciplinary interest it has generated among physicists and other scientists in the problem of consciousness.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Eccles and others have pointed out the difficulty of explaining the evolution of qualia, or of 'minds' which experience them, given that all the processes governing evolution are physical and so have no direct access to them.^ At various points in his classic Principles of Psychology (1890) James tried to reduce all phenomena to conscious experiences (mentalism), while at others he tried to relate them to brain processes (physicalism); this dual reduction led him to mind/body dualism, much against his will.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During this quarter of a second, the brain is not inactive and we can observe a number of instances of lexical access, semantic access and other processes (and subliminal processing can even continue after this point).
  • Edge In Paris: SIGNATURES OF CONSCIOUSNESS — A TALK BY STANISLAS DEHAENE 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.edge.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "This book explains in a great simple way, that consciousness is all, that it is infinite and present without a past or future, without time and space and that it exists without a 'personal' mind having to be conscious of it.

.There is no guarantee that all people have minds, nor any way to verify whether one does or does not possess one.^ There is but one universal God for all.

^ Time in our mind is not one way.
  • Universal Theory - Consciousness A Fundamental Entity 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.universaltheory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the ultimate level everything is unified, but on the relative level, there is no one correct science or religion, there will always be different views, and they probably won't always agree on all points, and this is perfectly in accord with the freedom of the universe, and each individual.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.Events that occur in the mind or brain that are not within phenomenal or access consciousness are known as subconscious events.^ These contrasts are like experiments, in the sense that we vary one thing -- conscious experience of or access to the event -- and try to hold everything else constant.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus we have no way to access both the brain and consciousness together, and therefore any explanatory link between them is forever beyond our reach.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Further, some conscious events are known to penetrate to otherwise inaccessible neural functions.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The description and location of phenomenal consciousness

.For centuries, philosophers have investigated phenomenal consciousness.^ Understanding the phenomenal mind: Are we all just armadillos?” In M. Davies and G. Humphreys, eds., Consciousness: Psychological and Philosophical Essays .
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, philosophers sometimes refer to conscious states as phenomenal or qualitative states.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the end, we will consider a characteristic attempt of a non-reductionist philosopher (N. Nelkin) to discuss (self-)consciousness with phenomenal qualia.
  • Consciousness, by Mitja Perus 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.goertzel.org [Source type: Original source]

.René Descartes, who coined the famous dictum 'cogito ergo sum', wrote Meditations on First Philosophy in the seventeenth century.^ When people first learned about this illness, those who have affection for me came to talk to me, or wrote to me, giving advice and medicine.
  • Some Dialogues from Conscioiusness and the Absolute 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.prahlad.org [Source type: Original source]

.According to Descartes, all thought is conscious.^ But not all such second-order states can render a first-order mental state conscious - it must be a metapsychological thought directed at the first-order state, Gennaro says.
  • Consciousness, by Mitja Perus 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.goertzel.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Recall that according to this argument, phenomenal consciousness requires the capacity to think about, and therefore conceptualize, one's own thoughts.
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ "Self-consciousness does involve an explicit (albeit unconscious) thought and accompanies all conscios experience."
  • Consciousness, by Mitja Perus 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.goertzel.org [Source type: Original source]

.Conscious experience, according to Descartes, included such ideas as imaginings and perceptions laid out in space and time that are viewed from a point, and appearing as a result of some quality (qualia) such as color, smell, and so on.^ This common consciousness is not limited by time or space.
  • Universal Theory - Consciousness A Fundamental Entity 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.universaltheory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some attempts to understand conscious experience .
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This relational space is sufficient to specify the quality of conscious experience.
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.(Modern readers are often confused by this Descartes' notion of interchangeability between the terms 'idea' and 'imaginings.'^ Confusions between phonemes in perception and short-term memory follow the features, so that "t's" are confused with "d's" far more often than they are confused with "l's" (Miller, 19xx).
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Again, the reader should not become discouraged by the apparent complexity and divergence of the evidence -- the rest of this book aims to capture it all in terms of a few basic ideas.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ René Descartes defined the very notion of thought ( pensée ) in terms of reflexive consciousness or self-awareness.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

)
Descartes defines ideas as extended things, as in this excerpt from his Treatise on Man:
.Now among these figures, it is not those imprinted on the external sense organs, or on the internal surface of the brain, which should be taken to be ideas - but only those which are traced in the spirits on the surface of gland H [where the seat of the imagination and the 'common sense' is located].^ A lot of "acting out" that makes no objective sense on the surface does make sense within that person's internal movie.

^ The influence of external localized magnetic and electric fields on these constant changing electromagnetic fields during normal functioning of the brain should now be mentioned.
  • A Reply to Shermer Medical Evidence for NDEs, Pim van Lommel 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.nderf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What we know is entirely mediated by the sense organs and the brain.
  • Theory Of Consciousness - this will take you places you have never been before 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.web-us.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.That is to say, it is only the latter figures which should be taken to be the forms or images which the rational soul united to this machine will consider directly when it imagines some object or perceives it by the senses.^ The claim is that HO theories are theories of consciousness only in the sense that they are attempting to explain what differentiates conscious from unconscious states, i.e., in terms of a higher-order awareness of some kind.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We could say that color is a characteristics of an object (only when this object acts as a phenomenon to us!
  • Consciousness, by Mitja Perus 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.goertzel.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some people, when they talk about consciousness, think that we can only move forward if we gain an understanding of "the self" — the sense of being I or Me.
  • Edge In Paris: SIGNATURES OF CONSCIOUSNESS — A TALK BY STANISLAS DEHAENE 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.edge.org [Source type: Original source]

.Thus Descartes does not identify mental ideas or 'qualia' with activity within the sense organs, or even with brain activity, but rather with the "forms or images" that unite the body and the 'rational soul', through the mediating 'gland H'. This organ is now known as the pineal gland.^ Q: The jnani knows that this is all an illusion, that there is no path; but if, from within the illusion, one is convinced that there is a path, and there's somewhere to go, does it make sense to use techniques to get to that further illusion?
  • Some Dialogues from Conscioiusness and the Absolute 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.prahlad.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Many neural processes within the thalamocortical system may also influence conscious experience without contributing directly to it Even within the thalamocortical system proper, a substantial proportion of neural activity does not appear to contribute directly to conscious experience.
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Even when the camera was switched to film the back of a mannequin being stroked rather than their own back, the volunteers still reported feeling as if the virtual mannequin body was their own.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.Descartes notes that, anatomically, while the human brain consists of two symmetrical hemispheres the pineal gland, which lies close to the brain's centre, appears to be singular.^ And indeed, the only way to do so is to physically split the brain in two to prevent information integration between the two hemispheres.
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ During this procedure, the nerve fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres are cut, resulting in so-called “split-brain” patients.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Descartes error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain .
  • CONSCIOUSNESS / PARAPSYCHOLOGY / TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.uwsp.edu [Source type: Academic]

Thus he extrapolated from this that it was the mediator between body and soul.
Philosophical responses, including those of Nicolas Malebranche, Thomas Reid, John Locke, David Hume and Immanuel Kant, were varied. .Malebranche, for example, agreed with Descartes that the human being was composed of two elements, body and mind, and that conscious experience resided in the latter.^ Conscious Experience,” Mind 102 , no.
  • Consciousness, Higher-Order Theories of [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Mind's Eye and conscious experience.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But consciousness is not inherently identified with the body-mind.
  • The Energy of Consciousness - Da Free John 1982 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.beezone.com [Source type: Original source]

.He did, however, disagree with Descartes as to the ease with which we might become aware of our mental constitution, stating 'I am not my own light unto myself'. David Hume and Immanuel Kant also differ from Descartes, in that they avoid mentioning a place from which experience is viewed (see "Further reading" below); certainly, few if any modern philosophers have identified the pineal gland as the seat of dualist interaction.^ (For further reading on the explanatory gap, see David Papineau's "Mind the Gap" ) .
  • Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.naturalism.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We have a sense of our own being, we are aware that we are aware.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Rene Descartes famously located the "seat of the soul" to the pineal gland.
  • Definitions of Terms Used in the Study of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.klab.caltech.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The extension of things in time was considered in more detail by Kant and James.^ The more scientific thought advanced in recent times, the more things that were supposed to be tangible turned out not to be that tangible after all.
  • A Course in Cosmic Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.magitech.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We may be able to describe and predict all sorts of things about the physical universe, but the deeper or farther we look in space and time, the more it starts to become indescribable.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Kant basically thought that an adequate account of phenomenal consciousness involved far more than any of his predecessors had considered.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Kant wrote that "only on the presupposition of time can we represent to ourselves a number of things as existing at one and the same time [simultaneously] or at different times [successively]."^ Fact #2 : You can only think about one thing at a time.

^ There is only one thing Being.
  • BEING, CONSCIOUSNESS, AND EVERYTHING 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.goertzel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A great danger of this approach is that one can use the same term in different senses and thereby assert things that actually make no sense.
  • Consciousness and Experience 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.bmeacham.com [Source type: Original source]

William James stressed the extension of experience in time and said that time is "the short duration of which we are immediately and incessantly sensible."
.When we look around a room or have a dream, things are laid out in space and time and viewed as if from a point.^ The mind-stuff is not spread in space and time; these are part of the cyclic scheme ultimately derived out of it.

^ C onsciousness is the tip of the iceberg, in the sense that many other things are going on in the brain at the same time, hidden from view.
  • William H. Calvin, "Competing for Consciousness," Tucson III talk (30 April 1998) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC williamcalvin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Subjectively, one still sees "something" at the location of the original grating, but one is unable to make out its orientation, even when given unlimited viewing time.
  • Consciousness and Neuroscience 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.klab.caltech.edu [Source type: Academic]

.However, when philosophers and scientists consider the location of the form and contents of this phenomenal consciousness, there are fierce disagreements.^ However, the contents of consciousness can be quite decipherable.

^ However, the behavior is not taking place in my mind or in my consciousness because there are no such places.
  • Skeptic » eSkeptic » Wednesday, February 27th, 2008 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.skeptic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The burning question, however, is whether indeed qualia mirror the informational content of functional processes as some sort of separate, parallel entities in consciousness, or whether qualia are this informational content.
  • Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.naturalism.org [Source type: Original source]

.As an example, Descartes proposed that the contents are brain activity seen by a non-physical place without extension (the Res Cogitans), which, in Meditations on First Philosophy, he identified as the soul.^ Studies have shown that our brains can release chemicals that mimic the activity of morphine when we’re treated with placebo analgesics.
  • Wired 15.02: What We Don't Know 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, by this stage of processing in the human brain, activity correlates with the contents of awareness rather than with the raw features of the impinging stimuli.
  • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ To put it another way: If we are entirely physical beings as the materialist holds, then mustn’t all of the brain activity and behavior in question be determined by the laws of nature?
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This idea is known as Cartesian Dualism. .Another example is found in the work of Thomas Reid who thought the contents of consciousness are the world itself, which becomes conscious experience in some way.^ Some attempts to understand conscious experience .
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Content and consciousness Thompson B The spatial content of experience .
  • Center for Consciousness Center . Tucson . Arizona 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC consciousness.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It follows from another stream of thought about conscious experience.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This concept is a type of Direct realism. .The precise physical substrate of conscious experience in the world, such as photons, quantum fields, etc.^ Conscious experience underlies and is a necessary foundation for the physical world view.

^ He is known for the clear explication of the “hard problem” of consciousness, that being examining the question of why physical substrates [such as a brain] would give rise to subjective conscious experience [mind].

^ To me, that's like saying once we have a critical mass of light switches in the world, thrown in just such pattern, the electrical grid will become "conscious."
  • Weblogsky: Consciousness Archives 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC weblogsky.com [Source type: Original source]

is usually not specified.
.Other philosophers, such as George Berkeley, have proposed that the contents of consciousness are an aspect of minds and do not necessarily involve matter at all.^ It started by isolating matter from mind and consciousness.
  • Crank Dot Net | consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.crank.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other issues in the theory of mind and consciousness: .
  • Imagination, Mental Imagery, Consciousness, Cognition: Science, Philosophy & History. 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.imagery-imagination.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other issues in the theory of mind and consciousness .
  • Imagination, Mental Imagery, Consciousness, Cognition: Science, Philosophy & History. 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.imagery-imagination.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This is a type of Idealism. .Yet others, such as Leibniz, have considered that each point in the universe is endowed with conscious content.^ Or consider the conscious experience of others.
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The occurrence of such consciousness, lacking all informational content, counts against any theory that equates consciousness with the mere "flow of information," no matter how intricate.
  • Project MUSE - Subject Browse 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC muse.jhu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This guy is pointing out the way to whole new forms of consciousness, utterly alien and yet completely plausible.
  • No Moods, Ads or Cutesy Fucking Icons (Re-reloaded) » PRISMs, Gom Jabbars, and Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.rifters.com [Source type: Original source]

This is a form of Panpsychism. .Panpsychism is the belief that all matter, including rocks for example, is sentient or conscious.^ Some philosophers have argued that the attribution of consciousness to nonhuman animals is not a matter of drawing an inference at all, but a response more akin to interpretation.
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ We all go around, secure in the belief that every person we interact with is conscious, just as we are.
  • Consciousness@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All of these are examples of a change in your mental consciousness.
  • MYSTICALPARADIGM | MEDIATION ADR CONSCIOUSNESS PARADIGM 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC newthought-apps.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The concept of the things in conscious experience being impressions in the brain is a type of representationalism, and representationalism is a form of indirect realism.^ Neuromagnetic studies in humans have shown that neural activity correlated with a stimulus that is not being consciously perceived can be recorded in many cortical areas, including the front of the brain.
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The experience of God-consciousness remains the same from generation to generation, but with each advancing epoch in human knowledge the philosophic concept and the theologic definitions of God must change.

^ To the extent that consciousness corresponds to the capacity to integrate information, complexes are the "subjects" of experience, being the locus where information can be integrated.
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.It is sometimes held that consciousness emerges from the complexity of brain processing.^ Often such work addresses what might be called the easy problems of consciousness: How does the brain process environmental stimulation?

^ For Goswami, there is no question of quantum reductionismwhere consciousness is somehow generated by or emerges from quantum processes.
  • http://www.deepspirit.com/sys-tmpl/quantumconsciousness/ 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.deepspirit.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Or one might be concerned instead with whether the phenomenal and qualitative properties of a conscious creature's mind can be a priori deduced from a description of the neural properties of its brain processes.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The general label 'emergence' applies to new phenomena that emerge from a physical basis without the connection between the two explicitly specified.^ Two other objections apply generally to higher-order thought accounts of consciousness.
  • Consciousness, Higher-Order Theories of [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Due to Brentano (1973), intentionality represents a typically psychical phenomenon which cannot be reduced to physical phenomena, so it is an example of essential difference between the psychical and the physical.
  • Consciousness, by Mitja Perus 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.goertzel.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And indeed, the only way to do so is to physically split the brain in two to prevent information integration between the two hemispheres.
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Some theorists hold that phenomenal consciousness poses an explanatory gap.^ Although most who bring forth this objection are not HO theorists, Peter Carruthers (1989) is one HO theorist who actually embraces the conclusion that (most) animals do not have phenomenal consciousness.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, it is often said that materialism cannot truly explain just how or why some brain states are conscious, and that there is an important “explanatory gap” between mind and matter.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, perhaps the explanatory gap between third-person scientific knowledge and first-person unified conscious experience can also be bridged.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Colin McGinn takes the New Mysterianism position that it can't be solved, and Chalmers criticizes purely physical accounts of mental experiences based on the idea that philosophical zombies are logically possible and supports property dualism.^ This nature unifies the physical world of seemingly "external" sensory experiences and seemingly "internal" mental events, with the unfindable yet undeniable dimension of awareness, and the unfindable yet logically required nature of being nonoriginated.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words, no matter what position one takes on the universe, it leaves open the possibility - indeed even the logical requirement - that there must be something before it, greater than it, deeper than it, beyond it, after it, etc.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Incarnation The unification of the etheric double with the dense physical body; the taking of a dense physical body; a definitely determined period (from the angle of soul) wherein experiment, experience and expression are the keynotes.
  • SOULEDOUT.ORG GLOSSARY 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.souledout.org [Source type: Original source]

.But others have proposed speculative scientific theories to explain the explanatory gap, such as Quantum mind, space-time theories of consciousness, reflexive monism, and Electromagnetic theories of consciousness to explain the correspondence between brain activity and experience.^ This common consciousness is not limited by time or space.
  • Universal Theory - Consciousness A Fundamental Entity 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.universaltheory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We perceive the brain as an object in space and time.
  • Edge In Paris: SIGNATURES OF CONSCIOUSNESS — A TALK BY STANISLAS DEHAENE 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.edge.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The conscious mind: In search of a fundamental theory .
  • CONSCIOUSNESS / PARAPSYCHOLOGY / TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.uwsp.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Parapsychologists sometimes appeal to the unproven concepts of psychokinesis or telepathy to support the belief that consciousness is not confined to the brain.^ General human belief of course has always said Consciousness is located inside the human body, somewhere in the brain.

^ For present purposes we will also speak of abstract but immediately expressible concepts as conscious -- including our currently expressible beliefs, intentions, meanings, knowledge, and expectations.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We will speak of conscious experience of percepts and images, and conscious access to abstract concepts, intentions, beliefs, and the like.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Philosophical criticisms

.From the eighteenth to twentieth centuries many philosophers concentrated on relations, processes and thought[citation needed] as the most important aspects of consciousness.^ However, many philosophers and scientists have put forth other candidates for what, specifically, to identify in the brain with consciousness.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In sum, when we compare input events (perception and imagery) with output (action) and mediating events (thought and memory), it is the input that seems most clearly conscious in its details.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Notice that most of the processing resources in the nervous system are unconscious, so that we have the remarkable situation of conscious events being used to gain access to unconscious processing resources.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These aspects would later become known as "access consciousness"[citation needed] and this focus on relations allowed philosophers such as Marx, Nietzsche and Foucault to claim that individual consciousness was dependent on such factors as social relations, political relations and ideology.^ In the history of Western philosophy, which is the focus of this entry, important writings on human nature and the soul and mind go back to ancient philosophers, such as Plato .
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Convinced by evidence of sophisticated cognitive abilities, most philosophers these days (including Carruthers) agree with Block that something like access consciousness is properly attributed to many animals.
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These contrasts are like experiments, in the sense that we vary one thing -- conscious experience of or access to the event -- and try to hold everything else constant.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Locke's "forensic" notion of personal identity founded on an individual conscious subject would be criticized in the 19th century by Marx, Nietzsche, and Freud following different angles.^ That is, activating the same neurons would produce a different conscious experience.
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In a different tradition, Freud's censorship metaphor attempts to explain the fact that conscious experience is only the tip of a great motivational iceberg (Erdelyi, 1985).
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus Moray (1959) showed that the subject's name in the unattended channel would break through to the conscious channel.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Martin Heidegger's concept of the Dasein ("Being-there") would also be an attempt to think beyond the conscious subject.^ So if you didn't identify as the pure Conscious Being you are, as what is, and identified only on the passing level of the five senses, time, and what is-not, what in the world would you be doing?

^ That Self being conscious here, now, is the only You there is.

^ I don't believe we can explain everything there is in terms of information and computation: I think consciousness doesn't fit in that model.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.Marx considered that social relations ontologically preceded individual consciousness, and criticized the conception of a conscious subject as an ideological conception on which liberal political thought was founded.^ Consider the phenomenon of a conscious thought.
  • Ghosts in the machine | COSMOS magazine 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.cosmosmagazine.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Consciousness, understood as the phenomenal, subjective sense of being aware of one’s self and surroundings – perceptions, feelings, thoughts, emotions, etc.
  • Consciousness Evolving 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.naturalism.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In this view, the world is substantial, real and has the quality of appearing as a consistent objective experience across all subjects of localized individuated consciousness.
  • BEING, CONSCIOUSNESS, AND EVERYTHING 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.goertzel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Marx in particular criticized the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, considering that the so-called individual natural rights were ideological fictions camouflaging social inequality in the attribution of those rights.^ Metaphysical, ethical, social and individual relations, commonweal, national good, and all the values of life, are finally centred in the nature of God-consciousness .

Later, Louis Althusser would criticize the "bourgeois ideology of the subject" through the concept of interpellation ("Hey, you!").
.Nietzsche, for his part, once wrote that "they give you free will only to later blame yourself", thus reversing the classical liberal conception of free will in a critical account of the genealogy of consciousness as the effect of guilt and ressentiment, which he described in On the Genealogy of Morals.^ That consciousness is you only capital.
  • Some Dialogues from Conscioiusness and the Absolute 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.prahlad.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So if you didn't identify as the pure Conscious Being you are, as what is, and identified only on the passing level of the five senses, time, and what is-not, what in the world would you be doing?

^ That Self being conscious here, now, is the only You there is.

.Hence, Nietzsche was the first one to make the claim that the modern notion of consciousness was indebted to the modern system of penalty, which judged a man according to his "responsibility", that is by the consciousness through which acts can be attributed to an individual subject: "I did this!^ The definition has to be: A system which makes decisions has consciousness.
  • Definition Of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC c2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But first one must understand what that individual is.

^ In the analysis to which he then proceeds Varela makes an ultimate appeal to a structural metaphor - one that is utilized in the AMC to characterize the structure of consciousness itself.
  • The Subject of Consciousness Revisited 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.mentalstates.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

this is me!". .Consciousness is thus related by Nietzsche to the classic philosopheme of recognition which, according to him, defines knowledge.^ Dedicated to expanding and sharing knowledge about Kundalini and related spiritual transformations of consciousness....
  • The Halls of Reiki Great Hall of Links - Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC hallsofreiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A second, related, intuition is that the sharing of knowledge with oneself, in consciousness, and the sharing of knowledge with others, in social exchanges, are interdependent.
  • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The subject of consciousness is not the body, brain or a neuron, but an "I", a person that may not be defined on the basis of the structure of his brain, but rather as a point of intersection in a net of social relations.
  • Consciousness & Emotion, 2000, 1: 00-00 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.goertzel.org [Source type: Original source]

[15]
According to Pierre Klossowski (1969), Nietzsche considered consciousness to be a hypostatization of the body, composed of multiple forces (the "Will to Power"). .According to him, the subject was only a "grammatical fiction": we believed in the existence of an individual subject, and therefore of a specific author of each act, insofar as we speak.^ Response to pharmacological agents is highly individual; therefore, all pharmacological agents will be titrated according to the patient’s response.
  • Conscious Sedation 12 September 2009 6:54 UTC prc.coh.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Therefore, we cannot observe directly the subjective environment of the organism; we may describe only our own environment and relate this to the observed behavior of the organism.
  • Consciousness & Emotion, 2000, 1: 00-00 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.goertzel.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Note that this subject-object relation is not a relation between different entities, but an intra-modal subject-object relation, which can only be understood when the things of everyday life are understood as individuality structures.

.Therefore, the conscious subject is dependent on the existence of language, a claim which would be generalized by critical discourse analysis (see for example Judith Butler).^ Consciousness surely does not depend on language.
  • Ghosts in the machine | COSMOS magazine 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.cosmosmagazine.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, it presupposes the ability to act voluntarily; this is closely related to conscious experience (see Chapter 7).
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How much this commits one to the ontological status of consciousness per se will depend on how much of a Platonist one is about universals in general.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Michel Foucault's analysis of the creation of the individual subject through disciplines, in Discipline and Punish (1975), would extend Nietzsche's genealogy of consciousness and personal identity - i.e. individualism - to the change in the juridico-penal system: the emergence of penology and the disciplinization of the individual subject through the creation of a penal system which judged not the acts as it alleged to, but the personal identity of the wrong-doer. .In other words, Foucault maintained that, by judging not the acts (the crime), but the person behind those acts (the criminal), the modern penal system was not only following the philosophical definition of consciousness, once again demonstrating the imbrications between ideas and social institutions ("material ideology" as Althusser would call it); it was by itself creating the individual person, categorizing and dividing the masses into a category of poor but honest and law-abiding citizens and another category of "professional criminals" or recidivists.^ Only that in which consciousness manifests itself is limited and is created and destroyed.
  • Some Dialogues from Conscioiusness and the Absolute 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.prahlad.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The experience of God-consciousness remains the same from generation to generation, but with each advancing epoch in human knowledge the philosophic concept and the theologic definitions of God must change.

^ Consciousness is generated by a distributed thalamocortical network that is at once specialized and integrated Ancient Greek philosophers disputed whether the seat of consciousness was in the lungs, in the heart, or in the brain.
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Gilbert Ryle has argued that traditional understandings of consciousness depend on a Cartesian outlook that divides into mind and body, mind and world.^ Kinds of minds: Toward an understanding of consciousness .
  • CONSCIOUSNESS / PARAPSYCHOLOGY / TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.uwsp.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ But consciousness is not inherently identified with the body-mind.
  • The Energy of Consciousness - Da Free John 1982 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.beezone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The duration of mind and matter depends on consciousness.
  • Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.aimwell.org [Source type: Original source]

.He proposed that we speak not of minds, bodies, and the world, but of individuals, or persons, acting in the world.^ The mind-body problem is a great one; dualists (mind-body proponents) propose that the mind is a spirit or soul, whereas the body is made of normal matter.
  • Signature of consciousness captured in brain scans - life - 12 November 2009 - New Scientist 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, many people (including even many scientists) have had personal experiences that indicate that there is some greater entity beyond the body, mind or individual self, and perhaps even beyond the physical limits of space and time.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, a person may be defined as a point of intersection of all social relations, the body being the spatial location of the point of intersection; the concept of person contains all those parts of the world and relations which are important for the life process of the individual.
  • Consciousness & Emotion, 2000, 1: 00-00 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.goertzel.org [Source type: Original source]

.Thus, by saying 'consciousness,' we end up misleading ourselves by thinking that there is any sort of thing as consciousness separated from behavioral and linguistic understandings.^ Is there a start or an end to consciousness?
  • A Reply to Shermer Medical Evidence for NDEs, Pim van Lommel 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.nderf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They think, "No, there can't be any sort of naturalistic explanation of consciousness."
  • Dan Dennett on our consciousness | Video on TED.com 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ted.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is not a separation between the consciousness that we are and the consciousness that God is.

.The failure to produce a workable definition of consciousness also raises formidable philosophical questions.^ The experience of God-consciousness remains the same from generation to generation, but with each advancing epoch in human knowledge the philosophic concept and the theologic definitions of God must change.

^ Student: You still did not answer my question on why, if “ consciousness” is just a suitcase word, what makes it seem like such a definite thing.
  • Chapter §4 CONSCIOUSNESS 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The possibility of fleeting conscious flashes raises difficult but important questions.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It has been argued that when Antonio Damasio[16] defines consciousness as "an organism's awareness of its own self and its surroundings", the definition has not escaped circularity, because awareness in that context can be considered a synonym for consciousness.^ (Consciousness and Awareness are treated as synonyms.

^ Higher-order (HO) theories analyze the notion of a conscious mental state in terms of reflexive meta-mental self-awareness.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Self-consciousness refers to an organism's capacity for second-order representation of the organism's own mental states.
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The notion of consciousness as passive awareness can be contrasted with the notion of the active construction of mental representations.^ Higher-order (HO) theories analyze the notion of a conscious mental state in terms of reflexive meta-mental self-awareness.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ René Descartes defined the very notion of thought ( pensée ) in terms of reflexive consciousness or self-awareness.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are a number of such representational theories of consciousness currently on the market, including higher-order theories which hold that what makes a mental state conscious is that the subject is aware of it in some sense.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Maturana and Varela[17] showed that the brain is massively involved with creating worlds of experience for us with meager input from the senses.^ Interestingly, the experiment also shows that the collective attention and focus of people throughout the world inclines the result of the random number generator to one side.
  • Universal Theory - Consciousness A Fundamental Entity 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.universaltheory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus all creation becomes as dear to one as the Self, and one experiences in the most profound sense, The world is my family (Maha Upanishad, 6.71).

^ Is their experience of the world vision-like, audition-like, or completely alien to us?
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins[18] sums up the interactive view of experience: "In a way, what sense organs do is assist our brains to construct a useful model and it is this model that we move around in.^ The events of inner experience, as emergent properties of brain processes, become themselves explanatory causal constructs in their own right, interacting at their own level with their own laws and dynamics.
  • Universal Theory - Consciousness A Fundamental Entity 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.universaltheory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aside from reductionistic motivations, Tye and other FOR representationalists often use the somewhat technical notion of the “transparency of experience” as support for their view (Harman 1990).
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus we have no way to access both the brain and consciousness together, and therefore any explanatory link between them is forever beyond our reach.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is a kind of virtual reality simulation of the world."^ Therefore, the world we see around us is not the real world itself, but merely a miniature virtual-reality replica of that world in an internal representation.
  • Skeptic » eSkeptic » Wednesday, February 27th, 2008 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.skeptic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In meditative states, some dreams, expansive psychedelic states, mystical and visionary states, we may find ourselves seemingly in other kinds of reality altogether, other realms, other worlds.

^ Computer graphics and imagery are often spoken of as being "simulacra" of things in the world, the "virtual" as distinguished from something supposed to be real, but all we know of the world partakes as simulacra.
  • Theory Of Consciousness - this will take you places you have never been before 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.web-us.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Consciousness and language

.Because humans express their conscious states using language, it is tempting to equate language abilities and consciousness.^ If humans are able to exert changes in the field of consciousness, does the mechanism for this ability lie somewhere in a physical organ within us?
  • Consciousness as an Active Force 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.renresearch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Consciousness as an Active Force 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC twm.co.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of the emergent qualities of technology and reflexive consciousness, humanity certainly has achieved this aspect of global consciousness, but at the expense of losing the ground qualities of natural living and belonging.
  • Global Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.earley.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Because such a yogi perceives the states of pain and pleasure only superficially, they, in no case, affect his state of Supreme-Being Consciousness.

.There are, however, speechless humans (infants, feral children, aphasics, severe forms of autism), to whom consciousness is attributed despite language lost or not yet acquired.^ However, the behavior is not taking place in my mind or in my consciousness because there are no such places.
  • Skeptic » eSkeptic » Wednesday, February 27th, 2008 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.skeptic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Feral children and clever animals: Reflections on human nature .
  • CONSCIOUSNESS / PARAPSYCHOLOGY / TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.uwsp.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ However, I am referring to consciousness here, and human beings and human society seem to be the only possible source for that.
  • Global Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.earley.org [Source type: Original source]

.Moreover, the study of brain states of non-linguistic primates, in particular the macaques, has been used extensively by scientists and philosophers in their quest for the neural correlates of the contents of consciousness.^ Correlation dimensions of a variety of brain states.

^ One, not two, neural correlates of consciousness.
  • Consciousness@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What are the neural correlates of consciousness?
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Julian Jaynes argued to the contrary, in The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind, that for consciousness to arise in a person, language needs to have reached a fairly high level of complexity.^ Cognition, language and consciousness: Integrative levels .
  • CONSCIOUSNESS / PARAPSYCHOLOGY / TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.uwsp.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This paper argues that the standard approach fails because it takes Locke to be a memory theorist, and does not focus enough on his claim that we need continuity of consciousness for personal persistence.
  • Project MUSE - Subject Browse 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC muse.jhu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ High-level conceptual models can provide insights into the processes implemented by the neural mechanisms underlying consciousness , without necessarily specifying the mechanisms themselves.
  • Models of consciousness - Scholarpedia 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.scholarpedia.org [Source type: Academic]

.According to Jaynes, human consciousness emerged as recently as 1300 BCE or thereabouts.^ Self-reflexive consciousness has developed very gradually over the span of human social evolution, and the ability to understand dynamics is the most historically recent of our self-conscious abilities.
  • Global Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.earley.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nonetheless, some have argued that consciousness as we know it today is a relatively recent historical development that arose sometime after the Homeric era (Jaynes 1974).
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The techniques of physiological psychology, human neuropsychology and, recently, functional imaging are revealing exquisitely detailed correlations between neural processes and features of conscious experience.
  • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.He defines consciousness in such a way as to show how he conceives of it as a type of thinking which builds upon non human ways of perceiving, for example (p. 55)...^ Such early luminaries as Wilhelm Wundt and William James defined psychology as the quest for the understanding of conscious experience.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A major endeavor of this book is to show conclusively, in various ways, how and why Consciousness is not inside the body, but that body and all things are forever secure in the perfect wholeness of Consciousness.

^ For example, having a well developed prefrontal cortex allows humans to reason and plan in ways not available to dogs and cats.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Subjective conscious mind is an analog of what is called the real world. It is built up like a vocabulary or lexical field whose terms are all metaphors or analogs of behavior in the physical world. Its reality is of the same order as mathematics. It allows us to shortcut behavioral processes and arrive at more adequate decisions. Like mathematics, it is an operator rather than a repository. And it is intimately bound up with volition and decision.
...and page 65...
It operates by way of analogy, by way of constructing an analog space with an analog "I" that can observe that space, and move metaphorically in it.
...and perhaps most tellingly, page 66...
there is nothing in consciousness that is not an analog of something that was in behavior first.
.Some philosophers, including W.V. Quine, and some neuroscientists, including Christof Koch, contest this hypothesis, arguing that it suggests that prior to this "discovery" of consciousness, experience simply did not exist.^ Some attempts to understand conscious experience .
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some attempts to understand conscious experience.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In God-consciousness , to know is to exist as blissful power; to exist as power is to know oneself as unbounded bliss; and to experience bliss is to be permeated by divine knowledge in which knower, known and knowledge are all one.

[19] .Ned Block argued that Jaynes had confused consciousness with the concept of consciousness, the latter being what was discovered between the Iliad and the Odyssey.^ Block, N. “On a Confusion about the Function of Consciousness.” In Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18: 227-47, 1995.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An enormous structure of concepts being taught to us as knowledge is based on the simple appearance of consciousness.
  • Some Dialogues from Conscioiusness and the Absolute 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.prahlad.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ned Block " Paradox and Cross Purpose in Recent Work on Consciousness" Better to read this than the version in Dehaene or on the Cognition web site.
  • G83.1103: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.nyu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[20] .Daniel Dennett points out that these approaches misconceive Jaynes's definition of consciousness as more than mere perception or awareness of an object.^ While science and religion may disagree on certain points, at the very deepest level, they may actually be more compatible than we might think.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nor are the facts gathered by these third person methods merely about the causes or bases of consciousness; they often concern the very structure of phenomenal consciousness itself.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Narrowing down the precise brain property responsible for consciousness is a different and far more difficult enterprise than merely holding a generic belief in some form of materialism.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He notes that consciousness is like money in that having the thing requires having the concept of it, so it is a revolutionary proposal and not a ridiculous error to suppose that consciousness only emerges when its concept does.^ When I am, for example, smelling a rose or having a conscious visual experience, there is something it “seems” or “feels” like from my perspective.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These contrasts are like experiments, in the sense that we vary one thing -- conscious experience of or access to the event -- and try to hold everything else constant.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fact is, all things, even the body, exist in only one "place," within Consciousness, Awareness.

.More recently, Merlin Donald, seeing a similar connection between language and consciousness, and a similar link to cultural, and not purely genetic, evolution, has put a similar proposal to Jaynes' forward - though relying on less specific speculation about the more recent pre-history of consciousness.^ See more articles cited in this paragraph Review What electrical microstimulation has revealed about the neural basis of cognition.
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Third, it may be that McGinn expects too much; namely, grasping some causal link between the brain and consciousness.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What is the key difference between you and the photodiode that makes you "see" light consciously?
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

He writes...
To understand consciousness fully, the generation of culture must be explained. Enculturation has been neglected as a possible formative process in its own right, but we have no alternative other than to give it pride of place in any evolutionary theory[21].
.He argues that an earlier "symbol using culture" must have preceded both the personal symbol using of individual consciousness, as well as language itself.^ The abstract noun “consciousness” is not frequently used by itself in the contemporary literature, but is originally derived from the Latin con (with) and scire (to know).
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus STM cannot be used to explain conscious experience; perhaps it must be the other way around.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nor are the facts gathered by these third person methods merely about the causes or bases of consciousness; they often concern the very structure of phenomenal consciousness itself.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The idea that language and consciousness are not innate to humans, a characteristic of human nature, but rather the result of cultural evolution, beginning with something similar to the culture of chimpanzees, goes back before Darwin to Rousseau's Second Discourse.^ Human survival and consciousness evolution .
  • CONSCIOUSNESS / PARAPSYCHOLOGY / TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.uwsp.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Awakening earth: Exploring the evolution of human culture and consciousness .
  • CONSCIOUSNESS / PARAPSYCHOLOGY / TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.uwsp.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In the history of Western philosophy, which is the focus of this entry, important writings on human nature and the soul and mind go back to ancient philosophers, such as Plato .
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Vedanta

According to Vedanta, awareness is not a product of physical processes and can be considered under four aspects. .The first is waking consciousness (jagaritasthana), the identification with “I” or “me” in relationship with phenomenal experiences with external objects.^ First, a number of authors before and after Darwin have believed that conscious experience can accompany instinctive and reflexive actions.
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Consciousness as experience Consciousness in its first sense is the behavioural expression of our normal waking state.
  • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ We argue later in this book that voluntary control itself requires an understanding of conscious experience, so that voluntary rehearsal in STM first requires an understanding of conscious experience.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The second aspect is dream consciousness (svapna-sthana), which embodies the same subject/object duality as the waking state.^ Self-consciousness refers to an organism's capacity for second-order representation of the organism's own mental states.
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, is one conscious in the relevant sense when dreaming, hypnotized or in a fugue state?
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Maharishis (1972) description of higher states of consciousness, the sixth state of consciousness, God Consciousness , is defined by the unbounded, self-referral awareness of cosmic consciousness coexisting with the development of refined sensory perception during the three relative states of waking, dreaming, and sleeping.

.The third aspect of consciousness is deep sleep (susupti), which is non-dual as a result of holding in abeyance all feelings, thoughts, and sensations.^ In states of deep absorption in a novel or a film, or in hypnosis, people may not be able to reflect on their experiences without disrupting the absorbed state (7.x), but they are quite conscious all the same.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reductive analyses of consciousness hold out the hope that experience, in all its subjective richness, can be exhaustively described in the objective terms of function and physiology (Dennett, 1991 ).
  • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If thoughts are things, they should be living conscious things that contain the universal feeling and message of the God Consciousness : the very quality and intelligent power of our being.

.The final aspect is the consciousness that underlies and transcends the first three aspects (turiya) also referred to as a trans-cognitive state (anubhava) or a state of self-realization or freedom from body-mind identification (moksha).^ It reverses the mistaken identification from body to Consciousness.

^ Consciousness, or what is called the Self, really is the only I. .

^ It is this “self-representing” which makes the state conscious.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22] Gaudiya Vedanta recognizes a fifth aspect of consciousness in which God becomes subordinate to bhakti.[23]

Scientific approaches

Cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience

.For a long time in scientific psychology, consciousness as a research topic or explanatory concept had been banned [24].^ In cognitive psychology, conscious and unconscious events have the same status as any other scientific constructs.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of one thing, however, we can be very sure: that we cannot pursue scientific psychology and hope to avoid the problem for very long.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consciousness Is All is the first in a long time to say things in a different way.

.Research on topics associated with consciousness were conducted under the banner of attention.^ Likewise, much of the basic research that is of direct relevance to understanding human visual consciousness has been conducted on the very similar visual systems of monkeys.
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Under some conditions this interaction seems to take up central limited capacity, a capacity that is closely associated with attention and conscious experience (see Chapter 2).
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We have briefly reviewed the three major sources of evidence for limited capacity associated with conscious experience: the evidence for narrow limitations in selective attention, competing tasks, and immediate memory.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Modern investigations into consciousness are based on psychological statistical studies and case studies of consciousness states and the deficits caused by lesions, stroke, injury, or surgery that disrupt the normal functioning of human senses and cognition.^ An investigation into conscious living and conscious dying .
  • CONSCIOUSNESS / PARAPSYCHOLOGY / TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.uwsp.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, is one conscious in the relevant sense when dreaming, hypnotized or in a fugue state?
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stigmatad: An investigation into the mysterious appearance of Christs wounds in hundreds of people from Medieval Italy to modern America .
  • CONSCIOUSNESS / PARAPSYCHOLOGY / TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.uwsp.edu [Source type: Academic]

.These discoveries suggest that the mind is a complex structure derived from various localized functions that are bound together with a unitary awareness.^ These discoveries suggest that the mind is a complex structure derived from various localized functions that are bound together with a unitary awareness.

^ However, until these minds unite and function together we will not have the Mind of Christ.
  • CONSCIOUSNESS UNVEILED 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC sigler.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Our universe structured as a quantum holo-informational non-local field full of quantum potential with meaning, is an intelligent (informed) universe functioning like a mind, as Sir James Jeans already had observed.
  • Universal Theory - Consciousness A Fundamental Entity 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.universaltheory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Several studies point to common mechanisms in different clinical conditions that lead to loss of consciousness.^ Each conscious state can thus be thought of as a different point in the multidimensional qualia space defined by the effective information matrix of a complex (see Appendix, viii).
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Large damages of the brain do not necessarily lead to loss of consciousness.
  • Consciousness, by Mitja Perus 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.goertzel.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is very different in the sense that the patient is fully conscious, but this condition can appear somewhat similar in that the patient may not be able to express that he is conscious.
  • Edge In Paris: SIGNATURES OF CONSCIOUSNESS — A TALK BY STANISLAS DEHAENE 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.edge.org [Source type: Original source]

.Persistent vegetative state (PVS) is a condition in which an individual loses the higher cerebral powers of the brain, but maintains sleep-wake cycles with full or partial autonomic functions.^ [Medline] Zeman A. Persistent vegetative state.
  • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the jargon of neurology, she was in a "persistent vegetative state".
  • Ghosts in the machine | COSMOS magazine 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.cosmosmagazine.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jennett B, Plum F. Persistent vegetative state after brain damage.
  • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Studies comparing PVS with healthy, awake subjects consistently demonstrate an impaired connectivity between the deeper (brainstem and thalamic) and the upper (cortical) areas of the brain.^ Physiologic and/or anatomic disruption of connections between some nerve cells in the brain may occur.
  • Brain Injury Glossary C 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.waiting.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I also have covered the studies which reveal close connections between mind and quantum mechanics.
  • Universal Theory - Consciousness A Fundamental Entity 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.universaltheory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This stimulation initiates myelination of the nerve fiber, and also asserts in the brain the existence of the fiber and its mapping into whichever cortical area it is involved with.
  • Theory Of Consciousness - this will take you places you have never been before 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.web-us.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition, it is agreed that the general brain activity in the cortex is lower in the PVS state.^ The current fascination with consciousness reflects the mounting intellectual pressure to explain how `vital activity' in the brain generates a `mental element', with rich subjective content.
  • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ More generally, Berger's discovery and its subsequent developments suggest a tendency to widespread synchronization of brain activity, whose functional significance has not yet been fully unravelled.
  • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ While there are many versions of each, the former generally holds that the conscious mind or a conscious mental state is non-physical in some sense, whereas the latter holds that, to put it crudely, the mind is the brain, or is caused by neural activity.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some electroneurobiological interpretations of consciousness characterize this loss of consciousness as a loss of the ability to resolve time (similar to playing an old phonographic record at very slow or very rapid speed), along a continuum that starts with inattention, continues on sleep, and arrives to coma and death [25] .^ Does consciousness require some kind of autobiographical memory or psychological continuity?
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some philosophers have argued that the attribution of consciousness to nonhuman animals is not a matter of drawing an inference at all, but a response more akin to interpretation.
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In this book we start with clear cases of conscious and unconscious events, seek a plausible theory to explain them, and then use this theoretical scaffolding to decide some of the fuzzier cases.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is likely that different components of consciousness can be teased apart with anesthetics, sedatives and hypnotics.^ As a person with autism, my "autistic like" consciousness is different from normal people.
  • Consciousness in Animals and People with Autism 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.grandin.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Perhaps the entire colony has a kind of collective consciousness where individual bees are like clusters of neurons in the brain, or electronic components in a computer.
  • Consciousness in Animals and People with Autism 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.grandin.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, the history of ideas in all developed cultures is closely intertwined with ideas of perception, knowledge, memory, imagination, and the like, all involving conscious experience in different ways.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These drugs appear to differentially act on several brain areas to disrupt, to varying degrees, different components of consciousness.^ Several studies point to common mechanisms in different clinical conditions that lead to loss of consciou ...

^ Of course the reactions of the subconscious were different from the conscious reactions -- a broader, less sharply defined process is underway in the http://code.google.com/p/mindforth/wiki/SubConscious which can give the result that "the patterns of brain activity were much more variable."
  • Signature of consciousness captured in brain scans - life - 12 November 2009 - New Scientist 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is very different in the sense that the patient is fully conscious, but this condition can appear somewhat similar in that the patient may not be able to express that he is conscious.
  • Edge In Paris: SIGNATURES OF CONSCIOUSNESS — A TALK BY STANISLAS DEHAENE 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.edge.org [Source type: Original source]

.The ability to recall information, for example, may be disrupted by anesthetics acting on the hippocampal cortex.^ For example, it presupposes the ability to act voluntarily; this is closely related to conscious experience (see Chapter 7).
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We may want more information or references from some people (confirmation, for example, that you don’t snore).
  • LOVE ANGELES 2010®: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.loveangeles.com [Source type: General]

^ Damage to the prefrontal cortex destroys the ability to integrate information between the senses.
  • Consciousness in Animals and People with Autism 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.grandin.com [Source type: Original source]

.Neurons in this region are particularly sensitive to anesthetics at the time loss of recall occurs.^ Therefore, events that occur just prior to or just after loss of consciousness would not be expected to be recalled.
  • A Reply to Shermer Medical Evidence for NDEs, Pim van Lommel 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.nderf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Correlated firing The firing of two neurons are correlated if the time at which action potentials occur in one neuron is related to the time at which spikes occurred in the other one.
  • Definitions of Terms Used in the Study of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.klab.caltech.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Direct anesthetic actions on hippocampal neurons have been shown to underlie EEG effects that occur in humans and animals during loss of recall.^ Much of the research that is of direct relevance to the treatment of human pain, including on the efficacy of analgesics and anesthetics, is conducted on rats and other animals.
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Reduction of direct non-specific excitatory inputs to the cortex, as well as effects occurring primarily at the level of the thalamus, is conducive to the generation of these rhythms.
  • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[26]
.Loss of consciousness also occurs in other conditions, such as general (tonic-clonic) epileptic seizures, in general anaesthesia, maybe even in deep (slow-wave) sleep.^ Others are inclined to use the other component conditional of [A] for modus ponens , taking for granted that animals are conscious, and regarding any theory of consciousness which denies this as defective.
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Although there are many general metaphysical/ontological theories of consciousness, the list of specific detailed theories about its nature is even longer and more diverse.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The amplitude of synchronized gamma oscillations is markedly diminished in slow wave sleep in comparison with wakefulness and REM sleep.
  • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.At present, the best-supported hypotheses about such cases of loss of consciousness (or loss of time resolution) focus on the need for 1) a widespread cortical network, including particularly the frontal, parietal and temporal cortices, and 2) cooperation between the deep layers of the brain, especially the thalamus, and the upper layers, the cortex.^ II. What are the relations between consciousness and the brain?
  • The Problem of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ecs.soton.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Time and the observer: the where and when of consciousness in the brain”.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thanks Paul - I agree you can take property 2 too far; I think it's more productive to think of thalamus as a gatekeeper, cortex holding information behind the gate, and consciousness as the flow of information between.
  • Are you conscious? 17 Criteria for Consciousness : Developing Intelligence 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Academic]

.Such hypotheses go under the common term "globalist theories" of consciousness, due to the claim for a widespread, global network necessary for consciousness to interact with non-mental reality in the first place.^ I think it is misleading and anti-productive to define consciousness in such black and white terms, and by looking at it in the way I described, it may bring science closer to the correlates of consciousness.
  • Signature of consciousness captured in brain scans - life - 12 November 2009 - New Scientist 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In any case, it is important to recognize that higher-order theory is put forward as an empirical hypothesis, rather than an analysis of the logical relations for the term ‘consciousness.’ The project is to explain the phenomena of consciousness in relation to other mental states, such as thought and perception, and so to develop a stronger theoretical framework for understanding the mind.
  • Consciousness, Higher-Order Theories of [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The occurrence of such consciousness, lacking all informational content, counts against any theory that equates consciousness with the mere "flow of information," no matter how intricate.
  • Project MUSE - Subject Browse 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC muse.jhu.edu [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]
.Brain chemistry affects human consciousness.^ Neuromagnetic studies in humans have shown that neural activity correlated with a stimulus that is not being consciously perceived can be recorded in many cortical areas, including the front of the brain.
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Just as human beings had to evolve a brain and then a neocortex in order to develop self-reflexive consciousness, Gaia must do the same.
  • Global Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.earley.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Brain mechanisms of propofol-induced loss of consciousness in humans: a positron emission tomographic study.
  • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Sleeping drugs (such as Midazolam = Dormicum) can bring the brain from the awake condition (conscious) to the sleep (unconscious).^ The Easy Problem, then, is to distinguish conscious from unconscious mental computation, identify its correlates in the brain, and explain why it evolved.
  • Ghosts in the machine | COSMOS magazine 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.cosmosmagazine.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I think it is misleading and anti-productive to define consciousness in such black and white terms, and by looking at it in the way I described, it may bring science closer to the correlates of consciousness.
  • Signature of consciousness captured in brain scans - life - 12 November 2009 - New Scientist 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The German philosopher Friedrich von Schelling (1775-1854) wrote: "Mind sleeps in stone, dreams in the plant, awakes in the animal and becomes conscious in man."

Wake-up drugs such as flumazenil reverse this process. .Many other drugs (such as alcohol, nicotine, Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), heroin, cocaine, LSD, MDMA) have a consciousness-changing effect.^ However, many philosophers and scientists have put forth other candidates for what, specifically, to identify in the brain with consciousness.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We focus on the issue of conscious experience as such by comparing pairs of similar events that seem to differ only in that one event is conscious while the other is not.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is puzzling to many and the objection forces HO theorists to explain just how adding the HO state changes an unconscious state into a conscious.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is a neural link between the left and right hemispheres of the brain, known as the corpus callosum.^ There's a left brain and a right brain, there's an autonomic brain and there is a concious brain.
  • Ghosts in the machine | COSMOS magazine 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.cosmosmagazine.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Left brain, right brain (5th ed.
  • CONSCIOUSNESS / PARAPSYCHOLOGY / TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.uwsp.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Third, it may be that McGinn expects too much; namely, grasping some causal link between the brain and consciousness.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This link is sometimes surgically severed to control severe seizures in epilepsy patients. This procedure was first performed by Roger Sperry in the 1960s. .Tests of these patients have shown that, after the link is completely severed, the hemispheres are no longer able to communicate, leading to certain problems that usually arise only in test conditions.^ Given that there is no “Cartesian theater” in the brain where all this information comes together, the problem arises as to just how the resulting conscious experience is unified.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Objections to these cognitive theories include the charge that they do not really address the hard problem of consciousness (as described in section 3b.i), but only the “easy” problems.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We may be so accustomed to the inner voice that we are no longer aware of its existence "metacognitively", leading to the paradoxic of people asking themselves, " What inner voice?"
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, while the left side of the brain can verbally describe what is going on in the right visual field, the right hemisphere is essentially mute, instead relying on its spatial abilities to interact with the world on the left visual field.^ Your right side of your face is the left side of your face.

^ Left brain, right brain (5th ed.
  • CONSCIOUSNESS / PARAPSYCHOLOGY / TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.uwsp.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Its left hemisphere analyzes while its right hemisphere interprets.
  • Consciousness | 911 We Know 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.911weknow.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some say that it is as if two separate minds now share the same skull, but both still represent themselves as a single "I" to the outside world.^ There are few people who understand that our "Mind" functions as two separate entities, with the emphasis on the conscious mind to the detriment of the SPIRITUAL or subconscious mind.
  • CONSCIOUSNESS UNVEILED 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC sigler.org [Source type: Original source]

^ How might people who live more in the now think about themselves and the world in coming decades.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This experience is a blessing for me, for now I know for sure that body and mind are separated, and that there is life after death.
  • A Reply to Shermer Medical Evidence for NDEs, Pim van Lommel 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.nderf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.The bilateral removal of the centromedian nucleus (part of the Intra-laminar nucleus of the Thalamus) appears to abolish consciousness, causing coma, PVS, severe mutism and other features that mimic brain death.^ Bilateral damage to these causes coma .
  • Definitions of Terms Used in the Study of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.klab.caltech.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, many philosophers and scientists have put forth other candidates for what, specifically, to identify in the brain with consciousness.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In particular, I believe that Consciousness is an active force or mechanism that can, among other things, control or cause change in the human energy field, as well as, potentially, the universal field.
  • Consciousness as an Active Force 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.renresearch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The centromedian nucleus is also one of the principal sites of action of general anaesthetics and anti-psychotic drugs. .This evidence suggests that a functioning thalamus is necessary, but not sufficient, for human consciousness.^ But activation is only a necessary, not a sufficient condition of consciousness (2.33).
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Griffin's main positive proposal in this respect has been the rather implausible suggestion that consciousness might have the function of compensating for limited neural machinery.
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It would be one thing to develop a theory of consciousness that can specify the necessary and sufficient conditions for it — in computers, starfish, orangutans, etc.
  • Edge In Paris: SIGNATURES OF CONSCIOUSNESS — A TALK BY STANISLAS DEHAENE 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.edge.org [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
.Neurophysiological studies in awake, behaving monkeys point to advanced cortical areas in prefrontal cortex and temporal lobes as carriers of neuronal correlates of consciousness.^ NCC See neuronal correlates of consciousness .
  • Definitions of Terms Used in the Study of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.klab.caltech.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Large-scale neuroscience presents some brain areas which are candidates for conscious processing, or which would make some cognitive processes in other brain areas conscious: striate cortex (V1) or extrastriate cortex (V2-V5), prefrontal cortex, reverberatory activity in pyramidal neurons in cortical layers 5 and 6, hippocampus, thalamus (or cortex-thalamus dialog), intralaminar nuclei, reticular formation, and co-operation of these areas.
  • Consciousness, by Mitja Perus 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.goertzel.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The prevailing views among scientists in this camp are that 1) patterns of neural network activities correlate with mental states, 2) synchronous network oscillations in thalamus and cerebral cortex temporally bind information, and 3) consciousness emerges as a novel property of computational complexity among neurons.

.Christof Koch and Francis Crick argue that neuronal mechanisms of consciousness are intricately related to prefrontal cortex — cortical areas involved in higher cognitive function, affect, behavioral control, and planning.^ For example, having a well developed prefrontal cortex allows humans to reason and plan in ways not available to dogs and cats.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fact that with biofeedback training one can gain voluntary control over essentially any population of neurons suggests that other functional processors are also goal-addressible (x.x).
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two final areas of interest involve animal and machine consciousness.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Rodolfo Llinas proposes that consciousness results from recurrent thalamo-cortical resonance where the specific thalamocortical systems (content) and the non-specific (centromedial thalamus) thalamocortical systems (context) interact in the gamma band frequency via time coincidence.^ The most popular current physiological candidate for a key role in consciousness is neural activity synchronized in the gamma frequency range, at ~35–45 Hz.
  • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The global workspace is the publicity organ of the nervous system; its contents, which correspond roughly to conscious experience, are distributed widely throughout the system.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Non-specific interference: Even tasks that are very different interfere with each other when they are conscious or under voluntary control.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to this view the "I" represents a global predictive function required for intentionality.^ The view that consciousness depends on global aspects of brain function is particularly prominent in so-called neural field theories (Kinsbourne 1988).
  • Models of consciousness - Scholarpedia 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.scholarpedia.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Consciousness consists in such global broadcasting and is therefore also, according to Baars, an important functional and biological adaptation.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27][28] Experimental work of Steven Wise, Mikhail Lebedev and their colleagues supports this view. .They demonstrated that activity of prefrontal cortex neurons reflects illusory perceptions of movements of visual stimuli.^ Bradley DC, Chang GC, Andersen RA (1997) Activities of motion-sensitive neurons in primate visual area MT reflect the perception of depth.
  • Consciousness and Neuroscience 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.klab.caltech.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These include neuronal groups in other visual areas that are selective for shape or movement; neuronal groups in auditory area that are selective for tones; and many others.
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ We have argued (Crick and Koch, 1995a) that one is not directly conscious of the features represented by the neural activity in primary visual cortex.
  • Consciousness and Neuroscience 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.klab.caltech.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Nikos Logothetis and colleagues made similar observations on visually responsive neurons in the temporal lobe.^ Logothetis N, Schall J (1989) Neuronal correlates of subjective visual perception.
  • Consciousness and Neuroscience 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.klab.caltech.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Similar observations have been made by people who, for professional reasons, learn to discriminate among perfumes, colors, sounds, tactile sensations, and so on.
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Cumming BG, Parker AJ (1997) Responses of primary visual cortical neurons to binocular disparity without depth perception.
  • Consciousness and Neuroscience 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.klab.caltech.edu [Source type: Academic]

.These neurons reflect the visual perception in the situation when conflicting visual images are presented to different eyes (i.e., bistable percepts during binocular rivalry).^ Binocular neurons Visual neurons that can be driven by an input from either eye.
  • Definitions of Terms Used in the Study of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.klab.caltech.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Conscious percepts and images are different from conscious concepts .
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Abstract The concept of plasticity provides a unifying hypothesis to account for the natural properties of living systems as well as the different levels of perception and information associated with these systems.
  • Project MUSE - Subject Browse 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC muse.jhu.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The studies of blindsight — vision without awareness after lesions to parts of the visual system such as the primary visual cortex — performed by Lawrence Weiskrantz and David P. Carey provided important insights on how conscious perception arises in the brain.^ Perception without awareness.
  • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ So, how does consciousness arise in matter?
  • Quantum Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.scaruffi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Where and how did this consciousness arise on me?
  • Some Dialogues from Conscioiusness and the Absolute 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.prahlad.org [Source type: Original source]

.In recent years the theory of two visual streams, vision for perception versus vision for action has been refined by Melvyn Goodale, David Milner and others.^ Some fascinating recent work shows that even "simple" visual percepts involve integration of different component systems.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [Web of Science] [Medline] Milner AD, Goodale MA. The visual brain in action.
  • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ By making the two visual figures more or less similar to each other, he was also able to vary the difficulty of the task.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to this theory, visual perception arises as the result of processing of visual information by the ventral stream areas (located mostly in the temporal lobe), whereas the dorsal stream areas (located mostly in the parietal lobe) process visual information unconsciously.^ An information processing theory of anesthesia”.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Milner and Goodale have marshalled evidence that the `dorsal' stream of visual processing is dedicated to the on-line control of visuomotor behaviour, in the absence of visual awareness, which depends instead on the ventral stream, dedicated to object perception, recognition and the creation of our visual world (Milner and Goodale, 1995 ).
  • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Extrastriate cortex A bevy of cortical areas surrounding primary (or striate) visual cortex in the occipital lobe, at the back of the cortex that subserve vision.
  • Definitions of Terms Used in the Study of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.klab.caltech.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For example, catching a ball quickly would engage the dorsal stream areas, whereas viewing a painting would engage the ventral stream. .Overall, these studies show that conscious versus unconscious behaviors can be linked to specific brain areas and patterns of neuronal activation.^ Stimulation to specific areas of the brain results in modality specific conscious experiences.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These behaviors may not be completely consciousness.
  • Consciousness in Animals and People with Autism 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.grandin.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Easy Problem, then, is to distinguish conscious from unconscious mental computation, identify its correlates in the brain, and explain why it evolved.
  • Ghosts in the machine | COSMOS magazine 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.cosmosmagazine.com [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed].
.An alternative and more global approach to analyzing neurophysiological correlates of consciousness is referred to by the Fingelkurts as Operational Architectonics.^ Higher-order global states HOGS: an alternative higher-order model of consciousness.” In Gennaro, R. ed.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This offers an alternative solution to the problem mooted in the last section, that the correlation of neural events with conscious processes does not prove a causal relationship.
  • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Robert Van Gulick (2000, 2004, 2006) has also explored the alternative that the HO state is part of an overall global conscious state.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This still-untested theory postulates that thoughts are matched with and generated by underlying neurophysiological activity patterns that can be revealed directly by EEG.[29][30]

Experimental philosophy

.A new approach has attempted to combine the methodologies of cognitive psychology and traditional philosophy to understand consciousness.^ Some attempts to understand conscious experience .
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consciousness in philosophy and cognitive neuroscience .
  • CONSCIOUSNESS / PARAPSYCHOLOGY / TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.uwsp.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The psychology of anomalous experience: A cognitive approach .
  • CONSCIOUSNESS / PARAPSYCHOLOGY / TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.uwsp.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This research has taken place in the new field called experimental philosophy, which seeks to use empirical methods (like conducting experiments to test how ordinary non-experts think) to inform the philosophical discussion.^ After briefly discussing the empirical evidence, we will use simplified computer models to illustrate how these neuroanatomical and neurophysiological factors influence information integration.
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Thanks to Bram for pointing me to this article about how new research indicates that communication in the brain is quite different than we thought.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ More recently, Jaak Panksepp (2004, 2005) has been conducting a research program that he calls “affective neuroscience” and that encompasses direct study of animal emotions (2004), exemplified for example in the experimental investigation of rats “laughing” and seeking further contact in response to tickling by humans (Panksepp & Burgdorf 2003).
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

[31] .The aim of this type of philosophical research on consciousness has been to try to get a better grasp on how exactly people ordinarily understand consciousness.^ We may have a better chance to understand human conscious experience now than ever before.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A comprehensive understanding of consciousness will likely require theories of many types.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The following section will examine how contemporary philosophers have tried to sharpen our understanding of the problems with which consciousness confronts us and of the terms in which we frame them.
  • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.For instance, work by Joshua Knobe and Jesse Prinz suggests that people may have two different ways of understanding minds generally,[32] and another suggestion has been that there is actually no such phenomenon as consciousness.^ Different explanations may apply to different instances.
  • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Kinds of minds: Toward an understanding of consciousness .
  • CONSCIOUSNESS / PARAPSYCHOLOGY / TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.uwsp.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Such early luminaries as Wilhelm Wundt and William James defined psychology as the quest for the understanding of conscious experience.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33] .Further, Justin Sytsma and Edouard Machery have written about the proper methodology for studying folk intuitions about consciousness.^ Getting clear about exactly what is meant by the “unity of consciousness” and explaining how the brain achieves such unity has become a central topic in the study of consciousness.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Religions on the other hand have been studying consciousness for millennia , and some are downright scientific about it.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In sum, throughout recorded history it has been remarkably difficult for philosophers and scientists to study and talk sensibly about either conscious or unconscious events.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34]

Evolutionary psychology

.Consciousness can be viewed from the standpoints of evolutionary psychology or evolutionary biology approach as an adaptation because it is a trait that increases fitness.^ But if, as the history suggests, we must choose in psychology between trying to understand conscious experience and trying to avoid it, we can in our view but try to understand.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A neuropsychological and evolutionary approach to animal consciousness and animal suffering,” Animal Welfare Supplement , 10: 47–62.
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The conventional view is that 19th century psychology was rejected by behaviorists and others because it was unreliable and subjectivist, because it was mired in fruitless controversy, and because it was unscientific.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[35] .Consciousness also adheres to John Alcock's theory of animal behavioral adaptations because it possesses both proximate and ultimate causes.^ Even if interpretivism is a viable theory of folk practice with respect to attributing animal consciousness, it seems unlikely to make inroads against scientific epistemology.
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Most people, if asked why they think familiar animals such as their pets are conscious, would point to similarities between the behavior of those animals and human behavior.
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Current theories speak of information processing, representation, adaptation, transformation, storage, retrieval, activation, and the like, without assuming that these are necessarily conscious events.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36]
The proximate causes for consciousness, i.e. how consciousness evolved in animals, is a subject considered by Sir John C. Eccles in his paper "Evolution of consciousness." .He argues that special anatomical and physical properties of the mammalian cerebral cortex gave rise to consciousness.^ All such theories assert the existence of conscious properties that are neither identical with nor reducible to physical properties but which may nonetheless be instantiated by the very same things that instantiate physical properties.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They argue that if the conscious qualitative property and the neural property are identical, then there is no need to explain how the latter causes or gives rise to the former.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Others have argued that consciousness is especially resistant to explanation in physical terms because of the inherent differences between our subjective and objective modes of understanding.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37] .Budiansky, by contrast, limits consciousness to humans, proposing that human consciousness may have evolved as an adaptation to anticipate and counter social strategems of other humans, predators, and prey.^ We may have a better chance to understand human conscious experience now than ever before.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A third source of social theories of awareness is the idea that language is vital to human consciousness—and language is self-evidently a social creation.
  • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Others may hold that consciousness is an as-yet-undescribed fundamental constituent of the physical universe, not reducible to any known physical principles.
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

[38] .Alternatively, it has been argued that the recursive circuitry underwriting consciousness is much more primitive, having evolved initially in premammalian species because it improves the capacity for interaction with both social and natural environments by providing an energy-saving "neutral" gear in an otherwise energy-expensive motor output machine.^ If such information is about the environment, the implication is that, the more an animal is conscious, the larger the number of variables it can take into account jointly to guide its behavior.
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Some philosophers have argued that the attribution of consciousness to nonhuman animals is not a matter of drawing an inference at all, but a response more akin to interpretation.
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Why is it that neurons in motor pathways, which can produce a large repertoire of different outputs and thereby relay a large amount of information about different conscious states, do not contribute directly to consciousness?
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[39] .Another theory, proposed by Shaun Nichols and Todd Grantham, proposes that it is unnecessary to trace the exact evolutionary or causal role of phenomenal consciousness because the complexity of phenomenal consciousness alone implies that it is an adaptation.^ Their theories ignore phenomenal consciousness.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The theory states that the quantity of consciousness available to a system can be measured as the Φ value of a complex of elements.
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Representational theories of consciousness link phenomenal consciousness with the representational content of mental states, subject to some further functional criteria.
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

[40] .Once in place, this recursive circuitry may well have provided a basis for the subsequent development of many of the functions which consciousness facilitates in higher organisms, as outlined by Bernard J. Baars.^ It has been found that processes like meditation lead to better integration of function of both hemispheres (as indicated by increased coherence of brain waves from the two hemispheres), which may be required for experiencing the higher states of consciousness.
  • PSYCHOLOGY OF CONSCIOUSNESS 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.psychology4all.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Left hemisphere interpretative processes could provide a basis for narrative forms of conscious self-awareness.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consciousness determines the fate of the system, just like the organism determines the fate of the functions.
  • Soviet Psychology: The Problem of Consciousness by Vygotsky 1934 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

[41] .Konrad Lorenz sees the roots of consciousness in the process of self-exploration of an organism that sees itself acting and learns a lifetime.^ For example, it presupposes the ability to act voluntarily; this is closely related to conscious experience (see Chapter 7).
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Self-consciousness refers to an organism's capacity for second-order representation of the organism's own mental states.
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Left hemisphere interpretative processes could provide a basis for narrative forms of conscious self-awareness.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Behind the Mirror: A Search for a Natural History of Human Knowledge

Functions of Consciousness

Functions of Consciousness
Function Purpose
Definition and context-setting Relating global input to its contexts, thereby defining input and removing ambiguities
Adaptation and learning Representing and adapting to novel and significant events
Editing, flagging, and debugging Monitoring conscious content, editing it, and trying to change it if it is consciously "flagged" as an error
Recruiting and control function Recruiting subgoals and motor systems to organize and carry out mental and physical actions
Prioritizing and access control Control over what will become conscious
Decision-making or executive function Recruiting unconscious knowledge sources to make proper decisions, and making goals conscious to allow widespread recruitment of conscious and unconscious "votes" for or against them
Analogy-forming function Searching for a partial match between contents of unconscious systems and a globally displayed (conscious) message
Metacognitive or self-forming function Reflection upon and control of our own conscious and unconscious functioning
Auto-programming and self-maintenance function Maintenance of maximum stability in the face of changing inner and outer conditions

Physical

.Since the dawn of Newtonian science with its vision of simple mechanical principles governing the entire universe, some philosophers have been tempted by the idea that even consciousness could be explained in purely physical terms.^ Can consciousness be explained in terms of brain activity?
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The claim is that HO theories are theories of consciousness only in the sense that they are attempting to explain what differentiates conscious from unconscious states, i.e., in terms of a higher-order awareness of some kind.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I don't believe we can explain everything there is in terms of information and computation: I think consciousness doesn't fit in that model.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

The first influential writer to propose such an idea explicitly was Julien Offray de La Mettrie, in his book L'homme machine (Man as machine).[42]
.The most influential modern physical theories of consciousness are based on psychology and neuroscience.^ Identity theory , at least strict psycho-physical type-type identity theory, offers another strongly reductive option by identifying conscious mental properties, states and processes with physical ones, most typically of a neural or neurophysiological nature.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most contemporary theories of consciousness are aimed at explaining state consciousness; that is, explaining what makes a mental state a conscious mental state.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most physicalist theories of consciousness are neither eliminativist nor based on strict type-type identities.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Theories proposed by neuroscientists such as Gerald Edelman[43] and Antonio Damasio[44], and by philosophers such as Daniel Dennett[45], seek to explain access consciousness and phenomenal consciousness in terms of neural events occurring within the brain.^ Dennett DC. Consciousness explained.
  • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Their theories ignore phenomenal consciousness.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Can consciousness be explained in terms of brain activity?
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many other neuroscientists, such as Christof Koch[46], have explored the neural basis of consciousness without attempting to frame all-encompassing global theories.^ Many current theories attempt to reduce consciousness in mentalistic terms.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The neural basis of conscious experience.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The claim is that HO theories are theories of consciousness only in the sense that they are attempting to explain what differentiates conscious from unconscious states, i.e., in terms of a higher-order awareness of some kind.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the same time, computer scientists working in the field of Artificial Intelligence have pursued the goal of creating digital computer programs that can simulate or embody consciousness.^ If you are interested in collective intelligence, consciousness, the global brain and the evolution of artificial intelligence and superhuman intelligence, you may want to see my talk at the 2008 Singularity Summit .
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Brainmakers: How scientists are moving beyond computers to create a rival to the human brain .
  • CONSCIOUSNESS / PARAPSYCHOLOGY / TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.uwsp.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Posted on November 29, 2005 at 04:33 PM in Artificial Intelligence , Cognitive Science , Consciousness , Knowledge Management , Science , Technology .
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some theorists—most of whom are physicists—have argued that classical physics is intrinsically incapable of explaining the holistic aspects of consciousness, but that quantum theory provides the missing ingredients.^ Most specific theories of consciousness tend to be reductionist in some sense.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to such theories, the nature and basis of consciousness can not be adequately understood within the framework of classical physics but must be sought within the alternative picture of physical reality provided by quantum mechanics.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All such theories assert the existence of conscious properties that are neither identical with nor reducible to physical properties but which may nonetheless be instantiated by the very same things that instantiate physical properties.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most notable theories falling into this category include the Holonomic brain theory of Karl H. Pribram and David Bohm, and the Orch-OR theory formulated by Stuart Hameroff and Roger Penrose.^ The physicist Roger Penrose (1989, 1994) and the anesthesiologist Stuart Hameroff (1998) have championed a model according to which consciousness arises through quantum effects occurring within subcellular structures internal to neurons known as microtubules .
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indeed, the theory developed in this book is a modern version of the Theater Hypothesis, attempting to include all of the partial metaphors into a single coherent model.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This somewhat radical, though exciting, option is explored most notably by physicist Roger Penrose (1989, 1994) and anesthesiologist Stuart Hameroff (1998).
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some of these QM theories offer descriptions of phenomenal consciousness, as well as QM interpretations of access consciousness.^ Their theories ignore phenomenal consciousness.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is as yet no good biological probe for consciousness , although functional neuroimaging offers some promise to help in the determination of conscious states.
  • Minimally Conscious States 12 September 2009 6:54 UTC www.kurzweilai.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Over the last 20 years or so, the biogenetic structuralist group have reduced and offered neuropsychological explanations for a variety of properties and structures of consciousness, and have linked these with the structure of the human biogram.
  • Toward a Science of Consciousness 3: BiogeneticStructural Theory and the Neurophenomenology of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cognet.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

.None of the quantum mechanical theories has been confirmed by experiment, and many scientists and philosophers consider the arguments for an important role of quantum phenomena to be unconvincing.^ Again there are a wide range of specific theories and models that have been proposed, appealing to a variety of quantum phenomena to explain a diversity of features of consciousness.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These phenomena raise a number of important philosophical questions and have forced philosophers to rethink some very basic assumptions about the nature of mind and consciousness.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One school of thought on this question (the Many Worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics) answers that in fact everything does happen, but in parallel universes, all at once.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

Functions

.We generally agree that our fellow human beings are conscious, and that much simpler life forms, such as bacteria, are not.^ It seems that consciousness is the essence of our being.
  • Universal Theory - Consciousness A Fundamental Entity 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.universaltheory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our systematic programming -- called social engineering -- has been conducted for generations, and with the advent of large modern communications systems, it is now working much faster.
  • Consciousness | 911 We Know 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.911weknow.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The entire approach reeks of human-centeredness, though of course that's a necessary evil: we don't really know that any other species is conscious (and furthermore, we're merely giving our fellow humans the benefit of the doubt).
  • Are you conscious? 17 Criteria for Consciousness : Developing Intelligence 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: Academic]

.August 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Many of us attribute consciousness to higher-order animals such as dolphins and primates; academic research is investigating the extent to which animals are conscious.^ Higher-order (HO) theories analyze the notion of a conscious mental state in terms of reflexive meta-mental self-awareness.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are a number of such representational theories of consciousness currently on the market, including higher-order theories which hold that what makes a mental state conscious is that the subject is aware of it in some sense.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (See the entry on higher-order theories of consciousness .
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This suggests the hypothesis that consciousness has co-evolved with life, which would require it to have some sort of added value, especially survival value.^ Some would support life, some would not.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The burning question, however, is whether indeed qualia mirror the informational content of functional processes as some sort of separate, parallel entities in consciousness, or whether qualia are this informational content.
  • Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.naturalism.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I don't see this as some sort of competitive process but a co-operative process which we are inside and actively engaged in.
  • Theory Of Consciousness - this will take you places you have never been before 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.web-us.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.People have therefore looked for specific functions and benefits of consciousness.^ Therefore, how a group of neurons contributes to consciousness is a function of its informational relationships inside the complex and not outside of it.
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This usually doesn't happen suddenly; rather, people may function at the level of the "1st chakra" for years until their consciousness progresses to the "2nd chakra" level, and so on.
  • Insights into Consciousness & Personality 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC player2000gi.host-ed.net [Source type: Original source]

^ There are few people who understand that our "Mind" functions as two separate entities, with the emphasis on the conscious mind to the detriment of the SPIRITUAL or subconscious mind.
  • CONSCIOUSNESS UNVEILED 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC sigler.org [Source type: Original source]

.Bernard Baars (1997), for instance, states that "consciousness is a supremely functional adaptation" and suggests a variety of functions in which consciousness plays an important, if not essential, role: prioritization of alternatives, problem solving, decision making, brain processes recruiting, action control, error detection, planning, learning, adaptation, context creation, and access to information.^ Perceptual automaticity will be discussed in Chapter 8, in the context of access-control to consciousness.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What makes a mental state a conscious mental state?
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is this “self-representing” which makes the state conscious.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.February 2007" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Antonio Damasio (1999) regards consciousness as part of an organism's survival kit, allowing planned rather than instinctual responses.^ Three intuitions about consciousness The first intuition is that consciousness is a robust phenomenon which deserves to be explained rather than being explained away (Chalmers, 1996 ; Libet, 1996 ; Velmans, 2000 ).
  • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Posted on February 27, 2007 at 04:36 PM in Artificial Intelligence , Biology , Cognitive Science , Consciousness , Medicine , Science .
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When they differ in time, space, or color, we get binocular rivalry rather than binocular "cooperation"; fusion fails, and one image drives the other from consciousness.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.February 2007" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] He also points out that awareness of self allows a concern for one's own survival, which increases the drive to survive, although how far consciousness is involved in behaviour is an actively debated issue.^ How can one determine one's own will without being conscious of it and of the options one has to shape it.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Higher-order (HO) theories analyze the notion of a conscious mental state in terms of reflexive meta-mental self-awareness.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Put simply, can we explain how to make something conscious out of things that are not conscious?
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many psychologists, such as radical behaviorists, and many philosophers, such as those that support Ryle's approach, would maintain that behavior can be explained by non-conscious processes akin to artificial intelligence, and might consider consciousness to be epiphenomenal or only weakly related to function.^ What function(s) might consciousness play?
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Would consciousness be advantageous to survival (above and beyond intelligent, complex behavior)?

^ Conscious process is those who wins the competition of many information processes.
  • Consciousness, by Mitja Perus 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.goertzel.org [Source type: Original source]

.Regarding the primary function of conscious processing, a recurring idea in recent theories is that phenomenal states somehow integrate neural activities and information-processing that would otherwise be independent (see review in Baars, 2002).^ Tononi, G. 2004 An information integration theory of consciousness.
  • Models of consciousness - Scholarpedia 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.scholarpedia.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Santiago Theory of Cognition sees the consciousness as a process and body as the structure.
  • Universal Theory - Consciousness A Fundamental Entity 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.universaltheory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the theory, consciousness corresponds to the capacity of a system to integrate information.
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

This has been called the integration consensus. .However, it has remained unspecified which kinds of information are integrated in a conscious manner and which kinds can be integrated without consciousness.^ An information integration theory of consciousness .
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Consciousness as integrated information: a provisional manifesto.
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Review Consciousness, information integration, and the brain.
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Obviously not all kinds of information are capable of being disseminated consciously (e.g., neural activity related to vegetative functions, reflexes, unconscious motor programs, low-level perceptual analyses, etc.^ Consciousness the ground of all being .

^ All activities of consciousness work together.
  • Soviet Psychology: The Problem of Consciousness by Vygotsky 1934 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Consciousness, it seems, is usually involved with most, if not all, higher order cognition and behavior, including memory, anticipation, speech, learning, planning, and complex motor activity.
  • Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.naturalism.org [Source type: Original source]

) and many kinds can be disseminated and combined with other kinds without consciousness, as in intersensory interactions such as the ventriloquism effect (cf., Morsella, 2005).
.Ervin Laszlo argues that self-awareness, the ability to make observations of oneself, evolved.^ The essence of self-awareness is self-representation -- the ability to sense, map, reason about, and react to, one's own internal state and the state of one's nearby environment.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition I have shown that for the universe to make choices about what happens from the set of all possibilities, observation, and therefore awareness, is required.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This ability to rewire the network by making observations is something that is unique to sentient beings -- only true observers that are conscious are capable of causing this to happen.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.Émile Durkheim formulated the concept of so called collective consciousness, which is essential for organization of human, social relations.^ Essentially I am proposing the creation of the largest and most sophisticated mirror ever built – a mirror that can reflect the state of the collective mind of humanity back to itself.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Locke explicitly forswore making any hypothesis about the substantial basis of consciousness and its relation to matter, but he clearly regarded it as essential to thought as well as to personal identity.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By analogy, there are so-called “phenomenal concepts” which uses a phenomenal or “first-person” property to refer to some conscious mental state, such as a sensation of red.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The accelerating drive of human race to explorations, cognition, understanding and technological progress can be explained by some features of collective consciousness (collective self - concepts) and collective intelligence

Tests

.As there is no clear definition of consciousness and no empirical measure exists to test for its presence, it has been argued that due to the nature of the problem of consciousness, empirical tests are intrinsically impossible.^ There is no conscious experience; there are no qualia.
  • Skeptic » eSkeptic » Wednesday, February 27th, 2008 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.skeptic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That is, there is no obvious equivalent of the Turing test for consciousness.

^ As Consciousness, Life, is already the total Presence I Am, there can be no process to Consciousness.

.However, several tests have been developed which attempt to provide an operational definition of consciousness and try to determine whether computers and non-human animals can demonstrate through their behavior, by passing these tests, that they are conscious.^ Studies in Animal and Human Behavior (vol.
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Can we know which animals beside humans are conscious?
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The claim is that HO theories are theories of consciousness only in the sense that they are attempting to explain what differentiates conscious from unconscious states, i.e., in terms of a higher-order awareness of some kind.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In medicine, several neurological and brain imaging techniques, like EEG and fMRI, have proven useful for physical measures of brain activity associated with consciousness.^ Can consciousness be explained in terms of brain activity?
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consciousness may be defined as an epiphenomenon, as somehow detached from the brain, or as merely mediated by the brain like a radio mediates a program broadcast from another realm of existence.
  • Toward a Science of Consciousness 3: BiogeneticStructural Theory and the Neurophenomenology of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cognet.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Alternately, perhaps existing neuroimaging techniques (such as fMRI) can be refined to measure the recurrent neural activity, potentially free from top-down attentional amplification, in the visual cortices of such subjects.
  • Consciousness@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is particularly true for EEG measures during anesthesia that can provide an indication of anesthetic depth, although with still limited accuracies of ~ 70 % and a high degree of patient and drug variability seen.^ Dement W, Kleitman N. Cyclic variations in EEG during sleep and their relation to eye movements, body motility, and dreaming.
  • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

Turing

.Though often thought of as a test for consciousness, the Turing test (named after computer scientist Alan Turing, who first proposed it) is actually a test to determine whether or not a computer satisfied his operational definition of "intelligent" (which is not synonymous with consciousness and self-awareness).^ Even if a computer passes the Turing Test it will not really be aware that it has passed the Turing Test.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mindwaves: Thoughts on intelligence, identity, and consciousness .
  • CONSCIOUSNESS / PARAPSYCHOLOGY / TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.uwsp.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ One important early launching point was a well-known paper by the mathematician Alan Turing (1950) which proposed what has come to be known as the “Turing test” for machine intelligence and thought (and perhaps consciousness as well).
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This test is commonly cited in discussion of artificial intelligence.^ This definitely has repercussions when discussing artificial intelligence .
  • Consciousness@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The essence of the test is based on "the Imitation Game", in which a human experimenter attempts to converse, via computer keyboards, with two others.^ Next the double-blind experiment itself was conducted with two identical IIED devices, one was imprinted via the meditative process and the other was left untouched.

^ If this is so human evolution must have taken a very different course from that of other species once we became capable of imitation.

^ His simple device reduced Voight-Kampf to its essence: testing for humanity through torture.
  • No Moods, Ads or Cutesy Fucking Icons (Re-reloaded) » PRISMs, Gom Jabbars, and Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.rifters.com [Source type: Original source]

.One of the others is a human (who, it is assumed, is conscious) while the other is a computer.^ Although most who bring forth this objection are not HO theorists, Peter Carruthers (1989) is one HO theorist who actually embraces the conclusion that (most) animals do not have phenomenal consciousness.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In particular, I believe that Consciousness is an active force or mechanism that can, among other things, control or cause change in the human energy field, as well as, potentially, the universal field.
  • Consciousness as an Active Force 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.renresearch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Karma Yoga - selfless service to others as part of one's larger Self, without attachment to the results; and the performance of all actions with the consciousness of God as the Doer.
  • LOVE ANGELES 2010®: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.loveangeles.com [Source type: General]

.Because all of the conversation is via keyboards (teletypes, in Turing's original conception) no cues such as voice, prosody, or appearance will be available to indicate which is the human and which is the computer.^ The occurrence of such consciousness, lacking all informational content, counts against any theory that equates consciousness with the mere "flow of information," no matter how intricate.
  • Project MUSE - Subject Browse 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC muse.jhu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Because such a yogi perceives the states of pain and pleasure only superficially, they, in no case, affect his state of Supreme-Being Consciousness.

^ The colored light and pattern buttons were randomly moved on the wall in the box to force the pigeons to learn the order concept and not to rely on the spatial cues such as button position on the wall.
  • Consciousness in Animals and People with Autism 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.grandin.com [Source type: Original source]

.If the human is unable to determine which of the conversants is human, and which is a computer, the computer is said to have "passed" the Turing test (satisfied Turing's operational definition of "intelligent").^ Even if a computer passes the Turing Test it will not really be aware that it has passed the Turing Test.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are some strong arguments that if a computer appears to possess intelligence similar to a human's, that we must assume it too has self-awareness.

^ Therefore even if you ask a computer if it is self-aware and it answers that it is self-aware and that it has passed the Turing Test, it will not really be self-aware or really know that it has passed the Turing Test.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Turing test has generated a great deal of research and philosophical debate.^ While a great deal of research must still be done to resolve numerous specific issues, many useful things can already be said about the picture as a whole.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, Daniel Dennett and Douglas Hofstadter argue that anything capable of passing the Turing test is necessarily conscious,[47] while David Chalmers, argues that a philosophical zombie could pass the test, yet fail to be conscious.^ However, Turing was probably overly optimistic about whether anything even today can pass the Turing Test, as most programs are specialized and have very narrow uses.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some philosophers have argued that the attribution of consciousness to nonhuman animals is not a matter of drawing an inference at all, but a response more akin to interpretation.
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Even if a computer passes the Turing Test it will not really be aware that it has passed the Turing Test.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

[48]
It has been argued that the question itself is excessively anthropomorphic. .Edsger Dijkstra commented that "The question of whether a computer can think is no more interesting than the question of whether a submarine can swim", expressing the view that different words are appropriate for the workings of a machine to those of animals even if they produce similar results, just as submarines are not normally said to swim.^ In fact, I think they both have their place, and they both work, for different purposes.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some fascinating recent work shows that even "simple" visual percepts involve integration of different component systems.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While science and religion may disagree on certain points, at the very deepest level, they may actually be more compatible than we might think.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.Philosopher John Searle developed a thought experiment, the Chinese room argument, which is intended to show problems with the Turing Test.^ In principle, however, it is possible to run an experiment much like Pani's (1982) to test the existence of automatic, fleetingly conscious thoughts.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Similarly, Jackson’s argument doesn’t show that Mary’s color experience is distinct from her brain processes.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, it might be argued that the entire room or “system” understands Chinese if we are forced to use Searle’s analogy and thought experiment.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49] .Searle asks the reader to imagine a non-Chinese speaker in a room in which there are stored a very large number of Chinese symbols and rule books.^ There are now a number of techniques for assessing imagined events that can meet our operational definition of conscious experience, though the imagery literature has been more concerned with accuracy of the imagery reports than with asking whether or not the image was conscious.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Asking the question this way allows us to use the very large empirical literature on these matters, to constrain theory with numerous reliable facts.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perhaps the universe isn't happening out there on it's own, perhaps it is in a very real sense, imagining itself through an unfolding process of creatively making observations.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.Questions are passed to the person in the form of written Chinese symbols via a slot, and the person responds by looking up the symbols and the correct replies in the rule books.^ Have you been driving your car and ever had an emergency vehicle come up behind you, and as you looked in the rearview mirror, you saw the words AMBULANCE written backwards?

.Based on the purely input-output operations, the "Chinese room" gives the appearance of understanding Chinese.^ Searle argues that, despite the appearance of understanding Chinese (say, from outside the room), he does not understand Chinese at all.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each part of the room doesn’t understand Chinese (including Searle himself) but the entire system does, which includes the instructions and so on.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It would be no more conscious than how much the man inside Searle's Chinese Room understands Chinese .
  • Consciousness@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the person in the room understands no Chinese at all.^ No person, no body, cranks up Consciousness in the morning and sustains or upholds It all day long by thinking about It moment to moment.

^ This is, however, a big ‘if’, and raises all the problems associated with first-person exploration of consciousness (see Pickering 1997, Varela & Shear 1999).

^ By the unification of these factors of the divine realization, no matter how incomplete, the mortal personality at all times overspreads all conscious levels with a realization of the personality of God.

.This argument has been the subject of intense philosophical debate since it was introduced in 1980, even leading to edited volumes on this topic alone.^ However, Consciousness stands alone today as a topic that often leaves even the most sophisticated thinkers tongue-tied and confused.
  • Chapter §4 CONSCIOUSNESS 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ One topic alone, the mind-body issue, has a relevant literature extending from the Upanishads to the latest philosophical journals -- four thousand years of serious thought.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Van Gulick, R. “Physicalism and the Subjectivity of the Mental.” In Philosophical Topics 13, 51-70, 1985.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The application of the Turing test to human consciousness has even led to an annual competition, the Loebner Prize with "Grand Prize of $100,000 and a Gold Medal for the first computer whose responses were indistinguishable from a human's." For a summary of research on the Turing Test, see here.

Mirror

See also the concept of the Mirror stage by Jacques Lacan
.With the mirror test, devised by Gordon Gallup in the 1970s, one is interested in whether animals are able to recognize themselves in a mirror.^ Gordon Gallup (1970) developed an experimental test of mirror self-recognition (see the section on self-consciousness and metacognition below), and argues the performance of chimpanzees in this test indicates that they are self-aware.
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Self-consciousness as self-recognition Chimpanzees and orang-utans, but not monkeys, in common with children over ~18 months of age can recognize themselves in mirrors (Gallop, 1970 ).
  • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Gallup used these observations to develop a widely-replicated protocol that appears to allow a scientific determination of whether it is merely the mirror image per se that is the object of interest to the animal inspecting it, or whether it is the image qua proxy for the animal itself that is the object of interest.
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The classic example of the test involves placing a spot of coloring on the skin or fur near the individual's forehead and seeing if they attempt to remove it or at least touch the spot, thus indicating that they recognize that the individual they are seeing in the mirror is themselves.^ In a typical case, the patient can indicate, well above chance level, the direction of movement of a spot of light over a certain range of speed, while denying that he sees anything at all.
  • Consciousness and Neuroscience 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.klab.caltech.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ They might propose a “reverse Turing test” to see whether we are intelligent, but we would certainly fail that.

^ For example, research indicates that prayer, even at a distance by a stranger, can affect the healing outcome of another person who is unaware that these prayers are taking place [Dossey].
  • Consciousness as an Active Force 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.renresearch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Consciousness as an Active Force 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC twm.co.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Humans (older than 18 months) and other great apes (except for most gorillas), bottlenose dolphins, pigeons, elephants[50] and magpies[51] have all been observed to pass this test.^ Unfortunately, answering these questions and properly testing the predictions of the theory requires a much better understanding of cortical neuroanatomy than is presently available [ 50 , 51 ].
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ However, Turing was probably overly optimistic about whether anything even today can pass the Turing Test, as most programs are specialized and have very narrow uses.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are all conscious beings, but consciousness is not something we can observe directly, other than in ourselves, and then only in retrospect.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The test is usually carried out with an identical 'spot' being placed elsewhere on the head with a non-visible material as a control, to assure the subject is not responding to the touch stimuli of the spot's presence.^ Something to which the robot doesn’t have to respond usually doesn’t show up there at all, because the nervous system filters it out.
  • What is Consciousness? | Senses | DISCOVER Magazine 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC discovermagazine.com [Source type: Original source]

^ People around us have been lulled to sleep, as their inspiration and creativity (and individuality) has been drained out of them because they have responded to the stimuli of Big Media.
  • Consciousness | 911 We Know 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.911weknow.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I will propose that it is only a non-substantial or non-material phenomenon that can be the ground or basis for the arising of an original dynamic structure out of pure Being.
  • BEING, CONSCIOUSNESS, AND EVERYTHING 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.goertzel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Delay

.One problem researchers face is distinguishing nonconscious reflexes and instinctual responses from conscious responses.^ Facing up to the problem of consciousness”.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ G.A. Miller (1986) has called consciousness one of the three major "constitutive" problems of psychology -- the problems that define psychology as a discipline.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lets compare the issues humanity faces now in the transition to global consciousness with those which individuals faced during our pre-history in the transition to self-reflexive consciousness.
  • Global Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.earley.org [Source type: Original source]

.Neuroscientists Francis Crick and Christof Koch have proposed that by placing a delay between stimulus and execution of action, one may determine the extent of involvement of consciousness in an action of a biological organism.^ KOCH: Francis Crick has this analogy.
  • What is Consciousness? | Senses | DISCOVER Magazine 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC discovermagazine.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Copyright 1997 Francis Crick and Christof Koch .
  • Consciousness and Neuroscience 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.klab.caltech.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Crick F, Koch C (1995c) Why neuroscience may be able to explain consciousness.
  • Consciousness and Neuroscience 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.klab.caltech.edu [Source type: Academic]

.For example, when psychologists Larry Squire and Robert Clark combined a tone of a specific pitch with a puff of air to the eye, test subjects came to blink their eyes in anticipation of the puff of air when the appropriate tone was played.^ For example, during blinks and eye movements retinal activity changes dramatically, but visual perception does not.
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.When the puff of air followed a half of a second later, no such conditioning occurred.^ Such "empty" awakenings typically occur during the deepest stages of slow wave sleep (stages 3 and 4), especially during the first half of the night.
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Figure 1(b) illustrates two such distributed wave forms which distinguish an odour [amyl acetate] from a puff of air.

^ Second, it is not quite clear just how dualism follows from such phenomena even if they are genuine.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When subjects were asked about the experiment, only those who were asked to pay attention could consciously distinguish which tone preceded the puff of air.^ RSS Subjects — Blogs about "Consciousness" Consciousness .
  • Consciousness - Blog Toplist 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.blogtoplist.com [Source type: General]

^ Having put these problems aside I shall ask how we might set about constructing a machine that will have human-like consciousness.

^ Velmans speaks about subjective psychical projection of the state of the neural correlate of consciousness back into the physical world.
  • Consciousness, by Mitja Perus 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.goertzel.org [Source type: Original source]

.Ability to delay the response to an action implies that the information must be stored in short-term memory, which is conjectured to be a closely associated prerequisite for consciousness.^ Close Stores with conscious mind .
  • Conscious Mind - Shop Smarter.com 12 September 2009 6:54 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

^ Short-term memory and its decay.
  • Theory Of Consciousness - this will take you places you have never been before 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.web-us.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is quite clear that we are not conscious of everything in conventional Short Term Memory.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, this test is only valid for biological organisms. .While it is simple to create a computer program that passes, such success does not suggest anything beyond a clever programmer.^ Why does the firing of many cortical neurons carrying out the computational processes that enable object recognition (or language parsing) not correspond to anything conscious?
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Brainmakers: How scientists are moving beyond computers to create a rival to the human brain .
  • CONSCIOUSNESS / PARAPSYCHOLOGY / TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.uwsp.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ However, Turing was probably overly optimistic about whether anything even today can pass the Turing Test, as most programs are specialized and have very narrow uses.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19]

Merkwelt

.The merkwelt (German; English: "way of viewing the world", "peculiar individual consciousness") is a concept in robotics, psychology and biology that describes a creature or android's capacity to view things, manipulate information and synthesize to make meaning out of the universe.^ But if, as the history suggests, we must choose in psychology between trying to understand conscious experience and trying to avoid it, we can in our view but try to understand.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perhaps the universe isn't happening out there on it's own, perhaps it is in a very real sense, imagining itself through an unfolding process of creatively making observations.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Another way of expressing this is that the universe -- because it is totally free -- has the freedom to make choices, and this happens through the act of observation.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

In biology, a shark's merkwelt for instance is dominated by smell due to its enlarged olfactory lobes whilst a bat's is dominated by its hearing, especially at ultrasonic frequencies. In literature, a character's merkwelt can be defined by their particular consciousness. For the collective, the plural is merkwelten. It is related to the original German meaning of zeitgeist and indeed a merkwelt can be thought of as a more general, individual zeitgeist.[52][53][54]
.To have a merkwelt, the individual must be self-aware.^ As such the media serves a function to a collective that is similar to "self-awareness" in an individual person.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Our global collective self-awareness -- in order to be truly useful and legitimate really must be two-way, inclusive, comprehensive, real-time and democratic.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In order for the collective mind to think and act more intelligently it must be able to sense itself and its world, and reason about them, with more precision -- it must have a form of self-awareness.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

.This "self-awareness" may involve thoughts, sensations, perceptions, moods, emotions, and dreams.^ Thus your awareness of an insect walking across your hand involves self-consciousness in this rather minimal sense.
  • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The whole premise that a comatose person has no conscious awareness or sensation may be overturned by this.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Subtracting the processes required for implicit perception from those involved in explicit perception should, in principle, help to delineate the key neural substrates of awareness.
  • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.This term was particularly developed by the German biologist Jakob von Uexküll who framed it as part of his theory of umwelt.^ The relatively recent development of neurophysiology is, in part, also responsible for the unprecedented interdisciplinary research interest in consciousness, particularly since the 1980s.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This basically stated that any living 'observer' of the broader environment or umwelt through their particular werkwelt or 'mechanical viewing' (that is to say, the organs through which they view the world- their eyes, ears, mouth etc.^ They may be artifacts of the particular architecture of the human body and brain, or they may be pointing to a deeper reality that exists just as objectively as the physical world.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Like Buddhism, Taoism, and other "isms," Nowism is a view on the nature of reality, with implications for how to live one's life and how to interpret and relate to the world and other people.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Was there a "prime observer" at the first instant of the universe, and if not, how could it have come into being since on a quantum level without being observed it could not have had a particular state.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

in humans and electrical sensors in sharks for instance) could have a .merkwelt or 'perceptual universe'. In essence, his theory posits that the way each human or certain type of aware animal perceives of their environment both through their experiences, the particular way their organs perceive their environment and the way in which their consciousness processes this information (how their brain works).^ Human understanding and animal awareness .
  • CONSCIOUSNESS / PARAPSYCHOLOGY / TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.uwsp.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ An information integration theory of consciousness .
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Theories in which the universe and/or God is neither posited to exist, not-exist, both exist and not-exist, or neither exist nor not-exist (e.g.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

[55]

See also

Philosophy

.

Sociology and Socio-linguistics

Groups

Notes

  1. ^ a b Farthing, 1992
  2. ^ van Gulick, 2004
  3. ^ Searle, 2005, In Honderich, 2005
  4. ^ Schneider and Velmans, 2007, pp.1-6 In Velmans & Schneider, 2007; For a similar comment see also Güzeldere, 1995 In Block, Flanagan & Güzeldere, 1997, pp.1-67
  5. ^ Güzeldere, 1995 In Block, Flanagan & Güzeldere, 1997, pp.1-67
  6. ^ James, W. 1910 In Block, Flanagan & Güzeldere
  7. ^ cf. Searle, 2005 In Honderich, 2005, s.v. consciousness
  8. ^ Late recovery from the minimally conscious state: ethical and policy implications. Fins JJ, Schiff ND, Foley KM. Neurology. 2007 January 23;68(4):304-7. Abstract at Pubmed, retrieved 27 February 2007
  9. ^ Samuel Butler first raised the possibility of mechanical consciousness in an article signed with the nom de plume Cellarius and headed "Darwin among the Machines", which appeared in the Christchurch, New Zealand, newspaper The Press on June 13, 1863: retrieved from PREFACE TO THE REVISED EDITION, Project Gutenberg eBook Erewhon, by Samuel Butler. Release Date: March 20, 2005.
  10. ^ Stuart Shieber (ed): The Turing test : verbal behavior as the hallmark of intelligence, Cambridge, Mass, MIT Press, 2004, ISBN 978-0-262-69293-9
  11. ^ Steven Marcus: Neuroethics: mapping the field. Dana Press, New York 2002. ISBN 978-0-9723830-0-4.
  12. ^ The Classic Latin Dictionary, Follett Publishing Company, 1957
  13. ^ See Catherine G. Davies, Conscience as Consciousness, Oxford 1990, and Hennig, Cartesian Conscientia.
  14. ^ Block, N. (2004). The Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science.
  15. ^ See Friedrich Nietzsche, The Gay Science, §355.
  16. ^ Damasio. A. 1999. The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness. New York: Harcourt Brace. p. 4.
  17. ^ Maturana, H. R. and F. J. Varela. 1980. Autopoesis and Cognition: The Realization of the Living. Boston: D. Reidel.
  18. ^ Dawkins, R. 2003. A Devil's Chaplain; Reflections on Hope, Lies, Science, and Love. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, p. 46.
  19. ^ a b Christof Koch, The Quest for Consciousness: A Neurobiological Approach. Englewood, Colorado: Roberts and Company Publishers.
  20. ^ Ned Block, "What is Dennett's Theory a Theory of?" Philosophical Topics 22, 1994.
  21. ^ A Mind So Rare p.202
  22. ^ Yegan Pillay, Katherine K. Ziff and Christine Suniti Bhat, Vedānta Personality Development: A Model to Enhance the Cultural Competence of Psychotherapists, International Journal of Hindu Studies, Volume 12, Number 1 / April, 2008, OUP
  23. ^ Tripurari, Swami, Entering the Fifth Dimension, Sanga, 1999.
  24. ^ Hendriks-Jansen, Horst (1996). Catching ourselves in the act: situated activity, interactive emergence, evolution, and human thought. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. p. 114. ISBN 0-262-08246-2. 
  25. ^ Mariela Szirko: "Effects of relativistic motions in the brain and their physiological relevance", Chapter 10 (pp. 313-358) in: Helmut Wautischer, editor, Ontology of Consciousness: Percipient Action, A Bradford Book: The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1st edition, 2007.
  26. ^ McIver, M.B.; Mandema, J.W.; Stanski, D.R.; Bland, B.H. (1996). "Thiopental uncouples hippocampal and cortical synchronized electroencephalographic activity". Anesthesiology 84: 1411–1424. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=PubMed&term=8669683. 
  27. ^ Llinas R.. (2001) "I of the Vortex. From Neurons to Self" MIT Press, Cambridge
  28. ^ Llinas R.,Ribary, U. Contreras, D. and Pedroarena, C. (1998) "The neuronal basis for consciousness" Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London, B. 353:1841-1849
  29. ^ Fingelkurts An.A. and Fingelkurts Al.A. Operational architectonics of the human brain biopotential field: Towards solving the mind-brain problem. Brain and Mind, vol. 2, pp. 261-296, 2001.
  30. ^ Fingelkurts An.A. and Fingelkurts Al.A. Timing in cognition and EEG brain dynamics: discreteness versus continuity. Cognitive Proces., vol. 7, pp. 135-162, 2006.
  31. ^ Knobe, J. (forthcoming). Experimental Philosophy of Consciousness. Scientific American: Mind.
  32. ^ Joshua Knobe and Jesse Prinz. (2008). Intuitions about Consciousness: Experimental Studies. Phenomenology and Cognitive Science.
  33. ^ Sytsma, Justin (2009) Phenomenological Obviousness and the New Science of Consciousness. In [2008] Philosophy of Science Assoc. 21st Biennial Mtg (Pittsburgh, PA): PSA 2008 Contributed Papers.
  34. ^ Justin Sytsma and Edouard Machery. (2009). How to Study Folk Intuitions about Consciousness. Philosophical Psychology.
  35. ^ Freeman and Herron. Evolutionary Analysis. 2007. Pearson Education, NJ.
  36. ^ Alcock, J. Animal Behavior 5th Ed. 1993. Sinauer Assoc. Cunderland, MA
  37. ^ Eccles, John C. "Evolution of consciousness." 1992. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol. 89 pp. 7320-7324
  38. ^ Budiansky, Stephen. If a Lion Could Talk: Animal Intelligence and the Evolution of Consciousness. 1998. The Free Press, NY.
  39. ^ Peters, Frederic "Consciousness as Recursive, Spatiotemporal Self-Location"
  40. ^ Nichols, Shaun, and Grantham, Todd."Adaptive Complexity and Phenomenal Consciousness." 2000. Philosophy of Science Vol. 67 pp. 648-670.
  41. ^ Baars, Bernard J. A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness. 1993. Cambridge University Press.
  42. ^ Julien Offray de La Mettrie (1996). Ann Thomson. ed. Machine man and other writings. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521478496. 
  43. ^ Edelman GM (1993). Bright air, brilliant fire: on the matter of the mind. Basic Books. ISBN 9780465007646. 
  44. ^ Damasio A (1999). .The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness.^ If Joan has good models of how she makes choices, then she may feel that she has some 'control' over these—and then perhaps use the name 'conscious decisions' for them.
    • Chapter §4 CONSCIOUSNESS 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ To make it clear, at the time of God-realization nothing new is realised; on the contrary, the Yogi feels that this state of God-consciousness which he was experiencing was already known to him.

    ^ Damasio AR. The feeling of what happens: body and emotion in the making of consciousness.
    • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .New York: Harcourt Press.^ Neurobiology of Nociceptors , New York: Oxford University Press, pp.
    • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New York: Plenum Press; 1990.
    • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New York: Guilford Press; 1992.
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    ISBN 978-0-15-601075-7.
     
  45. ^ Dennett D (1991). Consciousness Explained. Boston: Little & Company. ISBN 978-0-316-18066-5. 
  46. ^ Koch C (2004). The Quest for Consciousness. .Englewood, CO: Roberts & Company.^ Englewood: Roberts and Company and Bloxham: Scion Publishing * Price {pound}29.99.
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    ^ Englewood, CO: Roberts and Company, 2004.
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    ISBN 978-0-9747077-0-9.
     
  47. ^ Dennett, D.C. and Hofstadter, D. (1985). The Mind's I: Fantasies and reflections on self and soul (ISBN 978-0-553-34584-1)
  48. ^ Chalmers, D. (1997) The Conscious Mind: In Search of a Fundamental Theory. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511789 Please check ISBN|0195117891
  49. ^ Searle, J. (1980) "Minds, Brains and Programs" Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3, 417-424.
  50. ^ Elephants see themselves in the mirror - life - 30 October 2006 - New Scientist
  51. ^ "Was Elstern wahrnehmen" german article
  52. ^ White Shark Physiology and Neurology
  53. ^ Senses and Merkwelt
  54. ^ Psychology Text
  55. ^ Jakob von Uexküll, Mondes animaux et monde humain

References

  • Block, N., Flanagan, O., & Güzeldere, G. (1997). .The Nature of Consciousness: Philosophical debates Cambridge, MA: MIT.
  • Carruthers, P. (2007).^ Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996.
    • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Cognitive Animal , Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
    • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cambridge (MA): MIT Press; 1995.
    • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    .In Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (version Sep 11, 2007) http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/consciousness-higher/
  • Farthing, G. W. (1992).^ In the history of Western philosophy, which is the focus of this entry, important writings on human nature and the soul and mind go back to ancient philosophers, such as Plato .
    • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ (See the entry on higher-order theories of consciousness .
    • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Posted on August 04, 2007 at 11:30 AM in Buddhism , Consciousness , Current Affairs , Democracy 2.0 , Fringe .
    • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The Psychology of Consciousness. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  • van Gulick, R. (2004).^ In general the more limited and elementary the range of the explanans, the more difficult the problem of explaining how could it suffice to produce consciousness (Van Gulick 1995).
    • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A second objection has been referred to as the “problem of the rock” (Stubenberg 1998) and the “generality problem” (Van Gulick 2000, 2004), but it is originally due to Alvin Goldman (Goldman 1993).
    • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Robert Van Gulick (2000, 2004, 2006) has also explored the alternative that the HO state is part of an overall global conscious state.
    • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Consciousness. .In Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (version Aug 16, 2004) http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/consciousness/
  • Nagel, T. (1974).^ In the history of Western philosophy, which is the focus of this entry, important writings on human nature and the soul and mind go back to ancient philosophers, such as Plato .
    • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ So, for example, my desire to write a good encyclopedia entry becomes conscious when I am (non-inferentially) “aware” of the desire.
    • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Thomas Nagel's (1974) famous “what it is like” criterion aims to capture another and perhaps more subjective notion of being a conscious organism.
    • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    What it is like to be a bat. .Philosophical Review 83.^ What is it like to be a bat?” Philosophical Review , 83: 435–450.
    • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

    October, 435-450.
  • Searle (2005). Consciousness. In Honderich, T. (Ed.) (2005). .The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2nd ed.^ Philosophy of science and the occult (2nd ed.
    • CONSCIOUSNESS / PARAPSYCHOLOGY / TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.uwsp.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ). Oxford.
  • Velmans, M., & Schneider, S. (Eds.) (2007). The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
  • McKenna, T., McKenna, D. (1975). "The Invisible Landscape - Mind, Hallucinogens, and I Ching". Seabury Press.

Further reading

  • Baars, B. (1997) .In the Theater of Consciousness: The Workspace of the Mind.^ Mind, Theaters, and the Anatomy of Consciousness Beecher, Donald.
    • Project MUSE - Subject Browse 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC muse.jhu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .New York, NY: Oxford University Press.^ Neurobiology of Nociceptors , New York: Oxford University Press, pp.
    • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New York: Plenum Press; 1990.
    • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New York: Guilford Press; 1992.
    • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    .2001 reprint: ISBN 978-0-19-514703-2
  • Baars, Bernard J and Stan Franklin.^ Order now, with secure on-line order form Paperback - ISBN: 978-1-57733-160-5, 348 pp., 6 x 9, $19.95 Quantity .

    .(2003) How conscious experience and working memory interact.^ If we find that people who are conscious by the "accurate report" criterion also have excellent recognition memory for the experience, we may "bootstrap" upward, and "accurate recognition memory" may then supersede accurate report.
    • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ On the relation between memory and consciousness: dissociable interactions and consciousness.” In H. Roediger and F. Craik eds.
    • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In a later chapter (8.00) we will suggest that all of these functions can be understood in terms of systems that interact with conscious experience.
    • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Trends in Cognitive Science 7: 166–172.
  • Yaneer Bar-Yam (2003).^ Two Neural Correlates of Consciousness,” Trends in Cognitive Sciences , 9: 41–89.
    • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The study of animal metacognition,” Trends in Cognitive Sciences , 13 (9): 389–396.
    • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Dynamics of Complex Systems, Chapter 3. 
  • Blackmore, S. (2003) Consciousness: an Introduction.^ Blackmore, S. Consciousness: An Introduction .
    • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Oxford: Oxford University Press.^ Neurobiology of Nociceptors , New York: Oxford University Press, pp.
    • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.
    • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.
    • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 978-0-19-515343-9
  • Blackmore, S. (2005) "Conversations on Consciousness". .Oxford: Oxford University Press.^ Neurobiology of Nociceptors , New York: Oxford University Press, pp.
    • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.
    • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.
    • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 978-0-19-280623-9
  • Block, N. (2004). The Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science.
  • Carter, Rita. (2002) Exploring Consciousness. UC Berkeley Press. .ISBN 0-520-23737-4
  • Chalmers, D. (1996) The Conscious Mind: In Search of a Fundamental Theory.^ [Abstract/ Free  Full Text] Chalmers DJ. The conscious mind.
    • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ To dualists, those same impasses will signify the bankruptcy of the physicalist program and the need to recognize consciousness as a fundamental constituent of reality in its own right (Robinson 1982, Foster 1989, 1996, Chalmers 1996).
    • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Three intuitions about consciousness The first intuition is that consciousness is a robust phenomenon which deserves to be explained rather than being explained away (Chalmers, 1996 ; Libet, 1996 ; Velmans, 2000 ).
    • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    .New York: Oxford University Press.^ Neurobiology of Nociceptors , New York: Oxford University Press, pp.
    • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New York: Plenum Press; 1990.
    • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New York: Guilford Press; 1992.
    • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    .ISBN 978-0-19-511789-9
  • Chalmers, D. (2002) The puzzle of conscious experience.^ Thus any adequate answer to the What question must address the epistemic status of consciousness, both our abilities to understand it and their limits (Papineau 2002, Chalmers 2003).
    • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Chalmers, D.J. “Facing up to the Problem of Consciousness.” In Journal of Consciousness Studies 2:200-19, 1995.
    • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Purple Haze: The Puzzle of Conscious Experience .
    • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Scientific American, January 2002. [1]
  • Cleermans, A. (Ed.) (2003) .The Unity of Consciousness: Binding, Integration, and Dissociation.^ The Unity of Consciousness: Binding, Integration, and Dissociation.
    • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Unity of Consciousness: Binding, Integration and Dissociation.
    • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Thus, the so-called “binding problem” is inextricably linked to explaining the unity of consciousness.
    • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Oxford: Oxford University Press.^ Neurobiology of Nociceptors , New York: Oxford University Press, pp.
    • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.
    • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.
    • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 978-0-19-850857-1
  • Rodney M. J. Cotterill (1998). .Enchanted Looms : Conscious networks in brains and computer.^ Consciousness is generated by a distributed thalamocortical network that is at once specialized and integrated Ancient Greek philosophers disputed whether the seat of consciousness was in the lungs, in the heart, or in the brain.
    • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Dennett develops an analogy between the activity of the brain and the implementation of a software package in a computer to create a `virtual machine': `human consciousness ...
    • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Much of current research focuses on how to program a computer to model the workings of the human brain, such as with so-called “neural (or connectionist) networks.” .
    • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Cambridge University Press.^ Theories of Theories of Mind , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
    • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press; 1998.
    • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    .ISBN 978-0521794626. 
  • Crick, F.H.C. (1994) "The Astonishing Hypothesis". London Simon & Schuster Ltd.^ [Web of Science] [Medline] Crick F. The astonishing hypothesis.
    • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Crick, F. H. The Astonishing Hypothesis: The Scientific Search for the Soul.
    • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ London: Simon & Schuster; 1994.
    • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0-671-71295-0
  • Eccles, J.C. (1994) How the Self Controls its Brain, (Springer-Verlag).
  • Franklin, S., B.J. Baars, U. Ramamurthy, and Matthew Ventura. (2005) The role of consciousness in memory. .Brains, Minds and Media 1: 1–38, pdf.
  • Halliday, Eugene, Reflexive Self-Consciousness, ISBN 0-872240-01-1
  • Harnad, S. (2005) What is Consciousness? New York Review of Books 52(11).
  • Harnad, S. (2008) What It Feels Like To Hear Voices: Fond Memories of Julian Jaynes
  • James, W. (1902) The Varieties of Religious Experience
  • Immanuel Kant (1781).^ Higher-order (HO) theories analyze the notion of a conscious mental state in terms of reflexive meta-mental self-awareness.
    • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ René Descartes defined the very notion of thought ( pensée ) in terms of reflexive consciousness or self-awareness.
    • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ When I am, for example, smelling a rose or having a conscious visual experience, there is something it “seems” or “feels” like from my perspective.
    • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Critique of Pure Reason.^ Critique of Pure Reason.
    • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Kant, I. Critique of Pure Reason.
    • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ His main work Critique of Pure Reason (1781/1965) is as equally dense as it is important, and cannot easily be summarized in this context.
    • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Trans. Norman Kemp Smith with preface by Howard Caygill. Pub: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • John Locke (1689). .An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
  • Libet, B., Freeman, A. & Sutherland, K. ed.^ Understanding the phenomenal mind: Are we all just armadillos?” In M. Davies and G. Humphreys, eds., Consciousness: Psychological and Philosophical Essays .
    • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Locke, J. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.
    • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Later, toward the end of the 17th century, John Locke offered a similar if slightly more qualified claim in An Essay on Human Understanding (1688), .
    • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .(1999) The Volitional Brain: Towards a neuroscience of free will.^ [Abstract/ Free  Full Text] Spence SA, Frith CD. Towards a functional anatomy of volition.
    • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Exeter, UK: Short Run Press, Ltd.
  • Llinas R.,Ribary, U. Contreras, D. and Pedroarena, C. (1998) "The neuronal basis for consciousness" Phil.^ Shallice's information-processing model of consciousness (from Shallice, 1988; with permission—copyright 1988, Oxford University Press, UK).
    • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Baars' `global workspace' model of consciousness (from Baars, 1998; with permission from Cambridge University Press, UK).
    • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    Tranns. R. Soc. London, B. 353:1841-1849
  • Llinas R. (2001) "I of the Vortex. .From Neurons to Self" MIT Press, Cambridge
  • Metzinger, T. (2003) Being No One: the Self-model Theory of Subjectivity.^ Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000.
    • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996.
    • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.^ Cambridge (MA): MIT Press; 1995.
    • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003.
    • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ See Parallel Distributed Processing, Rumelhart, D., J. McClelland et al., MIT Press, Cambridge, MA: 1986.
    • Chapter §4 CONSCIOUSNESS 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

  • Metzinger, T. (Ed.) .(2000) The Neural Correlates of Consciousness.^ Or someone might discover a neural event that correlates infallibly with conscious experience, defined by accurate consciousness report; the neural event may also work when people cannot report their experience.
    • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Neuromagnetic studies in humans have shown that neural activity correlated with a stimulus that is not being consciously perceived can be recorded in many cortical areas, including the front of the brain.
    • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The key philosophical question posed by consciousness concerns its relationship to the neural processes which correlate with it.
    • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.^ Cambridge (MA): MIT Press; 1995.
    • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003.
    • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ See Parallel Distributed Processing, Rumelhart, D., J. McClelland et al., MIT Press, Cambridge, MA: 1986.
    • Chapter §4 CONSCIOUSNESS 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ISBN 978-0-262-13370-8
  • Morgan, John H. (2007) In the Beginning: The Paleolithic Origins of Religious Consciousness. Cloverdale Books, South Bend. ISBN 978-1-929569-41-0
  • Morsella, E. (2005) .The Function of Phenomenal States: Supramodular Interaction Theory.^ Dissatisfaction with the first-order theories of consciousness has resulted in several higher-order accounts which invoke mental states directed towards other mental states to explain phenomenal consciousness.
    • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Representational theories of consciousness link phenomenal consciousness with the representational content of mental states, subject to some further functional criteria.
    • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Carruthers' “higher order thought” (HOT) theory a mental state is phenomenally conscious for a subject just in case it is available to be thought about directly by that subject (Carruthers 1998a,b, 2000).
    • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Psychological Review, 112, 1000-1021.
  • Neumann, Erich. The origins and history of consciousness, with a foreword by C.G. Jung. Translated from the German by R.F.C. Hull. .New York : Pantheon Books, 1954.
  • Penrose, R., Hameroff, S. R. (1996) 'Conscious Events as Orchestrated Space-Time Selections', Journal of Consciousness Studies, 3 (1), pp. 36–53.
  • Peters, Frederic (2008) "Consciousness as Recursive, Spatiotemporal Self-Location" http://precedings.nature.com/documents/2444/version/1
  • Pharoah, M.C. (online) Looking to systems theory for a reductive explanation of phenomenal experience and evolutionary foundations for higher order thought Retrieved December 14, 2007.
  • Sanz, R., López, I., Rodríguez, M. and Hernández, C. (2007) 'Principles for Consciousness in Integrated Cognitive Control'. Neural Networks, 20, pp. 938–946.
  • Scaruffi, P. (2006) The Nature Of Consciousness.^ There seem to be events that compete with clearly conscious ones for limited capacity, but which are not reportable in the way the reader's experience of these words is reportable.
    • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The theory also predicts that blue-selective neurons in the main complex contribute to the conscious experience of blue only if their activation is sufficiently strong or sustained that they can make a difference, in informational terms, to the rest of the complex.
    • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Higher-order (HO) theories analyze the notion of a conscious mental state in terms of reflexive meta-mental self-awareness.
    • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Omniware.
  • Searle, J. (2004) Mind: A Brief Introduction.^ Campbell, N. A Brief Introduction to the Philosophy of Mind .
    • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Sternberg, E. (2007) Are You a Machine?^ Neurobiology of Nociceptors , New York: Oxford University Press, pp.
    • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The new anthropomorphism , New York: Cambridge University Press.
    • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Doctor Dolittle's Delusion , New Haven: Yale University Press.
    • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .The Brain, the Mind and What it Means to be Human.
    Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.
  • Tolle, Eckhart (1999) The Power of Now: A Guide to Spiritual Enlightenment.^ Now a dualist might reply that such phenomena do not absolutely refute her metaphysical position since it could be replied that damage to the brain simply causes corresponding damage to the mind.
    • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The human core of spirituality: Mind as psyche and spirit .
    • CONSCIOUSNESS / PARAPSYCHOLOGY / TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.uwsp.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Everybodys guide to natural ESP: Unlocking the extrasensory power of your mind .
    • CONSCIOUSNESS / PARAPSYCHOLOGY / TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.uwsp.edu [Source type: Academic]

    New World Library. pp .36–37. ISBN 978-1577311522
  • Velmans, M. (2000) Understanding Consciousness.^ Three intuitions about consciousness The first intuition is that consciousness is a robust phenomenon which deserves to be explained rather than being explained away (Chalmers, 1996 ; Libet, 1996 ; Velmans, 2000 ).
    • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Consciousness, in this sense, is the `sea in which we swim' (Velmans, 2000 ).
    • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ These theories tend to follow the lead of William James in associating consciousness with selective attention and `primary' or `working' memory (Velmans, 2000 ).
    • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    .London: Routledge/Psychology Press.
  • Velmans, M. and Schneider, S. (Eds.^ Troubles with Functionalism,” in Readings in the Philosophy of Psychology , Volume 1, Ned Block, ed., Cambridge, MA : Harvard University Press, 268-305.
    • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Block, N. “Troubles with Functionalism.” In Readings in the Philosophy of Psychology, Volume 1, Ned Block, ed., Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1980a.
    • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    )(2006) The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness. New York: Blackwell.

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From Wikiversity

.Consciousness is not well defined as a single, universally agreed-upon formula -- There are over 40[1] different definitions for this one word.^ Well, who is there that's not conscious?

^ There seem to be events that compete with clearly conscious ones for limited capacity, but which are not reportable in the way the reader's experience of these words is reportable.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ G.A. Miller (1986) has called consciousness one of the three major "constitutive" problems of psychology -- the problems that define psychology as a discipline.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, there is considerable convergence of academic understanding of the term as it relates to the question most analysts would like to see answered: how are we to understand the brain's elctrochemical activity and self-reflective cognitive experience as being related?^ How can any questions relating to that which was prior to the body and consciousness be answered?
  • Some Dialogues from Conscioiusness and the Absolute 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.prahlad.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Can consciousness be explained in terms of brain activity?
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most important, there is not a comprehensive, overall theory of the activities of the brain.
  • Consciousness and Neuroscience 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.klab.caltech.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In other words, how does the brain turn material processes into the thoughts, feelings, and technicolor panorama that characterizes conscious experience?^ Put in other words, how is meaning generated by the brain?
  • Consciousness and Neuroscience 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.klab.caltech.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ How to experiment with conscious states .
  • Edge In Paris: SIGNATURES OF CONSCIOUSNESS — A TALK BY STANISLAS DEHAENE 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.edge.org [Source type: Original source]

^ How does the brain calculate movement?
  • Wired 15.02: What We Don't Know 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this question (technically refered to as "The Hard Problem of Consciousness"), consciousness is understood (defined) as not merely a self-reflective state of cognition, but as cognitive content (perceptions, feelings, thoughts) self-reflectively experienced.^ The problem with consciousness is that it seemingly cannot be defined.
  • Consciousness@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The merely verbal problem of consciousness.
  • Consciousness@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Self-Reflection: She reflected on her recent thoughts.
  • Chapter §4 CONSCIOUSNESS 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

.One of the problems that has added to the confusion associated with this concept, is the idea that somehow there needed to be a 1 to 1 match between the electrochemical activity of the brain, and the self-reflective experiences.^ One in which there is less personification of the divine, and less use of the concept of a personified deity as an excuse or justification for various worldy actions (like wars and laws, for example).
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So as evidence for a PC-AC distinction, this experiment relies on independent evidence for a correlation between recurrent activity in the occipital cortex and PC. .
  • Consciousness@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It may then just be a “brute fact” about the world that there are such identities and the appearance of arbitrariness between brain properties and mental properties is just that – an apparent problem leading many to wonder about the alleged explanatory gap.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Recent conceptions have relaxed from this position suggesting that self-relfective experience is not a good indicator of brain function because it is prone to some illusions that make it subjective.^ If proper mental functioning still depends on proper brain functioning, then is dualism really in no better position to offer hope for immortality?
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Why are some aspects of subjective experience impossible to convey to other people (in other words, why are they private)?
  • Consciousness and Neuroscience 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.klab.caltech.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ If Joan has good models of how she makes choices, then she may feel that she has some 'control' over these—and then perhaps use the name 'conscious decisions' for them.
  • Chapter §4 CONSCIOUSNESS 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Up until 1990 when John Searle, an influential American philosopher, finally agreed that as long as testing was done in the 3rd person, objective science could be done on consciousness, research on consciousness was actively discouraged.^ And his assumption that consciousness is accomplished by the brain, again widely shared by researchers in the field, needs to be tested by simulations of evolutionary games that investigate the shaping of perception by natural selection.
  • Edge In Paris: SIGNATURES OF CONSCIOUSNESS — A TALK BY STANISLAS DEHAENE 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.edge.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There exists no test , no procedure , no method , that can objectively identify the presence of consciousness in something.
  • Consciousness@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term "easy problem of consciousness" used to be an in-joke — the science of consciousness is "easy" only in comparison with the philosophical conundrum of subjectivity — but Dehaene is helping to make it easy in practice.
  • Edge In Paris: SIGNATURES OF CONSCIOUSNESS — A TALK BY STANISLAS DEHAENE 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.edge.org [Source type: Original source]

.Since that time, a broad spectrum of theories has been proposed to account for self-reflective cognition.^ I will propose that the radiant cognizance aspect of Being is the primordial engine providing the capacity to perform this observation and that dynamic self-reflection in consciousness is its seed condition.
  • BEING, CONSCIOUSNESS, AND EVERYTHING 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.goertzel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Complexity science based on chaos theory could account nicely for the propagation of the relational patterning resulting from the self-reflectional dynamic of consciousness involved with (material) structure.
  • BEING, CONSCIOUSNESS, AND EVERYTHING 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.goertzel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For additional discussion of self awareness and metacognition, readers are again referred to the section on theory of mind and metacognition in the Encyclopedia's entry on animal cognition.
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Following the nineteenth century phenomenologists, some have suggested that mental representation as such is inherently self-cognizant and thereby underwrites consciousness [2].^ There are a number of such representational theories of consciousness currently on the market, including higher-order theories which hold that what makes a mental state conscious is that the subject is aware of it in some sense.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Self-consciousness refers to an organism's capacity for second-order representation of the organism's own mental states.
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ At a minimum, consciousness might seem a necessary precondition for any such freedom or self-determination (Hasker 1999).
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, in order to account for the fact that much if not most cognition is not conscious, most theories nominate a specific process that operates upon representational cognition to render it conscious.^ Specific theories of consciousness 9.1 Higher-order theories 9.2 Representational theories 9.3 Cognitive theories 9.4 Neural theories 9.5 Quantum theories 9.6 Nonphysical theories 10.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A cognitive theory of consciousness .
  • CONSCIOUSNESS / PARAPSYCHOLOGY / TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.uwsp.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ (See the entry on representational theories of consciousness .
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such theories include the linguistic coding of representational content [3], global broadcasting of representational content [4], higher order thought [5], planning [6], the recursive processing of an ongoing orientational reference frame [7], and the attentional highlighting of representational content [8].^ Higher-order theories .
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This “dispositional” account of access consciousness — the idea that the representational content is available for other systems to use — is amended by Block (2005) to include an occurrent aspect in which the content is “broadcast” in a “global workspace” (Baars 1997) which is then available for higher cognitive processing tasks such as categorization, reasoning, planning, and voluntary direction of attention.
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Metzinger calls this the process of “higher-order binding” and thus uses the acronym HOB. Others who hold some form of the self-representational view include Kobes (1995), Caston (2002), Williford (2006), Brook and Raymont (2006), and even Carruthers’ (2000) theory can be viewed in this light since he contends that conscious states have two representational contents.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Today the American Society for the Study of Consciousness (ASSC) has 2 Journals on the topic.^ However, Consciousness stands alone today as a topic that often leaves even the most sophisticated thinkers tongue-tied and confused.
  • Chapter §4 CONSCIOUSNESS 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Theatre of Consciousness: Global Workspace Theory, A Rigorous Scientific Theory of Consciousness,” Journal of Consciousness Studies , 4: 292–309.
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Botterell, A. “Conceiving what is not there.” In Journal of Consciousness Studies 8 (8): 21-42, 2001.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Consciousness and Cognition (Elsevier) and an e-journal called Psyche.^ There are now several important journals devoted entirely to the study of consciousness: Consciousness and Cognition , Journal of Consciousness Studies , and Psyche .
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although this concept of consciousness is certainly very important in cognitive science and philosophy of mind generally, not everyone agrees that access consciousness deserves to be called “consciousnesses” in any important sense.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Journal of Consciousness Studies is published independently.^ Journal of Consciousness Studies , 2: 200-19.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Emergence and the mind-body problem.” Journal of Consciousness Studies , 5: 464-82.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are now several important journals devoted entirely to the study of consciousness: Consciousness and Cognition , Journal of Consciousness Studies , and Psyche .
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
Consciousness can be viewed from the perspective of evolutionary biology as an adaptation, as a trait that increases fitness.
^ First-person account or perspective The unique view-point of a conscious being, experiencing and perceiving events in the world.
  • Definitions of Terms Used in the Study of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.klab.caltech.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the world had always been curved, the collective consciousness of that time had not yet recognized this fact due to viewing the situation from a physically limited perspective.
  • BEING, CONSCIOUSNESS, AND EVERYTHING 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.goertzel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since information can only be integrated within a complex and not outside its boundaries, consciousness as information integration is necessarily subjective, private, and related to a single point of view or perspective [ 1 , 9 ].
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.[9] Consciousness also adheres to John Alcock's theory of animal behavioral adaptations because it possesses both proximate and ultimate causes.^ Empathy: Its ultimate and proximate bases,” Behavioral and Brain Sciences , 25: 1–72.
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Carruthers' view is of particular interest in the current context because he has used it explicitly to deny phenomenal consciousness to (almost) all nonhuman animals.
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Early in the 20th century, although they are not arguing for or about animal consciousness, physiologists recognized that significance of emotion in animal behavior.
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

[10] The proximate causes for consciousness, i.e. how consciousness evolved in animals, is a subject considered by Sir John C. Eccles in his paper "Evolution of consciousness." .He argues that special anatomical and physical properties of the mammalian cerebral cortex gave rise to consciousness.^ This inner freedom in localized consciousness can give rise to a variety of ideas and feelings that may demonstrate a loose coupling to the physical "regularities of fact".
  • BEING, CONSCIOUSNESS, AND EVERYTHING 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.goertzel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If these facts don't strike you as intrinsically mysterious, consider: What if, distributed geological processes gave rise to consciousness over a time-course of 300 years?
  • Edge In Paris: SIGNATURES OF CONSCIOUSNESS — A TALK BY STANISLAS DEHAENE 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.edge.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We have argued (Crick and Koch, 1995a) that one is not directly conscious of the features represented by the neural activity in primary visual cortex.
  • Consciousness and Neuroscience 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.klab.caltech.edu [Source type: Academic]

.[11] Budiansky, by contrast, limits consciousness to humans, proposing that human consciousness may have evolved as an adaptation to anticipate and counter social strategems of other humans, predators, and prey.^ We may have a better chance to understand human conscious experience now than ever before.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A third source of social theories of awareness is the idea that language is vital to human consciousness—and language is self-evidently a social creation.
  • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Others may hold that consciousness is an as-yet-undescribed fundamental constituent of the physical universe, not reducible to any known physical principles.
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

[12] .Alternatively, it has been argued that the recursive circuitry underwriting consciousness is much more primitive, having evolved initially in pre-mammalian species because it improves the capacity for interaction with both social and natural environments by providing an energy saving "neutral" gear in an otherwise energy expensive motor output machine.^ What is needed is a way to evaluate and compare intelligence across different species -- one that is much more granular and basic.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As the planetary supermind becomes more aware of its environment, its own state, and its own actions and plans, it will then naturally evolve higher levels of collective intelligence around this core.
  • This Blog has Moved to Novaspivack.com: Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC novaspivack.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If some or more of these nuclei are damaged on both sides consciousness can be transiently or permanently impaired; in other words, they are part of the enabeling factor for consciousness or NCC e .
  • Definitions of Terms Used in the Study of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.klab.caltech.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13] .Once in place, this recursive circuitry may well have provided a basis for the subsequent development of many of the functions which consciousness facilitates in higher organisms, as outlined by Bernard J. Baars.^ Left hemisphere interpretative processes could provide a basis for narrative forms of conscious self-awareness.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This theory of consciousness, functionalism, owes much to the developing science of artificial intelligence.
  • Consciousness -- Zeman 124 (7): 1263 -- Brain 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Perhaps most obvious is the well-established fact that many small collections of neurons in the brain have very specific functions.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14]
.While all this is true, a case can also be made that consciousness is an architectural factor probably associated with the development of certain vertebrate phyla such as mammals and birds, and especially Simmian species, some of which have shown facility with language that while not as sophisticated as humans, still allows them some communication potential.^ Self-consciousness -- that is, the self-referential aspect of consciousness -- is probably a special case of consciousness.
  • Consciousness and Neuroscience 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.klab.caltech.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ If some or more of these nuclei are damaged on both sides consciousness can be transiently or permanently impaired; in other words, they are part of the enabeling factor for consciousness or NCC e .
  • Definitions of Terms Used in the Study of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.klab.caltech.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because such a yogi perceives the states of pain and pleasure only superficially, they, in no case, affect his state of Supreme-Being Consciousness.

.In this theoretical framework, consciousness can be seen to be the result of a specific architecture of control mechanism perhaps based on a specific memory architecture.^ We have then considered how such capacity can be measured, and we have developed a theoretical framework for consciousness as information integration.
  • An information integration theory of consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The more direct reductionist approach can be seen in various, more specific, neural theories of consciousness.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Non-specific interference: Even tasks that are very different interfere with each other when they are conscious or under voluntary control.
  • Baars: A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC cogweb.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In any case consciousness can be separated into two types of consciousness, Primary Consciousness which most animals are thought to have, and Higher Order consciousness which it is thought only humans have.^ Can we know which animals beside humans are conscious?
  • Animal Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Higher-order (HO) theories analyze the notion of a conscious mental state in terms of reflexive meta-mental self-awareness.
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (See the entry on higher-order theories of consciousness .
  • Consciousness (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unfortunately no significant difference in brain architecture has been found to explain the [15]difference.^ HO theorists are united in the belief that their approach can better explain consciousness than any purely FOR theory, which has significant difficulty in explaining the difference between unconscious and conscious mental states.
  • Consciousness [The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.iep.utm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It makes no sense to try to discuss so many different things at once—except when trying to explain why we tend to treat all those things as the same.
  • Chapter §4 CONSCIOUSNESS 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC web.media.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In this follow-up research into transformational processes after NDE, we found a significant difference between patients with and without an NDE. The process of transformation took several years to consolidate.
  • A Reply to Shermer Medical Evidence for NDEs, Pim van Lommel 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.nderf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Notes

  1. Unknown Issue of Journal of Consciousness Studies
  2. Neisser, U (1976). Cognition and Reality. San Francisco: Freeman; Searle, J .(1992). The Rediscovery of Nind. Cambridge MA: MIT; O'brien, G. & Opie, J. (1999). A connectionist theory of phenomenal experience. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22, 127-148
  3. Edelman, G.M. (1989). The remembered present: a biological theory of consciousness. New York: Basic Books; Jaynes, J (1976). The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind. New York: Houghton Mifflin
  4. Dennett, D. (1978). Brainstorms: philosophical essays on mind and psychology. Montgomery VT: Bradford; Baars, B. (1988). A cognitive theory of consciousness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
  5. Dretske, F. (1993). Conscious Experience. Mind, 102, 263-283; Rosenthal, D. (1997). A theory of consciousness. In N. Block, O. Flanagan and G. Guzeldere (Eds.), The Nature of consciousness, (pp. 729-754). Cambridge MA: MIT
  6. Bridgeman, B. (1992). The co-development of consciousness and planning, reply to Zelazo on Bridgeman on Consciousness. Psycoloquy 92.3.39
  7. Peters, Frederic "Consciousness as Recursive, Spatiotemporal Self-Location" http://precedings.nature.com/documents/2444/version/1
  8. Crick, F. (1984). The function of the thalamic reticular complex: the spotlight theory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 81, 4586-4590; Velmans, M. (1991). Is human information processing conscious? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 14, 651-726; Damasio, A. (1999). The feeling of what happens: body and emotion in the making of consciousness. New York: Harcourt Brace & Company
  9. Freeman and Herron. Evolutionary Analysis. 2007. Pearson Education, NJ.
  10. Alcock, J. Animal Behavior 5th Ed. 1993. Sinauer Assoc. Cunderland, MA
  11. Eccles, John C. "Evolution of consciousness." 1992. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol. 89 pp. 7320-7324
  12. Budiansky, Stephen. If a Lion Could Talk: Animal Intelligence and the Evolution of Consciousness. 1998. The Free Press, NY.
  13. Peters, Frederic "Consciousness as Recursive, Spatiotemporal Self-Location" http://precedings.nature.com/documents/2444/version/1
  14. Baars, Bernard J. A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness. 1993. Cambridge University Press.
  15. Bernard J. Baars, There are no known differences in brain mechanisms of consciousness between Humans and other mammals (e-book) http://cogprints.org/912/

See also


Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Consciousness Studies article)

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

.
Consciousness studies embraces the neuroscience and philosophy of consciousness.
^ Consciousness in philosophy and cognitive neuroscience .
  • Consciousness Tutorial 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.williams.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • CONSCIOUSNESS / PARAPSYCHOLOGY / TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOLOGY 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.uwsp.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Why are top scientists from the fields of neuroscience, biology, psychology, physics, computation, and philosophy increasingly interested in researching human consciousness?
  • Scientific Study of Consciousness | The Mind Science Foundation 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.mindscience.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The subjects of Psychology, Philosophy and Metaphysics are mankind's attempts to study consciousness, but these subjects for the most part approach consciousness with the same point of view as science.
  • Science and Consciousness Part I 10 February 2010 13:41 UTC www.kjmaclean.com [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Contents

Introduction

Part I: Historical review

Part II: The problem of consciousness

Part III: Neuroscience of consciousness

Part IV: Explanations of Consciousness

Appendices

Some physical science for consciousness studies:

Simple English

Consciousness means being awake, alert and responsive with the environment.[1] The definition of consciousness may differ in psychology, neuroscience, philosophy and other related sciences.

Consciousness is a spectrum. There are several states between a fully conscious state and a fully unconscious state. In medicine, the degree of loss of consciousness is measured by using Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS); a score between 3 and 15 is given to each person at any time, to show how conscious he or she is. Higher scores show more conscious states.

The opposite of consciousness is subconsciousness/unconsciousness. This means people do things that are instinctive and do not think about them like breathing and making one's heart beat.

References

  1. Dorland, W.A. Newman. Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary (29th edition ed.). WB Saunders.  ISBN 0-8089-2186-X


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 24, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Consciousness, which are similar to those in the above article.








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