The Full Wiki

Consolidated city-county: Wikis

Advertisements

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

(Redirected to Consolidated city–county article)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In the field of local government in the United States, a consolidated city–county is a city and county that have been merged into one unified jurisdiction. As such, it is simultaneously a city, which is a municipal corporation; and a county, which is an administrative division of a state. Therefore, it employs the powers of both types of entities, but is also subject to the duties and responsibilities of both.

This is distinct from an independent city, which is a city that is not deemed by its state to be located within the boundaries of any of the state's counties; but is recognized by the state as a separate legal territorial entity, distinct from its surrounding or adjoining counties. However, an independent city can also result from the consolidation of a city and a county. The highest concentration of large consolidated city–county governments in the United States is in the Midwest and upper south, where Indianapolis, Indiana; Nashville, Tennessee; Louisville, Kentucky; Kansas City, Kansas; and Lexington, Kentucky are located.

Contents

Overview

Individual sections of a metropolitan or regional municipality may retain some autonomous jurisdiction apart from the city-wide government. New York City, for example, consists of five boroughs, each coextensive with a distinct county. Each borough retains certain local powers through its own borough council and president.

England has six "metropolitan counties" created in 1974: Greater Manchester, Merseyside, South Yorkshire, Tyne and Wear, West Midlands, and West Yorkshire. From 1986, they do not have county councils but rather joint boards for certain functions. Modern unitary authorities are similar, and are known as county boroughs in Wales. In Scotland, Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh and Glasgow are functionally "independent cities", though the term is not used.

Similar arrangements exist in other countries such as Germany, where Berlin, Bremen, and Hamburg are both cities and states. Nearly every larger city in Germany is a consolidated city–county, like Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Munich or Dresden; Austria, where the capital of Vienna is both a city and state; France, where the capitol city of Paris has been coterminous with the département of Paris since 1968; and South Korea, where Seoul is a special city, while six other cities (Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, Gwangju, Incheon, and Ulsan) are metropolitan cities. Additionally, the Australian Capital Territory government in Australia performs all municipal functions of the city of Canberra, and thus functions as an integrated city–territory.

Wyandotte County, Kansas, uses the term "unified government" to refer to its consolidation with Kansas City, Kansas, and most of the towns within the county boundaries in which some cities and towns remain separate jurisdictions within the county.

Often, in place of another level of government, municipalities form coalitions—essentially governmental organizations which are not empowered with any lawmaking or law enforcement powers. This is the case in the Atlanta metropolitan area, where the Atlanta Regional Commission (ARC) studies and makes recommendations on the impact of all major construction and development projects on the region, but generally cannot stop them. The Georgia Regional Transportation Authority (GRTA) is a true government agency of the state of Georgia, and does control some state transportation monies to the cities and counties, but otherwise has very little authority beyond this small power of the purse.

Balances

In seven consolidated city–county governments In the United States, the formerly independent incorporated places maintain some governmental powers. In these cities, which the US Census Bureau calls "consolidated cities", statistics are recorded both for the entire consolidated government and for the component municipalities. A part of the consolidated government is called the "balance", which the Census Bureau defines as "the consolidated city minus the semi-independent incorporated places located within the consolidated city".[1]

These consolidated cities are:[1]

List of consolidated city-counties

Advertisements

Consolidated since their creation

Merged

Merged with some independent municipalities

Five cities in the Hampton Roads region of Virginia were formed by the consolidation of a city with a county: Chesapeake, Hampton, Newport News, Suffolk, and Virginia Beach (from Norfolk, Elizabeth City, Warwick, Nansemond, and Princess Anne counties, respectively). However, in each case an independent city was created and as such they are not consolidated city-counties. Instead, the Code of Virginia uses the term "consolidated city."[15] Similarly, Carson City was consolidated with Ormsby County, Nevada in 1969, but the county was simultaneously dissolved. The city is now a municipality independent of any county.

Potentially consolidated

  • Aurora, Colorado, split between three counties, explored the creation of a new consolidated city-county in 1996; the effort subsequently failed in a referendum. However, five years later nearby Broomfield was successful in creating a new city-county from portions of the four counties it had been a part of. Encouraged by Broomfield's experience, an Aurora city councilman has proposed consolidation again in 2006.[16] This was not accomplished in the 2006 or 2007, and no bills to accomplish consolidation were introduced in the 2008 session of the Colorado legislature.
  • A proposal has been made to merge Johnson County, Kansas and Wyandotte County, Kansas and the cities located in those two into a single consolidated city-county, name to be determined.[17]
  • In 2005, The Plain Dealer in Cleveland, Ohio published a series of articles exploring the possibility of the city's merging with Cuyahoga County.[18]
  • Miami-Dade County, Florida provides city-level police, fire-rescue, sanitation, and other services to many of the municipalities within its borders.
  • A report was released in April 2008 recommending the merger of the governments of the City of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and that of Allegheny County. This plan has been endorsed by the mayor of Pittsburgh and the Chief Executive of Allegheny County, but needs approval by the City and County councils and from the state legislature before a referendum can be put forth for the voters to approve such a merger, possibly as early as 2010.
  • The independent City of St. Louis, Missouri and that of St. Louis County. The city of St. Louis seceded from St. Louis County in the 1870s and is not part of any county in the state Missouri. The city has since tried to rejoin the county several times, each time rejected by county voters. St. Louis Five-Year Consolidated Plan Strategy 2006-2010.

Considered consolidation

Formerly consolidated

  • The City of Boston and Suffolk County, Massachusetts operated with a consolidated government for most of the twentieth century, but this was not a true consolidation because three municipalities (Chelsea, Revere and Winthrop) never amalgamated with Boston but remained separate jurisdictions within Suffolk County. The special relationship between Boston and Suffolk County ended in 1999 as part of the gradual abolition of county government in that state.

References

  1. ^ a b Population Estimates Geography, United States Census Bureau, 2006-06-19. Accessed 2007-09-07.
  2. ^ Website of the Municipality of Anchorage
  3. ^ a b "Colorado Municipal Incorporations" (HTML). State of Colorado, Department of Personnel & Administration, Colorado State Archives. December 1, 2004. http://www.colorado.gov/dpa/doit/archives/muninc.html. Retrieved November 24 2006. 
  4. ^ Website of the City and County of Broomfield
  5. ^ Website of the County of Honolulu
  6. ^ Website of the Community of Anaconda
  7. ^ Website of Terrebonne Parish Consolidated Government
  8. ^ Website of Lexington-Fayette Urban County Government
  9. ^ Official New York City Website
  10. ^ Camden County Government - Board of Commissioners - February 10, 2006
  11. ^ Website of Indianapolis and Marion County, Indiana
  12. ^ Website of Louisville Metro Government
  13. ^ Greeley County residents pass unification, Garden City Telegram, 2007-11-07. Accessed 2007-11-08.
  14. ^ TRIBUNE | City and county to unify, The Kansas City Star, 2007-11-07. Accessed 2007-11-08.
  15. ^ Virginia Code § 15.2-3521
  16. ^ City and County of Aurora? by J.C. O'Connell. The Aurora Daily Sun & Sentinel, January 30, 2006.
  17. ^ Johnson-Wyandotte merger? by Jesse Truesdale. The [Bonner Springs] Chieftain, February 2, 2006.
  18. ^ A Region Divided. Special series of The [Cleveland] Plain Dealer, published throughout 2005.
  19. ^ a b c d http://www.briem.com/frag/CityCountyReferenda.htm
  20. ^ One Buffalo
  21. ^ Frequently asked questions about the city-county merger, from the Des Moines Register
  22. ^ a b NCSU Innovation Online, by Diane Cherry
  23. ^ Both sides say Evansville-Vanderburgh County merger is possible, by Thomas B. Langhorne. Indiana Economic Digest, February 13, 2006
  24. ^ 79(R) SJR 9 in the Texas State Legislature
  25. ^ [1]Alaska Division of Community Advocacy
  26. ^ Debate stirs on consolidation, by Benjamin Lanka. The [Fort Wayne] Journal Gazette, March 5, 2006.
  27. ^ Voters in Franklin and Frankfort counties, Ky., reject government merger. | Lexington Herald-Leader (Lexington, Kentucky) (via Knight-Ridder/Tribune Business News) ) (November...
  28. ^ Microsoft Word - All CONSLDLS 2006bev _3_.doc
  29. ^ Business Backs Consolidated Government, by Kate Miller. Memphis Business Journal, March 15, 2002.
  30. ^ http://mundelreorg.org/
  31. ^ City of Orlando / Orange County Consolidation of Services Study Commission
  32. ^ Town Meeting: Louisville mayor offers primer on uniting city-county government, By Jeffrey Cohan. Pittsburgh Post Gazette, October 1, 2004.
  33. ^ Skepticism greets ‘Unigov’ summit, by Tom Troy. The Toledo Blade, March 4, 2004.
  34. ^ Shawnee County Government and Consolidation, by Richard V. Eckert. 2005-05-02.

External links

See also



In American local government, a consolidated city–county is a city and county that have been merged into one unified jurisdiction. As such, it is simultaneously a city, which is a municipal corporation; and a county, which is an administrative division of a state. This is distinct from an independent city, which is a city that is not deemed by its state to be located within the boundaries of any of the state's counties; but is recognized by the state as a separate legal territorial entity, distinct from its surrounding or adjoining counties. However, an independent city can also result from the consolidation of a city and a county. The highest concentration of large consolidated city–county governments in the United States is in the Midwest and upper south, where Indianapolis, Indiana; Nashville, Tennessee; Louisville, Kentucky; Kansas City, Kansas; and Lexington, Kentucky are located.

Contents

Overview

Individual sections of a metropolitan or regional municipality may retain some autonomous jurisdiction apart from the city-wide government. New York City, for example, consists of five boroughs, each in a distinct county. Each borough retains certain local powers through their own borough councils and presidents.

England has six "metropolitan counties" created in 1974: Greater Manchester, Merseyside, South Yorkshire, Tyne and Wear, West Midlands, and West Yorkshire. From 1986, they do not have county councils but rather joint boards for certain functions. Modern unitary authorities are similar, and are known as county boroughs in Wales. In Scotland, Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh and Glasgow are functionally "independent cities", though the term is not used.

Similar arrangements exist in other countries such as Germany, where Berlin, Bremen, and Hamburg are both cities and states. Nearly every larger city in Germany is a consolidated city–county, like Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Munich or Dresden; Austria, where the capital of Vienna is both a city and state; and South Korea, where Seoul is a special city, while six other cities (Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, Gwangju, Incheon, and Ulsan) are metropolitan cities.

Wyandotte County, Kansas, uses the term "unified government" to refer to its consolidation with Kansas City, Kansas, and most of the towns within the county boundaries in which some cities and towns remain separate jurisdictions within the county.

Often, in place of another level of government, municipalities form coalitions—essentially governmental organizations which are not empowered with any lawmaking or law enforcement powers. This is the case in the Atlanta metropolitan area, where the Atlanta Regional Commission (ARC) studies and makes recommendations on the impact of all major construction and development projects on the region, but generally cannot stop them. The Georgia Regional Transportation Authority (GRTA) is a true government agency of the state of Georgia, and does control some state transportation monies to the cities and counties, but otherwise has very little authority beyond this small power of the purse.

Balances

In seven consolidated city–county governments In the United States, the formerly independent incorporated places maintain some governmental powers. In these cities, which the US Census Bureau calls "consolidated cities", statistics are recorded both for the entire consolidated government and for the component municipalities. A part of the consolidated government is called the "balance", which the Census Bureau defines as "the consolidated city minus the semi-independent incorporated places located within the consolidated city".[1]

These consolidated cities are:[1]

List of consolidated city-counties

Consolidated since their creation

Merged

Merged with some independent municipalities

Five cities in the Hampton Roads region of Virginia were formed by the consolidation of a city with a county: Chesapeake, Hampton, Newport News, Suffolk, and Virginia Beach (from Norfolk, Elizabeth City, Warwick, Nansemond, and Princess Anne counties, respectively). However, in each case an independent city was created and as such they are not consolidated city-counties. Instead, the Code of Virginia uses the term "consolidated city."[15] Similarly, Carson City was consolidated with Ormsby County, Nevada in 1969, but the county was simultaneously dissolved. The city is now a municipality independent of any county.

Potentially consolidated

  • Aurora, Colorado, split between three counties, explored the creation of a new consolidated city-county in 1996; the effort subsequently failed in a referendum. However, five years later nearby Broomfield was successful in creating a new city-county from portions of the four counties it had been a part of. Encouraged by Broomfield's experience, an Aurora city councilman has proposed consolidation again in 2006.[16] This was not accomplished in the 2006 or 2007, and no bills to accomplish consolidation were introduced in the 2008 session of the Colorado legislature.
  • A proposal has been made to merge Johnson County, Kansas and Wyandotte County, Kansas and the cities located in those two into a single consolidated city-county, name to be determined.[17]
  • In 2005, The Plain Dealer in Cleveland, Ohio published a series of articles exploring the possibility of the city's merging with Cuyahoga County.[18]
  • Miami-Dade County, Florida provides city-level police, fire-rescue, sanitation, and other services to many of the municipalities within its borders.
  • A report was released in April 2008 recommending the merger of the governments of the City of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and that of Allegheny County. This plan has been endorsed by the mayor of Pittsburgh and the Chief Executive of Allegheny County, but needs approval by the City and County councils and from the state legislature before a referendum can be put forth for the voters to approve such a merger, possibly as early as 2010.
  • If Mayor Slay re-elected recommending the merger of the governments of the City of St. Louis, Missouri and that of St. Louis County.St. Louis Five-Year Consolidated Plan Strategy 2006-2010.

Considered consolidation

Formerly consolidated

  • The City of Boston and Suffolk County, Massachusetts operated with a consolidated government for most of the twentieth century, but this was not a true consolidation because three municipalities (Chelsea, Revere and Winthrop) never amalgamated with Boston but remained separate jurisdictions within Suffolk County. The special relationship between Boston and Suffolk County ended in 1999 as part of the gradual abolition of county government in that state.

References

  1. ^ a b Population Estimates Geography, United States Census Bureau, 2006-06-19. Accessed 2007-09-07.
  2. ^ Website of the Municipality of Anchorage
  3. ^ a b "Colorado Municipal Incorporations" (HTML). State of Colorado, Department of Personnel & Administration, Colorado State Archives. December 1, 2004. http://www.colorado.gov/dpa/doit/archives/muninc.html. Retrieved on November 24 2006. 
  4. ^ Website of the City and County of Broomfield
  5. ^ Website of the County of Honolulu
  6. ^ Website of the Community of Anaconda
  7. ^ Website of Terrebonne Parish Consolidated Government
  8. ^ Website of Lexington-Fayette Urban County Government
  9. ^ Official New York City Website
  10. ^ Camden County Government - Board of Commissioners - February 10, 2006
  11. ^ Website of Indianapolis and Marion County, Indiana
  12. ^ Website of Louisville Metro Government
  13. ^ Greeley County residents pass unification, Garden City Telegram, 2007-11-07. Accessed 2007-11-08.
  14. ^ TRIBUNE | City and county to unify[dead link], The Kansas City Star, 2007-11-07. Accessed 2007-11-08.
  15. ^ Virginia Code § 15.2-3521
  16. ^ City and County of Aurora? by J.C. O'Connell. The Aurora Daily Sun & Sentinel, January 30, 2006.
  17. ^ Johnson-Wyandotte merger? by Jesse Truesdale. The [Bonner Springs] Chieftain, February 2, 2006.
  18. ^ A Region Divided. Special series of The [Cleveland] Plain Dealer, published throughout 2005.
  19. ^ a b c d http://www.briem.com/frag/CityCountyReferenda.htm
  20. ^ One Buffalo
  21. ^ Frequently asked questions about the city-county merger, from the Des Moines Register
  22. ^ a b NCSU Innovation Online, by Diane Cherry
  23. ^ Both sides say Evansville-Vanderburgh County merger is possible, by Thomas B. Langhorne. Indiana Economic Digest, February 13, 2006
  24. ^ 79(R) SJR 9 in the Texas State Legislature
  25. ^ [1]Alaska Division of Community Advocacy
  26. ^ Debate stirs on consolidation, by Benjamin Lanka. The [Fort Wayne] Journal Gazette, March 5, 2006.
  27. ^ Voters in Franklin and Frankfort counties, Ky., reject government merger. | Lexington Herald-Leader (Lexington, Kentucky) (via Knight-Ridder/Tribune Business News) ) (November...
  28. ^ Microsoft Word - All CONSLDLS 2006bev _3_.doc
  29. ^ Business Backs Consolidated Government, by Kate Miller. Memphis Business Journal, March 15, 2002.
  30. ^ City of Orlando / Orange County Consolidation of Services Study Commission
  31. ^ Town Meeting: Louisville mayor offers primer on uniting city-county government, By Jeffrey Cohan. Pittsburgh Post Gazette, October 1, 2004.
  32. ^ Skepticism greets ‘Unigov’ summit, by Tom Troy. The Toledo Blade, March 4, 2004.
  33. ^ Shawnee County Government and Consolidation, by Richard V. Eckert. 2005-05-02.

External links

See also


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message