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Constantine I
Emperor of the Roman Empire
Rome-Capitole-StatueConstantin.jpg
.Head of Constantine's colossal statue at the Capitoline Museums.^ Head of Constantine's colossal statue at the Capitoline Museums .
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^ IMAGES Constantine I, colossal marble head, c.
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^ Bronze head of Constantine, from a colossal statue (4th century).
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.The original marble statue was acrolithic and draped in a bronze cuirass[1].^ The original marble statue was acrolithic and draped in a bronze cuirass.

^ The original marble statue was acrolithic and draped in a bronze cuirass [ 1 ] .
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^ RIC 279 (Rome), C 269 Bronze Medallion Obv: IMPCFLVALCONSTANTINVSPFAVG - Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.

Reign 25 July 306 AD – 29 October 312 AD (Caesar in the West; self-proclaimed Augustus from 309; recognized as such in the East in April 310)
29 October 312 – 19 September 324 (undisputed Augustus in the West, senior Augustus in the empire)
19 September 324 – 22 May 337 (emperor of united empire)
Full name Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus
Born 27 February ca. 272[2]
Birthplace Naissus, Illyria (modern-day Niš, Serbia)
Died 22 May 337 (aged 65)
Place of death Nicomedia (modern-day Izmit, Turkey)
Predecessor Constantius I
Successor Constantine II
Consort Minervina, died or divorced before 307
Fausta
Offspring Constantina
Helena
Crispus
Constantine II
Constantius II
Constans
Dynasty Constantinian
Father Constantius Chlorus
Mother Helena
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.Caesar Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus[3] (27 February c.^ His coins give his name as M., or more frequently as C., Flavius Valerius Constantinus.
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^ CONSTANTINE I., known as "The Great" (288 ?-337), Roman emperor - Flavius Valerius Constantinus ,' - was born on the 27th of February, probably in A. D. 288, 2 at Naissus (the modern Nish) in Upper Moesia (Servia).

^ Flavius Valerius Constantinus, the future emperor Constantine, was born at Naissus in the province of Moesia Superior, the modern Nish in Serbia, on 27 February of 271, 272, or 273.
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.272[2] – 22 May 337), commonly known in English as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic Christians) Saint Constantine (pronounced /ˈkɒnstəntaɪn/ or /ˈkɒnstəntiːn/), was Roman emperor from 306, and the sole holder of that office from 324 until his death in 337. Best known for being the first Christian Roman emperor,[notes 1] Constantine reversed the persecutions of his predecessor, Diocletian, and issued (with his co-emperor Licinius) the Edict of Milan in 313, which proclaimed religious toleration throughout the empire.^ In the year 320, Licinius, emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, reneged on the religious freedom promised by the Edict of Milan in 313 and began another persecution of the Christians.
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^ Constantine is best remembered in modern times for the Edict of Milan in 313, which bestowed imperial favor on Christianity in the Empire for the first time.
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^ Constantine I made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire.
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.The Byzantine liturgical calendar, observed by the Eastern Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches of Byzantine rite, lists both Constantine and his mother Helena as saints.^ Most Eastern Christian churches consider Constantine a saint.
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^ Constantine Augustus, to the Catholic church of the Alexandrians.
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^ Eastern Orthodox saints .
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.Although he is not included in the Latin Church's list of saints, which does recognize several other Constantines as saints, he is revered under the title "The Great" for his contributions to Christianity.^ Most Eastern Christian churches consider Constantine a saint.
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^ He is not included in the Latin Church's Roman Martyrology, which does recognize several other Constantines as saints, and celebrates Saint Helena on 18 August.
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^ The emperor Constantine is celebrated as a saint in the Orthodox Church, although not the Western Church.
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.Constantine also transformed the ancient Greek colony of Byzantium into a new imperial residence, Constantinople, which would remain the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire for over one thousand years.^ The effect of his work was the transformation of the Roman Empire into a New Roman Empire, also known as the Byzantine Empire.
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^ Constantine went far beyond this when he refounded the ancient Greek city of Byzantium as Constantinople and made it the capital of the empire.
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^ Constantine also transformed the ancient Greek colony of Byzantium into a new imperial residence, Constantinople , which would remain the capital of the Byzantine Empire for over one thousand years.
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Contents

Sources

.As the emperor who empowered Christianity throughout the Roman Empire and moved the Roman capital to the banks of the Bosphorus, Constantine was a ruler of major historical importance, but he has always been a controversial figure.^ Constantine I Roman Emperor - 5810 results .
  • Constantine I Roman Emperor: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Constantine I, called Constantine the Great, was the first Roman ruler to be converted to Christianity.
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^ Constantine declares Constantinople capital of the Christian Empire .
  • The Rulers of the Roman Empire 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC nautarch.tamu.edu [Source type: Reference]

[5] .The fluctuations in Constantine's reputation reflect the nature of the ancient sources for his reign.^ The fluctuations in Constantine's reputation reflect the nature of the ancient sources for his reign.
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^ The soldier emperors and Diocletian 4 3 Constantines rise to power 13...12 Constantines image in Roman art 85...90 APPENDIX I THE SOURCES FOR THE REIGN...
  • Constantine I Roman Emperor: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some of the ancient sources detail plots that Galerius made on Constantine's life in the months following Diocletian's abdication.
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.These are abundant and detailed,[6] but have been strongly influenced by the official propaganda of the period,[7] and are often one-sided.^ These are abundant and detailed, [ 6 ] but have been strongly influenced by the official propaganda of the period, [ 7 ] and are often one-sided.
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^ These are abundant and detailed, [ 5 ] but have been strongly influenced by the official propaganda of the period, [ 6 ] and are often one-sided.
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^ It was customary for histories to also serve as propaganda on both sides, to support and strengthen one's patron's cause.
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[8] .There are no surviving histories or biographies dealing with Constantine's life and rule.^ There are no surviving histories or biographies dealing with Constantine's life and rule.
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^ AUTH ORITIES. - The principal ancient sources for the life of Constantine are the biography of Eusebius, which is, however, partial and untrustworthy owing to the ecclesiastical bias of its author (whose Ecclesiastical History is also of importance), the tract de mortibus persecutorum ascribed to Lactantius, the orations of the Panegyrici, Nos.

^ There is no continuous ancient account of Constantine and his reign, but material may be found in Eusebius's 4th-century History of the Church and the Life of the Blessed Emperor Constantine, a biased panegyric, and in the works of Zosimus, a Greek historian of the late 5th century.
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[9] .The nearest replacement is Eusebius of Caesarea's Vita Constantini, a work that is a mixture of eulogy and hagiography.^ Eusebius, Vita Constantini 4.62.
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^ The nearest replacement is Eusebius of Caesarea 's Vita Constantini , a work that is a mixture of eulogy and hagiography .
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^ Eusebius, Vita Constantini 1.28, tr.
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[10] .Written between 335 and circa 339,[11] the Vita extols Constantine's moral and religious virtues.^ Written between 335 and circa 339, [ 11 ] the Vita extols Constantine's moral and religious virtues.
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^ Written between 335 and circa 339, [ 10 ] the Vita extols Constantine's moral and religious virtues.
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^ It has been said by Stanley that Constantine was entitled to be called "Great" in virtue rather of what he did than of what he was; and it is true that neither his intellectual nor his moral qualities were such as to earn the title.

[12] .The Vita creates a contentiously positive image of Constantine,[13] and modern historians have frequently challenged its reliability.^ The Vita creates a contentiously positive image of Constantine, [ 12 ] and modern historians have frequently challenged its reliability.
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^ The Vita creates a contentiously positive image of Constantine, [ 13 ] and modern historians have frequently challenged its reliability.
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^ The soldier emperors and Diocletian 4 3 Constantines rise to power 13...12 Constantines image in Roman art 85...90 APPENDIX I THE SOURCES FOR THE REIGN...
  • Constantine I Roman Emperor: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

[14] .The fullest secular life of Constantine is the anonymous Origo Constantini.^ The fullest secular life of Constantine is the anonymous Origo Constantini .
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^ Eusebius of Caesarea, Vita Constantini ( The Life of the Blessed Emperor Constantine ) ca .
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^ Vita Constantini ( The Life of the Blessed Emperor Constantine ) ca .
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[15] .A work of uncertain date,[16] the Origo focuses on military and political events, to the neglect of cultural and religious matters.^ A work of uncertain date, [ 15 ] the Origo focuses on military and political events, to the neglect of cultural and religious matters.
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^ A work of uncertain date, [ 16 ] the Origo focuses on military and political events, to the neglect of cultural and religious matters.
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^ Even more so in times past and even more so again when you have a social/political/religious/military upheaval.
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[17]
.Lactantius' De Mortibus Persecutorum, a polemical Christian pamphlet on the reigns of Diocletian and the Tetrarchy, provides valuable but tendentious detail on Constantine's predecessors and early life.^ During the reign of Constantine, Christianity prospered.
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^ Lactantius, De Mortibus Persecutorum 7.1; Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius , 13, 290.
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^ Origo 4; Lactantius, De Mortibus Persecutorum 24.3–9; Praxagoras fr.
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[18] .The ecclesiastical histories of Socrates, Sozomen, and Theodoret describe the ecclesiastic disputes of Constantine's later reign.^ The ecclesiastical histories of Socrates , Sozomen , and Theodoret describe the ecclesiastic disputes of Constantine's later reign.
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^ It is referred to in Ambrose's funeral speech for Theodosius the Great (395) and in the Church Histories of Rufinus, Socrates, Sozomen and Theodoret.

^ Some foundational errors may be found in the writings of Constantine's "historian", Eusebius , who wrote the Ecclesiastical History, and recorded the "Life of the Blessed Emperor Constantine".
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[19] .Written during the reign of Theodosius II (408–50), a century after Constantine's reign, these ecclesiastic historians obscure the events and theologies of the Constantinian period through misdirection, misrepresentation and deliberate obscurity.^ During the reign of Constantine, Christianity prospered.
  • History: Constantine and Tony La Russa 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.essay-911.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Written during the reign of Theodosius II (408–50), a century after Constantine's reign, these ecclesiastic historians obscure the events and theologies of the Constantinian period through misdirection, misrepresentation and deliberate obscurity.
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^ These nephews were soon killed (though others, notably Julian the Apostate, survived), but complex contests ensued between Constans I, Constantine II, and Constantius II. .
  • Constantine I Roman Emperor: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

[20] .The contemporary writings of the Orthodox Christian Athanasius and the ecclesiastical history of the Arian Philostorgius also survive, though their biases are no less firm.^ The contemporary writings of the Orthodox Christian Athanasius and the ecclesiastical history of the Arian Philostorgius also survive, though their biases are no less firm.
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^ Some foundational errors may be found in the writings of Constantine's "historian", Eusebius , who wrote the Ecclesiastical History, and recorded the "Life of the Blessed Emperor Constantine".
  • YHWHConstantineHYBRIDRELIGIONCATHOLICISMUNIVERSALISM 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.fossilizedcustoms.com [Source type: Original source]

^ See also: ATHANASIUS (293-373) Athanasius he not only identified himself more openly than ever with Christianity, but showed a determination to assert his supremacy in ecclesiastical affairs, holding no doubt that, as the See also: OFFICE (from Lat.
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[21]
.The epitomes of Aurelius Victor (De Caesaribus), Eutropius (Breviarium), Festus (Breviarium), and the anonymous author of the Epitome de Caesaribus offer compressed secular political and military histories of the period.^ Epitome de Caesaribus ( Epitome on the Caesars ) ca .
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^ The epitomes of Aurelius Victor ( De Caesaribus ), Eutropius ( Breviarium ), Festus ( Breviarium ), and the anonymous author of the Epitome de Caesaribus offer compressed secular political and military histories of the period.
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^ Sextus Aurelius Victor , Liber de Caesaribus ( Book on the Caesars ) ca .
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.Although pagan, the epitomes paint a favorable image of Constantine, but omit reference to Constantine's religious policies.^ Although pagan, the epitomes paint a favorable image of Constantine, but omit reference to Constantine's religious policies.
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^ Although by now Constantine openly supported Christianity, the city still offered room to pagan cults: there were shrines for the Dioscuri and Tyche .
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^ There were all manner of festivities, but Constantine pointedly omitted the traditional sacrifices to the pagan gods.
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[22] .The Panegyrici Latini, a collection of panegyrics from the late third and early fourth centuries, provide valuable information on the politics and ideology of the tetrarchic period and the early life of Constantine.^ Early fourth century .
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^ The Panegyrici Latini , a collection of panegyrics from the late third and early fourth centuries, provide valuable information on the politics and ideology of the tetrarchic period and the early life of Constantine.
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^ However, it was not that unusual for people in the fourth century to avoid fully converting to Christianity until quite late in life, because of the strong warnings against continuing in sin after having converted and the spiritual consequences thereof.

[23] .Contemporary architecture, like the Arch of Constantine in Rome and palaces in Gamzigrad and Córdoba,[24] epigraphic remains, and the coinage of the era complement the literary sources.^ Contemporary architecture, like the Arch of Constantine in Rome and palaces in Gamzigrad and Córdoba , [ 24 ] epigraphic remains, and the coinage of the era complement the literary sources.
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^ Contemporary architecture, like the Arch of Constantine in Rome and palaces in Gamzigrad and Córdoba , [ 23 ] epigraphic remains, and the coinage of the era complement the literary sources.
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^ Reply spbatwork on December 24, 2009 at 7:46pm spbatwork liked Constantine I from Jennifer Hutchings's topics Constantine I December 24, 2009 at 7:46pm Reply 1000 Add a comment!
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[25]

Early life

.
Constantine's parents and siblings.
^ Constantine's parents and siblings.
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Dates in square brackets indicate the possession of minor titles, like "Caesar".
.Constantine, named Flavius Valerius Constantinus, was born in the Moesian military city of Naissus (modern-day Niš, Serbia), Illyricum on the 27th of February of an uncertain year,[26] probably near 272.[27] His father was Flavius Constantius, a native of Moesia (later Dacia Ripensis).^ His coins give his name as M., or more frequently as C., Flavius Valerius Constantinus.
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^ Flavius Valerius Constantinus, the future emperor Constantine, was born at Naissus in the province of Moesia Superior, the modern Nish in Serbia, on 27 February of 271, 272, or 273.
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^ Flavius See also: VALERIUS, PUBLIUS Valerius See also: CONSTANTINUS Constantinus ,'—was See also: BORN, IGNAZ, EDLER VON (1742–1791) born on the 27th of See also: FEBRUARY February , probably in A .
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[28] .Constantius was a tolerant and politically skilled man.^ Constantius was a tolerant and politically skilled man.
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[29] .Constantine probably spent little time with his father.^ Constantine probably spent little time with his father.
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^ Constantine fled from the court of Galerius, eastern Augustus, in time to be at his father's death-bed at York in 306.
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^ It is full of religious expressions, and if genuine, is a most interesting exhibition of Constantine’s religious position at this time, but it looks suspicious, and probably is not genuine.
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[30] .Constantius was an officer in the Roman army in 272, part of the Emperor Aurelian's imperial bodyguard.^ Constantius was an officer in the Roman army in 272, part of the Emperor Aurelian 's imperial bodyguard.
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^ In the realm of religion, the emperor Aurelian in the middle of the third century made the “Cult of the Sun” (Sol Invictus), a monotheistic movement that worshipped the Sun God, the imperial religion of Rome.
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^ One of the great Roman emperors, Constantine rose to power when his father Constantius Chlorus died in the year 306 while campaigning against Scottish tribes.

.Constantius advanced through the ranks, earning the governorship of Dalmatia from Emperor Diocletian, another of Aurelian's companions from Illyricum, in 284 or 285.[28] Constantine's mother was Helena, a Bithynian Greek of humble origin.^ In July 285, Diocletian declared Maximian , another colleague from Illyricum , his co-emperor.
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^ Constantius advanced through the ranks, earning the governorship of Dalmatia from Emperor Diocletian , another of Aurelian's companions from Illyricum , in 284 or 285.
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^ Constantine's mother was Helena , a Bithynian Greek of humble origin.
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.It is uncertain whether she was legally married to Constantius or merely his concubine.^ It is uncertain whether she was legally married to Constantius or merely his concubine.
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[31]
.In July 285, Diocletian declared Maximian, another colleague from Illyricum, his co-emperor.^ In July 285, Diocletian declared Maximian , another colleague from Illyricum , his co-emperor.
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^ In 305 Constantius and Galerius succeeded Maximian and Diocletian as the Western and Eastern emperor, respectively.
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^ Co-emperor with Maximian ; 285 : Germanicus Maximus, Sarmaticus Maximus; 286 : Iovius; 287 : Germanicus Maximus; 295 : Persicus Maximus; 297 : Britannicus Maximus, Carpicus Maximus; 298 : Armenicus Maximus, Medicus Maximus, Adiabenicus Maximus Abdicated .
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.Each emperor would have his own court, his own military and administrative faculties, and each would rule with a separate praetorian prefect as chief lieutenant.^ Each emperor would have his own court, his own military and administrative faculties, and each would rule with a separate praetorian prefect as chief lieutenant.
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^ He was an absolute ruler, and his reign saw the culmination of the tendency toward despotic rule, centralized bureaucracy, and separation of military and civil powers evolved by Diocletian.
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^ In the administration of the empire Constantine completed the work of Diocletian by effecting the separation of See also: CIVIL civil from military functions .
  • CONSTANTINE I - Online Information article about CONSTANTINE I 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

[32] .Maximian ruled in the West, from his capitals at Mediolanum (Milan, Italy) or Augusta Treverorum (Trier, Germany), while Diocletian ruled in the East, from Nicomedia (İzmit, Turkey).^ Appointment of MAXIMIANUS by Diocletian to rule the West .

^ Maximian ruled in the West, from his capitals at Mediolanum ( Milan , Italy ) or Augusta Treverorum ( Trier , Germany ), while Diocletian ruled in the East, from Nicomedia ( İzmit , Turkey ).
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^ Nicomedia , Roman Empire (now İzmit , Turkey ) .
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.The division was merely pragmatic: the Empire was called "indivisible" in official panegyric,[33] and both emperors could move freely throughout the Empire.^ The division was merely pragmatic: the Empire was called "indivisible" in official panegyric, [ 32 ] and both emperors could move freely throughout the Empire.
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^ The division was merely pragmatic: the Empire was called "indivisible" in official panegyric, [ 33 ] and both emperors could move freely throughout the Empire.
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^ In 212, Emperor Caracalla declared all free persons in the Empire to be Roman citizens, entitled to call themselves Roman, not merely subject to the Romans.
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[34] .In 288, Maximian appointed Constantius to serve as his praetorian prefect in Gaul.^ In 288, Maximian appointed Constantius to serve as his praetorian prefect in Gaul .
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^ Constantius left Helena to marry Maximian's stepdaughter Theodora in 288 or 289.
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^ Diocletian appoints junior partners (Caesars) to assist him and Maximian: Galerius (East) and CONSTANTIUS I (West).

Constantius left Helena to marry Maximian's stepdaughter Theodora in 288 or 289.[35]
.Diocletian divided the Empire again in 293, appointing two Caesars (junior emperors) to rule over further subdivisions of East and West.^ Diocletian divided the Empire again in 293, appointing two Caesars (junior emperors) to rule over further subdivisions of East and West.
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^ The Empire is divided between his sons: HONORIUS (West) and Arcadius (East) .

^ Diocletian appoints junior partners (Caesars) to assist him and Maximian: Galerius (East) and CONSTANTIUS I (West).

.Each would be subordinate to their respective Augustus (senior emperor) but would act with supreme authority in his assigned lands.^ Each would be subordinate to their respective Augustus (senior emperor) but would act with supreme authority in his assigned lands.
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^ Maximin Daia was incensed at the nomination of Licinius to the dignity of emperor, and he would no longer be called Caesar, or allow himself to be ranked as third in authority.
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^ Athanasius, naturally, pleaded reasons of conscience against doing so - leading to accusations of treason against the emperor and the insinuations that the patriarch wished to set up an empire of his own against or above the supreme authority of the Augustus.
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.This system would later be called the Tetrarchy.^ This system would later be called the Tetrarchy .
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^ Hitler first outlined his Nazi euthanasia campaign, which would later be called Operation T4, in his book "Mein Kampf."
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.Diocletian's first appointee for the office of Caesar was Constantius; his second was Galerius, a native of Felix Romuliana.^ Diocletian's first appointee for the office of Caesar was Constantius; his second was Galerius , a native of Felix Romuliana ( Illyria ).
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^ Diocletian's first appointee for the office of Caesar was Constantius; his second was Galerius , a native of Felix Romuliana ( Gamzigrad , Serbia ).
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^ Diocletian abdicates; Constantius appointed Augustus in the west; Constantine, now a senior military tribune, is passed over for Caesar; journeys to Gaul to join his father and escape Galerius' custody.
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.According to Lactantius, Galerius was a brutal, animalistic man.^ According to Lactantius, Galerius was a brutal, animalistic man.
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.Although he shared the paganism of Rome's aristocracy, he seemed to them an alien figure, a semi-barbarian.^ Although he shared the paganism of Rome's aristocracy, he seemed to them an alien figure, a semi-barbarian.
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[36] .On 1 March, Constantius was promoted to the office of Caesar, and dispatched to Gaul to fight the rebels Carausius and Allectus.^ On 1 March, Constantius was promoted to the office of Caesar, and dispatched to Gaul to fight the rebels Carausius and Allectus .
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^ Diocletian's first appointee for the office of Caesar was Constantius; his second was Galerius , a native of Felix Romuliana ( Illyria ).
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^ Diocletian's first appointee for the office of Caesar was Constantius; his second was Galerius , a native of Felix Romuliana ( Gamzigrad , Serbia ).
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[37] .In spite of meritocratic overtones, the Tetrarchy retained vestiges of hereditary privilege,[38] and Constantine became the prime candidate for future appointment as Caesar as soon as his father took the position.^ In spite of meritocratic overtones, the Tetrarchy retained vestiges of hereditary privilege, [ 38 ] and Constantine became the prime candidate for future appointment as Caesar as soon as his father took the position.
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^ In spite of meritocratic overtones, the Tetrarchy retained vestiges of hereditary privilege, [ 37 ] and Constantine became the prime candidate for future appointment as Caesar as soon as his father took the position.
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^ Constantine was well educated and served at the court of Diocletian in Nicomedia as a kind of hostage after the appointment of his father Constantius, a general, as one of the two Caesari (at that time a junior emperor), in the Tetrarchy in 293 .
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.Constantine left the Balkans for the court of Diocletian, where he lived as his father's heir presumptive.^ Constantine left the Balkans for the court of Diocletian, where he lived as his father's heir presumptive.
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^ Constantine was well educated and served at the court of Diocletian in Nicomedia as a kind of hostage after the appointment of his father Constantius, a general, as one of the two Caesari (at that time a junior emperor), in the Tetrarchy in 293 .
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^ Constantine could recall his presence at the palace when the messenger returned, when Diocletian accepted his court's demands for universal persecution.
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[39]

In the East

.Constantine received a formal education at Diocletian's court, where he learned Latin literature, Greek, and philosophy.^ Constantine received a formal education at Diocletian's court, where he learned Latin literature, Greek, and philosophy.
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^ Constantine received a formidable education at Diocletian's court, where he learned Latin literature, Greek, and philosophy.
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^ Constantine was well educated and served at the court of Diocletian in Nicomedia as a kind of hostage after the appointment of his father Constantius, a general, as one of the two Caesari (at that time a junior emperor), in the Tetrarchy in 293 .
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[40] .The cultural environment in Nicomedia was open, fluid and socially mobile, and Constantine could mix with intellectuals both pagan and Christian.^ The cultural environment in Nicomedia was open, fluid and socially mobile, and Constantine could mix with intellectuals both pagan and Christian.
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^ Constantine's legacy Although he earned his honorific of "The Great" from Christian historians long after he had died, he could have claimed the title on his military achievements and victories alone.
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^ Throughout his life, Constantine did not abolish paganism in the empire as we would expect a genuine Christian convert to do.

.He may have attended the lectures of Lactantius, a Christian scholar of Latin in the city.^ He may have attended the lectures of Lactantius, a Christian scholar of Latin in the city.
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^ He announced that the site had been revealed to him in a dream; the ceremony of inauguration was performed by Christian ecclesiastics on the 1 ith of May 330, when the See also: CITY (through Fr.
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^ Irish Christian scholars excelled in the study of Latin learning and Christian theology in the monasteries that flourished, preserving Latin learning during the Early Middle Ages .
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[41] .Because Diocletian did not completely trust Constantius—none of the Tetrarchs fully trusted their colleagues—Constantine was held as something of a hostage, a tool to ensure Constantius' best behaviour.^ Because Diocletian did not completely trust Constantius—none of the Tetrarchs fully trusted their colleagues—Constantine was held as something of a hostage, a tool to ensure Constantius' best behaviour.
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^ Constantine was well educated and served at the court of Diocletian in Nicomedia as a kind of hostage after the appointment of his father Constantius, a general, as one of the two Caesari (at that time a junior emperor), in the Tetrarchy in 293 .
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^ With the exception of a short period of eclipse, Eusebius enjoyed the complete confidence both of Constantine and Constantius II and was the tutor of the later Emperor Julian the Apostate .
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.Constantine was nonetheless a prominent member of the court: he fought for Diocletian and Galerius in Asia, and served in a variety of tribunates; he campaigned against barbarians on the Danube in 296, and fought the Persians under Diocletian in Syria (297) and under Galerius in Mesopotamia (298–99).^ Campaigns in Persia under Galerius.
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^ Constantine was nonetheless a prominent member of the court: he fought for Diocletian and Galerius in Asia, and served in a variety of tribunates ; he campaigned against barbarians on the Danube in 296, and fought the Persians under Diocletian in Syria (297) and under Galerius in Mesopotamia (298–99).
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^ Campaigns in Syria against the Persians, serving under Diocletian.
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[42] .By late 305, he had become a tribune of the first order, a tribunus ordinis primi.^ By late 305, he had become a tribune of the first order, a tribunus ordinis primi .
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^ By his late twenties he reportedly had gained the titles of tribunus (tribune) and comes (count).

^ He was then at court, having long before been created by Diocletian a tribune of the first order.
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[43]
Head from a statue of Diocletian, Augustus of the East
.Constantine had returned to Nicomedia from the eastern front by the spring of 303, in time to witness the beginnings of Diocletian's "Great Persecution", the most severe persecution of Christians in Roman history.^ Most Eastern Christian churches consider Constantine a saint.
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^ Constantine I, called Constantine the Great, was the first Roman ruler to be converted to Christianity.
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^ Great Persecution of Diocletian begins in Nicomedia .
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[44] .In late 302, Diocletian and Galerius sent a messenger to the oracle of Apollo at Didyma with an inquiry about Christians.^ Diocletian and Galerius begin Christian persecution.
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^ In late 302, Diocletian and Galerius sent a messenger to the oracle of Apollo at Didyma with an inquiry about Christians.
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^ Diocles was at the court of Galerius when Maximian arrived; for Galerius, meaning now to invest Licinius with the ensigns of supreme power in the room of Severus, had lately sent for Diocles to be present at the solemnity.
  • Lactantius, On the Deaths of the Persecutors 12 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

[45] .Constantine could recall his presence at the palace when the messenger returned, when Diocletian accepted his court's demands for universal persecution.^ Constantine could recall his presence at the palace when the messenger returned, when Diocletian accepted his court's demands for universal persecution.
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^ Constantine left the Balkans for the court of Diocletian, where he lived as his father's heir presumptive.
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^ Constantine I was raised at the Eastern court of Emperor Diocletian.
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[46] .On 23 February 303, Diocletian ordered the destruction of Nicomedia's new church, condemned its scriptures to the flame, and had its treasures seized.^ On 23 February 303, Diocletian ordered the destruction of Nicomedia's new church, condemned its scriptures to the flame, and had its treasures seized.
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^ George was reportedly executed by decapitation in front of Nicomedia's defensive wall on April 23, 303.

.In the months that followed, churches and scriptures were destroyed, Christians were deprived of official ranks, and priests were imprisoned.^ In the months that followed, churches and scriptures were destroyed, Christians were deprived of official ranks, and priests were imprisoned.
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^ The imprisoned Christians were released from the prisons and mines, and were received by their brethren in the Faith with acclamations of joy ; the churches were again filled, and those who had fallen away sought forgiveness.
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^ Such was his letter on this subject: and that which related to the providing of copies of the Scriptures for reading in the churches was to the following purport.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Eusebius of Caesarea: Life of Constantine 12 September 2009 6:59 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

[47]
.It is unlikely that Constantine played any role in the persecution.^ It is unlikely that Constantine played any role in the persecution.
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^ She played a role in the building of the Church of the Nativity at Bethlehem and the Church of the Eleona on Jerusalem's Mount of Olives; [[30]] but the Church of the Holy Sepulcher seems to have been an undertaking of Constantine alone.
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^ Unlike Constantine, Licinius did not commit himself personally to Christianity; even his commitment to toleration eventually gave way to renewed persecution.
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[48] .In his later writings he would attempt to present himself as an opponent of Diocletian's "sanguinary edicts" against the "worshipers of God",[49] but nothing indicates that he opposed it effectively at the time.^ In his later writings he would attempt to present himself as an opponent of Diocletian's "sanguinary edicts" against the "worshipers of God", [ 48 ] but nothing indicates that he opposed it effectively at the time.
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^ In his later writings he would attempt to present himself as an opponent of Diocletian's "sanguinary edicts" against the "worshipers of God", [ 49 ] but nothing indicates that he opposed it effectively at the time.
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^ At the same time, his subjects, both civil and military, throughout the empire, found a barrier everywhere opposed against idol worship, and every kind of sacrifice forbidden.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Eusebius of Caesarea: Life of Constantine 12 September 2009 6:59 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

[50] .Although no contemporary Christian challenged Constantine for his inaction during the persecutions, it remained a political liability throughout his life.^ Although no contemporary Christian challenged Constantine for his inaction during the persecutions, it remained a political liability throughout his life.
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^ Even Christian skeptics have accepted this formulation, though seeing Constantine's policy as a political rather than spiritual move.
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^ Although he is not included in the Latin Church's list of saints, which does recognize several other Constantines as saints, he is revered under the title "The Great" for his contributions to Christianity.

[51]
.On 1 May 305, Diocletian, as a result of a debilitating sickness taken in the winter of 304–5, announced his resignation.^ On 1 May 305, Diocletian, as a result of a debilitating sickness taken in the winter of 304–5, announced his resignation.
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^ When Diocletian and Maximian resigned in 305, Constantius and Galerius became emperors.
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^ Upon the retirement of Diocletian and Maximian on 1 May 305 Constantius succeeded to the rank of Augustus.
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.In a parallel ceremony in Milan, Maximian did the same.^ In a parallel ceremony in Milan, Maximian did the same.
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[52] .Lactantius states that Galerius manipulated the weakened Diocletian into resigning, and forced him to accept Galerius' allies in the imperial succession.^ Lactantius states that Galerius manipulated the weakened Diocletian into resigning, and forced him to accept Galerius' allies in the imperial succession.
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^ So Galerius, although with the utmost unwillingness, accepted the portrait, and sent the imperial purple to Constantine, that he might seem of his own accord to have received that prince into partnership of power with him.
  • Lactantius, On the Deaths of the Persecutors 12 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ But Diocletian added, that if Galerius wished for the title of emperor, there was nothing to hinder its being conferred on him and Constantius, as well as on Maximian Herculius.
  • Lactantius, On the Deaths of the Persecutors 12 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

.According to Lactantius, the crowd listening to Diocletian's resignation speech believed, until the very last moment, that Diocletian would choose Constantine and Maxentius (Maximian's son) as his successors.^ According to Lactantius, the crowd listening to Diocletian's resignation speech believed, until the very last moment, that Diocletian would choose Constantine and Maxentius (Maximian's son) as his successors.
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^ He left behind several sons who would, after his death, turn on each other and generally undo much of the stability that Constantine had fought so hard to bring about.

^ Maxentius' support continued to weaken: at chariot races on 27 October, the crowd openly taunted Maxentius, shouting that Constantine was invincible.
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[53] .It was not to be: Constantius and Galerius were promoted to Augusti, while Severus and Maximin were appointed their Caesars respectively.^ Suddenly he declared that the Caesars were Severus and Maximin.
  • Lactantius, On the Deaths of the Persecutors 12 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Constantine's Reign: 306 - 312 (hailed as Augustus in the West, officially made Caesar by Galerius with Severus as Augustus, by agreement with Maximian, refused relegation to Caesar in 309) .
  • Caesar Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus (27 February c. 272 � 22 May 337) Commonly known in English as Constantine I @ PreteristArchive.com, The Internet's Only Balanced Look at Preterist Eschatology and Preterism 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.preteristarchive.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Diocletian abdicates; Constantius appointed Augustus in the west; Constantine, now a senior military tribune, is passed over for Caesar; journeys to Gaul to join his father and escape Galerius' custody.
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.Constantine and Maxentius were ignored.^ Although two legitimate sons of emperors were available (Constantine and Maxentius, the son of Maximian), both of them were ignored in the transition of power.
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^ Constantine, having already declared against Maxentius and ignoring the fact that Galerius had recognized Licinius in the East, now considered himself emperor.
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  • Constantine I Roman Emperor: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It was not to be: Severus and Maximin were appointed, while Constantine and Maxentius were ignored.
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[54]
.Some of the ancient sources detail plots that Galerius made on Constantine's life in the months following Diocletian's abdication.^ Some of the ancient sources detail plots that Galerius made on Constantine's life in the months following Diocletian's abdication.
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^ Constantine, with a spirit that left a deep impression on his followers, inspiring some to believe that he had some form of supernatural guidance, [ 126 ] ignored all these cautions.
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^ Constantine, with a spirit that left a deep impression on his followers, inspiring some to believe that he had some form of supernatural guidance, [ 125 ] ignored all these cautions.
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.They assert that Galerius assigned Constantine to lead an advance unit in a cavalry charge through a swamp on the middle Danube, made him enter into single combat with a lion, and attempted to kill him in hunts and wars.^ They assert that Galerius assigned Constantine to lead an advance unit in a cavalry charge through a swamp on the middle Danube , made him enter into single combat with a lion, and attempted to kill him in hunts and wars.
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^ Constantine's Reign: 306 - 312 (hailed as Augustus in the West, officially made Caesar by Galerius with Severus as Augustus, by agreement with Maximian, refused relegation to Caesar in 309) .
  • Caesar Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus (27 February c. 272 � 22 May 337) Commonly known in English as Constantine I @ PreteristArchive.com, The Internet's Only Balanced Look at Preterist Eschatology and Preterism 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.preteristarchive.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Constantine always emerged victorious: the lion emerged from the contest in a poorer condition than Constantine; Constantine returned to Nicomedia from the Danube with a Sarmatian captive to drop at Galerius' feet.
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.Constantine always emerged victorious: the lion emerged from the contest in a poorer condition than Constantine; Constantine returned to Nicomedia from the Danube with a Sarmatian captive to drop at Galerius' feet.^ Constantine always emerged victorious: the lion emerged from the contest in a poorer condition than Constantine; Constantine returned to Nicomedia from the Danube with a Sarmatian captive to drop at Galerius' feet.
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^ Constantine's armies emerged victorious.
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^ They assert that Galerius assigned Constantine to lead an advance unit in a cavalry charge through a swamp on the middle Danube , made him enter into single combat with a lion, and attempted to kill him in hunts and wars.
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[55] .It is uncertain how much these tales can be trusted.^ It is uncertain how much these tales can be trusted.
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[56]

In the West

.Constantine recognized the implicit danger in remaining at Galerius' court, where he was held as a virtual hostage.^ Constantine recognized the implicit danger in remaining at Galerius' court, where he was held as a virtual hostage.
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^ Because Diocletian did not completely trust Constantius—none of the Tetrarchs fully trusted their colleagues—Constantine was held as something of a hostage, a tool to ensure Constantius' best behaviour.
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^ Constantine, accepting the lesser title of caesar from Galerius, remained aloof while Maxentius and Maximian defeated Severus and Galerius.
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.His career depended on being rescued by his father in the west.^ His career depended on being rescued by his father in the west.
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.Constantius was quick to intervene.^ Constantius was quick to intervene.
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[57] .In the late spring or early summer of 305, Constantius requested leave for his son, to help him campaign in Britain.^ In the late spring or early summer of 305, Constantius requested leave for his son, to help him campaign in Britain.
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^ Kept initially at the court of Galerius as a pledge of good conduct on his father's part, he was later allowed to join his father in Britain and assisted him in a campaign against the Picts.
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^ Constantius, having become exceedingly ill, wrote to Galerius, and requested that his son Constantine might be sent to see him.
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.After a long evening of drinking, Galerius granted the request.^ After a long evening of drinking, Galerius granted the request.
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^ He had made a like request long before, but in vain; for Galerius meant nothing less than to grant it.
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.Constantine's later propaganda describes how Constantine fled the court in the night, before Galerius could change his mind.^ Constantine's later propaganda describes how Constantine fled the court in the night, before Galerius could change his mind.
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^ Kept initially at the court of Galerius as a pledge of good conduct on his father's part, he was later allowed to join his father in Britain and assisted him in a campaign against the Picts.
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^ Constantine could recall his presence at the palace when the messenger returned, when Diocletian accepted his court's demands for universal persecution.
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.He rode from post-house to post-house at high speed, mutilating every horse in his wake.^ He rode from post-house to post-house at high speed, mutilating every horse in his wake.
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[58] .By the time Galerius awoke the following morning, Constantine had fled too far to be caught.^ By the time Galerius awoke the following morning, Constantine had fled too far to be caught.
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^ For a short time Constantine had been compelled to stay at the court of Galerius , and had evidently not received a good impression from his surroundings there.
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^ Following Galerius' recognition of Constantine as emperor, Constantine's portrait was brought to Rome, as was customary.
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[59] Constantine joined his father in Gaul, at Bononia (Boulogne) before the summer of 305.[60]
Bronze statue of Constantine I in York, England, near the spot where he was proclaimed Augustus in 306
.From Bononia they crossed the Channel to Britain and made their way to Eboracum (York), capital of the province of Britannia Secunda and home to a large military base.^ Bronze statue of Constantine I in York , England , near the spot where he was proclaimed Augustus in 306 From Bononia they crossed the Channel to Britain and made their way to Eboracum ( York ), capital of the province of Britannia Secunda and home to a large military base.
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^ For first of all they recalled those who, in consequence of their refusal to join in idol worship, had been driven to exile, or ejected from their homes by the governors of their respective provinces.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Eusebius of Caesarea: Life of Constantine 12 September 2009 6:59 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Bologna) Bononia ( See also: BOULOGNE, or BOULLONGNE Boulogne ), on the point of See also: CROSSING crossing to See also: BRITAIN (Gr.
  • CONSTANTINE I - Online Information article about CONSTANTINE I 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

.Constantine was able to spend a year in northern Britain at his father's side, campaigning against the Picts beyond Hadrian's Wall in the summer and autumn.^ Constantine was able to spend a year in northern Britain at his father's side, campaigning against the Picts beyond Hadrian's Wall in the summer and autumn.
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^ During his years in Gaul, from 306 to 316, Constantine continued his father's efforts to secure the Rhine frontier and rebuild the Gallic provinces.
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^ With the defeat and death of Licinius a year later (he was accused of plotting against Constantine and executed), Constantine then became the sole emperor of the entire Roman Empire.
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[61] .Constantius's campaign, like that of Septimius Severus before it, probably advanced far into the north without achieving great success.^ Constantius's campaign, like that of Septimius Severus before it, probably advanced far into the north without achieving great success.
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^ One of the great Roman emperors, Constantine rose to power when his father Constantius Chlorus died in the year 306 while campaigning against Scottish tribes.

^ During the Persian campaign with his father, he rose in rank to 'Augustus' (probably before his father died).
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[62] .Constantius had become severely sick over the course of his reign, and died on 25 July 306 in Eboracum (York).^ In 306 Constantius died at York, north of England.
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^ When Constantius died, on 25 July 306, at Eburacum (York), Constantine was at his side.
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^ Constantius had become severely sick over the course of his reign, and died on 25 July 306 in Eboracum ( York ).
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.Before dying, he declared his support for raising Constantine to the rank of full Augustus.^ Raised in rank to 'Augustus' in 283.
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^ Before dying, he declared his support for raising Constantine to the rank of full Augustus.
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^ When Diocletian retired, Constantius advanced from the position of Caesar to that of Augustus, and the army, against the wishes of the other emperors, raised the young Constantine to the vacant position.
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  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Constantine the Great 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Alamannic king Chrocus, a barbarian taken into service under Constantius, then proclaimed Constantine as Augustus.^ The Alamannic king Chrocus , a barbarian taken into service under Constantius, then proclaimed Constantine as Augustus.
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^ The general Chrocus, of Alamannic descent, and the troops loyal to Constantius' memory immediately proclaimed Constantine an augustus.
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^ In 324 Constantine announced his decision to transform Byzantium into Nova Roma and in 330 he officially proclaimed the city (thereby known as Constantinople, i.e.
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.The troops loyal to Constantius' memory followed him in acclamation.^ The troops loyal to Constantius' memory followed him in acclamation.
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^ Constantine managed to be at his deathbed in Eburacum ( York ), where troops loyal to his father's memory proclaimed him Emperor.
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.Gaul and Britain quickly accepted his rule;[63] Iberia, which had been in his father's domain for less than a year, rejected it.^ Gaul and Britain quickly accepted his rule; [ 63 ] Iberia, which had been in his father's domain for less than a year, rejected it.
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^ Gaul and Britain quickly accepted his rule; [ 62 ] Iberia, which had been in his father's domain for less than a year, rejected it.
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^ Constantine moves to Diocletian's court in Nicomedia when his father is named Caesar for Gaul & Britain.
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[64]
.Constantine sent Galerius an official notice of Constantius's death and his own acclamation.^ Constantius and Galerius and 170-171a, on Constantine, p.

^ Constantine sent Galerius an official notice of Constantius's death and his own acclamation.
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^ Constantine's Reign: 306 - 312 (hailed as Augustus in the West, officially made Caesar by Galerius with Severus as Augustus, by agreement with Maximian, refused relegation to Caesar in 309) .
  • Caesar Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus (27 February c. 272 � 22 May 337) Commonly known in English as Constantine I @ PreteristArchive.com, The Internet's Only Balanced Look at Preterist Eschatology and Preterism 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.preteristarchive.com [Source type: Original source]

.Along with the notice, he included a portrait of himself in the robes of an Augustus.^ Along with the notice, he included a portrait of himself in the robes of an Augustus.
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[65] .The portrait was wreathed in bay.^ The portrait was wreathed in bay .
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[66] .He requested recognition as heir to his father's throne, and passed off responsibility for his unlawful ascension on his army, claiming they had "forced it upon him".[67] Galerius was put into a fury by the message; he almost set the portrait on fire.^ He requested recognition as heir to his father's throne, and passed off responsibility for his unlawful ascension on his army, claiming they had "forced it upon him".
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^ They let him pass.
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^ Galerius was put into a fury by the message; he almost set the portrait on fire.
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.His advisers calmed him, and argued that outright denial of Constantine's claims would mean certain war.^ His advisers calmed him, and argued that outright denial of Constantine's claims would mean certain war.
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^ Mr Gibbins denied even to his own family that he had fought in the war, claiming that his injuries were sustained in childhood and had kept him out of the Army.
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^ He would kick soldiers out of hospitals for shell shock, because he didn't understand that not everyone loved war and killing Germans like him.

[68] .Galerius was compelled to compromise: he granted Constantine the title "Caesar" rather than "Augustus" (The latter office went to Severus instead).^ Galerius granted him the title of caesar, confirming Constantine's rule over his father's territories, and promoted Severus to augustus of the West.
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^ Galerius was compelled to compromise: he granted Constantine the title "Caesar" rather than "Augustus" (The latter office went to Severus instead).
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^ Even Christian skeptics have accepted this formulation, though seeing Constantine's policy as a political rather than spiritual move.
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[69] .Wishing to make it clear that he alone gave Constantine legitimacy, Galerius personally sent Constantine the emperor's traditional purple robes.^ Wishing to make it clear that he alone gave Constantine legitimacy, Galerius personally sent Constantine the emperor's traditional purple robes .
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^ Reforms Constantine's iconography and ideology Coins struck for emperors often reveal details of their personal iconography.
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^ Then, under the emperor Constantine I, the city boasted more than a million inhabitants, making it the largest metropolis in the world.
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[70] .Constantine accepted the decision,[69] knowing that it would remove doubts as to his legitimacy.^ Constantine accepted the decision, [ 68 ] knowing that it would remove doubts as to his legitimacy.
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^ Constantine accepted the decision, [ 69 ] knowing that it would remove doubts as to his legitimacy.
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^ It will no doubt be a very humiliating and humbling experience, the Lord recalling back your life, the things you've done, and the decisions you've made....the Lord knows it all.
  • Do you have no shame? [Boeing vs. Lucius Julius/Sam Fisher/Donuts/Constantine I] - Total War Center Forums 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.twcenter.net [Source type: Original source]

[71]

Early rule

.Constantine's share of the Empire consisted of Britain, Gaul, and Spain.^ Galerius reluctantly appoints Constantine as Caesar for Britain, Gaul & Spain.
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^ Ruler of the West Constantine's share of the empire consisted of Britain, Gaul, the Germanic provinces, and Spain.
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^ Constantine's share of the Empire consisted of Britain, Gaul, and Spain.
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.He therefore commanded one of the largest Roman armies, stationed along the important Rhine frontier.^ He therefore commanded one of the largest Roman armies, stationed along the important Rhine frontier.
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^ The Legio II Parthica was removed from Alba ( Albano Laziale ), [ 177 ] and the remainder of Maxentius' armies were sent to do frontier duty on the Rhine.
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^ Aug - Roman Army under Valens, destroyed (40,000 killed) by Visagoth-Ostrogoth forces in Battle of Adrianople on the Greek and Bulgarian frontiers.
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[72] .After his promotion to emperor, Constantine remained in Britain, and secured his control in the northwestern dioceses.^ After his promotion to emperor, Constantine remained in Britain, and secured his control in the northwestern dioceses .
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^ During the wars between Maxentius and the Emperors Severus and Galerius, Constantine remained inactive in his provinces.
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^ In spite of a large donative pledge to any who would support him as emperor, most of Constantine's army remained loyal to their emperor, and Maximian was soon compelled to leave.
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.He completed the reconstruction of military bases begun under his father's rule, and ordered the repair of the region's roadways.^ He completed the reconstruction of military bases begun under his father's rule, and ordered the repair of the region's roadways.
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[73] .He soon left for Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in Gaul, the Tetrarchic capital of the northwestern Roman Empire.^ He soon left for Augusta Treverorum ( Trier ) in Gaul, the Tetrarchic capital of the northwestern Roman Empire.
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^ For the next 18 years, he fought a series of battles and wars that left him first as emperor of the west, and then as supreme ruler of the Roman Empire.
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^ Maximian ruled in the West, from his capitals at Mediolanum ( Milan , Italy ) or Augusta Treverorum ( Trier , Germany ), while Diocletian ruled in the East, from Nicomedia ( İzmit , Turkey ).
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[74] .The Franks, after learning of Constantine's acclamation, invaded Gaul across the lower Rhine over the winter of 306–7.[75] Constantine drove them back beyond the Rhine and captured two of their kings, Ascaric and Merogaisus.^ Constantine drove them back beyond the Rhine and captured two of their kings, Ascaric and Merogaisus.
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^ The Franks , after learning of Constantine's acclamation, invaded Gaul across the lower Rhine over the winter of 306–7.
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^ Constantine sponsored many building projects across Gaul during his tenure as emperor of the West, especially in Augustodunum ( Autun ) and Arelate ( Arles ).
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.The kings and their soldiers were fed to the beasts of Trier's amphitheater in the adventus (arrival) celebrations that followed.^ The kings and their soldiers were fed to the beasts of Trier's amphitheater in the adventus (arrival) celebrations that followed.
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[76]
.
Public baths (thermae) built in Trier by Constantine.
^ Public baths ( thermae ) built in Trier by Constantine.
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.More than 100 metres (328 ft) wide by 200 metres (656 ft) long, and capable of serving several thousands at a time, the baths were built to rival those of Rome.^ More than 100 metres (328 ft) wide by 200 metres (656 ft) long, and capable of serving several thousands at a time, the baths were built to rival those of Rome.
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^ Eternal Flame of Rome allowed to die-out after more than 1000 years .
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^ Military forces stop the demonstrators several kilometers away from the camp and more than 800 refugees were subject to forced repatriation to Laos.
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[77]
.Constantine began a major expansion of Trier.^ Constantine began a major expansion of Trier.
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^ By taking the personal step of convoking the Council of Nicaea (325) Constantine began the Roman Empire's unofficial sponsoring of Christianity , which was a major factor in that religion's spread.
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.He strengthened the circuit wall around the city with military towers and fortified gates, and began building a palace complex in the northeastern part of the city.^ He strengthened the circuit wall around the city with military towers and fortified gates, and began building a palace complex in the northeastern part of the city.
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^ His portrait also at full length was placed over the entrance gates of the palaces in some cities, the eyes upraised to heaven, and the hands outspread as if in prayer.
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^ Near the town of Kummersdorf, a complex of old brown buildings resembling military barracks stands at the intersection of a seemingly abandoned railway line.
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.To the south of his palace, he ordered the construction of a large formal audience hall, and a massive imperial bathhouse.^ To the south of his palace, he ordered the construction of a large formal audience hall, and a massive imperial bathhouse.
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^ The emperor had ordered the Athanasians at Alexandria to receive him at communion when he suddenly died under suspicious circumstances immediately after having an audience with the Emperor at the imperial palace.
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.Constantine sponsored many building projects across Gaul during his tenure as emperor of the West, especially in Augustodunum (Autun) and Arelate (Arles).^ Constantine sponsored many building projects across Gaul during his tenure as emperor of the West, especially in Augustodunum ( Autun ) and Arelate ( Arles ).
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^ Constantine is also remembered as the first Roman emperor who embraced Christianity and instituted the buildings and papal dynasty that eventually grew into what is today the Vatican and the Pope.

^ To thee we offer our entreaties and implore thee that thou wilt preserve to us our emperor Constantine and his god-fearing sons for many years uninjured and victorious."
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  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Constantine the Great 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

[78] .According to Lactantius, Constantine followed his father in following a tolerant policy towards Christianity.^ Instead of tolerance, his policies towards Christians consisted of active support.

^ According to Lactantius, Constantine followed his father in following a tolerant policy towards Christianity.
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^ In addition, while Constantine I and his immediate successors seem to have more or less tolerated the practice of Paganism in the empire, Theodosius I would eventually promulgate the following edict, among many other suppressive measures, which seems to outlaw the practice of any religion other than Christianity.
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.Although not yet a Christian, he probably judged it a more sensible policy than open persecution,[79] and a way to distinguish himself from the "great persecutor", Galerius.^ Although not yet a Christian, he probably judged it a more sensible policy than open persecution, [ 78 ] and a way to distinguish himself from the "great persecutor", Galerius.
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^ Although not yet a Christian, he probably judged it a more sensible policy than open persecution, [ 79 ] and a way to distinguish himself from the "great persecutor", Galerius.
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^ The feeling of emancipation from danger is touchingly expressed in the treatise ascribed to Lactantius (De mortibus persecut., in P. L., VII, 52), concerning the ways in which death overtook the persecutors.
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[80] .Constantine decreed a formal end to persecution, and returned to Christians all they had lost during the persecutions.^ Constantine decreed a formal end to persecution, and returned to Christians all they had lost during the persecutions.
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^ Licinius later renewed persecutions of Christians, but was decisively defeated 324 by Constantine, who became sole Roman emp.
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^ Constantine could recall his presence at the palace when the messenger returned, when Diocletian accepted his court's demands for universal persecution.
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[81]
.Because Constantine was still largely untried and had a hint of illegitimacy about him, he relied on his father's reputation in his early propaganda: the earliest panegyrics to Constantine give as much coverage to his father's deeds as to those of Constantine himself.^ CONSTANTINE: I didn't make too much about it.
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^ Because Constantine was still largely untried and had a hint of illegitimacy about him, he relied on his father's reputation in his early propaganda: the earliest panegyrics to Constantine give as much coverage to his father's deeds as to those of Constantine himself.
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^ He left behind several sons who would, after his death, turn on each other and generally undo much of the stability that Constantine had fought so hard to bring about.

[82] .Constantine's military skill and building projects soon gave the panegyrist the opportunity to comment favorably on the similarities between father and son, and Eusebius remarked that Constantine was a "renewal, as it were, in his own person, of his father's life and reign".[83] Constantinian coinage, sculpture and oratory also shows a new tendency for disdain towards the "barbarians" beyond the frontiers.^ Constantine's military skill and building projects soon gave the panegyrist the opportunity to comment favorably on the similarities between father and son, and Eusebius remarked that Constantine was a "renewal, as it were, in his own person, of his father's life and reign".
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^ Constantinian coinage, sculpture and oratory also shows a new tendency for disdain towards the "barbarians" beyond the frontiers.
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^ Synopsis: Constantine and his sons write as to a father.
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.After Constantine's victory over the Alemanni, he minted a coin issue depicting weeping and begging Alemannic tribesmen—"The Alemanni conquered"—beneath the phrase "Romans' rejoicing".[84] There was little sympathy for these enemies.^ There was little sympathy for these enemies.
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^ After Constantine's victory over the Alemanni, he minted a coin issue depicting weeping and begging Alemannic tribesmen—"The Alemanni conquered"—beneath the phrase "Romans' rejoicing".
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^ In 315 a medallion was issued at Ticinum showing Constantine wearing a helmet emblazoned with the Chi-Rho, [ 159 ] and coins issued at Siscia in 317/18 repeat the image.
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.As his panegyrist declared: "It is a stupid clemency that spares the conquered foe."^ As his panegyrist declared: "It is a stupid clemency that spares the conquered foe."
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[85]

Maxentius' rebellion

.Following Galerius' recognition of Constantine as emperor, Constantine's portrait was brought to Rome, as was customary.^ Following Galerius' recognition of Constantine as emperor, Constantine's portrait was brought to Rome, as was customary.
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^ WITH respect to the Sarmatians, God himself brought them beneath the rule of Constantine, and subdued a nation swelling with barbaric pride in the following manner.
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^ Portrait Head of the Emperor Constantine, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 26.229 ^ Curran, 83–85.
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.Maxentius mocked the portrait's subject as the son of a harlot, and lamented his own powerlessness.^ Maxentius mocked the portrait's subject as the son of a harlot, and lamented his own powerlessness.
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[86] .Maxentius, jealous of Constantine's authority,[87] seized the title of emperor on 28 October 306. Galerius refused to recognize him, but failed to unseat him.^ Maxentius, jealous of Constantine's authority, [ 87 ] seized the title of emperor on 28 October 306.
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^ Maxentius, jealous of Constantine's authority, [ 86 ] seized the title of emperor on 28 October 306.
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^ Pohlsander, Emperor Constantine , 83–87.
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.Galerius sent Severus against Maxentius, but during the campaign, Severus' armies, previously under command of Maxentius's father Maximian, defected, and Severus was seized and imprisoned.^ Galerius sent Severus against Maxentius, but during the campaign, Severus' armies, previously under command of Maxentius's father Maximian, defected, and Severus was seized and imprisoned.
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^ The Legio II Parthica was removed from Alba ( Albano Laziale ), [ 176 ] and the remainder of Maxentius' armies were sent to do frontier duty on the Rhine.
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^ The Legio II Parthica was removed from Alba ( Albano Laziale ), [ 177 ] and the remainder of Maxentius' armies were sent to do frontier duty on the Rhine.
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[88] .Maximian, brought out of retirement by his son's rebellion, left for Gaul to confer with Constantine in late 307. He offered to marry his daughter Fausta to Constantine, and elevate him to Augustan rank.^ Constantine accepted, and married Fausta in Trier in late summer 307.
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^ Maximian, brought out of retirement by his son's rebellion, left for Gaul to confer with Constantine in late 307.
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^ He offered to marry his daughter Fausta to Constantine, and elevate him to Augustan rank.
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.In return, Constantine would reaffirm the old family alliance between Maximian and Constantius, and offer support to Maxentius' cause in Italy.^ In return, Constantine would reaffirm the old family alliance between Maximian and Constantius, and offer support to Maxentius' cause in Italy.
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^ Maxentius' support continued to weaken: at chariot races on 27 October, the crowd openly taunted Maxentius, shouting that Constantine was invincible.
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^ Maximian advised the unsuspecting Constantine not to lead all his troops against them, and he said that a few soldiers would suffice to subdue those barbarians.
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.Constantine accepted, and married Fausta in Trier in late summer 307. Constantine now gave Maxentius his meager support, offering Maxentius political recognition.^ Constantine now gave Maxentius his meager support, offering Maxentius political recognition.
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^ Constantine accepted, and married Fausta in Trier in late summer 307.
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^ Even Christian skeptics have accepted this formulation, though seeing Constantine's policy as a political rather than spiritual move.
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[89]
Dresden bust of Maxentius
.Constantine remained aloof from the Italian conflict, however.^ Dresden bust of Maxentius Constantine remained aloof from the Italian conflict, however.
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.Over the spring and summer of 307, he had left Gaul for Britain to avoid any involvement in the Italian turmoil;[90] now, instead of giving Maxentius military aid, he sent his troops against Germanic tribes along the Rhine.^ Over the spring and summer of 307, he had left Gaul for Britain to avoid any involvement in the Italian turmoil; [ 89 ] now, instead of giving Maxentius military aid, he sent his troops against Germanic tribes along the Rhine.
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^ Over the spring and summer of 307, he had left Gaul for Britain to avoid any involvement in the Italian turmoil; [ 90 ] now, instead of giving Maxentius military aid, he sent his troops against Germanic tribes along the Rhine.
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^ The Legio II Parthica was removed from Alba ( Albano Laziale ), [ 176 ] and the remainder of Maxentius' armies were sent to do frontier duty on the Rhine.
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.In 308, he raided the territory of the Bructeri, and made a bridge across the Rhine at Colonia Agrippinensium (Cologne).^ In 308, he raided the territory of the Bructeri , and made a bridge across the Rhine at Colonia Agrippinensium ( Cologne ).
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^ Rhin, Dutch Rhyn, or Rijn) Rhine , See also: BUILDING building a See also: BRIDGE bridge at Colonia See also: AGRIPPINA Agrippina ( See also: COLOGNE (Ger.
  • CONSTANTINE I - Online Information article about CONSTANTINE I 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

.In 310, he marched to the northern Rhine and fought the Franks.^ In 310, he marched to the northern Rhine and fought the Franks.
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^ Constantine soon heard of the rebellion, abandoned his campaign against the Franks, and marched his army up the Rhine.
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.When not campaigning, he toured his lands advertising his benevolence, and supporting the economy and the arts.^ When not campaigning, he toured his lands advertising his benevolence, and supporting the economy and the arts.
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.His refusal to participate in the war increased his popularity among his people, and strengthened his power base in the West.^ His refusal to participate in the war increased his popularity among his people, and strengthened his power base in the West.
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[91] .Maximian returned to Rome in the winter of 307–8, but soon fell out with his son.^ Maximian returned to Rome in the winter of 307–8, but soon fell out with his son.
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^ Maximian, brought out of retirement by his son's rebellion, left for Gaul to confer with Constantine in late 307.
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^ This event was the first break in Diocletian's scheme of a four-headed empire (tetrarchy) and was soon followed by the proclamation in Rome of Maxentius, the son of Maximian, a tyrant and profligate, as Caesar, October, 306.
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.In early 309, after a failed attempt to usurp Maxentius' title, Maximian returned to Constantine's court.^ In early 309, after a failed attempt to usurp Maxentius' title, Maximian returned to Constantine's court.
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^ The attempt which the old Emperors Diocletian and Maximian made, at Carmentum in 307, to restore order in the empire having failed, the promotion of Licinius to the position of Augustus, the assumption of the imperial title by Maximinus Daia , and Maxentius' claim to be sole emperor (April, 308), led to the proclamation of Constantine as Augustus.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Constantine the Great 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Constantine's Reign: 306 - 312 (hailed as Augustus in the West, officially made Caesar by Galerius with Severus as Augustus, by agreement with Maximian, refused relegation to Caesar in 309) .
  • Caesar Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus (27 February c. 272 � 22 May 337) Commonly known in English as Constantine I @ PreteristArchive.com, The Internet's Only Balanced Look at Preterist Eschatology and Preterism 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.preteristarchive.com [Source type: Original source]

[92]
.On 11 November 308, Galerius called a general council at the military city of Carnuntum (Petronell-Carnuntum, Austria) to resolve the instability in the western provinces.^ On 11 November 308, Galerius called a general council at the military city of Carnuntum ( Petronell-Carnuntum , Austria ) to resolve the instability in the western provinces.
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^ Governor-General in Council with, full power and authority to superintend and, control the Presidency Governments in all civil and military matters.
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^ In 308 Diocletian and Galerius held a See also: CONFERENCE conference at See also: CARNUNTUM (Kapvous in Ptolemy) Carnuntum and determined to annul the actions of the Western rulers .
  • CONSTANTINE I - Online Information article about CONSTANTINE I 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

.In attendance were Diocletian, briefly returned from retirement, Galerius, and Maximian.^ In attendance were Diocletian, briefly returned from retirement, Galerius, and Maximian.
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^ But Diocletian added, that if Galerius wished for the title of emperor, there was nothing to hinder its being conferred on him and Constantius, as well as on Maximian Herculius.
  • Lactantius, On the Deaths of the Persecutors 12 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Upon the retirement of Diocletian and Maximian on 1 May 305 Constantius succeeded to the rank of Augustus.
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.Maximian was forced to abdicate again and Constantine was again demoted to Caesar.^ Maximian was forced to abdicate again and Constantine was again demoted to Caesar.
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^ Constantine's Reign: 306 - 312 (hailed as Augustus in the West, officially made Caesar by Galerius with Severus as Augustus, by agreement with Maximian, refused relegation to Caesar in 309) .
  • Caesar Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus (27 February c. 272 � 22 May 337) Commonly known in English as Constantine I @ PreteristArchive.com, The Internet's Only Balanced Look at Preterist Eschatology and Preterism 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.preteristarchive.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Constantine demoted to Caesar, and Licinius appointed as Augustus in west.
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.Licinius, one of Galerius' old military companions, was appointed Augustus of the west.^ Constantine demoted to Caesar, and Licinius appointed as Augustus in west.
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^ Licinius , one of Galerius' old military companions, was appointed Augustus of the west.
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^ Constantine's Reign: 306 - 312 (hailed as Augustus in the West, officially made Caesar by Galerius with Severus as Augustus, by agreement with Maximian, refused relegation to Caesar in 309) .
  • Caesar Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus (27 February c. 272 � 22 May 337) Commonly known in English as Constantine I @ PreteristArchive.com, The Internet's Only Balanced Look at Preterist Eschatology and Preterism 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.preteristarchive.com [Source type: Original source]

.The new system did not last long: Constantine refused to accept the demotion, and continued to style himself as Augustus on his coinage, even as other members of the Tetrarchy referred to him as a Caesar on theirs.^ The new system did not last long: Constantine refused to accept the demotion, and continued to style himself as Augustus on his coinage, even as other members of the Tetrarchy referred to him as a Caesar on theirs.
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^ Constantine demoted to Caesar, and Licinius appointed as Augustus in west.
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^ The disputes continued, and Constantine himself vacillated.
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.Maximian was frustrated that he had been passed over for promotion while the newcomer Licinius had been raised to the office of Augustus, and demanded that Galerius promote him.^ Maximin was frustrated that he had been passed over for promotion while the newcomer Licinius had been raised to the office of Augustus, and demanded that Galerius promote him.
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^ Constantine's Reign: 306 - 312 (hailed as Augustus in the West, officially made Caesar by Galerius with Severus as Augustus, by agreement with Maximian, refused relegation to Caesar in 309) .
  • Caesar Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus (27 February c. 272 � 22 May 337) Commonly known in English as Constantine I @ PreteristArchive.com, The Internet's Only Balanced Look at Preterist Eschatology and Preterism 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.preteristarchive.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But Diocletian added, that if Galerius wished for the title of emperor, there was nothing to hinder its being conferred on him and Constantius, as well as on Maximian Herculius.
  • Lactantius, On the Deaths of the Persecutors 12 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Galerius offered to call both Maximian and Constantine "sons of the Augusti",[93] but neither accepted the new title.^ Galerius offered to call both Maximin and Constantine "sons of the Augusti", [ 92 ] but neither accepted the new title.
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^ Galerius offered to call both Maximin and Constantine "sons of the Augusti", [ 93 ] but neither accepted the new title.
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^ Constantine's Reign: 306 - 312 (hailed as Augustus in the West, officially made Caesar by Galerius with Severus as Augustus, by agreement with Maximian, refused relegation to Caesar in 309) .
  • Caesar Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus (27 February c. 272 � 22 May 337) Commonly known in English as Constantine I @ PreteristArchive.com, The Internet's Only Balanced Look at Preterist Eschatology and Preterism 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.preteristarchive.com [Source type: Original source]

.By the spring of 310, Galerius was referring to both men as Augusti.^ By the spring of 310, Galerius was referring to both men as Augusti.
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^ Galerius offered to call both Maximin and Constantine "sons of the Augusti", [ 92 ] but neither accepted the new title.
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^ Galerius offered to call both Maximin and Constantine "sons of the Augusti", [ 93 ] but neither accepted the new title.
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[94]

Maximian's rebellion

.
A gold multiple of Constantine with Sol Invictus, struck in 313. The use of Sol's image appealed to both the educated citizens of Gaul, who would recognize in it Apollo's patronage of Augustus and the arts; and to Christians, who found solar monotheism less objectionable than the traditional pagan pantheon.
^ The use of Sol's image appealed to both the educated citizens of Gaul, who would recognize in it Apollo's patronage of Augustus and the arts; and to Christians, who found solar monotheism less objectionable than the traditional pagan pantheon.
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^ A gold multiple of Constantine with Sol Invictus, struck in 313.
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^ The eastern emperors also struck coins recognizing Constantine as augustus in this period.
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[95]
.In 310, a dispossessed and power-hungry Maximian rebelled against Constantine while Constantine was away campaigning against the Franks.^ In 310, a dispossessed and power-hungry Maximian rebelled against Constantine while Constantine was away campaigning against the Franks.
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^ One of the great Roman emperors, Constantine rose to power when his father Constantius Chlorus died in the year 306 while campaigning against Scottish tribes.

^ Maximian advised the unsuspecting Constantine not to lead all his troops against them, and he said that a few soldiers would suffice to subdue those barbarians.
  • Lactantius, On the Deaths of the Persecutors 12 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Maximian had been sent south to Arles with a contingent of Constantine's army, in preparation for any attacks by Maxentius in southern Gaul.^ While Constantine toured Britain and Gaul, Maxentius prepared for war.
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^ Maximian had been sent south to Arles with a contingent of Constantine's army, in preparation for any attacks by Maxentius in southern Gaul.
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^ The Legio II Parthica was removed from Alba ( Albano Laziale ), [ 176 ] and the remainder of Maxentius' armies were sent to do frontier duty on the Rhine.
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.He announced that Constantine was dead, and took up the imperial purple.^ He announced that Constantine was dead, and took up the imperial purple.
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.In spite of a large donative pledge to any who would support him as emperor, most of Constantine's army remained loyal to their emperor, and Maximian was soon compelled to leave.^ Soon after Constantine was acclaimed as the Western emperor by the Roman army.
  • Woman knocks down Pope at Christmas Eve Mass | KETKnbc.com | The News Station 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.ketknbc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In spite of a large donative pledge to any who would support him as emperor, most of Constantine's army remained loyal to their emperor, and Maximian was soon compelled to leave.
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^ Constantine is also remembered as the first Roman emperor who embraced Christianity and instituted the buildings and papal dynasty that eventually grew into what is today the Vatican and the Pope.

.Constantine soon heard of the rebellion, abandoned his campaign against the Franks, and marched his army up the Rhine.^ Constantine soon heard of the rebellion, abandoned his campaign against the Franks, and marched his army up the Rhine.
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^ After deciding against the Donatists, Constantine led an army of Christians against the Donatist Christians.
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^ Constantine was able to spend a year in northern Britain at his father's side, campaigning against the Picts beyond Hadrian's Wall in the summer and autumn.
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[96] .At Cabillunum (Chalon-sur-Saône), he moved his troops onto waiting boats to row down the slow waters of the Saône to the quicker waters of the Rhone.^ At Cabillunum ( Chalon-sur-Saône ), he moved his troops onto waiting boats to row down the slow waters of the Saône to the quicker waters of the Rhone .
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^ If they wanted to acquire him, they would have not made any 3B moves yet and waited for his value to go down, then go after him.
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.He disembarked at Lugdunum (Lyon).^ He disembarked at Lugdunum ( Lyon ).
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[97] .Maximian fled to Massilia (Marseille), a town better able to withstand a long siege than Arles.^ Maximian fled to Massilia ( Marseille ), a town better able to withstand a long siege than Arles.
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^ Maximian had possessed himself of Marseilles (he fled thither), and shut the gates.
  • Lactantius, On the Deaths of the Persecutors 12 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Fourth commandment certainly doesn't say "oh what ever day you keep is good with me as long as you keep one of the seven" To obey is better than sacrifice.
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.It made little difference, however, as loyal citizens opened the rear gates to Constantine.^ It made little difference, however, as loyal citizens opened the rear gates to Constantine.
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^ Initially, however, it made little impression on the Dutch control of the spice trade and at first it could not establish a lasting outpost in the East Indies.
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^ Turin refused to give refuge to Maxentius' retreating forces, opening its gates to Constantine instead.
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.Maximian was captured and reproved for his crimes.^ Maximian was captured and reproved for his crimes.
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.Constantine granted some clemency, but strongly encouraged his suicide.^ Constantine granted some clemency, but strongly encouraged his suicide.
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.In July 310, Maximian hanged himself.^ In July 310, Maximian hanged himself.
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[96]
.In spite of the earlier rupture in their relations, Maxentius was eager to present himself as his father's devoted son after his death.^ In spite of the earlier rupture in their relations, Maxentius was eager to present himself as his father's devoted son after his death.
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^ By the time of his death, he had amassed a personal fortune of a million and a half pounds; it did not take his son as long to fritter it away as it had taken the father to acquire it.
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^ Suleiman the Magnificent ’s death the following year and his succession by his less capable son Selim the Sot emboldened Philip, and he resolved to carry the war to the sultan himself.
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[98] .He began minting coins with his father's deified image, proclaiming his desire to avenge Maximian's death.^ He began minting coins with his father's deified image, proclaiming his desire to avenge Maximian's death.
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^ In this special issue of fractional coins Constantine I honors his father Constantius I, his father-in-law Maximian Herculius, and, on our coin, also his alleged ancestor Claudius Gothicus 104-533 (click image to see larger picture) .
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^ The death of Maximian required a shift in Constantine's public image.
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[99] .Constantine initially presented the suicide as an unfortunate family tragedy.^ Constantine initially presented the suicide as an unfortunate family tragedy.
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^ Some involvement of Helena in this family tragedy cannot be excluded, but there is no reason to shift the responsibility from Constantine to her.
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.By 311, however, he was spreading another version.^ By 311, however, he was spreading another version.
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.According to this, after Constantine had pardoned him, Maximian planned to murder Constantine in his sleep.^ According to this, after Constantine had pardoned him, Maximian planned to murder Constantine in his sleep.
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^ In spite of a large donative pledge to any who would support him as emperor, most of Constantine's army remained loyal to their emperor, and Maximian was soon compelled to leave.
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^ It was accompanied by a letter to Constantine, and drew one from him, and a pardon as well (Hieronymus, Chron.

.Fausta learned of the plot and warned Constantine, who put a eunuch in his own place in bed.^ Fausta learned of the plot and warned Constantine, who put a eunuch in his own place in bed.
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^ Burckhardt's Constantine is a scheming secularist, a politician who manipulates all parties in a quest to secure his own power.
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^ Clarence, who had made the mistake of plotting against his brother Edward IV, was imprisoned in the Tower of London and put on trial for treason.

.Maximian was apprehended when he killed the eunuch and was offered suicide, which he accepted.^ Maximian was apprehended when he killed the eunuch and was offered suicide, which he accepted.
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[100] .Along with using propaganda, Constantine instituted a damnatio memoriae on Maximian, destroying all inscriptions referring to him and eliminating any public work bearing his image.^ The death of Maximian required a shift in Constantine's public image.
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^ The death of Maximian necessitated a shift in Constantine's public image.
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^ In addition to the propaganda, Constantine instituted a damnatio memoriae on Maximian, destroying all inscriptions referring to him and eliminating any public work bearing his image.
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[101]
.The death of Maximian required a shift in Constantine's public image.^ The death of Maximian required a shift in Constantine's public image.
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^ The death of Maximian necessitated a shift in Constantine's public image.
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^ In addition to the propaganda, Constantine instituted a damnatio memoriae on Maximian, destroying all inscriptions referring to him and eliminating any public work bearing his image.
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.He could no longer rely on his connection to the elder emperor Maximian, and needed a new source of legitimacy.^ He could no longer rely on his connection to the elder emperor Maximian, and needed a new source of legitimacy.
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^ No one could request a favor from the emperor, and fail of obtaining what he sought: no one expected a boon from him, and found that expectation vain.
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^ My husband decided we could no longer stay in the forest.
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[102] .In a speech delivered in Gaul on 25 July 310, the orator reveals a previously unknown dynastic connection to Claudius II, a third-century emperor famed for defeating the Goths and restoring order to the empire.^ In a speech delivered in Gaul on 25 July 310, the orator reveals a previously unknown dynastic connection to Claudius II , a third-century emperor famed for defeating the Goths and restoring order to the empire.
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^ The 5th century would see his fame reach the Western part of the empire as well.

^ This prompted the Romans to invade and subdue the island, first with Julius Caesar 's raid in 55 BC , and then the Emperor Claudius ' conquest in the following century.
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.Breaking away from tetrarchic models, the speech emphasizes Constantine's ancestral prerogative to rule, rather than principles of imperial equality.^ Breaking away from tetrarchic models, the speech emphasizes Constantine's ancestral prerogative to rule, rather than principles of imperial equality.
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^ Historians have argued that Britain's adoption of the "New imperialism" was an effect of her relative decline in the world, rather than of strength.
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^ The new ideology expressed in the speech made Galerius and Maximian irrelevant to Constantine's right to rule.
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.The new ideology expressed in the speech made Galerius and Maximian irrelevant to Constantine's right to rule.^ The new ideology expressed in the speech made Galerius and Maximian irrelevant to Constantine's right to rule.
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^ Constantine's Reign: 306 - 312 (hailed as Augustus in the West, officially made Caesar by Galerius with Severus as Augustus, by agreement with Maximian, refused relegation to Caesar in 309) .
  • Caesar Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus (27 February c. 272 � 22 May 337) Commonly known in English as Constantine I @ PreteristArchive.com, The Internet's Only Balanced Look at Preterist Eschatology and Preterism 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.preteristarchive.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Galerius offered to call both Maximin and Constantine "sons of the Augusti", [ 92 ] but neither accepted the new title.
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[103] .Indeed, the orator emphasizes ancestry to the exclusion of all other factors: "No chance agreement of men, nor some unexpected consequence of favor, made you emperor," the orator declares to Constantine.^ Indeed, the orator emphasizes ancestry to the exclusion of all other factors: "No chance agreement of men, nor some unexpected consequence of favor, made you emperor," the orator declares to Constantine.
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^ On the other hand you have statements by paul saying let no man put you down for what day you keep.
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^ All chruches have Dogma, SDA's are no different, even though they might try to tell you differently.
  • Print Page - Happy Sabbath!!! 12 September 2009 7:07 UTC michaelcard.com [Source type: Original source]

[104]
.The oration also moves away from the religious ideology of the Tetrarchy, with its focus on twin dynasties of Jupiter and Hercules.^ The oration also moves away from the religious ideology of the Tetrarchy, with its focus on twin dynasties of Jupiter and Hercules .
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.Instead, the orator proclaims that Constantine experienced a divine vision of Apollo and Victory granting him laurel wreaths of health and a long reign.^ Instead, the orator proclaims that Constantine experienced a divine vision of Apollo and Victory granting him laurel wreaths of health and a long reign.
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^ Whatever vision Constantine may have experienced, he attributed his victory to the power of "the God of the Christians" and committed himself to the Christian faith from that day on, although his understanding of the Christian faith at this time was quite superficial.
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^ The soldiers at once proclaimed him Augustus; [[6]] Constantine henceforth observed this day as his dies imperii.
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.In the likeness of Apollo Constantine recognized himself as the saving figure to whom would be granted "rule of the whole world",[105] as the poet Virgil had once foretold.^ In the likeness of Apollo Constantine recognized himself as the saving figure to whom would be granted "rule of the whole world", [ 105 ] as the poet Virgil had once foretold.
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^ In the likeness of Apollo Constantine recognized himself as the saving figure to whom would be granted "rule of the whole world", [ 104 ] as the poet Virgil had once foretold.
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^ Throughout his rule, Constantine supported the Church financially, built basilicas, granted privileges to clergy (e.g.
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[106] .The oration's religious shift is paralleled by a similar shift in Constantine's coinage.^ The oration's religious shift is paralleled by a similar shift in Constantine's coinage.
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.In his early reign, the coinage of Constantine advertised Mars as his patron.^ In his early reign, the coinage of Constantine advertised Mars as his patron.
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^ Early in Constantine's reign, the former base of the Imperial Horse Guard was chosen for redevelopment into the Lateran Basilica .
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^ While Constantine's coinage featured Sol and Mars, Licinius' bronze coinage featured Jupiter almost exclusively, whether struck in his name or Constantine's.
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.From 310 on, Mars was replaced by Sol Invictus, a god conventionally identified with Apollo.^ From 310 on, Mars was replaced by Sol Invictus , a god conventionally identified with Apollo.
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^ According to a number of historians and researchers, this is the god Constantine embraced with the omen at the Milvian Bridge (the deity of this omen was not publicly identified at the time): a syncretic sun god, Sol Invictus , with relations to Mithraism , which had many common points with Christianity.
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^ His personal devotions, however, he offered first to Mars and then increasingly to Apollo, reverenced as Sol Invictus .
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[107] .There is little reason to believe that either the dynastic connection or the divine vision are anything other than fiction, but their proclamation strengthened Constantine's claims to legitimacy and increased his popularity among the citizens of Gaul.^ There is no other logical reason for it.
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^ There is little reason to believe that either the dynastic connection or the divine vision are anything other than fiction, but their proclamation strengthened Constantine's claims to legitimacy and increased his popularity among the citizens of Gaul.
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^ I do not believe as the adventist do that no one other than an adventist will go to heaven if you don't keep the sabbath as they do.
  • Print Page - Happy Sabbath!!! 12 September 2009 7:07 UTC michaelcard.com [Source type: Original source]

[108]

Civil wars

War against Maxentius

.By the middle of 310 Galerius had become too ill to involve himself in imperial politics.^ By the middle of 310 Galerius had become too ill to involve himself in imperial politics.
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^ Constantius, having become exceedingly ill, wrote to Galerius, and requested that his son Constantine might be sent to see him.
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[109] .His final act survives: a letter to the provincials posted in Nicomedia on 30 April 311, proclaiming an end to the persecutions, and the resumption of religious toleration.^ His final act survives: a letter to the provincials posted in Nicomedia on 30 April 311, proclaiming an end to the persecutions, and the resumption of religious toleration.
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^ Best known for being the first Christian Roman emperor, [ notes 1 ] Constantine reversed the persecutions of his predecessor, Diocletian , and issued (with his co-emperor Licinius ) the Edict of Milan in 313, which proclaimed religious toleration throughout the empire.
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^ Best known for being the first Christian Roman emperor, Constantine reversed the persecutions of his predecessor, Diocletian , and issued (with his co-emperor Licinius ) the Edict of Milan in 313, which proclaimed religious toleration throughout the empire.
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[110] .He died soon after the edict's proclamation,[111] destroying what little remained of the tetrarchy.^ He died soon after the edict's proclamation, [ 110 ] destroying what little remained of the tetrarchy.
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^ He died soon after the edict's proclamation, [ 111 ] destroying what little remained of the tetrarchy.
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[112] .Maximin mobilized against Licinius, and seized Asia Minor.^ Maximin mobilized against Licinius, and seized Asia Minor.
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^ In the summer of 311, Maxentius mobilized against Constantine while Licinius was occupied with affairs in the East.
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.A hasty peace was signed on a boat in the middle of the Bosphorus.^ A hasty peace was signed on a boat in the middle of the Bosphorus.
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[113] .While Constantine toured Britain and Gaul, Maxentius prepared for war.^ While Constantine toured Britain and Gaul, Maxentius prepared for war.
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^ Constantine moves to Diocletian's court in Nicomedia when his father is named Caesar for Gaul & Britain.
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^ Maxentius willingly embraced this, as if it had been an aid from heaven; for he had already declared war against Constantine, as if to revenge the death of his father Maximian.
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[114] .He fortified northern Italy, and strengthened his support in the Christian community by allowing it to elect a new Bishop of Rome, Eusebius.^ He fortified northern Italy, and strengthened his support in the Christian community by allowing it to elect a new Bishop of Rome , Eusebius .
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^ By the end of the 3rd century, Christian communities and their bishops had become a force to contend with, in urban centers especially.
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^ His victory at the Milvian Bridge counts among the most decisive moments in world history, while his legalization and support of Christianity and his foundation of a 'New Rome' at Byzantium rank among the most momentous decisions ever made by a European ruler.
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[115]
.Maxentius' rule was nevertheless insecure.^ Maxentius' rule was nevertheless insecure.
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.His early support dissolved in the wake of heightened tax rates and depressed trade; riots broke out in Rome and Carthage;[116] and Domitius Alexander was able to briefly usurp his authority in Africa.^ His early support dissolved in the wake of heightened tax rates and depressed trade; riots broke out in Rome and Carthage; [ 116 ] and Domitius Alexander was able to briefly usurp his authority in Africa.
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^ His early support dissolved in the wake of heightened tax rates and depressed trade; riots broke out in Rome and Carthage; [ 115 ] and Domitius Alexander was able to briefly usurp his authority in Africa.
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^ Tax-gatherers therefore were appointed to go to Rome, and make out lists of the citizens.
  • Lactantius, On the Deaths of the Persecutors 12 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

[117] .By 312, he was a man barely tolerated, not one actively supported,[118] even among Christian Italians.^ By 312, he was a man barely tolerated, not one actively supported, [ 118 ] even among Christian Italians.
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^ By 312, he was a man barely tolerated, not one actively supported, [ 117 ] even among Christian Italians.
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[119] .In the summer of 311, Maxentius mobilized against Constantine while Licinius was occupied with affairs in the East.^ In the summer of 311, Maxentius mobilized against Constantine while Licinius was occupied with affairs in the East.
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^ Constantine's advisers and generals cautioned against preemptive attack on Maxentius; [ 123 ] even his soothsayers recommended against it, stating that the sacrifices had produced unfavorable omens.
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^ Constantine's advisers and generals cautioned against preemptive attack on Maxentius; [ 124 ] even his soothsayers recommended against it, stating that the sacrifices had produced unfavorable omens.
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.He declared war on Constantine, vowing to avenge his father's "murder".[120] To prevent Maxentius from forming an alliance against him with Licinius,[121] Constantine forged his own alliance with Licinius over the winter of 311–12, and offered him his sister Constantia in marriage.^ He declared war on Constantine, vowing to avenge his father's "murder".
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^ To prevent Maxentius from forming an alliance against him with Licinius, [ 120 ] Constantine forged his own alliance with Licinius over the winter of 311–12, and offered him his sister Constantia in marriage.
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^ In the summer of 311, Maxentius mobilized against Constantine while Licinius was occupied with affairs in the East.
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.Maximin considered Constantine's arrangement with Licinius an affront to his authority.^ Maximin considered Constantine's arrangement with Licinius an affront to his authority.
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^ Maximin Daia was incensed at the nomination of Licinius to the dignity of emperor, and he would no longer be called Caesar, or allow himself to be ranked as third in authority.
  • Lactantius, On the Deaths of the Persecutors 12 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

.In response, he sent ambassadors to Rome, offering political recognition to Maxentius in exchange for a military support.^ Constantine now gave Maxentius his meager support, offering Maxentius political recognition.
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^ In response, he sent ambassadors to Rome, offering political recognition to Maxentius in exchange for a military support.
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^ Maxentius' strongest supporters in the military were neutralized when the Praetorian Guard and Imperial Horse Guard ( equites singulares ) were disbanded.
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Maxentius accepted.[122] .According to Eusebius, inter-regional travel became impossible, and there was military buildup everywhere.^ According to Eusebius, inter-regional travel became impossible, and there was military buildup everywhere.
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There was "not a place where people were not expecting the onset of hostilities every day".[123]
.Constantine's advisers and generals cautioned against preemptive attack on Maxentius;[124] even his soothsayers recommended against it, stating that the sacrifices had produced unfavorable omens.^ Constantine's advisers and generals cautioned against preemptive attack on Maxentius; [ 123 ] even his soothsayers recommended against it, stating that the sacrifices had produced unfavorable omens.
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^ Constantine's advisers and generals cautioned against preemptive attack on Maxentius; [ 124 ] even his soothsayers recommended against it, stating that the sacrifices had produced unfavorable omens.
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^ CONSTANTINE: I do, because I've met the secretary of state, General Powell, who I think is an exceptional man, and I think his efforts will work.
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[125] .Constantine, with a spirit that left a deep impression on his followers, inspiring some to believe that he had some form of supernatural guidance,[126] ignored all these cautions.^ Constantine, with a spirit that left a deep impression on his followers, inspiring some to believe that he had some form of supernatural guidance, [ 125 ] ignored all these cautions.
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^ Constantine, with a spirit that left a deep impression on his followers, inspiring some to believe that he had some form of supernatural guidance, [ 126 ] ignored all these cautions.
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^ From these and other accounts, some have concluded that Eusebius's Vita was edited to defend Constantine's reputation against what Eusebius saw as a less congenial version of the campaign.
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[127] .Early in the spring of 312,[128] Constantine crossed the Cottian Alps with a quarter of his army, a force numbering about 40,000.[129] The first town his army encountered was Segusium (Susa, Italy), a heavily fortified town that shut its gates to him.^ The first town his army encountered was Segusium ( Susa , Italy ), a heavily fortified town that shut its gates to him.
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^ Early in the spring of 312, [ 128 ] Constantine crossed the Cottian Alps with a quarter of his army, a force numbering about 40,000.
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^ Early in the spring of 312, [ 127 ] Constantine crossed the Cottian Alps with a quarter of his army, a force numbering about 40,000.
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.Constantine ordered his men to set fire to its gates and scale its walls.^ Constantine ordered his men to set fire to its gates and scale its walls.
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.He took the town quickly.^ He took the town quickly.
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.Constantine ordered his troops not to loot the town, and advanced with them into northern Italy.^ Constantine ordered his troops not to loot the town, and advanced with them into northern Italy.
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^ CONSTANTINE: Then I went into exile in Italy.
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^ Constantine resettled some Sarmatian exiles as farmers in the Balkans and Italy, and conscripted the rest into the army.
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[128]
.At the approach to the west of the important city of Augusta Taurinorum (Turin, Italy), Constantine met a large force of heavily armed Maxentian cavalry.^ At the approach to the west of the important city of Augusta Taurinorum ( Turin , Italy), Constantine met a large force of heavily armed Maxentian cavalry.
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^ At the approach to the west of the important city of Augusta Taurinorum ( Turin , Italy), Constantine encountered a large force of heavily armed Maxentian cavalry.
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^ Brescia's army was easily dispersed, [ 133 ] and Constantine quickly advanced to Verona , where a large Maxentian force was camped.
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[130] .In the ensuing battle Constantine's army encircled Maxentius' cavalry, flanked them with his own cavalry, and dismounted them with blows from his soldiers' iron-tipped clubs.^ In the ensuing battle Constantine's army encircled Maxentius' cavalry, flanked them with his own cavalry, and dismounted them with blows from his soldiers' iron-tipped clubs.
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^ The Battle of the Milvian Bridge by Giulio Romano Constantine deployed his own forces along the whole length of Maxentius' line.
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^ Constantine's army arrived at the field bearing unfamiliar symbols on either its standards or its soldiers' shields.
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.Constantine's armies emerged victorious.^ Constantine's armies emerged victorious.
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^ Constantine always emerged victorious: the lion emerged from the contest in a poorer condition than Constantine; Constantine returned to Nicomedia from the Danube with a Sarmatian captive to drop at Galerius' feet.
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^ Supposedly outnumbered, but fired by their zeal, Constantine's army emerged victorious in the Battle of Adrianople .
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[131] .Turin refused to give refuge to Maxentius' retreating forces, opening its gates to Constantine instead.^ Turin refused to give refuge to Maxentius' retreating forces, opening its gates to Constantine instead.
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^ The Battle of the Milvian Bridge by Giulio Romano Constantine deployed his own forces along the whole length of Maxentius' line.
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^ At the approach to the west of the important city of Augusta Taurinorum ( Turin , Italy), Constantine met a large force of heavily armed Maxentian cavalry.
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[132] .Other cities of the north Italian plain sent Constantine embassies of congratulation for his victory.^ Other cities of the north Italian plain sent Constantine embassies of congratulation for his victory.
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^ A number of other cities, mainly in the north of England, are of substantial size and influence.
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^ Constantine sent a small force north of the town in an attempt to cross the river unnoticed.
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.He moved on to Milan, where he was met with open gates and jubilant rejoicing.^ He moved on to Milan, where he was met with open gates and jubilant rejoicing.
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.Constantine rested his army in Milan until mid-summer 312, when he moved on to Brixia (Brescia).^ Constantine rested his army in Milan until mid-summer 312, when he moved on to Brixia ( Brescia ).
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^ Early in the spring of 312, [ 128 ] Constantine crossed the Cottian Alps with a quarter of his army, a force numbering about 40,000.
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^ Brescia's army was easily dispersed, [ 133 ] and Constantine quickly advanced to Verona , where a large Maxentian force was camped.
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[133]
.Brescia's army was easily dispersed,[134] and Constantine quickly advanced to Verona, where a large Maxentian force was camped.^ Brescia's army was easily dispersed, [ 133 ] and Constantine quickly advanced to Verona , where a large Maxentian force was camped.
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^ Ruricius sent a large detachment to counter Constantine's expeditionary force, but was defeated.
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^ At the approach to the west of the important city of Augusta Taurinorum ( Turin , Italy), Constantine encountered a large force of heavily armed Maxentian cavalry.
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[135] .Ruricius Pompeianus, general of the Veronese forces and Maxentius' praetorian prefect,[136] was in a strong defensive position, since the town was surrounded on three sides by the Adige.^ Ruricius Pompeianus, general of the Veronese forces and Maxentius' praetorian prefect, [ 136 ] was in a strong defensive position, since the town was surrounded on three sides by the Adige .
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^ Ruricius Pompeianus, general of the Veronese forces and Maxentius' praetorian prefect, [ 135 ] was in a strong defensive position, since the town was surrounded on three sides by the Adige .
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^ He still controlled Rome's praetorian guards, was well-stocked with African grain, and was surrounded on all sides by the seemingly impregnable Aurelian Walls .
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.Constantine sent a small force north of the town in an attempt to cross the river unnoticed.^ Constantine sent a small force north of the town in an attempt to cross the river unnoticed.
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^ Early in the spring of 312, [ 128 ] Constantine crossed the Cottian Alps with a quarter of his army, a force numbering about 40,000.
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^ Other cities of the north Italian plain sent Constantine embassies of congratulation for his victory.
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.Ruricius sent a large detachment to counter Constantine's expeditionary force, but was defeated.^ Ruricius sent a large detachment to counter Constantine's expeditionary force, but was defeated.
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^ At the approach to the west of the important city of Augusta Taurinorum ( Turin , Italy), Constantine met a large force of heavily armed Maxentian cavalry.
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^ See also: TOTAL total probably includes the forces defeated by Constantine in See also: NORTHERN Northern Italy—marched out of Rome and prepared to dispute the passage of the See also: TIBER (anc.
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.Constantine's forces successfully surrounded the town and laid siege.^ Constantine's forces successfully surrounded the town and laid siege.
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^ Ruricius Pompeianus, general of the Veronese forces and Maxentius' praetorian prefect, [ 136 ] was in a strong defensive position, since the town was surrounded on three sides by the Adige .
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^ Ruricius Pompeianus, general of the Veronese forces and Maxentius' praetorian prefect, [ 135 ] was in a strong defensive position, since the town was surrounded on three sides by the Adige .
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[137] .Ruricius gave Constantine the slip and returned with a larger force to oppose Constantine.^ Ruricius gave Constantine the slip and returned with a larger force to oppose Constantine.
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^ Constantine refused to let up on the siege, and sent only a small force to oppose him.
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^ He gave this advice that an army might be left for him to win over to himself, and that Constantine, by reason of his scanty forces, might be overpowered.
  • Lactantius, On the Deaths of the Persecutors 12 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Constantine refused to let up on the siege, and sent only a small force to oppose him.^ Constantine refused to let up on the siege, and sent only a small force to oppose him.
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^ Let's all humble ourselves and be lifted up by Him and remember that He opposes the proud--just don't want the message to be ill received because we fail to deliver it with love and by His Spirit's enabling.
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^ Ruricius gave Constantine the slip and returned with a larger force to oppose Constantine.
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.In the desperately fought encounter that followed, Ruricius was killed and his army destroyed.^ In the desperately fought encounter that followed, Ruricius was killed and his army destroyed.
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[138] .Verona surrendered soon afterwards, followed by Aquileia,[139] Mutina (Modena),[140] and Ravenna.^ Verona surrendered soon afterwards, followed by Aquileia , [ 138 ] Mutina ( Modena ), [ 139 ] and Ravenna .
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^ Verona surrendered soon afterwards, followed by Aquileia , [ 139 ] Mutina ( Modena ), [ 140 ] and Ravenna .
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[141] .The road to Rome was now wide open to Constantine.^ The road to Rome was now wide open to Constantine.
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[142]
The Milvian Bridge (Ponte Milvio) over the Tiber, north of Rome, where Constantine and Maxentius fought in the Battle of the Milvian Bridge
.Maxentius prepared for the same type of war he had waged against Severus and Galerius: he sat in Rome and prepared for a siege.^ The Milvian Bridge ( Ponte Milvio ) over the Tiber, north of Rome, where Constantine and Maxentius fought in the Battle of the Milvian Bridge Maxentius prepared for the same type of war he had waged against Severus and Galerius: he sat in Rome and prepared for a siege.
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^ War against Maxentius .
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^ See also: Civil Wars of the Tetrarchy (306-324 AD) War against Maxentius .
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[143] .He still controlled Rome's praetorian guards, was well-stocked with African grain, and was surrounded on all sides by the seemingly impregnable Aurelian Walls.^ He still controlled Rome's praetorian guards, was well-stocked with African grain, and was surrounded on all sides by the seemingly impregnable Aurelian Walls .
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^ Ruricius Pompeianus, general of the Veronese forces and Maxentius' praetorian prefect, [ 136 ] was in a strong defensive position, since the town was surrounded on three sides by the Adige .
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^ Ruricius Pompeianus, general of the Veronese forces and Maxentius' praetorian prefect, [ 135 ] was in a strong defensive position, since the town was surrounded on three sides by the Adige .
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.He ordered all bridges across the Tiber cut, reportedly on the counsel of the gods,[144] and left the rest of central Italy undefended; Constantine secured that region's support without challenge.^ He ordered all bridges across the Tiber cut, reportedly on the counsel of the gods, [ 144 ] and left the rest of central Italy undefended; Constantine secured that region's support without challenge.
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^ He ordered all bridges across the Tiber cut, reportedly on the counsel of the gods, [ 143 ] and left the rest of central Italy undefended; Constantine secured that region's support without challenge.
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^ Burckhardt's Constantine is a scheming secularist, a politician who manipulates all parties in a quest to secure his own power.
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[145] .Constantine progressed slowly[146] along the Via Flaminia,[147] allowing the weakness of Maxentius to draw his regime further into turmoil.^ Constantine progressed slowly [ 146 ] along the Via Flaminia , [ 147 ] allowing the weakness of Maxentius to draw his regime further into turmoil.
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^ Constantine progressed slowly [ 145 ] along the Via Flaminia , [ 146 ] allowing the weakness of Maxentius to draw his regime further into turmoil.
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^ Mulvian Bridge on the Via See also: FLAMINIA, VIA Flaminia ), Constantine, by a rapid turning See also: MOVEMENT movement , reached the Via See also: CASSIA (Lat.
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[146] .Maxentius' support continued to weaken: at chariot races on 27 October, the crowd openly taunted Maxentius, shouting that Constantine was invincible.^ Maxentius' support continued to weaken: at chariot races on 27 October, the crowd openly taunted Maxentius, shouting that Constantine was invincible.
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^ Constantine now gave Maxentius his meager support, offering Maxentius political recognition.
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^ Following Julian, Eunapius began—and Zosimus continued—a historiographic tradition that blamed Constantine for weakening the Empire through his indulgence to the Christians.
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[148] .Maxentius, no longer certain that he would emerge from a siege victorious, built a temporary boat bridge across the Tiber in preparation for a field battle against Constantine.^ Maxentius, no longer certain that he would emerge from a siege victorious, built a temporary boat bridge across the Tiber in preparation for a field battle against Constantine.
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^ Constantine's armies emerged victorious.
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^ Constantine's advisers and generals cautioned against preemptive attack on Maxentius; [ 123 ] even his soothsayers recommended against it, stating that the sacrifices had produced unfavorable omens.
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[149] .On 28 October 312, the sixth anniversary of his reign, he approached the keepers of the Sibylline Books for guidance.^ October 306 to 28 October 312 .
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^ On 28 October 312, the sixth anniversary of his reign, he approached the keepers of the Sibylline Books for guidance.
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^ The anniversary of the reign of Maxentius approached, that is, the sixth of the kalends of November, and the fifth year of his reign was drawing to an end.
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.The keepers prophesied that, on that very day, "the enemy of the Romans" would die.^ The keepers prophesied that, on that very day, "the enemy of the Romans" would die.
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^ On the same day the enemy of the Romans should perish.
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^ Long ago, indeed, and at the very time of his obtaining sovereign power, he had avowed himself the enemy of the Roman name; and he proposed that the empire should be called, not the Roman, but the Dacian empire.
  • Lactantius, On the Deaths of the Persecutors 12 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Maxentius advanced north to meet Constantine in battle.^ Maxentius advanced north to meet Constantine in battle.
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^ In the ensuing battle Constantine's army encircled Maxentius' cavalry, flanked them with his own cavalry, and dismounted them with blows from his soldiers' iron-tipped clubs.
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^ The Battle of the Milvian Bridge by Giulio Romano Constantine deployed his own forces along the whole length of Maxentius' line.
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[150]
.Maxentius organized his forces—still twice the size of Constantine's—in long lines facing the battle plain, with their backs to the river.^ Maxentius organized his forces—still twice the size of Constantine's—in long lines facing the battle plain, with their backs to the river.
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^ In fact, by 336 , Constantine had actually reoccupied most of the long-lost province of Dacia , which Aurelian had been forced to abandon in 271 .
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^ The Battle of the Milvian Bridge by Giulio Romano Constantine deployed his own forces along the whole length of Maxentius' line.
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[151] .Constantine's army arrived at the field bearing unfamiliar symbols on either its standards or its soldiers' shields.^ Constantine's army arrived at the field bearing unfamiliar symbols on either its standards or its soldiers' shields.
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^ In the ensuing battle Constantine's army encircled Maxentius' cavalry, flanked them with his own cavalry, and dismounted them with blows from his soldiers' iron-tipped clubs.
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^ AD. CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right / GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers with shields & spears to either side of two standards, ASIS in ex.
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[152] .According to Lactantius, Constantine was visited by a dream the night before the battle, wherein he was advised "to mark the heavenly sign of God on the shields of his soldiers...by means of a slanted letter X with the top of its head bent round, he marked Christ on their shields."^ According to Lactantius, Constantine was visited by a dream the night before the battle, wherein he was advised "to mark the heavenly sign of God on the shields of his soldiers...by means of a slanted letter X with the top of its head bent round, he marked Christ on their shields."
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^ Constantine was directed in a dream to cause the heavenly sign to be delineated on the shields of his soldiers, and so to proceed to battle.
  • Lactantius, On the Deaths of the Persecutors 12 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ During the next night, so Eusebius' account continues, Christ appeared to Constantine and instructed him to place the heavenly sign on the battle standards of his army.
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[153] .Eusebius describes another version, where, while marching at midday, "he saw with his own eyes in the heavens a trophy of the cross arising from the light of the sun, carrying the message, In Hoc Signo Vinces or "In this sign, you will conquer";[154] in Eusebius's account, Constantine had a dream the following night, in which Christ appeared with the same heavenly sign, and told him to make a standard, the labarum, for his army in that form.^ Eusebius describes another version, where, while marching at midday, "he saw with his own eyes in the heavens a trophy of the cross arising from the light of the sun, carrying the message, In Hoc Signo Vinces or "Conquer By This"; [ 153 ] in Eusebius's account, Constantine had a dream the following night, in which Christ appeared with the same heavenly sign, and told him to make a standard, the labarum , for his army in that form.
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^ He said that about noon, when the day was already beginning to decline, he saw with his own eyes the trophy of a cross of light in the heavens, above the sun, and bearing the inscription, Conquer by this .
  • CHURCH FATHERS: Life of Constantine, Book I (Eusebius) 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During the next night, so Eusebius' account continues, Christ appeared to Constantine and instructed him to place the heavenly sign on the battle standards of his army.
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[155] .Eusebius is vague about when and where these events took place,[156] but it enters his narrative before the war against Maxentius begins.^ Eusebius is vague about when and where these events took place, [ 156 ] but it enters his narrative before the war against Maxentius begins.
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^ See also: Civil Wars of the Tetrarchy (306-324 AD) War against Maxentius .
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^ But before considering these matters it may useful to explain what is actually known about Helena and the discovery of the Cross.

[157] .Eusebius describes the sign as Chi (Χ) traversed by Rho (Ρ): ☧, a symbol representing the first two letters of the Greek spelling of the word Christos or Christ.^ Eusebius describes the sign as Chi (Χ) traversed by Rho (Ρ): ☧, a symbol representing the first two letters of the Greek spelling of the word Christos or Christ.
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^ Eusebius describes the sign as Chi (Χ) traversed by Rho (Ρ), or ☧ a symbol representing the first two letters of the Greek spelling of the word Christos or Christ.
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^ [The Greek equivalent of number 9 required two letters, Δε, which did not fit together on the right field so they were split across both].

[158] .The Eusebian description of the vision has been explained as a "solar halo", a meteorological phenomenon which can produce similar effects.^ The Eusebian description of the vision has been explained as a " solar halo ", a meteorological phenomenon which can produce similar effects.
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[159] .In 315 a medallion was issued at Ticinum showing Constantine wearing a helmet emblazoned with the Chi-Rho,[160] and coins issued at Siscia in 317/18 repeat the image.^ In 315 a medallion was issued at Ticinum showing Constantine wearing a helmet emblazoned with the Chi-Rho, [ 159 ] and coins issued at Siscia in 317/18 repeat the image.
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^ In 315 a medallion was issued at Ticinum showing Constantine wearing a helmet emblazoned with the Chi-Rho, [ 160 ] and coins issued at Siscia in 317/18 repeat the image.
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^ After Constantine's victory over the Alemanni, he minted a coin issue depicting weeping and begging Alemannic tribesmen—"The Alemanni conquered"—beneath the phrase "Romans' rejoicing".
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[161] .The figure was otherwise rare, however, and is uncommon in imperial iconography and propaganda before the 320s.^ The figure was otherwise rare, however, and is uncommon in imperial iconography and propaganda before the 320s.
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[162]
.Constantine deployed his own forces along the whole length of Maxentius' line.^ The Battle of the Milvian Bridge by Giulio Romano Constantine deployed his own forces along the whole length of Maxentius' line.
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^ In the ensuing battle Constantine's army encircled Maxentius' cavalry, flanked them with his own cavalry, and dismounted them with blows from his soldiers' iron-tipped clubs.
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^ Constantine progressed slowly [ 146 ] along the Via Flaminia , [ 147 ] allowing the weakness of Maxentius to draw his regime further into turmoil.
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.He ordered his cavalry to charge, and they broke Maxentius' cavalry.^ He ordered his cavalry to charge, and they broke Maxentius' cavalry.
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^ They had ordered the inspired records to be burnt and utterly destroyed: he decreed that copies of them should be multiplied, and magnificently adorned (4) at the charge of the imperial treasury.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Eusebius of Caesarea: Life of Constantine 12 September 2009 6:59 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Maxentius' horse guards and praetorians initially held their position, but broke under the force of a Constantinian cavalry charge; they also broke ranks and fled to the river.
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.He then sent his infantry against Maxentius' infantry, pushing many into the Tiber where they were slaughtered and drowned.^ He then sent his infantry against Maxentius' infantry, pushing many into the Tiber where they were slaughtered and drowned.
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^ At length they did expire, when, after many hours, the violent heat had consumed their skin and penetrated into their intestines.
  • Lactantius, On the Deaths of the Persecutors 12 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Presently the soldiers raised up their ensigns, abandoned Severus, and yielded themselves to Maxentius, against whom they had come.
  • Lactantius, On the Deaths of the Persecutors 12 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

[151] .The battle was brief:[163] Maxentius' troops were broken before the first charge.^ The battle was brief: [ 162 ] Maxentius' troops were broken before the first charge.
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^ The battle was brief: [ 163 ] Maxentius' troops were broken before the first charge.
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^ George finally saw his first battle, leading the charge of the Duke of Cumberland's infantry in the Battle of Fontenoy in 1745.

[164] .Maxentius' horse guards and praetorians initially held their position, but broke under the force of a Constantinian cavalry charge; they also broke ranks and fled to the river.^ He ordered his cavalry to charge, and they broke Maxentius' cavalry.
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^ Maxentius' horse guards and praetorians initially held their position, but broke under the force of a Constantinian cavalry charge; they also broke ranks and fled to the river.
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^ The See also: REMAINDER, REVERSION remainder of his troops surrendered at discretion and were incorporated by Constantine in the ranks of his army, with the exception of the praetorian guard, which was finally disbanded .
  • CONSTANTINE I - Online Information article about CONSTANTINE I 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

.Maxentius rode with them, and attempted to cross the bridge of boats, but he was pushed by the mass of his fleeing soldiers into the Tiber, and drowned.^ Maxentius rode with them, and attempted to cross the bridge of boats, but he was pushed by the mass of his fleeing soldiers into the Tiber, and drowned.
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^ He then sent his infantry against Maxentius' infantry, pushing many into the Tiber where they were slaughtered and drowned.
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^ The Gallic cavalry swept the See also: LEFT left wing of the enemy into the Tiber, swollen with autumn rains, and with it perished Maxentius, owing, as was said, to the collapse of the bridge of boats (Oct .
  • CONSTANTINE I - Online Information article about CONSTANTINE I 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

[165]

In Rome

.Constantine entered Rome on 29 October.^ Constantine entered Rome on 29 October.
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[166] .He staged a grand adventus in the city, and was met with popular jubilation.^ He staged a grand adventus in the city, and was met with popular jubilation.
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[167] .Maxentius' body was fished out of the Tiber and decapitated.^ Maxentius' body was fished out of the Tiber and decapitated.
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.His head was paraded through the streets for all to see.^ His head was paraded through the streets for all to see.
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^ Above all, the municipal decuriones on whom the responsibility for raising See also: TAXATION TAXATION (from " tax," derived, through the French, from Lat.
  • CONSTANTINE I - Online Information article about CONSTANTINE I 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

^ But I still believe that it is unnecessary to go through this, that all we have to sit down around the table and have a discussion about it and see if we can't come to some sensible accommodation.
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[168] .After the ceremonies, Maxentius' disembodied head was sent to Carthage; at this Carthage would offer no further resistance.^ After the ceremonies, Maxentius' disembodied head was sent to Carthage ; at this Carthage would offer no further resistance.
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^ In return, Constantine would reaffirm the old family alliance between Maximian and Constantius, and offer support to Maxentius' cause in Italy.
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^ In response, he sent ambassadors to Rome, offering political recognition to Maxentius in exchange for a military support.
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[169] .Unlike his predecessors, Constantine neglected to make the trip to the Capitoline Hill and perform customary sacrifices at the Temple of Jupiter.^ Unlike his predecessors, Constantine neglected to make the trip to the Capitoline Hill and perform customary sacrifices at the Temple of Jupiter .
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[170] .He did, however, choose to honor the Senatorial Curia with a visit,[171] where he promised to restore its ancestral privileges and give it a secure role in his reformed government: there would be no revenge against Maxentius' supporters.^ He did, however, choose to honor the Senatorial Curia with a visit, [ 171 ] where he promised to restore its ancestral privileges and give it a secure role in his reformed government: there would be no revenge against Maxentius' supporters.
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^ There would have been no Dark Ages.
  • Woman knocks down Pope at Christmas Eve Mass | KETKnbc.com | The News Station 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.ketknbc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This has no official status (unlike Welsh) and is not required for official use, but is nonetheless supported by national and local government under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages .
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[172] .In response, the Senate decreed him "title of the first name", which meant his name would be listed first in all official documents,[173] and acclaimed him as "the greatest Augustus".[174] He issued decrees returning property lost under Maxentius, recalling political exiles, and releasing Maxentius' imprisoned opponents.^ In response, the Senate decreed him "title of the first name", which meant his name would be listed first in all official documents, [ 172 ] and acclaimed him as "the greatest Augustus".
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^ In response, the Senate decreed him "title of the first name", which meant his name would be listed first in all official documents, [ 173 ] and acclaimed him as "the greatest Augustus".
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^ He issued decrees returning property lost under Maxentius, recalling political exiles, and releasing Maxentius' imprisoned opponents.
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[175]
.An extensive propaganda campaign followed, during which Maxentius' image was systematically purged from all public places.^ An extensive propaganda campaign followed, during which Maxentius' image was systematically purged from all public places.
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^ The ambassadors were received courteously, friendship established, and in token of it the effigies of Maxentius and Daia were placed together in public view.
  • Lactantius, On the Deaths of the Persecutors 12 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition to the propaganda, Constantine instituted a damnatio memoriae on Maximian, destroying all inscriptions referring to him and eliminating any public work bearing his image.
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.Maxentius was written up as a "tyrant", and set against an idealized image of the "liberator", Constantine.^ Maxentius was written up as a " tyrant ", and set against an idealized image of the "liberator", Constantine.
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^ Constantine soon heard of the rebellion, abandoned his campaign against the Franks, and marched his army up the Rhine.
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^ And now he came to know the perfidy of Daia; for he found the letters written to Maxentius, and saw the statues and portraits of the two associates which had been set up together.
  • Lactantius, On the Deaths of the Persecutors 12 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Eusebius, in his later works, is the best representative of this strand of Constantinian propaganda.^ Eusebius, in his later works, is the best representative of this strand of Constantinian propaganda.
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[176] .Maxentius' rescripts were declared invalid, and the honors Maxentius had granted to leaders of the Senate were invalidated.^ Maxentius' rescripts were declared null and void, and the honors Maxentius had granted to leaders of the Senate were invalidated.
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^ Maxentius' rescripts were declared invalid, and the honors Maxentius had granted to leaders of the Senate were invalidated.
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[177] .Constantine also attempted to remove Maxentius' influence on Rome's urban landscape.^ Constantine also attempted to remove Maxentius' influence on Rome's urban landscape.
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^ In early 309, after a failed attempt to usurp Maxentius' title, Maximian returned to Constantine's court.
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^ When in 312 Constantine had defeated Maxentius in the famous battle at the Pons Milvius, Helena probably came to live in Rome.

.All structures built by Maxentius were re-dedicated to Constantine, including the Temple of Romulus and the Basilica of Maxentius.^ All structures built by Maxentius were re-dedicated to Constantine, including the Temple of Romulus and the Basilica of Maxentius .
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^ Constantine built the new Church of the Holy Apostles on the site of a temple to Aphrodite .
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[178] .At the focal point of the basilica, a stone statue of Constantine holding the Christian labarum in its hand was erected.^ At the focal point of the basilica, a stone statue of Constantine holding the Christian labarum in its hand was erected.
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^ Rev: PRINCIPIIVVENTVTIS Exe: S/A/ TR - Constantine I standing left, holding standard in each hand.

^ Rev: ADVENTVSAVG Exe: / P LN - Constantine I riding horse left, raising hand and holding scepter; seated captive to left.

.Its inscription bore the message the statue had already made clear: By this sign Constantine had freed Rome from the yoke of the tyrant.^ Its inscription bore the message the statue had already made clear: By this sign Constantine had freed Rome from the yoke of the tyrant.
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^ Daia, when he heard that Constantine was victorious and Rome freed, expressed as much sorrow as if he himself had been vanquished; but afterwards, when he heard of the decree of the senate, he grew outrageous, avowed enmity towards Constantine, and made his title of the Greatest a theme of abuse and raillery.
  • Lactantius, On the Deaths of the Persecutors 12 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Executor Art and Architecture in Medieval Rome I believe that Constantine's arch was not only a turning point in style, but also a turning point for rulers and their message.

[179]
Colossal head of Constantine, from a seated statue: a youthful, classicising, other-worldly official image (Metropolitan Museum of Art)[180]
.Where he did not overwrite Maxentius' achievements, Constantine upstaged them: the Circus Maximus was redeveloped so that its total seating capacity was twenty-five times larger than that of Maxentius' racing complex on the Via Appia.^ Colossal head of Constantine, from a seated statue: a youthful, classicising, other-worldly official image ( Metropolitan Museum of Art ) [ 179 ] Where he did not overwrite Maxentius' achievements, Constantine upstaged them: the Circus Maximus was redeveloped so that its total seating capacity was twenty-five times larger than that of Maxentius' racing complex on the Via Appia .
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^ Colossal head of Constantine, from a seated statue: a youthful, classicising, other-worldly official image ( Metropolitan Museum of Art ) [ 180 ] Where he did not overwrite Maxentius' achievements, Constantine upstaged them: the Circus Maximus was redeveloped so that its total seating capacity was twenty-five times larger than that of Maxentius' racing complex on the Via Appia .
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^ Maxentius' support continued to weaken: at chariot races on 27 October, the crowd openly taunted Maxentius, shouting that Constantine was invincible.
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[181] .Maxentius' strongest supporters in the military were neutralized when the Praetorian Guard and Imperial Horse Guard (equites singulares) were disbanded.^ Maxentius' strongest supporters in the military were neutralized when the Praetorian Guard and Imperial Horse Guard ( equites singulares ) were disbanded.
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^ The See also: REMAINDER, REVERSION remainder of his troops surrendered at discretion and were incorporated by Constantine in the ranks of his army, with the exception of the praetorian guard, which was finally disbanded .
  • CONSTANTINE I - Online Information article about CONSTANTINE I 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: General]

^ Early in Constantine's reign, the former base of the Imperial Horse Guard was chosen for redevelopment into the Lateran Basilica .
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[182] .Their tombstones were ground up and put to use in a basilica on the Via Labicana.^ Their tombstones were ground up and put to use in a basilica on the Via Labicana .
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[183] On 9 November 312, barely two weeks after Constantine captured the city, the former base of the Imperial Horse Guard was chosen for redevelopment into the Lateran Basilica.[184] .The Legio II Parthica was removed from Alba (Albano Laziale),[177] and the remainder of Maxentius' armies were sent to do frontier duty on the Rhine.^ The Legio II Parthica was removed from Alba ( Albano Laziale ), [ 176 ] and the remainder of Maxentius' armies were sent to do frontier duty on the Rhine.
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^ The Legio II Parthica was removed from Alba ( Albano Laziale ), [ 177 ] and the remainder of Maxentius' armies were sent to do frontier duty on the Rhine.
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^ He therefore commanded one of the largest Roman armies, stationed along the important Rhine frontier.
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[185]

Wars against Licinius

.In the following years, Constantine gradually consolidated his military superiority over his rivals in the crumbling Tetrarchy.^ In the following years, Constantine gradually consolidated his military superiority over his rivals in the crumbling Tetrarchy.
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^ He gradually consolidated his military superiority over his rivals in the crumbling Tetrarchy until 324 , when he defeated the eastern ruler, Licinius , and became sole emperor.
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^ The army which Constantine had been training for six years at once proved its superiority .
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.In 313, he met Licinius in Milan to secure their alliance by the marriage of Licinius and Constantine's half-sister Constantia.^ In February 313, probably, Constantine and Licinius met at Milan.
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^ On this occasion Constantine's half-sister Constantia was wed to Licinius .
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^ In 313, he met Licinius in Milan to secure their alliance by the marriage of Licinius and Constantine's half-sister Constantia .
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.During this meeting, the emperors agreed on the so-called Edict of Milan[186], officially granting full tolerance to "Christianity and all" religions in the Empire.^ During this meeting, the emperors agreed on the so-called Edict of Milan [ 185 ] , officially granting full tolerance to "Christianity and all" religions in the Empire.
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^ All religions must be tolerated...
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^ During this meeting, the emperors agreed on the so-called Edict of Milan [ 186 ] , officially granting full tolerance to "Christianity and all" religions in the Empire.
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[187] .The document had special benefits for Christians, legalizing their religion and granting them restoration for all property seized during Diocletian's persecution.^ Christians to high office, and returned property confiscated during the Diocletianic persecution.
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^ The document had special benefits for Christians, legalizing their religion and granting them restoration for all property seized during Diocletian's persecution.
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^ Christians were preferred for high government positions; the Church was granted various special privileges; and churches like the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem were constructed.
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.It repudiates past methods of religious coercion and used only general terms to refer to the divine sphere — "Divinity" and "Supreme Divinity", summa divinitas.^ It repudiates past methods of religious coercion and used only general terms to refer to the divine sphere — "Divinity" and "Supreme Divinity", summa divinitas .
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^ The law does not recognise any language as being official, but English is the only language used in England for general official business.
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^ Sinai, God gave Moses not only the Ten Commandments but also many divine instructions about personal behavior, methods of worship and lifestyle choices.
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[188] .The conference was cut short, however, when news reached Licinius that his rival Maximin had crossed the Bosporus and invaded European territory.^ The conference was cut short, however, when news reached Licinius that his rival Maximin had crossed the Bosporus and invaded European territory.
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^ European Turkey comprises territory to the west and north of the Bosporus and the Dardanelles straits.
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.Licinius departed and eventually defeated Maximinus, gaining control over the entire eastern half of the Roman Empire.^ Licinius departed and eventually defeated Maximinus, gaining control over the entire eastern half of the Roman Empire.
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^ Coin struck by Constantine I to commemorate the founding of Constantinople Licinius' defeat represented the passing of old Rome, and the beginning of the role of the Eastern Roman Empire as a center of learning, prosperity, and cultural preservation.
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^ It was the beginning of the final collapse of the western half of the Roman Empire.
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.Relations between the two remaining emperors deteriorated, though, and either in 314 or 316, Constantine and Licinius fought against one another in the war of Cibalae, with Constantine being victorious.^ Dissension arose between the two emperors, and almost an open war.
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^ Relations between the two remaining emperors deteriorated, though, and either in 314 or 316, Constantine and Licinius fought against one another in the war of Cibalae , with Constantine being victorious.
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^ Wars against Licinius .
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.They clashed again in the Battle of Campus Ardiensis in 317, and agreed to a settlement in which Constantine's sons Crispus and Constantine II, and Licinius' son Licinianus were made caesars.^ They clashed again in the Battle of Campus Ardiensis in 317, and agreed to a settlement in which Constantine's sons Crispus and Constantine II , and Licinius' son Licinianus were made caesars .
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^ RIC VII 144 - Constantine II – 5 views CONSTANTINE II, as Caesar.
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^ He was succeeded by his three sons born of Fausta, Constantine II , Constantius II and Constans .
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[189]
.In the year 320, Licinius reneged on the religious freedom promised by the Edict of Milan in 313 and began to oppress Christians anew.^ In the year 320, Licinius reneged on the religious freedom promised by the Edict of Milan in 313 and began to oppress Christians anew.
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^ In February 313, probably, Constantine and Licinius met at Milan.
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^ With the " Edict of Milan " in 313, Constantine and his co-Emperor removed all onus from Christianity.
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[190] .It became a challenge to Constantine in the west, climaxing in the great civil war of 324. Licinius, aided by Goth mercenaries, represented the past and the ancient Pagan faiths.^ In 324 Constantine crushed Licinius and became sole ruler.
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^ Licinius, aided by Goth mercenaries , represented the past and the ancient Pagan faiths.
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^ It became a challenge to Constantine in the west, climaxing in the great civil war of 324.
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.Constantine and his Franks marched under the standard of the labarum, and both sides saw the battle in religious terms.^ Constantine and his Franks marched under the standard of the labarum , and both sides saw the battle in religious terms.
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^ The new battle standard became known as the labarum .
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^ Both sides are asked if they are "ready," (a technical term), and if answered in the affirmative the court proceedes to voir dire .
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.Supposedly outnumbered, but fired by their zeal, Constantine's army emerged victorious in the Battle of Adrianople.^ Supposedly outnumbered, but fired by their zeal, Constantine's army emerged victorious in the Battle of Adrianople .
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^ Constantine's armies emerged victorious.
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^ Constantine always emerged victorious: the lion emerged from the contest in a poorer condition than Constantine; Constantine returned to Nicomedia from the Danube with a Sarmatian captive to drop at Galerius' feet.
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.Licinius fled across the Bosphorus and appointed Martius Martinianus, the commander of his bodyguard, as Caesar, but Constantine next won the Battle of the Hellespont, and finally the Battle of Chrysopolis on 18 September 324.[191] Licinius and Martinianus surrendered to Constantine at Nicomedia on the promise their lives would be spared: they were sent to live as private citizens in Thessalonica and Cappadocia respectively, but in 325 Constantine accused Licinius of plotting against him and had them both arrested and hanged; Licinius's son (the son of Constantine's half-sister) was also eradicated.^ Licinius and Martinianus surrendered to Constantine at Nicomedia on the promise their lives would be spared: they were sent to live as private citizens in Thessalonica and Cappadocia respectively, but in 325 Constantine accused Licinius of plotting against him and had them both arrested and hanged; Licinius's son (the son of Constantine's half-sister) was also eradicated.
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^ On this occasion Constantine's half-sister Constantia was wed to Licinius .
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^ Licinius fled across the Bosphorus and appointed Martius Martinianus , the commander of his bodyguard, as Caesar, but Constantine next won the Battle of the Hellespont , and finally the Battle of Chrysopolis on 18 September 324.
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[192] .Thus Constantine became the sole emperor of the Roman Empire.^ Thus Constantine became the sole emperor of the Roman Empire.
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^ A temple in his honor was reportedly built in Lydda during the reign of Constantine I of the Roman Empire (reigned 306 - 337, sole emperor since 324).This temple was destroyed in 1010 but was later rebuilt by the Crusaders.

^ He also realized the empire was too vast for one man to rule and instituted the sharing of imperial power, which lasted until Constantine became sole emperor in 324.
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[193]

Later rule

Foundation of Constantinople

Coin struck by Constantine I to commemorate the founding of Constantinople
.Licinius' defeat represented the passing of old Rome, and the beginning of the role of the Eastern Roman Empire as a center of learning, prosperity, and cultural preservation.^ Coin struck by Constantine I to commemorate the founding of Constantinople Licinius' defeat represented the passing of old Rome, and the beginning of the role of the Eastern Roman Empire as a center of learning, prosperity, and cultural preservation.
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^ It was the beginning of the final collapse of the western half of the Roman Empire.
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^ The whole southern part of the island — roughly corresponding to modern day England and Wales — became a prosperous part of the Roman Empire .
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.Constantine rebuilt the city of Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinopolis ("Constantine's City" or Constantinople in English), and issued special commemorative coins in 330 to honor the event.^ Constantine rebuilt the city of Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinopolis ("Constantine's City" or Constantinople in English), and issued special commemorative coins in 330 to honor the event.
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^ In 315 a medallion was issued at Ticinum showing Constantine wearing a helmet emblazoned with the Chi-Rho, [ 159 ] and coins issued at Siscia in 317/18 repeat the image.
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^ After Constantine's victory over the Alemanni, he minted a coin issue depicting weeping and begging Alemannic tribesmen—"The Alemanni conquered"—beneath the phrase "Romans' rejoicing".
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.The new city was protected by the relics of the True Cross, the Rod of Moses and other holy relics, though a cameo now at the Hermitage Museum also represented Constantine crowned by the tyche of the new city.^ The new city was protected by the relics of the True Cross , the Rod of Moses and other holy relics , though a cameo now at the Hermitage Museum also represented Constantine crowned by the tyche of the new city.
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^ In 1579 , Drake landed somewhere in northern California and claimed for the Crown what he named Nova Albion ("New Albion", Albion being an ancient name for Britain), though the claim was not followed by settlement.
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^ Sardonyx cameo depicting constantine the great crowned by Constantinople, 4th century AD at "The Road to Byzantium: Luxury Arts of Antiquity".
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[194] .The figures of old gods were either replaced or assimilated into a framework of Christian symbolism.^ The figures of old gods were either replaced or assimilated into a framework of Christian symbolism .
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^ It is clear that the early Apostles believed that God's laws were unaffected by the replacement of the Old Covenant with the New Covenant.
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.Constantine built the new Church of the Holy Apostles on the site of a temple to Aphrodite.^ Constantine built the new Church of the Holy Apostles on the site of a temple to Aphrodite .
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^ Constantine without question began the construction of two major churches in Constantinople, Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom) and Hagia Eirene (Holy Peace); the foundation of a third, the Church of the Holy Apostles, may be attributed to him with a measure of certainty.
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^ Throughout his rule, Constantine supported the Church financially, built basilicas, granted privileges to clergy (e.g.
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.Generations later there was the story that a Divine vision led Constantine to this spot, and an angel no one else could see, led him on a circuit of the new walls.^ There is no way, ever, that I could believe again.
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^ Generations later there was the story that a Divine vision led Constantine to this spot, and an angel no one else could see, led him on a circuit of the new walls.
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^ No one there.
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The capital would often be compared to the 'old' Rome as Nova Roma Constantinopolitana, the "New Rome of Constantinople".[193][195]

Religious policy

.
Constantine the Great, mosaic in Hagia Sophia, c.
^ Further information: Constantine I and Christianity and Constantine I and Judaism Constantine the Great , mosaic in Hagia Sophia , c.
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1000
.Constantine is perhaps best known for being the first Christian Roman emperor; his reign was certainly a turning point for the Christian Church.^ Constantine then summoned what has become known as the First Ecumenical Council of the church.
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^ Constantine is perhaps best known for being the first Christian Roman emperor; his reign was certainly a turning point for the Christian Church.
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^ A temple in his honor was reportedly built in Lydda during the reign of Constantine I of the Roman Empire (reigned 306 - 337, sole emperor since 324).This temple was destroyed in 1010 but was later rebuilt by the Crusaders.

.In 313 Constantine announced toleration of Christianity in the Edict of Milan, which removed penalties for professing Christianity (under which many had been martyred in previous persecutions of Christians) and returned confiscated Church property.^ With the " Edict of Milan " in 313, Constantine and his co-Emperor removed all onus from Christianity.
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^ Christians to high office, and returned property confiscated during the Diocletianic persecution.
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^ In 313 Constantine announced toleration of Christianity in the Edict of Milan , which removed penalties for professing Christianity (under which many had been martyred in previous persecutions of Christians ) and returned confiscated Church property.
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.Though a similar edict had been issued in 311 by Galerius, then senior emperor of the Tetrarchy, Galerius' edict granted Christians the right to practice their religion but did not restore any property to them.^ Though a similar edict had been issued in 311 by Galerius , then senior emperor of the Tetrarchy , Galerius' edict granted Christians the right to practice their religion but did not restore any property to them.
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^ In 303, Diocletian issued an edict authorizing the systematic persecution of Christians across the Empire.

^ Galerius, however, did not, by publication of this edict, obtain the divine forgiveness.
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[196]
Scholars debate whether Constantine adopted his mother St. Helena's Christianity in his youth, or whether he adopted it gradually over the course of his life.[197] .Constantine would retain the title of pontifex maximus until his death, a title emperors bore as heads of the pagan priesthood, as would his Christian successors on to Gratian (r.^ Constantine would retain the title of pontifex maximus until his death, a title emperors bore as heads of the pagan priesthood, as would his Christian successors on to Gratian ( r .
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^ Constantine would retain the title of pontifex maximus until his death, a title emperors bore as heads of the pagan priesthood, as would his Christian successors on to Gratian (r.
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^ He also realized the empire was too vast for one man to rule and instituted the sharing of imperial power, which lasted until Constantine became sole emperor in 324.
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375–83). .According to Christian writers, Constantine was over 40 when he finally declared himself a Christian, writing to Christians to make clear that he believed he owed his successes to the protection of the Christian High God alone.^ According to Christian writers, Constantine was over 40 when he finally declared himself a Christian, writing to Christians to make clear that he believed he owed his successes to the protection of the Christian High God alone.
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^ According to a number of historians and researchers, this is the god Constantine embraced with the omen at the Milvian Bridge (the deity of this omen was not publicly identified at the time): a syncretic sun god, Sol Invictus , with relations to Mithraism , which had many common points with Christianity.
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^ From 312-320 Constantine was tolerant of paganism, keeping pagan gods on coins and retaining his pagan high priest title "Pontifex Maximus" in order to maintain popularity with his subjects, possibly indicating that he never understood the theology of Christianity.
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[198] .Throughout his rule, Constantine supported the Church financially, built basilicas, granted privileges to clergy (e.g.^ Throughout his rule, Constantine supported the Church financially, built basilicas, granted privileges to clergy (e.g.
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^ In the years 325-337 Constantine continued his support of the church even more vigorously than before, both by generous gifts of money and by specific legislation.
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^ In the likeness of Apollo Constantine recognized himself as the saving figure to whom would be granted "rule of the whole world", [ 105 ] as the poet Virgil had once foretold.
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exemption from certain taxes), promoted .Christians to high office, and returned property confiscated during the Diocletianic persecution.^ Christians to high office, and returned property confiscated during the Diocletianic persecution.
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^ The document had special benefits for Christians, legalizing their religion and granting them restoration for all property seized during Diocletian's persecution.
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^ In 313 Constantine announced toleration of Christianity in the Edict of Milan , which removed penalties for professing Christianity (under which many had been martyred in previous persecutions of Christians ) and returned confiscated Church property.
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[199] .His most famous building projects include the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, and Old Saint Peter's Basilica.^ His most famous building projects include the Church of the Holy Sepulchre , and Old Saint Peter's Basilica .
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^ Christians were preferred for high government positions; the Church was granted various special privileges; and churches like the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem were constructed.
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^ She played a role in the building of the Church of the Nativity at Bethlehem and the Church of the Eleona on Jerusalem's Mount of Olives; [[30]] but the Church of the Holy Sepulcher seems to have been an undertaking of Constantine alone.
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.Constantine did not patronize Christianity alone, however.^ Constantine did not patronize Christianity alone, however.
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^ In fact, the Christian church did not pull away from Saturday Sabbath-observance in exchange for Sunday Lord's-Day-observance until the reign of Constantine.
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^ The destruction did not end there, however, as the ruination of literacy and history became an all-consuming Christian pursuit.
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.After gaining victory in the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, a triumphal arch—the Arch of Constantine—was built to celebrate; the arch is decorated with images of Victoria and sacrifices to gods like Apollo, Diana, or Hercules, but contains no Christian symbolism.^ After gaining victory in the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, a triumphal arch—the Arch of Constantine —was built to celebrate; the arch is decorated with images of Victoria and sacrifices to gods like Apollo , Diana , or Hercules , but contains no Christian symbolism.
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^ Although no contemporary Christian challenged Constantine for his inaction during the persecutions, it remained a political liability throughout his life.
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^ The Battle of the Milvian Bridge by Giulio Romano Constantine deployed his own forces along the whole length of Maxentius' line.
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.In 321, Constantine instructed that Christians and non-Christians should be united in observing the "venerable day of the sun", referencing the esoteric eastern sun-worship which Aurelian had helped introduce, and his coinage still carried the symbols of the sun-cult until 324. Even after the pagan gods had disappeared from the coinage, Christian symbols appear only as Constantine's personal attributes: the chi rho between his hands or on his labarum, but never on the coin itself.^ In 321, Constantine instructed that Christians and non-Christians should be united in observing the "venerable day of the sun", referencing the esoteric eastern sun-worship which Aurelian had helped introduce, and his coinage still carried the symbols of the sun-cult until 324.
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^ It was decreed the venerable day of the sun, and work was forbidden on it by the Roman emperor Constantine in A.D. 321.
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^ Even after the pagan gods had disappeared from the coinage, Christian symbols appear only as Constantine's personal attributes: the chi rho between his hands or on his labarum , but never on the coin itself.
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[200] .Even when Constantine dedicated the new capital of Constantinople, which became the seat of Byzantine Christianity for a millennium, he did so wearing the Apollonian sun-rayed Diadem.^ Even when Constantine dedicated the new capital of Constantinople, which became the seat of Byzantine Christianity for a millennium, he did so wearing the Apollonian sun-rayed Diadem .
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^ Even Christian skeptics have accepted this formulation, though seeing Constantine's policy as a political rather than spiritual move.
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^ A few weeks weeks later, on the day of Pentecost, 22 May, Constantine died at Nicomedia, still wearing the white robes of a Christian neophyte.
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Constantine burning Arian books
.The reign of Constantine established a precedent for the position of the emperor in the Christian Church.^ Constantine burning Arian books The reign of Constantine established a precedent for the position of the emperor in the Christian Church.
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^ Constantine is also remembered as the first Roman emperor who embraced Christianity and instituted the buildings and papal dynasty that eventually grew into what is today the Vatican and the Pope.

^ In fact, the Christian church did not pull away from Saturday Sabbath-observance in exchange for Sunday Lord's-Day-observance until the reign of Constantine.
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.Constantine himself disliked the risks to societal stability, that religious disputes and controversies brought with them, preferring where possible to establish an orthodoxy.^ Constantine himself disliked the risks to societal stability, that religious disputes and controversies brought with them, preferring where possible to establish an orthodoxy.
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^ WITH respect to the Sarmatians, God himself brought them beneath the rule of Constantine, and subdued a nation swelling with barbaric pride in the following manner.
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[201] .The emperor saw it as his duty to ensure that God was properly worshipped in his empire, and what proper worship consisted of was for the Church to determine.^ The emperor saw it as his duty to ensure that God was properly worshipped in his empire, and what proper worship consisted of was for the Church to determine.
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^ Also from infancy, children should be taught the importance of church attendance, that true Sabbath observance involves going to God's house for worship and Bible study.
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^ For the worship of the Roman Emperor as a god , see imperial cult .
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[202] .In 316, Constantine acted as a judge in a North African dispute concerning the validity of Donatism.^ In 316, Constantine acted as a judge in a North African dispute concerning the validity of Donatism .
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.After deciding against the Donatists, Constantine led an army of Christians against the Donatist Christians.^ After deciding against the Donatists, Constantine led an army of Christians against the Donatist Christians.
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^ Constantine soon heard of the rebellion, abandoned his campaign against the Franks, and marched his army up the Rhine.
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^ In 334, after Sarmatian commoners had overthrown their leaders, Constantine led a campaign against the tribe.
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.After 300 years of pacifism, this was the first intra-Christian persecution.^ After 300 years of pacifism, this was the first intra-Christian persecution.
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^ For the older emperors, for some unknown reason, resigned their power; and this sudden change took place in the first year after their persecution of the churches.
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.More significantly, in 325 he summoned the Council of Nicaea, effectively the first Ecumenical Council (unless the Council of Jerusalem is so classified), Nicaea was to deal mostly with the heresy of Arianism.^ Constantine presided over the first ecumenical council of the Christian church at Nicaea (325), which condemned Arianism.
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^ Constantine then summoned what has become known as the First Ecumenical Council of the church.
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^ More significantly, in 325 he summoned the Council of Nicaea , effectively the first Ecumenical Council (unless the Council of Jerusalem is so classified), Nicaea was to deal mostly with the heresy of Arianism .
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.Constantine also enforced the prohibition of the First Council of Nicaea against celebrating the Lord's Supper on the day before the Jewish Passover (14 Nisan) (see Quartodecimanism and Easter controversy).^ "On the first day of the week, we gathered to observe the Lord's Supper.
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^ Constantine also enforced the prohibition of the First Council of Nicaea against celebrating Easter on the day before the Jewish Passover (14 Nisan ) (see Quartodecimanism and Easter controversy ).
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^ More significantly, in 325 he summoned the Council of Nicaea , effectively the first Ecumenical Council (unless the Council of Jerusalem is so classified), Nicaea was to deal mostly with the heresy of Arianism .
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[203]
.Constantine made new laws regarding the Jews.^ Constantine made new laws regarding the Jews .
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^ The new ideology expressed in the speech made Galerius and Maximian irrelevant to Constantine's right to rule.
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^ If the law could have given us new life, we could have been made right with God by obeying it.
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.They were forbidden to own Christian slaves or to circumcise their slaves.^ They were forbidden to own Christian slaves or to circumcise their slaves.
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Administrative reforms

.Since the beginning of the Roman Empire, there was a perennial legitimacy issue about imperial rule in that the bureaucratic hierarchy of administrative posts around the Emperor, held mostly by members of the Equestrian order who had actual power but held relative lower social status, was opposed to the old political hierarchy of Roman magistratures (cursus honorum) inherited from the Old Republic and giving entrance into the Roman Senate, such magistratures, however, being progressively emptied of actual power and becoming mere social (and avidly sought) distinctions.^ Since the beginning of the Roman Empire, there was a perennial legitimacy issue about imperial rule in that the bureaucratic hierarchy of administrative posts around the Emperor, held mostly by members of the Equestrian order who had actual power but held relative lower social status, was opposed to the old political hierarchy of Roman magistratures ( cursus honorum ) inherited from the Old Republic and giving entrance into the Roman Senate , such magistratures, however, being progressively emptied of actual power and becoming mere social (and avidly sought) distinctions.
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^ In 326, Constantine tried to fill this rift by making all holders of top administrative positions senators; one could become a senator, either by being elected praetor or (in most cases) by fulfilling a function of senatorial rank [ 203 ] : from then on, holding of actual power and social status were melded together into a joint imperial hierarchy; at the same time, Constantine gained with this the support of the old nobility [ 204 ] , as the Senate was allowed to elect itself praetors and quaestors , in place of the usual practice of the Emperors directly creating new magistrates ( adlectio ).
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^ The Senate as a body remained devoid of any significant power; nevertheless, the senators, who had been marginalized as potential holders of imperial functions during the Third Century, could now dispute such positions alongside more upstart bureaucrats.
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.In 326, Constantine tried to fill this rift by making all holders of top administrative positions senators; one could become a senator, either by being elected praetor or (in most cases) by fulfilling a function of senatorial rank:[204] from then on, holding of actual power and social status were melded together into a joint imperial hierarchy; at the same time, Constantine gained with this the support of the old nobility,[205] as the Senate was allowed to elect itself praetors and quaestors, in place of the usual practice of the emperors directly creating new magistrates (adlectio).^ In 326, Constantine tried to fill this rift by making all holders of top administrative positions senators; one could become a senator, either by being elected praetor or (in most cases) by fulfilling a function of senatorial rank [ 203 ] : from then on, holding of actual power and social status were melded together into a joint imperial hierarchy; at the same time, Constantine gained with this the support of the old nobility [ 204 ] , as the Senate was allowed to elect itself praetors and quaestors , in place of the usual practice of the Emperors directly creating new magistrates ( adlectio ).
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^ In 326, Constantine tried to fill this rift by making all holders of top administrative positions senators; one could become a senator, either by being elected praetor or (in most cases) by fulfilling a function of senatorial rank: [ 204 ] from then on, holding of actual power and social status were melded together into a joint imperial hierarchy; at the same time, Constantine gained with this the support of the old nobility, [ 205 ] as the Senate was allowed to elect itself praetors and quaestors , in place of the usual practice of the emperors directly creating new magistrates ( adlectio ).
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^ It is not the Sabbath for all of us at the same time.
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.In one inscription in honor of city prefect (336–37) Ceionius Rufus Albinus, it was written that Constantine had restored the Senate "the auctoritas it had lost at Caesar's time".[206] The Senate as a body remained devoid of any significant power; nevertheless, the senators, who had been marginalized as potential holders of imperial functions during the Third Century, could now dispute such positions alongside more upstart bureaucrats.^ The Senate as a body remained devoid of any significant power; nevertheless, the senators, who had been marginalized as potential holders of imperial functions during the Third Century, could now dispute such positions alongside more upstart bureaucrats.
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^ In one inscription in honor of City Prefect (336–337) Ceionius Rufus Albinus ( ILS 1222), it was written that Constantine had restored the Senate "the auctoritas it had lost at Caesar's time" [ 205 ] .
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^ In one inscription in honor of city prefect (336–37) Ceionius Rufus Albinus, it was written that Constantine had restored the Senate "the auctoritas it had lost at Caesar's time".
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[207] .Some modern historians see in those administrative reforms an attempt by Constantine at reintegrating the Senatorial Order into the imperial administrative elite to counter the possibility of alienating pagan senators from a Christianized imperial rule/[208] It must be noted that Constantine's reforms had to do only with the civilian administration: the military chiefs, who since the Crisis of the Third Century were mostly rank-and-file upstarts,[209] remained outside the Senate, in which they were included only by Constantine's children.^ Some modern historians see in those administrative reforms an attempt by Constantine at reintegrating the Senatorial Order into the imperial administrative elite in order to counter the possibility of alienating pagan senators from a Christianized imperial rule [ 207 ] .
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^ Some modern historians see in those administrative reforms an attempt by Constantine at reintegrating the Senatorial Order into the imperial administrative elite to counter the possibility of alienating pagan senators from a Christianized imperial rule/ [ 208 ] It must be noted that Constantine's reforms had to do only with the civilian administration: the military chiefs, who since the Crisis of the Third Century were mostly rank-and-file upstarts, [ 209 ] remained outside the Senate, in which they were included only by Constantine's children.
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^ It must be noted that Constantine's reforms had to do only with the civilian administration: the military chiefs, who since the Crisis of the Third Century were mostly rank-and-file upstarts [ 208 ] , remained outside the Senate, in which they were included only by Constantine's children [ 209 ] .
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[210]

Monetary reforms

.After the runaway inflation of the third century, associated with the production of fiat money to pay for public expenses, Diocletian had tried to reestablish trustworthy minting of silver and billon coins.^ After the runaway inflation of the Third Century, associated to the emission of fiat money in order to pay for public expenses, Diocletian had tried to reestablish trutstworthy emissions of silver and billon coins.
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^ After the runaway inflation of the third century , associated with the production of fiat money to pay for public expenses, Diocletian had tried to reestablish trustworthy minting of silver and billon coins.
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^ Later emperors like Julian the Apostate tried to present themselves as advocates of the humiles by insisting on trustworthy mintings of the copper currency.
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.Constantine forsook this conservative monetary policy, preferring instead to concentrate on minting large quantities of good standard gold pieces—the solidus, 72 of which made a pound of gold, the standard of silver and billon pieces being further degraded to assure the possibility of keeping fiduciary minting alongside a gold standard.^ Constantine forsook this conservative monetary policy, preferring instead to concentrate on the emission in large quantities of good standard gold pieces – the solidus , 72 of which made a pound of gold, the standard of silver and billon pieces being further degraded in order to assure the possibility of keeping fiduciary emissions alongside the existence of a gold standard.
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^ Constantine forsook this conservative monetary policy, preferring instead to concentrate on minting large quantities of good standard gold pieces—the solidus , 72 of which made a pound of gold, the standard of silver and billon pieces being further degraded to assure the possibility of keeping fiduciary minting alongside a gold standard.
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^ The anonymous author of the possibly-contemporary treatise on military affairs De Rebus Bellicis held that, as a consequence of this monetary policy, the rift between classes widened: the rich benefited from the stability in purchasing power of the gold piece, while the poor had to cope with ever-degrading billon pieces.
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.The anonymous author of the possibly-contemporary treatise on military affairs De Rebus Bellicis held that, as a consequence of this monetary policy, the rift between classes widened: the rich benefited from the stability in purchasing power of the gold piece, while the poor had to cope with ever-degrading billon pieces.^ The anonymous author of the possibly-contemporary treatise on military affairs De Rebus Bellicis held that, as a consequence of this monetary policy, the rift between classes widened: the rich benefited from the stability in purchasing power of the gold piece, while the poor had to cope with ever-degrading billon pieces.
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^ Such a policy had as its consequence the widening of a rift between classes, the rich benefitting from the stability in purchasing power of the gold piece, while the poor had to cope with ever-degrading billon pieces [ 210 ] .
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^ De Rebus Bellicis ( On Military Matters ) fourth/fifth century.
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[211] .Later emperors like Julian the Apostate tried to present themselves as advocates of the humiles by insisting on trustworthy mintings of the copper currency.^ Later emperors like Julian the Apostate tried to present themselves as advocates of the humiles by insisting on trustworthy mintings of the copper currency.
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^ Julian II (The Apostate) Ae Heraclea mint.
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^ Julian II (The Apostate) Heraclea mint.
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[212]

Executions of Crispus and Fausta

.On some date between 15 May and 17 June 326, Constantine had his eldest son Crispus, by Minervina, seized and put to death by "cold poison" at Pola (Pula, Croatia).^ On some date between 15 May and 17 June 326, Constantine had his eldest son Crispus , by Minervina, seized and put to death by "cold poison" at Pola ( Pula , Croatia ).
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^ He left behind several sons who would, after his death, turn on each other and generally undo much of the stability that Constantine had fought so hard to bring about.

^ It was the last marriage between a son of a British Sovereign and a member of a foreign royal house to date.

[213] .In July, Constantine had his wife, the Empress Fausta, killed at the behest of his mother, Helena.^ In July, Constantine had his wife, the Empress Fausta , killed at the behest of his mother, Helena.
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^ A popular myth arose, modified to allude to Hippolytus – Phaedra legend, with the suggestion that Constantine killed Crispus and Fausta for their immoralities.
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^ Fausta, first wife of Constantine I, died AD 326, AE3.
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.Fausta was left to die in an over-heated bath.^ Fausta was left to die in an over-heated bath.
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[214] .Their names were wiped from the face of many inscriptions, references to their lives in the literary record were erased, and the memory of both was condemned.^ Their names were wiped from the face of many inscriptions, references to their lives in the literary record were erased, and the memory of both was condemned.
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^ To be murdered in his own palace was not vengeance ample enough: the very memory of his name was erased.
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Eusebius, for example, edited praise of Crispus out of later copies of his Historia Ecclesiastica, and his Vita Constantini contains no mention of Fausta or Crispus at all.[215] .Few ancient sources are willing to discuss possible motives for the events; those few that do offer unconvincing rationales, are of later provenance, and are generally unreliable.^ Few ancient sources are willing to discuss possible motives for the events; those few that do offer unconvincing rationales, are of later provenance, and are generally unreliable.
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^ CHAPTER XVI: How Constantius, feigning Idolatry, expelled those who consented to offer Sacrifice, but retained in his Palace all who were willing to confess Christ.
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.At the time of the executions, it was commonly believed that the Empress Fausta was either in an illicit relationship with Crispus, or was spreading rumors to that effect.^ At the time of the executions, it was commonly believed that the Empress Fausta was either in an illicit relationship with Crispus, or was spreading rumors to that effect.
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.A popular myth arose, modified to allude to HippolytusPhaedra legend, with the suggestion that Constantine killed Crispus and Fausta for their immoralities.^ A popular myth arose, modified to allude to Hippolytus – Phaedra legend, with the suggestion that Constantine killed Crispus and Fausta for their immoralities.
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^ As an interpretation of the executions, the myth rests on only "the slimmest of evidence": sources that allude to the relationship between Crispus and Fausta are late and unreliable, and the modern suggestion that Constantine's "godly" edicts of 326 and the irregularities of Crispus are somehow connected rests on no evidence at all.
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^ In July, Constantine had his wife, the Empress Fausta , killed at the behest of his mother, Helena.
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[216] .One source, the largely fictional Passion of Artemius, probably penned in the eighth century by John of Damascus, makes the legendary connection explicit.^ One source, the largely fictional Passion of Artemius , probably penned in the eighth century by John of Damascus , makes the legendary connection explicit.
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^ His extended account is therefore of great value among the sources, and especially as it is probably drawn in large measure from the earlier lost work of Eunapius.

[217] .As an interpretation of the executions, the myth rests on only "the slimmest of evidence": sources that allude to the relationship between Crispus and Fausta are late and unreliable, and the modern suggestion that Constantine's "godly" edicts of 326 and the irregularities of Crispus are somehow connected rests on no evidence at all.^ As an interpretation of the executions, the myth rests on only "the slimmest of evidence": sources that allude to the relationship between Crispus and Fausta are late and unreliable, and the modern suggestion that Constantine's "godly" edicts of 326 and the irregularities of Crispus are somehow connected rests on no evidence at all.
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^ A popular myth arose, modified to allude to Hippolytus – Phaedra legend, with the suggestion that Constantine killed Crispus and Fausta for their immoralities.
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^ Modern interpretations of Constantine's rule begin with Jacob Burckhardt 's The Age of Constantine the Great (1853, rev. Burckhardt's Constantine is a scheming secularist, a politician who manipulates all parties in a quest to secure his own power.
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[216].
.Although Constantine created his apparent heirs "Caesars", following a pattern established by Diocletian, he gave his creations an hereditary character, alien to the tetrarchic system: Constantine's Caesars were to be kept in the hope of ascending to Empire, and entirely subordinated to their Augustus, as long as he was alive[218].^ Although Constantine created his apparent heirs "Caesars", following a pattern established by Diocletian, he gave his creations an hereditary character, alien to the tetrarchic system: Constantine's Caesars were to be kept in the hope of ascending to Empire, and entirely subordinated to their Augustus, as long as he was alive [ 218 ] .
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^ Because Diocletian did not completely trust Constantius—none of the Tetrarchs fully trusted their colleagues—Constantine was held as something of a hostage, a tool to ensure Constantius' best behaviour.
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^ Roman Empire, Constantine II (337-40 AD), bronze AE3, struck as Caesar in 322 AD, Treveri (Trier) mint, second off.
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.Therefore, an alternative explanation for the execution of Crispus was, perhaps, Constantine's desire to keep a firm grip on his prospective heirs, this - and Fausta's desire for having her sons inheriting instead of their step-brother - being reason enough for killing Crispus; the subsequent execution of Fausta, however, was probably meant as a reminder to her children that Constantine would not hesitate in "killing his own relatives when he felt this was necessary"[219].^ Therefore, an alternative explanation for the execution of Crispus was, perhaps, Constantine's desire to keep a firm grip on his prospective heirs, this - and Fausta's desire for having her sons inheriting instead of their step-brother - being reason enough for killing Crispus; the subsequent execution of Fausta, however, was probably meant as a reminder to her children that Constantine would not hesitate in "killing his own relatives when he felt this was necessary" [ 219 ] .
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^ A popular myth arose, modified to allude to Hippolytus – Phaedra legend, with the suggestion that Constantine killed Crispus and Fausta for their immoralities.
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^ Another aspect of Constantine that might indicate an incomplete acceptance of Christianity (from a modern view) was his notorious cruelty: he executed his own wife and eldest son in 326 for unknown reasons.
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Later campaigns

.Constantine considered Constantinople as his capital and permanent residence.^ Constantine considered Constantinople as his capital and permanent residence.
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^ Constantine also transformed the ancient Greek colony of Byzantium into a new imperial residence, Constantinople , which would remain the capital of the Byzantine Empire for over one thousand years.
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^ Even when Constantine dedicated the new capital of Constantinople, which became the seat of Byzantine Christianity for a millennium, he did so wearing the Apollonian sun-rayed Diadem .
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.He lived there for a good portion of his later life.^ He lived there for a good portion of his later life.
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^ On judgment day there will be a final conflict between Good and Evil - The forces of Evil will be destroyed and the saved will live in paradise forever -.
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.He rebuilt Trajan's bridge across the Danube, in hopes of reconquering Dacia, a province that had been abandoned under Aurelian.^ He rebuilt Trajan's bridge across the Danube, in hopes of reconquering Dacia , a province that had been abandoned under Aurelian.
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^ In fact, by 336, Constantine had actually reoccupied most of the long-lost province of Dacia , which Aurelian had been forced to abandon in 271.
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^ By 336, Constantine had reoccupied most of the long-lost province of Dacia , which Aurelian had been forced to abandon in 271.
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.In the late winter of 332, Constantine campaigned with the Sarmatians against the Goths.^ In the late winter of 332, Constantine campaigned with the Sarmatians against the Goths.
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^ One of the great Roman emperors, Constantine rose to power when his father Constantius Chlorus died in the year 306 while campaigning against Scottish tribes.

^ To prevent Maxentius from forming an alliance against him with Licinius, [ 120 ] Constantine forged his own alliance with Licinius over the winter of 311–12, and offered him his sister Constantia in marriage.
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.The weather and a lack of food did the Goths in; nearly one hundred thousand died before they submitted to Roman lordship.^ The weather and a lack of food did the Goths in; nearly one hundred thousand died before they submitted to Roman lordship.
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^ A body dragged from Soar and initially believed to be Richard was later found to be an Anglo-Saxon warrior who died nearly 500 years before Richard was killed.
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^ My one command to them was this: Listen to my voice, then I will be your God and you shall be my people...but they did not listen."
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.In 334, after Sarmatian commoners had overthrown their leaders, Constantine led a campaign against the tribe.^ In 334, after Sarmatian commoners had overthrown their leaders, Constantine led a campaign against the tribe.
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^ In the late winter of 332, Constantine campaigned with the Sarmatians against the Goths.
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^ One of the great Roman emperors, Constantine rose to power when his father Constantius Chlorus died in the year 306 while campaigning against Scottish tribes.

.He won a victory in the war and extended his control over the region, as remains of camps and fortifications in the region indicate.^ He won a victory in the war and extended his control over the region, as remains of camps and fortifications in the region indicate.
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.Constantine resettled some Sarmatian exiles as farmers in the Balkans and Italy, and conscripted the rest into the army.^ Constantine resettled some Sarmatian exiles as farmers in the Balkans and Italy, and conscripted the rest into the army.
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^ CONSTANTINE: Then I went into exile in Italy.
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^ Three smaller peninsulas ( Iberia , Italy and the Balkans ) emerge from the southern margin of the mainland into the Mediterranean Sea , which separates Europe from Africa .
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Constantine took the title Dacius maximus in 336.[220]
.In the last years of his life Constantine made plans for a campaign against Persia.^ In the last years of his life Constantine made plans for a campaign against Persia.
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^ Constantine then resolved to campaign against Persia himself.
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^ One of the great Roman emperors, Constantine rose to power when his father Constantius Chlorus died in the year 306 while campaigning against Scottish tribes.

.In a letter written to the king of Persia, Shapur, Constantine had asserted his patronage over Persia's Christian subjects and urged Shapur to treat them well.^ In a letter written to the king of Persia, Shapur, Constantine had asserted his patronage over Persia's Christian subjects and urged Shapur to treat them well.
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^ The king of Morocco and the king of Egypt, unwilling that Sabra should marry a Christian, sent St. George to Persia, and directed the "sophy" to kill him.

^ Persia Constantine and Early Christian History We know from the bible that early Christians were given the mandate to go out and evangelize the World.

[221] The letter is undatable. .In response to border raids, Constantine sent Constantius to guard the eastern frontier in 335. In 336, prince Narseh invaded Armenia (a Christian kingdom since 301) and installed a Persian client on the throne.^ In 336, prince Narseh invaded Armenia (a Christian kingdom since 314) and installed a Persian client on the throne.
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^ In response to border raids, Constantine sent Constantius to guard the eastern frontier in 335.
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^ Constantius, having become exceedingly ill, wrote to Galerius, and requested that his son Constantine might be sent to see him.
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.Constantine then resolved to campaign against Persia himself.^ Constantine then resolved to campaign against Persia himself.
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^ In 334, after Sarmatian commoners had overthrown their leaders, Constantine led a campaign against the tribe.
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^ In the last years of his life Constantine made plans for a campaign against Persia.
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.He treated the war as a Christian crusade, calling for bishops to accompany the army and commissioning a tent in the shape of a church to follow him everywhere.^ He treated the war as a Christian crusade, calling for bishops to accompany the army and commissioning a tent in the shape of a church to follow him everywhere.
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^ Mentions the foundation of a city, the vision of the cross, the Scythian wars, and burial in the Church of the Apostles at Constantinople, and characterizes him as “among emperors the one renowned in story” (8.

^ Full of joy at this answer to his request, he unfolded to them his projected line of march; (1) after which he caused a tent of great splendor, representing in shape the figure of a church, to be prepared for his own use in the approaching war.
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.Constantine planned to be baptized in the Jordan River before crossing into Persia.^ Constantine planned to be baptized in the Jordan River before crossing into Persia.
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^ He summoned the bishops, and told them of his hope to be baptized in the River Jordan , where Christ was written to have been baptized.
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^ In the last years of his life Constantine made plans for a campaign against Persia.
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.Persian diplomats came to Constantinople over the winter of 336–7, seeking peace, but Constantine turned them away.^ Persian diplomats came to Constantinople over the winter of 336–7, seeking peace, but Constantine turned them away.
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The campaign was called off however, when Constantine fell sick in the spring of 337.[222]

Sickness and death

.Constantine had known death would soon come.^ Constantine had known death would soon come.
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^ He left behind several sons who would, after his death, turn on each other and generally undo much of the stability that Constantine had fought so hard to bring about.

^ And I wish them all the best, and I hope that they come and live with us here in England soon, because I would want to be closer to my grandchildren.
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.Within the Church of the Holy Apostles, Constantine had secretly prepared a final resting-place for himself.^ Within the Church of the Holy Apostles, Constantine had secretly prepared a final resting-place for himself.
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^ The final resting place of Spanish dictator General Francisco Franco is to be opened and the remains of some of those who were killed by his fascist forces returned to their relatives.
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^ The place itself we have directed to be adorned with an unpolluted structure, I mean a church; in order that it may become a fitting place of assembly for holy men.
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[223] .It came sooner than he had expected.^ It came sooner than he had expected.
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.Soon after the Feast of Easter 337, Constantine fell seriously ill.^ Soon after the Feast of Easter 337, Constantine fell seriously ill.
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^ Constantine died soon after at a suburban villa called Achyron, on the last day of the fifty-day festival of Pentecost directly following Easter, on 22 May 337.
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^ The campaign was called off however, when Constantine fell sick in the Spring of 337.
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[224] .He left Constantinople for the hot baths near his mother's city of Helenopolis (Altinova), on the southern shores of the Gulf of İzmit.^ He left Constantinople for the hot baths near his mother's city of Helenopolis (Altinova), on the southern shores of the Gulf of İzmit.
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^ In consequence of this he visited the hot baths of his own city; and thence proceeded to that which bore the name of his mother.
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.There, in a church his mother built in honor of Lucian the Apostle, he prayed, and there he realized that he was dying.^ There, in a church his mother built in honor of Lucian the Apostle, he prayed, and there he realized that he was dying.
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^ Reichsminister for Church Affairs Hans Kerrl announced: "There has arisen a new authority as to what Christ and Christianity really are-that is Adolf Hitler.
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^ Constantine built the new Church of the Holy Apostles on the site of a temple to Aphrodite .
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.Seeking purification, he became a catechumen, and attempted a return to Constantinople, making it only as far as a suburb of Nicomedia.^ Seeking purification, he became a catechumen , and attempted a return to Constantinople, making it only as far as a suburb of Nicomedia.
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^ After this he proceeded as far as the suburbs of Nicomedia, and there, having summoned the bishops to meet him, addressed them in the following words.
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[225] .He summoned the bishops, and told them of his hope to be baptized in the River Jordan, where Christ was written to have been baptized.^ He summoned the bishops, and told them of his hope to be baptized in the River Jordan , where Christ was written to have been baptized.
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^ Constantine planned to be baptized in the Jordan River before crossing into Persia.
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.He requested the baptism right away, promising to live a more Christian life should he live through his illness.^ He requested the baptism right away, promising to live a more Christian life should he live through his illness.
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^ Through discussions, as the children grow older and more mature, and through Bible study, the children should be taught the meaning of the Sabbath, its relationship to Christian living, and the enduring quality of the Sabbath.
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^ He promised to obtain for her a more honourable alliance than that with Constantine; and he requested her to allow the bed-chamber of the emperor to be left open, and to be slightly guarded.
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.The bishops, Eusebius records, "performed the sacred ceremonies according to custom".[226] He chose the Arianizing bishop Eusebius of Nicomedia, bishop of the city where he lay dying, as his baptizer.^ He chose the Arianizing bishop Eusebius of Nicomedia , bishop of the city where he lay dying, as his baptizer.
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^ The bishops, Eusebius records, "performed the sacred ceremonies according to custom".
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^ Such honor did the youthful emperor Constantius render to his deceased parent, both by his presence, and by the due performance of this sacred ceremony.
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[227] .In postponing his baptism, he followed one custom at the time which postponed baptism until old age or death.^ In postponing his baptism, he followed one custom at the time which postponed baptism until old age or death.
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^ For we have it in our power, if we abandon their custom, to prolong the due observance of this ordinance to future ages, by a truer order, which we have preserved from the very day of the passion until the present time.
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^ This discussion is an age old one of what is faith and what is works.
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[228] .It was thought Constantine put off baptism as long as he did so as to be absolved from as much of his sin as possible.^ It was thought Constantine put off baptism as long as he did so as to be absolved from as much of his sin as possible.
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[229] Constantine died soon after at a suburban villa called Achyron, on the last day of the fifty-day festival of Pentecost directly following Easter, on 22 May 337.[230]
The Baptism of Constantine, as imagined by students of Raphael
.Although Constantine's death follows the conclusion of the Persian campaign in Eusebius's account, most other sources report his death as occurring in its middle.^ The Baptism of Constantine , as imagined by students of Raphael Although Constantine's death follows the conclusion of the Persian campaign in Eusebius's account, most other sources report his death as occurring in its middle.
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^ He left behind several sons who would, after his death, turn on each other and generally undo much of the stability that Constantine had fought so hard to bring about.

^ And while he was thus praying with fervent entreaty, a most marvelous sign appeared to him from heaven, the account of which it might have been hard to believe had it been related by any other person.
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.Emperor Julian, writing in the mid-350s, observes that the Sassanians escaped punishment for their ill-deeds, because Constantine died "in the middle of his preparations for war".[231] Similar accounts are given in the Origo Constantini, an anonymous document composed while Constantine was still living, and which has Constantine dying in Nicomedia;[232] the Historiae abbreviatae of Sextus Aurelius Victor, written in 361, which has Constantine dying at an estate near Nicomedia called Achyrona while marching against the Persians;[233] and the Breviarium of Eutropius, a handbook compiled in 369 for the Emperor Valens, which has Constantine dying in a nameless state villa in Nicomedia.^ Emperor Julian , writing in the mid-350s, observes that the Sassanians escaped punishment for their ill-deeds, because Constantine died "in the middle of his preparations for war".
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^ Sextus Aurelius Victor, Historiae abbreviatae XLI.16.
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^ Similar accounts are given in the Origo Constantini , an anonymous document composed while Constantine was still living, and which has Constantine dying in Nicomedia; [ 232 ] the Historiae abbreviatae of Sextus Aurelius Victor, written in 361, which has Constantine dying at an estate near Nicomedia called Achyrona while marching against the Persians; [ 233 ] and the Breviarium of Eutropius, a handbook compiled in 369 for the Emperor Valens , which has Constantine dying in a nameless state villa in Nicomedia.
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[234] .From these and other accounts, some have concluded that Eusebius's Vita was edited to defend Constantine's reputation against what Eusebius saw as a less congenial version of the campaign.^ From these and other accounts, some have concluded that Eusebius's Vita was edited to defend Constantine's reputation against what Eusebius saw as a less congenial version of the campaign.
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^ Constantine, with a spirit that left a deep impression on his followers, inspiring some to believe that he had some form of supernatural guidance, [ 125 ] ignored all these cautions.
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^ Constantine, with a spirit that left a deep impression on his followers, inspiring some to believe that he had some form of supernatural guidance, [ 126 ] ignored all these cautions.
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[235]
.
The Constantinian dynasty down to Gratian (r.
^ The Constantinian dynasty down to Gratian (r.
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367–383)
.Following his death, his body was transferred to Constantinople and buried in the Church of the Holy Apostles there.^ Following his death, his body was transferred to Constantinople and buried in the Church of the Holy Apostles there.
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^ On the arrival of the procession at the church dedicated to the apostles of our Saviour, the coffin was there entombed.
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^ Within the Church of the Holy Apostles, Constantine had secretly prepared a final resting-place for himself.
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[236] .He was succeeded by his three sons born of Fausta, Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans.^ He was succeeded by his three sons born of Fausta, Constantine II , Constantius II and Constans .
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^ They had their son Constantine, who succeeded his father as King of Britain before becoming Roman Emperor.
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^ CHAPTER XXI: Death of Constantius, who leaves his Son Constantine Emperor.
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.A number of relatives were killed by followers of Constantius, notably Constantine's nephews Dalmatius (who held the rank of Caesar) and Hannibalianus, presumably to eliminate possible contenders to an already complicated succession.^ A number of relatives were killed by followers of Constantius, notably Constantine's nephews Dalmatius (who held the rank of Caesar) and Hannibalianus , presumably to eliminate possible contenders to an already complicated succession.
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^ Because Diocletian did not completely trust Constantius—none of the Tetrarchs fully trusted their colleagues—Constantine was held as something of a hostage, a tool to ensure Constantius' best behaviour.
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^ This law applied also to those who surpassed the provincial governors in rank and dignity, (1) and even to those who occupied the highest station, and held the authority of the Praetorian Praefecture.
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.He also had two daughters, Constantina and Helena, wife of Emperor Julian.^ He also had two daughters, Constantina and Helena , wife of Emperor Julian .
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[237]

Legacy

Bronze head of Constantine, from a colossal statue (4th century).
.Although he earned his honorific of "The Great" ("Μέγας") from Christian historians long after he had died, he could have claimed the title on his military achievements and victories alone.^ Although he earned his honorific of "The Great" ("Μέγας") from Christian historians long after he had died, he could have claimed the title on his military achievements and victories alone.
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^ Although not yet a Christian, he probably judged it a more sensible policy than open persecution, [ 78 ] and a way to distinguish himself from the "great persecutor", Galerius.
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^ English, although the title "King of England" was first adopted, two generations later, by Alfred the Great (ruled 871 – 899 ).
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.Besides reuniting the Empire under one emperor, Constantine won major victories over the Franks and Alamanni in 306–8, the Franks again in 313–14, the Visigoths in 332 and the Sarmatians in 334. By 336, Constantine had reoccupied most of the long-lost province of Dacia, which Aurelian had been forced to abandon in 271. At the time of his death, he was planning a great expedition to end raids on the eastern provinces from the Persian Empire.^ By 336, Constantine had reoccupied most of the long-lost province of Dacia , which Aurelian had been forced to abandon in 271.
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^ Besides reuniting the Empire under one emperor, Constantine won major victories over the Franks and Alamanni in 306–8, the Franks again in 313–14, the Visigoths in 332 and the Sarmatians in 334.
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^ At the time of his death, he was planning a great expedition to put an end to raids on the eastern provinces from the Persian Empire.
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[238]
.The Byzantine Empire considered Constantine its founder and the Holy Roman Empire reckoned him among the venerable figures of its tradition.^ The Byzantine Empire considered Constantine its founder and the Holy Roman Empire reckoned him among the venerable figures of its tradition.
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^ It was decreed the venerable day of the sun, and work was forbidden on it by the Roman emperor Constantine in A.D. 321.
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^ A Letter from Constantine to Shapur II, supposed to have been written in 324 urged him to protect the Christians in his realm… With the edicts of toleration in the Roman empire, the followers of Christ would be regarded as allies of Persia's ancient enemy.
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.In the later Byzantine state, it had become a great honor for an emperor to be hailed as a "new Constantine". Ten emperors, including the last emperor of Byzantium, carried the name.^ Ten emperors, including the last emperor of Byzantium, carried the name.
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^ Niš airport is named Constantine the Great in honor of his birth in Naissus.
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^ In the later Byzantine state, it had become a great honor for an emperor to be hailed as a "new Constantine".
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[239] .Monumental Constantinian forms were used at the court of Charlemagne to suggest that he was Constantine's successor and equal.^ Monumental Constantinian forms were used at the court of Charlemagne to suggest that he was Constantine's successor and equal.
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.Constantine acquired a mythic role as a warrior against "heathens". The motif of the Romanesque equestrian, the mounted figure in the posture of a triumphant Roman emperor, became a visual metaphor in statuary in praise of local benefactors.^ Constantine acquired a mythic role as a warrior against "heathens".
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^ Thus Constantine became the sole emperor of the Roman Empire.
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^ The motif of the Romanesque equestrian, the mounted figure in the posture of a triumphant Roman emperor, came to be used as a visual metaphor in statuary in praise of local benefactors.
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.The name "Constantine" itself enjoyed renewed popularity in western France in the eleventh and twelfth centuries.^ The name "Constantine" itself enjoyed renewed popularity in western France in the eleventh and twelfth centuries.
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[240] .Most Eastern Christian churches consider Constantine a saint (Άγιος Κωνσταντίνος, Saint Constantine).^ Most Eastern Christian churches consider Constantine a saint (Άγιος Κωνσταντίνος, Saint Constantine).
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^ In fact, the Christian church did not pull away from Saturday Sabbath-observance in exchange for Sunday Lord's-Day-observance until the reign of Constantine.
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^ Constantine is perhaps best known for being the first Christian Roman emperor; his reign was certainly a turning point for the Christian Church.
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[241] .In the Byzantine Church he was called isapostolos (Ισαπόστολος Κωνσταντίνος)—an equal of the Apostles.^ In the Byzantine Church he was called isapostolos (Ισαπόστολος Κωνσταντίνος)—an equal of the Apostles .
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[242] .Niš airport is named Constantine the Great in honor of his birth in Naissus.^ Niš airport is named Constantine the Great in honor of his birth in Naissus.
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^ In the later Byzantine state, it had become a great honor for an emperor to be hailed as a "new Constantine".
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^ His statue was erected along with theirs in every province; and the name of Constantine was owned and honored even after the close of his mortal life.
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Historiography

.During his life and those of his sons, Constantine was presented as a paragon of virtue.^ During his life and those of his sons, Constantine was presented as a paragon of virtue.
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^ Although no contemporary Christian challenged Constantine for his inaction during the persecutions, it remained a political liability throughout his life.
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^ CHAPTER XLVII: How Constantine buried his Mother, and how he honored her during her Life.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Eusebius of Caesarea: Life of Constantine 12 September 2009 6:59 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Even pagans like Praxagoras of Athens and Libanius showered him with praise.^ Even pagans like Praxagoras of Athens and Libanius showered him with praise.
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.When the last of his sons died in 361, however, his nephew Julian the Apostate wrote the satire Symposium, or the Saturnalia, which denigrated Constantine, calling him inferior to the great pagan emperors, and given over to luxury and greed.^ When the last of his sons died in 361, however, his nephew Julian the Apostate wrote the satire Symposium, or the Saturnalia , which denigrated Constantine, calling him inferior to the great pagan emperors, and given over to luxury and greed.
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^ Constantine died soon after at a suburban villa called Achyron, on the last day of the fifty-day festival of Pentecost directly following Easter, on 22 May 337.
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^ Later emperors like Julian the Apostate tried to present themselves as advocates of the humiles by insisting on trustworthy mintings of the copper currency.
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[243] .Following Julian, Eunapius began—and Zosimus continued—a historiographic tradition that blamed Constantine for weakening the Empire through his indulgence to the Christians.^ Following Julian, Eunapius began—and Zosimus continued—a historiographic tradition that blamed Constantine for weakening the Empire through his indulgence to the Christians.
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^ Following Julian, Eunapius of Sardis began a historiographic tradition that blamed Constantine for weakening the Empire through his indulgence to the Christians.
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^ Beginning with Norman H. Baynes ' Constantine the Great and the Christian Church (1929) and reinforced by Andreas Alföldi 's The Conversion of Constantine and Pagan Rome (1948), a historiographic tradition developed which presented Constantine as a committed Christian.
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[244]
.In medieval times, when the Roman Catholic Church was dominant, Catholic historians presented Constantine as an ideal ruler, the standard against which any king or emperor could be measured.^ In medieval times, when the Roman Catholic Church was dominant, Catholic historians presented Constantine as an ideal ruler, the standard against which any king or emperor could be measured.
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^ One of the great Roman emperors, Constantine rose to power when his father Constantius Chlorus died in the year 306 while campaigning against Scottish tribes.

^ As ruler of Aragon , Ferdinand had been involved in the struggle against France and Venice for control of Italy; these conflicts became the center of Ferdinand's foreign policy as king.
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[245] .The Renaissance rediscovery of anti-Constantinian sources prompted a re-evaluation of Constantine's career.^ The Renaissance rediscovery of anti-Constantinian sources prompted a re-evaluation of Constantine's career.
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^ He is a heathen who, on the period of Constantine, draws from an anti-Christian and anti-Constantinian source, and who regards the introduction of Christianity as a chief cause of the decline of the Roman Empire (cf.

.The German humanist Johann Löwenklau, discoverer of Zosimus' writings, published a Latin translation thereof in 1576. In its preface, he argued that Zosimus' picture of Constantine was superior to that offered by Eusebius and the Church historians, and damned Constantine as a tyrant.^ In its preface, he argued that Zosimus' picture of Constantine was superior to that offered by Eusebius and the Church historians, and damned Constantine as a tyrant.
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^ The German humanist Johann Löwenklau, discoverer of Zosimus' writings, published a Latin translation thereof in 1576.
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^ For his History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (1776–89), Edward Gibbon , aiming to unite the two extremes of Constantinian scholarship, offered a portrait of Constantine built on the contrasted narratives of Eusebius and Zosimus.
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[246] .Cardinal Caesar Baronius, a man of the Counter-Reformation, criticized Zosimus, favoring Eusebius' account of the Constantinian era.^ Cardinal Caesar Baronius , a man of the Counter-Reformation , criticized Zosimus, favoring Eusebius' account of the Constantinian era.
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^ Caesar Baronius, Annales Ecclesiastici 3 (Antwerp, 1623), cited in Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius , 274, and Odahl, 282.
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^ Edward Gibbon , aiming to unite the two extremes of Constantinian scholarship, offered a portrait of Constantine built on the contrasted narratives of Eusebius and Zosimus.
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.Baronius' Life of Constantine (1588) presents Constantine as the model of a Christian prince.^ Baronius' Life of Constantine (1588) presents Constantine as the model of a Christian prince.
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^ Although no contemporary Christian challenged Constantine for his inaction during the persecutions, it remained a political liability throughout his life.
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^ Certain themes in this school reached new extremes in T.G. Elliott's The Christianity of Constantine the Great (1996), which presented Constantine as a committed Christian from early childhood.
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[247] .For his History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (1776–89), Edward Gibbon, aiming to unite the two extremes of Constantinian scholarship, offered a portrait of Constantine built on the contrasted narratives of Eusebius and Zosimus.^ Edward Gibbon , aiming to unite the two extremes of Constantinian scholarship, offered a portrait of Constantine built on the contrasted narratives of Eusebius and Zosimus.
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^ Edward Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Chapter 18, cited in Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius , 274, and Odahl, 282.
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^ For his History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (1776–89), Edward Gibbon , aiming to unite the two extremes of Constantinian scholarship, offered a portrait of Constantine built on the contrasted narratives of Eusebius and Zosimus.
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[248] In a form that parallels his account of the empire's decline, Gibbon presents a noble war hero corrupted by Christian influences, who transforms into an Oriental despot in his old age: "a hero...degenerating into a cruel and dissolute monarch".[249]
Modern interpretations of Constantine's rule begin with Jacob Burckhardt's The Age of Constantine the Great (1853, rev. 1880). .Burckhardt's Constantine is a scheming secularist, a politician who manipulates all parties in a quest to secure his own power.^ Modern interpretations of Constantine's rule begin with Jacob Burckhardt 's The Age of Constantine the Great (1853, rev. Burckhardt's Constantine is a scheming secularist, a politician who manipulates all parties in a quest to secure his own power.
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^ Burckhardt's Constantine is a scheming secularist, a politician who manipulates all parties in a quest to secure his own power.
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^ In short, as the sun, when he rises upon the earth, liberally imparts his rays of light to all, so did Constantine, proceeding at early dawn from the imperial palace, and rising as it were with the heavenly luminary, impart the rays of his own beneficence to all who came into his presence.
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[250] .Henri Grégoire, writing in the 1930s, followed Burckhardt's evaluation of Constantine.^ Henri Grégoire , writing in the 1930s, followed Burckhardt's evaluation of Constantine.
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.For Grégoire, Constantine only developed an interest in Christianity after witnessing its political usefulness.^ For Grégoire, Constantine only developed an interest in Christianity after witnessing its political usefulness.
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^ Although no contemporary Christian challenged Constantine for his inaction during the persecutions, it remained a political liability throughout his life.
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.Grégoire was skeptical of the authenticity of Eusebius' Vita, and postulated a pseudo-Eusebius to assume responsibility for the vision and conversion narratives of that work.^ Grégoire was skeptical of the authenticity of Eusebius' Vita , and postulated a pseudo-Eusebius to assume responsibility for the vision and conversion narratives of that work.
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^ The nearest replacement is Eusebius of Caesarea 's Vita Constantini , a work that is a mixture of eulogy and hagiography .
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[251] .Otto Seeck, in Geschichte des Untergangs der antiken Welt (1920–23), and André Piganiol, in L'empereur Constantin (1932), wrote against this historiographic tradition.^ Otto Seeck , in Geschichte des Untergangs der antiken Welt (1920–23), and André Piganiol, in L'empereur Constantin (1932), wrote against this historiographic tradition.
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^ Following Julian, Eunapius began—and Zosimus continued—a historiographic tradition that blamed Constantine for weakening the Empire through his indulgence to the Christians.
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^ Following Julian, Eunapius of Sardis began a historiographic tradition that blamed Constantine for weakening the Empire through his indulgence to the Christians.
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.Seeck presented Constantine as a sincere war hero, whose ambiguities were the product of his own naïve inconsistency.^ Seeck presented Constantine as a sincere war hero, whose ambiguities were the product of his own naïve inconsistency.
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^ "This sincere Cold War hero is now living in St Petersburg and thinks he simply did his duty," the St Petersburg Communist group declared.
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[252] .Piganiol's Constantine is a philosophical monotheist, a child of his era's religious syncretism.^ Piganiol's Constantine is a philosophical monotheist, a child of his era's religious syncretism.
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[253] .Related histories by A.H.M. Jones (Constantine and the Conversion of Europe (1949)) and Ramsay MacMullen (Constantine (1969)) gave portraits of a less visionary, and more impulsive, Constantine.^ Related histories by A.H.M. Jones ( Constantine and the Conversion of Europe (1949)) and Ramsay MacMullen ( Constantine (1969)) gave portraits of a less visionary, and more impulsive, Constantine.
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^ This area corresponds more or less to south-western Europe, with the exception of Romania and Moldova which are situated in Eastern Europe .
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^ This area corresponds, more or less, to Central and Eastern Europe.
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[254]
.These later accounts were more willing to present Constantine as a genuine convert to Christianity.^ These later accounts were more willing to present Constantine as a genuine convert to Christianity.
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^ He seems to be a cool, level-headed man of the world, unsympathetic with Constantine's religion and, writing from this standpoint, presents a just, candid, reliable account of him.

^ Certain themes in this school reached new extremes in T.G. Elliott's The Christianity of Constantine the Great (1996), which presented Constantine as a committed Christian from early childhood.
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.Beginning with Norman H. Baynes' Constantine the Great and the Christian Church (1929) and reinforced by Andreas Alföldi's The Conversion of Constantine and Pagan Rome (1948), a historiographic tradition developed which presented Constantine as a committed Christian.^ Beginning with Norman H. Baynes ' Constantine the Great and the Christian Church (1929) and reinforced by Andreas Alföldi 's The Conversion of Constantine and Pagan Rome (1948), a historiographic tradition developed which presented Constantine as a committed Christian.
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^ In fact, the Christian church did not pull away from Saturday Sabbath-observance in exchange for Sunday Lord's-Day-observance until the reign of Constantine.
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^ Constantine presided over the first ecumenical council of the Christian church at Nicaea (325), which condemned Arianism.
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.T. D. Barnes's seminal Constantine and Eusebius (1981) represents the culmination of this trend.^ Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius , 28.
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^ Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius , 42.
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^ T. D. Barnes 's seminal Constantine and Eusebius (1981) represents the culmination of this trend.
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.Barnes' Constantine experienced a radical conversion, which drove him on a personal crusade to convert his empire.^ Barnes' Constantine experienced a radical conversion, which drove him on a personal crusade to convert his empire.
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^ Edward Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Chapter 18, cited in Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius , 274, and Odahl, 282.
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^ In spite of Barnes' work, arguments over the strength and depth of Constantine's religious conversion continue.
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[255] .Charles Matson Odahl's recent Constantine and the Christian Empire (2004) takes much the same tack.^ Charles Matson Odahl's recent Constantine and the Christian Empire (2004) takes much the same tack.
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^ Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius , 39–40; Elliott, Christianity of Constantine , 44; Odahl, 96.
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^ Constantine, Oratio ad Sanctorum Coetum 25; Elliott, Christianity of Constantine , 30; Odahl, 73.
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[256] .In spite of Barnes' work, arguments over the strength and depth of Constantine's religious conversion continue.^ In spite of Barnes' work, arguments over the strength and depth of Constantine's religious conversion continue.
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^ The work was a continuation of Tacitus, but the first thirteen hooks (including Constantine's period) are best.

^ He was a teacher of rhetoric, and besides this work wrote a continuation of the history of Dexippaus, extending from 270-404 A.D. Fragments of this are preserved, but none relating to Constantine.

[257] .Certain themes in this school reached new extremes in T.G. Elliott's The Christianity of Constantine the Great (1996), which presented Constantine as a committed Christian from early childhood.^ Certain themes in this school reached new extremes in T.G. Elliott's The Christianity of Constantine the Great (1996), which presented Constantine as a committed Christian from early childhood.
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^ Beginning with Norman H. Baynes ' Constantine the Great and the Christian Church (1929) and reinforced by Andreas Alföldi 's The Conversion of Constantine and Pagan Rome (1948), a historiographic tradition developed which presented Constantine as a committed Christian.
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^ Constantine, Oratio ad Sanctorum Coetum 25; Elliott, Christianity of Constantine , 30; Odahl, 73.
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[258]. .A similar view of Constantine is held in Paul Veyne's recent (2007) work, Quand notre monde est devenu chrétien, which does not speculate on the origins of Constantine's Christian motivation, but presents him, in his role as Emperor, as a religious revolutionary who fervently believed himself meant "to play a providential role in the millenary economy of the salvation of humanity"[259].^ Paul Veyne, Quand notre monde est devenu chrétien , 163.
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^ It is unlikely that Constantine played any role in the persecution.
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^ Quand notre monde est devenu chrétien , Paris: Albin Michel, 2007.
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Donation of Constantine

.Latin Rite Catholics considered it inappropriate that Constantine was baptized only on his death-bed and by a bishop of questionable orthodoxy, viewing it as a snub to the authority of the Papacy.^ Main article: Donation of Constantine Latin Rite Catholics considered it inappropriate that Constantine was baptized only on his death-bed and by a bishop of questionable orthodoxy, viewing it as a snub to the authority of the Papacy.
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^ Greece, the only country of "Hellenic Europe".In Hellenic Europe we can consider also the Greek Cypriot community It is sometimes associated with the Latin countries, due to the geographical and cultural ties to the Mediterranean Sea, and sometimes to the Slavic-Orthodox part of Europe due to the importance or Orthodoxy in Greece.
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^ Maximin considered Constantine's arrangement with Licinius an affront to his authority.
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.Hence, by the early fourth century, a legend had emerged that Pope Sylvester I (314–35) had cured the pagan emperor from leprosy.^ Hence, by the early fourth century, a legend had emerged that Pope Sylvester I (314–35) had cured the pagan emperor from leprosy .
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^ The Panegyrici Latini , a collection of panegyrics from the late third and early fourth centuries, provide valuable information on the politics and ideology of the tetrarchic period and the early life of Constantine.
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^ Christianity and Paganism in the Fourth to Eighth Centuries .
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.According to this legend, Constantine was soon baptized, and began the construction of a church in the Lateran Palace.^ According to this legend, Constantine was soon baptized, and began the construction of a church in the Lateran Palace .
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[260] .In the eighth century, most likely during the pontificate of Stephen II (752–7), a document called the Donation of Constantine first appeared, in which the freshly converted Constantine hands the temporal rule over "the city of Rome and all the provinces, districts, and cities of Italy and the Western regions" to Sylvester and his successors.^ In the eighth century, most likely during the pontificate of Stephen II (752–7), a document called the Donation of Constantine first appeared, in which the freshly converted Constantine hands the temporal rule over "the city of Rome and all the provinces, districts, and cities of Italy and the Western regions" to Sylvester and his successors.
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^ He ordered all bridges across the Tiber cut, reportedly on the counsel of the gods, [ 144 ] and left the rest of central Italy undefended; Constantine secured that region's support without challenge.
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^ Written during the reign of Theodosius II (408–50), a century after Constantine's reign, these ecclesiastic historians obscure the events and theologies of the Constantinian period through misdirection, misrepresentation and deliberate obscurity.
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[261] .In the High Middle Ages, this document was used and accepted as the basis for the Pope's temporal power, though it was denounced as a forgery by Emperor Otto III[262] and lamented as the root of papal worldliness by the poet Dante Alighieri.^ In the High Middle Ages , this document was used and accepted as the basis for the Pope's temporal power , though it was denounced as a forgery by Emperor Otto III [ 261 ] and lamented as the root of papal worldliness by the poet Dante Alighieri .
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^ In the High Middle Ages , this document was used and accepted as the basis for the Pope's temporal power , though it was denounced as a forgery by Emperor Otto III [ 257 ] and lamented as the root of papal worldliness by the poet Dante Alighieri .
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^ The Popes and the Papacy in the Early Middle Ages 476–752 (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979) 16.
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[263] .The 15th century philologist Lorenzo Valla proved the document was indeed a forgery.^ The 15th century philologist Lorenzo Valla proved the document was indeed a forgery.
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^ Though the document called the " Donation of Constantine " was proved a forgery (though not until the 15th century, when the stories of Constantine's conversion were long-established "facts") it was attributed as documenting the conversion of the Roman Empire to Christianity for centuries.
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[264]

Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia

.Because of his fame and his being proclaimed Emperor in the territory of Roman Britain, later Britons regarded Constantine as a king of their own people.^ Because of his fame and his being proclaimed Emperor in the territory of Roman Britain , later Britons regarded Constantine as a king of their own people.
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^ A temple in his honor was reportedly built in Lydda during the reign of Constantine I of the Roman Empire (reigned 306 - 337, sole emperor since 324).This temple was destroyed in 1010 but was later rebuilt by the Crusaders.

^ It was decreed the venerable day of the sun, and work was forbidden on it by the Roman emperor Constantine in A.D. 321.
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.In the 12th century Henry of Huntingdon included a passage in his Historia Anglorum that Constantine's mother Helena was a Briton, the daughter of King Cole of Colchester.^ Helena mother of Constantine the Great .
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^ In the 12th century Henry of Huntingdon included a passage in his Historia Anglorum that Constantine's mother Helena was a Briton, the daughter of King Cole of Colchester .
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^ Helena 4 mother of Constantine the Great .
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[265] .Geoffrey of Monmouth expanded this story in his highly fictionalized Historia Regum Britanniae, and account of the supposed Kings of Britain from their Trojan origins to the Anglo-Saxon invasion.^ Geoffrey of Monmouth expanded this story in his highly fictionalized Historia Regum Britanniae , and account of the supposed Kings of Britain from their Trojan origins to the Anglo-Saxon invasion .
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^ According to Geoffrey, Cole was King of the Britons when Constantius, here a senator, came to Britain.
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^ The remaining Anglo-Saxon noblemen surrendered to William at Berkhamsted , Hertfordshire and he was acclaimed King of England there.
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[266] .According to Geoffrey, Cole was King of the Britons when Constantius, here a senator, came to Britain.^ Nat King Cole came to her parties.
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^ According to Geoffrey, Cole was King of the Britons when Constantius, here a senator, came to Britain.
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^ Geoffrey of Monmouth expanded this story in his highly fictionalized Historia Regum Britanniae , and account of the supposed Kings of Britain from their Trojan origins to the Anglo-Saxon invasion .
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.Afraid of the Romans, Cole submitted to Roman law so long as he retained his kingship.^ Afraid of the Romans, Cole submitted to Roman law so long as he retained his kingship.
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.However, he died only a month later, and Constantius took the throne himself, marrying Cole's daughter Helena.^ However, he died only a month later, and Constantius took the throne himself, marrying Cole's daughter Helena.
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^ The longest-waiting heir in British history only ascends to the throne when his beloved mother dies or decides to step down.
  • History News Network 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

^ While occupied in the manner that I have described above, he did not set himself to subvert or expel Constantius, but waited for his death, not imagining, however, that it was so nigh.
  • Lactantius, On the Deaths of the Persecutors 12 September 2009 7:07 UTC www.ucalgary.ca [Source type: Original source]

.They had their son Constantine, who succeeded his father as King of Britain before becoming Roman Emperor.^ They had their son Constantine, who succeeded his father as King of Britain before becoming Roman Emperor.
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^ He left behind several sons who would, after his death, turn on each other and generally undo much of the stability that Constantine had fought so hard to bring about.

^ The weather and a lack of food did the Goths in; nearly one hundred thousand died before they submitted to Roman lordship.
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.Historically, this series of events is extremely improbable.^ Historically, this series of events is extremely improbable.
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.Constantius had already left Helena by the time he left for Britain.^ Constantius had already left Helena by the time he left for Britain.
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^ Constantius left Helena to marry Maximian's stepdaughter Theodora in 288 or 289.
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[35] .Additionally, no earlier source mentions that Helena was born in Britain, let alone that she was princess.^ Additionally, no earlier source mentions that Helena was born in Britain, let alone that she was princess.
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^ This work is an epitome of Socrates, Sozomen, and Theodoret, and has no additional value as source.

.Henry's source for the story is unknown, though it may have been a lost hagiography of Helena.^ Henry's source for the story is unknown, though it may have been a lost hagiography of Helena.
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[266]

See also

References

Ancient sources

    .
  • Apologia conta Arianos (Defence against the Arians) ca.^ Apologia conta Arianos ( Defence against the Arians ) ca .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Athanasius , Apologia conta Arianos ( Defence against the Arians ) ca .
    • Boston University School of Theology 12 September 2009 7:07 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    349.
    .
  • Atkinson, M., and Archibald Robertson, trans.^ Atkinson, M., and Archibald Robertson, trans.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Apologia Contra Arianos.^ Apologia Contra Arianos .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol.^ Schaff, Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 4 (1887), 580-581.

    ^ Sources for Constantine the Great     This material is from A Select Library of Nicene and post-Nicene fathers of the Christian church.

    ^ Volume I , Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 2nd Series, ed.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Eusebius of Caesarea: Life of Constantine 12 September 2009 6:59 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .4. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace.^ Second series by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace, and was published 1890- 1900.  It begins in the fourth century and ends in the tenth century.

    ^ Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1892. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight.^ Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In a new book edited by historian Peter Walther, an extraordinary set of color images from the wartime photographer Hands Hilderbrand will be published for the first time.
    • History News Network 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

    ^ Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1892.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Online at New Advent.^ Online at New Advent .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Accessed 14 August 2009.
.
  • Epistola de Decretis Nicaenae Synodi (Letter on the Decrees of the Council of Nicaea) ca.^ Athanasius, Epistola de Decretis Nicaenae Synodi ( Letter on the Decrees of the Council of Nicaea ) ca .
    • Boston University School of Theology 12 September 2009 7:07 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Epistola de Decretis Nicaenae Synodi ( Letter on the Decrees of the Council of Nicaea ) ca .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It was as follows: CHAPTER XVII: Constantine's Letter to the Churches respecting the Council at Nicaea.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Eusebius of Caesarea: Life of Constantine 12 September 2009 6:59 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    352.
    .
  • Newman, John Henry, trans.^ Watson, John Henry, trans.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Newman, John Henry, trans.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    De Decretis. .From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol.^ Schaff, Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 4 (1887), 580-581.

    ^ Sources for Constantine the Great     This material is from A Select Library of Nicene and post-Nicene fathers of the Christian church.

    ^ Volume I , Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 2nd Series, ed.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Eusebius of Caesarea: Life of Constantine 12 September 2009 6:59 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .4. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace.^ Second series by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace, and was published 1890- 1900.  It begins in the fourth century and ends in the tenth century.

    ^ Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1892.) Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight.^ Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In a new book edited by historian Peter Walther, an extraordinary set of color images from the wartime photographer Hands Hilderbrand will be published for the first time.
    • History News Network 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

    ^ Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1892.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Online at New Advent.^ Online at New Advent .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Accessed 28 September 2009.
.
  • Historia Arianorum (History of the Arians) ca.^ Historia Arianorum ( History of the Arians ) ca .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Athanasius, Historia Arianorum ( History of the Arians ) ca .
    • Boston University School of Theology 12 September 2009 7:07 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Philostorgius , Historia Ecclesiastica ( Church History ) ca .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Boston University School of Theology 12 September 2009 7:07 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    357.
    .
  • Atkinson, M., and Archibald Robertson, trans.^ Atkinson, M., and Archibald Robertson, trans.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Historia Arianorum. .From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol.^ Schaff, Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 4 (1887), 580-581.

    ^ Sources for Constantine the Great     This material is from A Select Library of Nicene and post-Nicene fathers of the Christian church.

    ^ Volume I , Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 2nd Series, ed.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Eusebius of Caesarea: Life of Constantine 12 September 2009 6:59 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .4. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace.^ Second series by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace, and was published 1890- 1900.  It begins in the fourth century and ends in the tenth century.

    ^ Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1892. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight.^ Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In a new book edited by historian Peter Walther, an extraordinary set of color images from the wartime photographer Hands Hilderbrand will be published for the first time.
    • History News Network 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

    ^ Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1892.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Online at New Advent.^ Online at New Advent .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Accessed 14 August 2009.
.
  • Sextus Aurelius Victor, Liber de Caesaribus (Book on the Caesars) ca.^ Sextus Aurelius Victor , Liber de Caesaribus ( Book on the Caesars ) ca .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Boston University School of Theology 12 September 2009 7:07 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Epitome de Caesaribus ( Epitome on the Caesars ) ca .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Boston University School of Theology 12 September 2009 7:07 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Optatus , Libri VII de Schismate Donatistarum ( Seven Books on the Schism of the Donatists ) first edition ca .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Boston University School of Theology 12 September 2009 7:07 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    361.
  • Codex Theodosianus (Theodosian Code) 439.
    .
  • Mommsen, T. and Paul M. Meyer, eds.^ Mommsen, T. and Paul M. Meyer, eds.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Theodosiani libri XVI cum Constitutionibus Sirmondianis et Leges novellae ad Theodosianum pertinentes2 (in Latin).^ Theodosiani libri XVI cum Constitutionibus Sirmondianis et Leges novellae ad Theodosianum pertinentes 2 (in Latin).
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Berlin: Weidmann, [1905] 1954. Complied by Nicholas Palmer, revised by Tony Honoré for Oxford Text Archive, 1984. Prepared for online use by R.W.B. Salway, 1999. Preface, books 1–8. Online at University College London and the University of Grenoble.^ Hertford College is founded at the University of Oxford .
    • Everything about British Empire 12 September 2009 7:07 UTC ia.wikimiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ J.L. Creed, Lactantius: De Mortibus Persecutorum (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984), qtd.
    • Boston University School of Theology 12 September 2009 7:07 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New Heaven, CT; London: Yale University Press, 1984.
    • Boston University School of Theology 12 September 2009 7:07 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Accessed 25 August 2009.
  • Unknown edition (in Latin).^ Accessed 15 August 2009.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Accessed 16 August 2009.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Accessed 25 August 2009.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Online at AncientRome.ru. Accessed 15 August 2009.
  • Codex Justinianus (Justinianic Code or Code of Justinian).
    .
  • Scott, Samuel P., trans.^ Scott, Samuel P., trans.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Code of Justinian, in The Civil Law.^ The Code of Justinian , in The Civil Law .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    17 vols. .1932. Online at the Constitution Society.^ Online at the Constitution Society .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Accessed 14 August 2009.
  • Krueger, Paul, ed.^ Accessed 15 August 2009.
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    ^ Accessed 16 August 2009.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Accessed 14 August 2009.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Codex Justinianus (in Latin). 2 vols. .Berlin, 1954. Online at the University of Grenoble.^ Online at University College London and the University of Grenoble .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Online at the University of Grenoble .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Accessed 28 September 2009.
.
  • Epitome de Caesaribus (Epitome on the Caesars) ca.^ Epitome de Caesaribus ( Epitome on the Caesars ) ca .
    • Boston University School of Theology 12 September 2009 7:07 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Sextus Aurelius Victor , Liber de Caesaribus ( Book on the Caesars ) ca .
    • Boston University School of Theology 12 September 2009 7:07 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The epitomes of Aurelius Victor ( De Caesaribus ), Eutropius ( Breviarium ), Festus ( Breviarium ), and the anonymous author of the Epitome de Caesaribus offer compressed secular political and military histories of the period.
    • Boston University School of Theology 12 September 2009 7:07 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    395.
    .
  • Banchich, Thomas M., trans.^ Banchich, Thomas M., and Jennifer A. Meka, trans.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Banchich, Thomas M., trans.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .A Booklet About the Style of Life and the Manners of the Imperatores.^ A Booklet About the Style of Life and the Manners of the Imperatores .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Canisius College Translated Texts 1. Buffalo, NY: Canisius College, 2009. Online at De Imperatoribus Romanis.^ Buffalo, NY: Canisius College, 2009.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Canisius College Translated Texts 1.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Buffalo, NY: Canisius College, 2001.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Accessed 15 August 2009.
.
  • De Rebus Bellicis (On Military Matters) fourth/fifth century.
  • Eunapius, History from Dexippus first edition ca.^ Eunapius , History from Dexippus first edition ca .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ De Rebus Bellicis ( On Military Matters ) fourth/fifth century.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Optatus , Libri VII de Schismate Donatistarum ( Seven Books on the Schism of the Donatists ) first edition ca .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    390, second edition ca. 415. [Fragmentary]
  • Eusebius of Caesarea.
    .
  • Historia Ecclesiastica (Church History) first seven books ca.^ Philostorgius , Historia Ecclesiastica ( Church History ) ca .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Boston University School of Theology 12 September 2009 7:07 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Historia Arianorum ( History of the Arians ) ca .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Historia Ecclesiastica ( Church History ) first seven books ca .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    300, eighth and ninth book ca. 313, tenth book ca. 315, epilogue ca. 325.
  • Williamson, G.A., trans. Church History. .London: Penguin, 1989. ISBN 97801404453350
  • McGiffert, Arthur Cushman, trans.^ ISBN 97801404453350 McGiffert, Arthur Cushman, trans.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ London: Penguin, 1989.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Church History. .From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol.^ Schaff, Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 4 (1887), 580-581.

    ^ Sources for Constantine the Great     This material is from A Select Library of Nicene and post-Nicene fathers of the Christian church.

    ^ Volume I , Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 2nd Series, ed.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Eusebius of Caesarea: Life of Constantine 12 September 2009 6:59 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .1. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace.^ Second series by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace, and was published 1890- 1900.  It begins in the fourth century and ends in the tenth century.

    ^ Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1890. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight.^ Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In a new book edited by historian Peter Walther, an extraordinary set of color images from the wartime photographer Hands Hilderbrand will be published for the first time.
    • History News Network 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

    ^ Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1892.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Online at New Advent.^ Online at New Advent .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Accessed 28 September 2009.
  • Oratio de Laudibus Constantini (Oration in Praise of Constantine, sometimes the Tricennial Oration) 336.
    .
  • Richardson, Ernest Cushing, trans.^ Richardson, Ernest Cushing, trans.
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Oration in Praise of Constantine.^ Oration in Praise of Constantine .
    • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 9:54 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Oratio de Laudibus Constantini ( Oration in Praise of