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Map of Byzantine Constantinople
.Constantinople was the imperial capital of the Roman Empire, the Byzantine/Eastern Roman Empire, the Latin Empire and the Ottoman Empire.^ The Fall of Constantinople was the conquest of that Greek city by the Ottoman Empire Mehmed II, on Tuesday, May 29, 1453.
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^ THE MOST PRECIOUS GIFT One factor which has made fish so important along the Bosphorus, placing it at the head of Istanbul's gastronomic culture, is the prominence of fish in dining in both the Eastern Roman and Ottoman Empires.
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^ When captured by Mehmet the Conqueror; the city became the capital of the Ottoman Empire, assuming its present name, Istanbul (1453 A.D.) .
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.Throughout most of the Middle Ages, Constantinople was Europe's largest[1] and wealthiest city.^ According to Bayatli every stone and shard discovered at Pergamum was of incalculable value, since this city had been one of the most magnificent centres of learning and culture of its age.
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^ Experiencing a golden age in medieval times, the city grew and developed inside one of Anatolia’s most impressive fortresses, built by the Seljuks.
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^ From Byzantium to Constantinople and from then on to Istanbul,this fabled city, divided by the Bosphorus strait lies both in Europe and Asia.
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.It was officially renamed to its modern Turkish name Istanbul in 1930[2][3] with the Turkish Postal Service Law, as part of Atatürk's national reforms.^ The name controversy was assumed to be settled when Atatürk officially renamed the city Istanbul in the 1920s.
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^ The names of the towers are as follows: Liberty, Independence, Law, Republic, Revolution, National Pact, 23rd April, Peace, Mehmetçik (the Turkish Soldier) and Victory.
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^ Although the official name of the city has, ever since the establishment of the Republic, been 'Istanbul' and great sensitivity shown on this subject, Europe resists the adoption of the name 'Istanbul'.
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[4][5] .This name in turn derives from the Greek and Slavic colloquial name Stambol; see Names of Istanbul for fuller discussion.^ The name Sövalye, meaning cavalier or knight, derives from the fact that in the Middle Ages knights turned pirate made their base here at various times.
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Contents

History

The 1453 Siege of Constantinople, painted 1499

Byzantium

.Constantinople was founded by the Roman emperor Constantine I on the site of an already existing city, Byzantium, settled in the early days of Greek colonial expansion, probably around 671-662 BC. The site lay astride the land route from Europe to Asia and the seaway from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean, and had in the Golden Horn an excellent and spacious harbour.^ This headland at the mouth of the Bosphorus, facing south over the Marmara Sea and north over the Golden Horn, was where the Megarians founded the city of Byzantium in the 7th century BC, building various temples around the acropolis.
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^ Karakachan dog (Bulgaria) 0 [postlink]http://d.bloggerdestek.com/2007/06/introducing-kangal-dog.html[/postlink] INTRODUCING THE KANGAL DOG The ancients called it Asia Minor that land mass protruding from the depths of Asia into the eastern Mediterranean defined by the Black Sea to the north, the Aegean to the west, and the deserts of Arabia to the south.
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^ The oldest recorded bridge in Istanbul was built over the Golden Horn in 1453 during the Turkish siege of the city.
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306–337

Emperor Constantine I presents a representation of the city of Constantinople as tribute to an enthroned Mary and Christ Child in this church mosaic. St Sophia, c. 1000
Coin struck by Constantine I to commemorate the founding of Constantinople
Constantine had altogether more colorful plans. Having restored the unity of the Empire, and being in course of major governmental reforms as well as of sponsoring the consolidation of the Christian church, he was well aware that Rome was an unsatisfactory capital. Rome was too far from the frontiers, and hence from the armies and the Imperial courts, and it offered an undesirable playground for disaffected politicians. Yet it had been the capital of the state for over a thousand years, and it might have seemed unthinkable to suggest that the capital be moved to a different location. Nevertheless, he identified the site of Byzantium as the right place: a place where an emperor could sit, readily defended, with easy access to the Danube or the Euphrates frontiers, his court supplied from the rich gardens and sophisticated workshops of Roman Asia, his treasuries filled by the wealthiest provinces of the Empire.
.Constantinople was built over six years, and consecrated on 11 May 330.[6] Constantine divided the expanded city, like Rome, into 14 regions, and ornamented it with public works worthy of an imperial metropolis.^ Although the Ottomans did not purposely change the city's name, they opted to make "Constantinople" into a more Turkish style name "Konstantiniye" (which loosely translates as "of Constantine"), however variations on Konstantiniye soon cropped up.
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^ What I mean to say in the book is that in the past there was the large Ottoman Empire, and this city was a metropolis like New York, Paris or Berlin.
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^ From Byzantium to Constantinople and from then on to Istanbul,this fabled city, divided by the Bosphorus strait lies both in Europe and Asia.
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[7] Yet initially Constantine's new Rome did not have all the dignities of old Rome. It possessed a proconsul, rather than an urban prefect. It had no praetors, tribunes or quaestors. Although it did have senators, they held the title clarus, not clarissimus, like those of Rome. It also lacked the panoply of other administrative offices regulating the food supply, police, statues, temples, sewers, aqueducts or other public works. .The new programme of building was carried out in great haste: columns, marbles, doors and tiles were taken wholesale from the temples of the Empire and moved to the new city.^ What I mean to say in the book is that in the past there was the large Ottoman Empire, and this city was a metropolis like New York, Paris or Berlin.
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^ The book explains the idea that this was once an empire; telling about the city's large mosques, monumental buildings, ruined wooden mansions, and beautiful but shabby neighbourhoods.
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.Similarly, many of the greatest works of Greek and Roman art were soon to be seen in its squares and streets.^ Many of these works of art bear the monograms of sultans such as Ahmed III, Mahmud II, Abdülmecid and Abdülaziz.
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The Emperor stimulated private building by promising householders gifts of land from the Imperial estates in Asiana and Pontica, and on 18 May 332 he announced that, as in Rome, free distributions of food would be made to the citizens. .At the time the amount is said to have been 80,000 rations a day, doled out from 117 distribution points around the city.^ Another good centre for winter days out is the city of Kastamonu south of the Küre Mountains.
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^ In an orgy of victory on the day that the city fell--September 9, 1570--20,000 Nicosians were put to death, and every church, public building, and palace was looted.
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[8]
Constantine laid out a new square at the centre of old Byzantium, naming it the Augustaeum. The new senate-house (or Curia) was housed in a basilica on the east side. .On the south side of the great square was erected the Great Palace of the emperor with its imposing entrance, the Chalke, and its ceremonial suite known as the Palace of Daphne.^ This was the ceremonial entrance to the city known as the Golden Gate (Porta Auera).
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Nearby was the vast Hippodrome for chariot-races, seating over 80,000 spectators, and the famed Baths of Zeuxippus. .At the western entrance to the Augustaeum was the Milion, a vaulted monument from which distances were measured across the Eastern Roman Empire.^ In the Eastern Roman Empire, fish was the dietary staple for all the people living along the Bosphorus.
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^ This marked the final destruction of the Eastern Roman Empire, and the death of Constantine XI, the last Roman Emperor.
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^ In the time of the Eastern Roman Empire the centers of fishing in Istanbul were the villages of the Bosphorus, the Islands, Kadiköy, Tuzla and the shores of Yedikule.
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From the Augustaeum led a great street, the Mese (Greek: Μέση [Οδός] lit. "Middle [Street]"), lined with colonnades. As it descended the First Hill of the city and climbed the Second Hill, it passed on the left the Praetorium or law-court. .Then it passed through the oval Forum of Constantine where there was a second Senate-house and a high column with a statue of Constantine himself in the guise of Helios, crowned with a halo of seven rays and looking towards the rising sun.^ Many travellers who passed through the Seljuk lands beginning in the 12th century mention the extraordinarily beautiful carpets woven there.
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.From there the Mese passed on and through the Forum of Taurus and then the Forum of Bous, and finally up the Seventh Hill (or Xerolophus) and through to the Golden Gate in the Constantinian Wall.^ Many travellers who passed through the Seljuk lands beginning in the 12th century mention the extraordinarily beautiful carpets woven there.
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^ Now let us descend the hill from Edirnekapı to the shore of the Golden Horn, keeping to the road running outside the walls, because from here we will pass by Blachernae Palace and the Dungeons of Anemas, with glimpses of immortal cypresses and mosque.
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^ This section of the walls had been built much more recently, in the eleventh century, and was much weaker; the crusaders in 1204 had broken through the walls there.
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.After the construction of the Theodosian Walls in the early 5th century, it would be extended to the new Golden Gate, reaching a total length of seven Roman miles.^ The old town is surrounded by walls 6.5 kilometres in length, with 140 towers, which protected the town and harbour for centuries.
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[9]

395–527

Theodosius I was the last Roman emperor who ruled over an undivided empire (detail from the Obelisk at the Hippodrome of Constantinople
.The first known Prefect of the City of Constantinople was Honoratus, who took office on 11 December 359 and held it until 361. The emperor Valens built the Palace of Hebdomon on the shore of the Propontis near the Golden Gate, probably for use when reviewing troops.^ This was the ceremonial entrance to the city known as the Golden Gate (Porta Auera).
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^ The land walls and their gates on the western side of the city are both of more aesthetic value and greater historic importance than the sea walls along the shores of the Marmara Sea and the Golden Horn.
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^ Eventually, with the construction of the Imperial Palace, embassy representatives and prominent Istanbul figures, who spent the summer months in houses on the Bosphorus, began having seaside mansions built for themselves on its shores.
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All the emperors up to Zeno and Basiliscus were crowned and acclaimed at the Hebdomon. .Theodosius I founded the Church of John the Baptist to house the skull of the saint (today preserved at the Topkapı Palace in Istanbul, Turkey), put up a memorial pillar to himself in the Forum of Taurus, and turned the ruined temple of Aphrodite into a coach house for the Praetorian Prefect; Arcadius built a new forum named after himself on the Mese, near the walls of Constantine.^ The Karagöz shadow play spread from Istanbul to other regions of the empire, and was reintroduced into its original home of Egypt, where it won fresh popularity in its new Turkish guise and until recently was performed in Turkish under the name Aragöz.
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^ Although these baths are only a memory today, one such bath, inside Yildiz Palace , has been turned into a museum.
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^ The elegant waterfront houses have been restored, and in the narrow streets behind them wooden houses darkened by time and oldfashioned shops preserve the spirit of old Istanbul.
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Gradually the importance of Constantinople increased. .After the shock of the Battle of Adrianople in 378, in which the emperor Valens with the flower of the Roman armies was destroyed by the Visigoths within a few days' march, the city looked to its defenses, and Theodosius II built in 413–414 the 18 metre (60 ft) tall triple-wall fortifications which were never to be breached until the coming of gunpowder.^ It was Anthemius, the capable governor of the Emperor Theodosius (408-450), who enlarged the walled area of the city two-fold, building the walls still named after him today.
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^ Constantine XI himself led the last defense of the city, dying in the ensuing battle in the streets.
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^ However, the crusaders owed their conquest of the splendid capital of Eastern Rome not to breaching its invincible walls, but to entering the city under false pretences as supposed allies.
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Theodosius also founded a University near the Forum of Taurus, on 27 February 425.
.Uldin, a prince of the Huns, appeared on the Danube about this time and advanced into Thrace, but he was deserted by many of his followers, who joined with the Romans in driving their king back north of the river.^ Those who crave more than just the sea can join one of the jeep safaris in an adventure-filled foray into the Taurus highlands.
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.Subsequently new walls were built to defend the city, and the fleet on the Danube improved.^ The walls which defended this world capital for 1200 years amazed visitors to the city with their magnificence and beauty.
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^ Rumelihisari Something old , something new 0 [postlink]http://d.bloggerdestek.com/2007/06/city-walls-of-istanbul.html[/postlink] The city walls of Istanbul .
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.In due course the barbarians overran the Western Roman Empire: its emperors retreated to Ravenna, and it diminished to nothing.^ This marked the final destruction of the Eastern Roman Empire, and the death of Constantine XI, the last Roman Emperor.
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.Thereafter, Constantinople became in truth the largest city of the Roman Empire and of the world.^ The Fall of Constantinople was the conquest of that Greek city by the Ottoman Empire Mehmed II, on Tuesday, May 29, 1453.
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^ When captured by Mehmet the Conqueror; the city became the capital of the Ottoman Empire, assuming its present name, Istanbul (1453 A.D.) .
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Emperors were no longer peripatetic between various court capitals and palaces. They remained in their palace in the Great City, and sent generals to command their armies. .The wealth of the eastern Mediterranean and western Asia flowed into Constantinople.^ Westerners continued to refer to the city as Constantinople well into the 20th century.
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^ It took Westerners a few decades to accept the name, as Constantinople continued to appear on maps well into the 1960s, when it began to appear in parentheses next to Istanbul.
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527–565

Map of Constantinople (1422) by Florentine cartographer Cristoforo Buondelmonti[10] is the oldest surviving map of the city, and the only one which antedates the Turkish conquest of the city in 1453
Hagia Sophia, built by emperor Justinian I in the 6th century AD
The emperor Justinian I (527–565) was known for his successes in war, for his legal reforms and for his public works. It was from Constantinople that his expedition for the reconquest of the former Diocese of Africa set sail on or about 21 June 533. Before their departure the ship of the commander Belisarius anchored in front of the Imperial palace, and the Patriarch offered prayers for the success of the enterprise. After the victory, in 534, the Temple treasure of Jerusalem, looted by the Romans in 70 AD and taken to Carthage by the Vandals after their sack of Rome in 455, was brought to Constantinople and deposited for a time, perhaps in the Church of St. Polyeuctus, before being returned to Jerusalem in either the Church of the Resurrection or the New Church.[11]
Chariot-racing had been important in Rome for centuries. In Constantinople, the hippodrome became over time increasingly a place of political significance. .It was where (as a shadow of the popular elections of old Rome) the people by acclamation showed their approval of a new emperor; and also where they openly criticized the government, or clamoured for the removal of unpopular ministers.^ Even old New York was once New Amsterdam Why they changed it, I can't say (People just liked it better that way) Take me back to Constantinople No, you can't go back to Constantinople Now it's Istanbul, not Constantinople Why did Constantinople get the works?
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^ Although other types of puppets had long been known in Turkey, the new shadow puppets quickly came to the forefront as they captured the popular imagination.
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^ Ottoman Shadow theatre: Karagöz and Hacivat 0 [postlink]http://d.bloggerdestek.com/2007/06/rumelihisari-something-oldsomething-new.html[/postlink] Rumelihisari Something old,something new .
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In the time of Justinian, public order in Constantinople became a critical political issue.
.The entire late Roman and early Byzantine period was one where Christianity was resolving fundamental questions of identity, and the dispute between the orthodox and the monophysites became the cause of serious disorder, expressed through allegiance to the horse-racing parties of the Blues and the Greens.^ On the eastern shore of the island is a ruined building dating from the late Roman period which has been badly damaged by winter seas over the centuries.
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The partisans of the Blues and the Greens were said[12] to affect untrimmed facial hair, head hair shaved at the front and grown long at the back, and wide-sleeved tunics tight at the wrist; and to form gangs to engage in night-time muggings and street violence. At last these disorders took the form of a major rebellion of 532, known as the "Nika" riots (from the battle-cry of "Victory!" of those involved).
.Fires started by the Nika rioters consumed Constantine's basilica of St Sophia, the city's principal church, which lay to the north of the Augustaeum.^ When Constantine the Great rebuilt the city between 324 and 330, the land walls which he constructed lay further eastwards than those we see today.
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Justinian commissioned Anthemius of Tralles and Isidore of Miletus to replace it with a new and incomparable St Sophia. This was the great cathedral of the Orthodox Church, whose dome was said to be held aloft by God alone, and which was directly connected to the palace so that the imperial family could attend services without passing through the streets.[13] The dedication took place on 26 December 537 in the presence of the emperor, who exclaimed, "O Solomon, I have outdone thee!"[14] St Sophia was served by 600 people including 80 priests, and cost 20,000 pounds of gold to build.[15]
Justinian also had Anthemius and Isidore demolish and replace the original Church of the Holy Apostles built by Constantine with a new church under the same dedication. This was designed in the form of an equal-armed cross with five domes, and ornamented with beautiful mosaics. This church was to remain the burial place of the emperors from Constantine himself until the eleventh century. .When the city fell to the Turks in 1453, the church was demolished to make room for the tomb of Mehmet II the Conqueror.^ The Fall of Constantinople was the conquest of that Greek city by the Ottoman Empire Mehmed II, on Tuesday, May 29, 1453.
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^ When captured by Mehmet the Conqueror; the city became the capital of the Ottoman Empire, assuming its present name, Istanbul (1453 A.D.) .
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^ Mehmet the conqueror, Sultan of Ottoman Empire, was 21 years of age and the city was 2120 years old (1453 AD) .
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.Justinian was also concerned with other aspects of the city's built environment, legislating against the abuse of laws prohibiting building within 100 feet (30 m) of the sea front, in order to protect the view.^ As a city surrounded by sea Istanbul has many headlands, some remote and deserted with no buildings but a lighthouse, others lively and crowded.
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[16]
During Justinian I's reign, the city's population reached about 500,000 people.[17] However, the social fabric of Constantinople was also damaged by the onset of Plague of Justinian between 541–542 AD. It killed perhaps 40% of the city's inhabitants.[18]
Restored section of the fortifications that protected Constantinople during the medieval period

Survival, 565–717

In the early 7th century the Avars and later the Bulgars overwhelmed much of the Balkans, threatening Constantinople from the west. Simultaneously the Persian Sassanids overwhelmed the Prefecture of the East and penetrated deep into Anatolia. Heraclius, son to the exarch of Africa, set sail for the city and assumed the purple. He found the military situation so dire that he is said at first to have contemplated withdrawing the imperial capital to Carthage, but relented after the people of Constantinople begged him to stay. While the Great City withstood a siege, Heraclius campaigned deep into Persian territory and restored the status quo.
However, the empire was left weakened in the face of subsequent attacks from the Arabs. .During these wars, a first siege of Constantinople by the Muslims lasted from 674 to 678, and a second from 717 to 718. While the Theodosian Walls made the city impregnable from the land, a newly discovered incendiary substance known as "Greek Fire" allowed the Byzantine navy to destroy the Arab fleets and keep the city supplied.^ During the Greek War of Independence in 1821, the Ottoman authorities feared that Greek Cypriots would rebel again.
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^ Neither have we mentioned Bozcaada Fortress, one of the bases used by the enemy armies attacking Troy and the Dardanelles peninsula in the First World War, nor the gouges made by cannonballs in the walls of the fortifications at Seddulbahir and Kilitbahir.
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^ Mehmed II planned to attack the Theodosian Walls, the intricate series of walls and ditches protecting Constantinople from an attack from the west, the only part of the city not surrounded by water.
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In the second siege, decisive help was rendered by the Bulgars. The failure of this siege was a severe blow to the Umayyad Caliphate, and stabilised the Byzantine-Arab equilibrium.

717–1025

Emperor Leo VI (886–912) adoring Jesus Christ. Mosaic above the Imperial Gate in the Hagia Sophia.
The Högby Runestone is one of the c. 30 Greece Runestones in Sweden that commemorate members of the Varangian Guard.
.In the 730s Leo III carried out extensive repairs of the Theodosian walls, which had been damaged by frequent and violent attacks; this work was financed by a special tax on all the subjects of the Empire.^ He understands a little about everything, and has ideas but rarely does any actual work to carry them out.
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^ Mehmed II planned to attack the Theodosian Walls, the intricate series of walls and ditches protecting Constantinople from an attack from the west, the only part of the city not surrounded by water.
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[19]
Theodora, widow of the emperor Theophilus (d. .842) acted as regent during the minority of her son Michael III, who was said to have been introduced to dissolute habits by her brother Bardas.^ 'We are all brothers here,' he said adding, 'People who love pigeons also love peace.'
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When Michael assumed power in 856 he became known for excessive drunkenness, appeared in the hippodrome as a charioteer and burlesqued the religious processions of the clergy. He removed Theodora from the Great Palace to the Carian Palace and later to the monastery of Gastria, but after the death of Bardas she was released to live in the palace of St Mamas; she also had a rural residence at the Anthemian Palace, where Michael was assassinated in 867.[20]
.In 860 an attack was made on the city by a new principality set up a few years earlier at Kiev by Askold and Dir, two Varangian chiefs: two hundred small vessels passed through the Bosporus and plundered the monasteries and other properties on the suburban Prince's Islands.^ In his forty-five-year professional career he composed more than one hundred songs and made more than two hundred recordings.
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^ The same chronicler describes the entry through this gate of the Latin crusaders, who were to occupy and plunder the city, in 1204.
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^ It was known as the Cisr-i Cedid or New Bridge to distinguish it from the earlier bridge further up the Golden Horn, which became known as the Cisr-i Atik or Old Bridge.
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Oryphas, the admiral of the Byzantine fleet, alerted the emperor Michael, who promptly put the invaders to flight; but the suddenness and savagery of the onslaught made a deep impression on the citizens.[21]
In 980 the emperor Basil II received an unusual gift from Prince Vladimir of Kiev: 6,000 Varangian warriors which Basil formed into a new bodyguard known as the Varangian Guard. They were known for their ferocity, honour and loyalty. It is said that in 1038 they were dispersed in winter quarters in the Thracesian theme when one of their number attempted to violate a countrywoman, but in the struggle she seized his sword and killed him; instead of taking revenge, however, his comrades applauded her conduct, compensated her with all his possessions, and exposed his body without burial as if he had committed suicide.[22] .However, following the death of an Emperor, they became known also for plunder in the Imperial palaces.^ The renowned historian Koniates describes the triumphal entry through this gate of several emperors, and Heraclius following his victory over the Sassanids in 629, following which the gate was also known after him.
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^ Blachernae Palace, known in Turkish as Tekfur Saray, served in the 16th century as an imperial menagerie, housing exotic animals such as giraffes and rhinoceruses.
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[23] .Later in the 11th Century the Varangian Guard became dominated by Anglo-Saxons who preferred this way of life to subjugation by the new Norman kings of England.^ With their traditions, associated beliefs, and philosophy of life, baths became an institution, which spread all the way from Anatolia to Hungary in Europe .
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[24]
.The Book of the Eparch, which dates to the 10th century, gives a detailed picture of the city's commercial life and its organization at that time.^ Today Izmir is a modern city dating largely from the 19th and 20th centuries.
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^ The theory that the Trojans might have been Anatolian gained weight with the discovery of a lower city dating from the 17th-13th centuries BC and defined as High Trojan Culture.
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The corporations in which the tradesmen of Constantinople were organised were supervised by the Eparch, who regulated such matters as production, prices, import and export. .Each guild had its own monopoly, and tradesmen might not belong to more than one.^ In his forty-five-year professional career he composed more than one hundred songs and made more than two hundred recordings.
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^ Those who crave more than just the sea can join one of the jeep safaris in an adventure-filled foray into the Taurus highlands.
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^ While Turkey has more than one indigenous dog breed, the Kangal is the most famous of them all.
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.It is an impressive testament to the strength of tradition how little these arrangements had changed since the office, then known by the Latin version of its title, had been set up in 330 to mirror the urban prefecture of Rome.^ The 'culture of water' and the 'bath tradition' have been known in Anatolia since time immemorial.
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^ Since the view seen by Cassini during this time changed very little, no re-projection or alteration of any of the images was necessary.
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[25]
In the 9th and 10th centuries Constantinople had a population of between 500,000 and 800,000.[26]

Iconoclast controversy

In the eighth and ninth centuries the iconoclast movement caused serious political unrest throughout the Empire. The emperor Leo III issued a decree in 726 against images, and ordered the destruction of a statue of Christ over one of the doors of the Chalke, an act which was fiercely resisted by the citizens.[27] Constantine V convoked a church council in 754 which condemned the worship of images, after which many treasures were broken, burned, or painted over with depictions of trees, birds or animals: one source refers to the church of the Holy Virgin at Blachernae as having been transformed into a "fruit store and aviary".[28] Following the death of his son Leo IV in 780, the empress Irene restored the veneration of images through the agency of the Second Council of Nicaea in 787.
The iconoclast controversy returned in the early 9th century, only to be resolved once more in 843 during the regency of Empress Theodora, who restored the icons. These controversies contributed to the deterioration of relations between the Western and the Eastern Churches.

Prelude to the Comnenian period, 1025–1081

In the late 11th century catastrophe struck with the unexpected and calamitous defeat of the imperial armies at the Battle of Manzikert in Armenia in 1071. The Emperor Romanus Diogenes was captured. .The peace terms demanded by Alp Arslan, sultan of the Seljuk Turks, were not excessive, and Romanus accepted them.^ Rather than suppressing the empire's many religious communities, the Turks allowed them a degree of automony as long as they complied with the demands of the sultan.
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On his release, however, Romanus found that enemies had placed their own candidate on the throne in his absence; he surrendered to them and suffered death by torture, and the new ruler, Michael VII Ducas, refused to honour the treaty. In response, the Turks began to move into Anatolia in 1073. The collapse of the old defensive system meant that they met no opposition, and the empire's resources were distracted and squandered in a series of civil wars. Thousands of Turkoman tribesmen crossed the unguarded frontier and moved into Anatolia. By 1080, a huge area had been lost to the empire, and the Turks were within striking distance of Constantinople.

1081–1185

The Byzantine Empire under Manuel I, c. 1180
Twelfth century mosaic from the upper gallery of the Hagia Sophia, Constantinople. Emperor John II (1118–1143) is shown on the left, with the Virgin Mary and infant Jesus in the centre, and John's consort Empress Irene on the right.
Under the Comnenian dynasty (1081–1185), Byzantium staged a remarkable military, financial and territorial recovery. In what is sometimes called the Comnenian Restoration, with the establishment of a new military system, the Empire recovered nearly half of the lost Anatolian lands. In 1090–91, the nomadic Pechenegs reached the walls of Constantinople, where Emperor Alexius I with the aid of the Kipchaks annihilated their army.[29] .The battle of Levounion in 1091 marked the beginning of a resurgence of Byzantine power and influence that would last for a hundred years.^ Wandering with their herds across the whole Balkan Peninsula the Karakachans have mixed their dogs with the heirs of the ancient dogs and this process has lasted for hundreds of years.
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.In response to a call for aid from Alexius I Comnenus, the First Crusade assembled at Constantinople in 1096, but declining to put itself under Byzantine command set out for Jerusalem on its own account.^ When this was declined, Mehmed planned to overpower the walls by sheer force, knowing that the Byzantine defenders would be worn out before he ran out of troops.
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[30] John II built the monastery of the Pantocrator (Almighty) with a hospital for the poor of 50 beds.[31]
With the restoration of firm central government, the empire became fabulously wealthy. .The population was rising (estimates for Constantinople in the twelfth century vary from approximately 100,000 to 500,000), and towns and cities across the realm flourished.^ Westerners continued to refer to the city as Constantinople well into the 20th century.
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^ The confusion is rooted in the various names the city assumed under the Ottomans in the centuries after their conquest of the city in 1453.
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Meanwhile, the volume of money in circulation dramatically increased. .This was reflected in Constantinople by the construction of the Blachernae palace, the creation of brilliant new works of art, and general prosperity at this time: an increase in trade, made possible by the growth of the Italian city-states, may have helped the growth of the economy.^ The Fall of Constantinople was the conquest of that Greek city by the Ottoman Empire Mehmed II, on Tuesday, May 29, 1453.
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Certainly, the Venetians and others were active traders in Constantinople, making a living out of shipping goods between the Crusader Kingdoms of Outremer and the West while also trading extensively with Byzantium and Egypt. .The Venetians had factories on the north side of the Golden Horn, and large numbers of westerners were present in the city throughout the twelfth century.^ The land walls and their gates on the western side of the city are both of more aesthetic value and greater historic importance than the sea walls along the shores of the Marmara Sea and the Golden Horn.
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^ Today Izmir is a modern city dating largely from the 19th and 20th centuries.
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^ To circumvent this he built a road of greased logs across Galata on the north side of the Golden Horn, and rolled his ships across.
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Towards the end of Manuel I's reign, the number of foreigners in the city reached about 60,000-80,000 people out of a total population of about 400,000 people.[32] In 1171, Constantinople also contained a small community of 2,500 Jews.[33]
In artistic terms, the 12th century was a very productive period. There was a revival in the mosaic art, for example: mosaics became more realistic and vivid, with an increased emphasis on depicting three-dimensional forms. .There was an increased demand for art, with more people having access to the necessary wealth to commission and pay for such work.^ Of course, this would be a more ruthless urban environment where everyone was alone, but in such an environment critical thought, art, culture and diversity thrive better.
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^ Many of these works of art bear the monograms of sultans such as Ahmed III, Mahmud II, Abdülmecid and Abdülaziz.
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^ What better tribute could there be to this great architect and his dedicated work than such an institution?
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According to N.H. Baynes (Byzantium, An Introduction to East Roman Civilization):
"With its love of luxury and passion for colour, the art of this age delighted in the production of masterpieces that spread the fame of Byzantium throughout the whole of the Christian world. Beautiful silks from the work-shops of Constantinople also portrayed in dazzling colour animals - lions, elephants, eagles, and griffins - confronting each other, or represented Emperors gorgeously arrayed on horseback or engaged in the chase."
"From the tenth to the twelfth century Byzantium was the main source of inspiration for the West. By their style, arrangement, and iconography the mosaics of St. Mark's at Venice and of the cathedral at Torcello clearly reveal their Byzantine origin. Similarly those of the Palatine Chapel, the Martorana at Palermo, and the cathedral of Cefalù, together with the vast decoration of the cathedral at Monreale, demonstrate the influence of Byzantium on the Norman Court of Sicily in the twelfth century. Hispano-Moorish art was unquestionably derived from the Byzantine. Romanesque art owes much to the East, from which it borrowed not only its decorative forms but the plan of some of its buildings, as is proved, for instance, by the domed churches of south-western France. Princes of Kiev, Venetian doges, abbots of Monte Cassino, merchants of Amalfi, and the kings of Sicily all looked to Byzantium for artists or works of art. .Such was the influence of Byzantine art in the twelfth century, that Russia, Venice, southern Italy and Sicily all virtually became provincial centres dedicated to its production."^ Nineteenth century western taste and the houses and palaces furnished under European influence naturally triggered a transformation in the art of the carpet as well.
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1185–1261

The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople, by Eugène Delacroix, 1840.
The Latin Empire, Empire of Nicaea, Empire of Trebizond, and the Despotate of Epirus. The borders are very uncertain
In the course of a plot between Philip of Swabia, Boniface of Montferrat and the Doge of Venice, the Fourth Crusade was, despite papal excommunication, diverted in 1203 against Constantinople, ostensibly promoting the claims of Alexius son of the deposed emperor Isaac. The reigning emperor Alexius III had made no preparation. .The Crusaders occupied Galata, broke the chain protecting the Golden Horn and entered the harbour, where on 27 July they breached the sea walls: Alexius III fled.^ To circumvent this he built a road of greased logs across Galata on the north side of the Golden Horn, and rolled his ships across.
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^ On its hilltop site overlooking the Golden Horn and the district of Galata, the Bosphorus and its Asian shore, the Marmara Sea and its islands, Topkapi Palace guards over one of the most remarkable collections of royal treasure in the world.
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^ Meanwhile, Mehmed's fleet could not enter the Golden Horn due to the large chain the Byzantines had laid across the entrance.
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But the new Alexius IV found the Treasury inadequate, and was unable to make good the rewards he had promised to his western allies. Tension between the citizens and the Latin soldiers increased. In January 1204 the protovestiarius Alexius Murzuphlus provoked a riot, probably to intimidate Alexius IV, but whose only result was the destruction of the great statue of Athena, the work of Phidias, which stood in the principal forum facing west.
In February the people rose again: Alexius IV was imprisoned and executed, and Murzuphlus took the purple as Alexius V. .He made some attempt to repair the walls and organise the citizenry, but there had been no opportunity to bring in troops from the provinces and the guards were demoralised by the revolution.^ There were gasps, applause and even some tears from the Turkish delegation when Sir Jeremy Isaacs, the chairman of the selection panel, made his announcement.
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An attack by the Crusaders on 6 April failed, but a second from the Golden Horn on 12 April succeeded, and the invaders poured in. Alexius V fled. The Senate met in St Sophia and offered the crown to Theodore Lascaris, who had married into the Angelid family, but it was too late. He came out with the Patriarch to the Golden Milestone before the Great Palace and addressed the Varangian Guard. Then the two of them slipped away with many of the nobility and embarked for Asia. .By the next day the Doge and the leading Franks were installed in the Great Palace, and the city was given over to pillage for three days.^ In an orgy of victory on the day that the city fell--September 9, 1570--20,000 Nicosians were put to death, and every church, public building, and palace was looted.
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The great historian of the Crusades, Sir Steven Runciman, wrote that the sack of Constantinople is “unparalleled in history”.
“For nine centuries,” he goes on, “the great city had been the capital of Christian civilisation. It was filled with works of art that had survived from ancient Greece and with the masterpieces of its own exquisite craftsmen. The Venetians wherever they could seized treasures and carried them off. .But the Frenchmen and Flemings were filled with a lust for destruction: they rushed in a howling mob down the streets and through the houses, snatching up everything that glittered and destroying whatever they could not carry, pausing only to murder or to rape, or to break open the wine-cellars.^ Then, singing folk songs, they scampered down across the plain, which was covered with wild tulips as far as the eye could see."
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^ Now the streams flow unseen through tunnels they have bored beneath the deep snow which fills the valleys.
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^ People passing up and down the steep narrow stone street exchanged greetings.
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Neither monasteries nor churches nor libraries were spared. In St Sophia itself drunken soldiers could be seen tearing down the silken hangings and pulling the silver iconostasis to pieces, while sacred books and icons were trampled under foot. .While they drank from the altar-vessels a prostitute sang a ribald French song on the Patriarch’s throne.^ Perhaps they may have picked it on purpose, the first song they sang was Anasini istermem, kizini da ver bana!
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Nuns were ravished in their convents. Palaces and hovels alike were wrecked. Wounded women and children lay dying in the streets. For three days the ghastly scenes continued until the huge and beautiful city was a shambles. Even after order was restored, citizens were tortured to make them reveal treasures they had hidden.
[34]
.For the next half-century, Constantinople was the seat of the Latin Empire.^ These wars were the predecessor for the many future conflicts over the next century between the two Empires.
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The Byzantine nobility were scattered. .Many went to Nicaea, where Theodore Lascaris set up an imperial court, or to Epirus, where Theodore Angelus did the same; others fled to Trebizond, where one of the Comneni had already with Georgian support established an independent seat of empire.^ Setting this value higher
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; than you can support.
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[35] Nicaea and Epirus both vied for the imperial title, and tried to recover Constantinople. In 1261, Constantinople was captured from its last Latin ruler, Baldwin II, by the forces of the Nicaean emperor Michael VIII Palaeologus.

1261–1453

Although Constantinople was retaken by Michael VIII, the Empire had lost many of its key economic resources, and struggled to survive. .The palace of Blachernae in the north-west of the city became the main Imperial residence, with the old Great Palace on the shores of the Bosporus going into decline.^ It stands in the centre of the high limestone plateau of Turabdin, with the city of Mardin to the west, Hasankeyf to the north, Cizre to the east and Nusaybin to the south.
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^ Karagöz also became popular elsewhere in North Africa, including Algeria and Tunisia, and in cities of the Middle East like Damascus, Beirut, Aleppo, Haifa and Jerusalem.
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^ The imperial palaces and pavilions, Istanbul 's waterside residences, and the stately mansions in provincial cities and towns also had their own private baths, which were usually located at the end of a greenhouse-like passageway, filled with flowers, connecting the house and the garden.
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When Michael VIII captured the city, its population was 35,000 people, but by the end of his reign, he had succeeded in increasing the population to about 70,000 people.[36] .The Emperor achieved this by summoning former residents, who had fled the city when the Crusaders captured it, back, and by relocating Greeks from the recently reconquered Peloponnese to the capital.^ For a time the Turks (Turci), too, were regarded as descendants of another Trojan, Turcus or Turkoy, who had fled from the city.
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^ No one remains of the former residents of the Tophane quarter, Orthodox Turks who spoke the Karamanlı language, a variety of Turkish written in the Greek alphabet.
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^ Other more recent buildings belong to the former Greek settlement.
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[37] In 1347, the Black Death spread to Constantinople.[38] .In 1453, when the Ottoman Turks captured the city, it contained approximately 50,000 people.^ The Fall of Constantinople was the conquest of that Greek city by the Ottoman Empire Mehmed II, on Tuesday, May 29, 1453.
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^ When captured by Mehmet the Conqueror; the city became the capital of the Ottoman Empire, assuming its present name, Istanbul (1453 A.D.) .
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^ Mehmet the conqueror, Sultan of Ottoman Empire, was 21 years of age and the city was 2120 years old (1453 AD) .
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[39]

Importance

Eagle and Snake, 6th century mosaic flooring ­Constantinople, Grand Imperial Palace.

Culture

.Constantinople was the largest and richest urban center in the Eastern Mediterranean during the late Roman Empire, mostly as a result of its strategic position commanding the trade routes between the Aegean and the Black Sea.^ Karakachan dog (Bulgaria) 0 [postlink]http://d.bloggerdestek.com/2007/06/introducing-kangal-dog.html[/postlink] INTRODUCING THE KANGAL DOG The ancients called it Asia Minor that land mass protruding from the depths of Asia into the eastern Mediterranean defined by the Black Sea to the north, the Aegean to the west, and the deserts of Arabia to the south.
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^ In the Eastern Roman Empire, fish was the dietary staple for all the people living along the Bosphorus.
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^ On the eastern shore of the island is a ruined building dating from the late Roman period which has been badly damaged by winter seas over the centuries.
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.It would remain the capital of the eastern, Greek speaking empire for over a thousand years.^ For thousands of years Troy has been seen as belonging to Greek Mycenaean culture, and as the origin of today's European cultures.
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^ For no less than 1000 years these walls succeeded in protecting the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire against attacks by barbarian tribes in late antiquity, and later against more disciplined armies with sophisticated equipment.
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.In its heyday, roughly corresponding to the Middle Ages, it was the richest and largest European city, exerting a powerful cultural pull and dominating economic life in the Mediterranean.^ According to Bayatli every stone and shard discovered at Pergamum was of incalculable value, since this city had been one of the most magnificent centres of learning and culture of its age.
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^ During the period of Ottoman domination, Cyprus had been a backwater of the empire, but in the nineteenth century it again drew the attention of West European powers.
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^ It was fast losing its exotic oriental character and more closely resembling a colonial trading post in terms of its economic, social and cultural life as well as its architecture.
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Visitors and merchants were especially struck by the beautiful monasteries and churches of the city, particularly Hagia Sophia, or the Church of Holy Wisdom: a Russian 14th-century traveler, Stephen of Novgorod, wrote, "As for St Sophia, the human mind can neither tell it nor make description of it."
.It was especially important for preserving in its libraries manuscripts of Greek and Latin authors throughout a period when instability and disorder caused their mass destruction in western Europe and north Africa: on the city's fall thousands of these were brought by refugees to Italy, and played a key part in stimulating the Renaissance, and the transition to the modern world.^ He had played a major part in the establishment of Bergama Museum and was aware how significant this new building, which was to open on 30 October 1936, was for a city which had once been the most powerful and magnificent in this region of western Turkey.
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^ The Fall of Constantinople was the conquest of that Greek city by the Ottoman Empire Mehmed II, on Tuesday, May 29, 1453.
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^ Karagöz also became popular elsewhere in North Africa, including Algeria and Tunisia, and in cities of the Middle East like Damascus, Beirut, Aleppo, Haifa and Jerusalem.
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The cumulative influence of the city on the west, over the many centuries of its existence, is incalculable. .In terms of technology, art and culture, as well as sheer size, Constantinople was without parallel anywhere in Europe for a thousand years.^ For thousands of years Troy has been seen as belonging to Greek Mycenaean culture, and as the origin of today's European cultures.
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^ It was fast losing its exotic oriental character and more closely resembling a colonial trading post in terms of its economic, social and cultural life as well as its architecture.
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International Status

Constantinople's monumental center.
.The city provided a defence for the eastern provinces of the old Roman Empire against the barbarian invasions of the 5th century.^ Mehmet the conqueror, Sultan of Ottoman Empire, was 21 years of age and the city was 2120 years old (1453 AD) .
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^ In the Eastern Roman Empire, fish was the dietary staple for all the people living along the Bosphorus.
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^ On the eastern shore of the island is a ruined building dating from the late Roman period which has been badly damaged by winter seas over the centuries.
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.The 18 metre tall walls built by Theodosius II were essentially impregnable to the barbarians coming from south of the Danube river, who found easier targets to the west rather than the richer provinces to the east in Asia.^ This massive steel pole is 33.5 metres tall and was a gift of Nazmi Celal Bey who had settled in America.
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^ Three high mountain ranges traverse the country from east to west so that the interior plateau, the Plateau of Asia Minor, is high, rugged and formerly inaccessible.
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^ Mehmed II planned to attack the Theodosian Walls, the intricate series of walls and ditches protecting Constantinople from an attack from the west, the only part of the city not surrounded by water.
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.From the 5th century the city was also protected by the Anastasian Wall, a 60 kilometre chain of walls across the Thracian peninsula.^ Mehmed II planned to attack the Theodosian Walls, the intricate series of walls and ditches protecting Constantinople from an attack from the west, the only part of the city not surrounded by water.
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^ The old town is surrounded by walls 6.5 kilometres in length, with 140 towers, which protected the town and harbour for centuries.
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Many scholars argue that these sophisticated fortifications allowed the east to develop relatively unmolested while Ancient Rome and the west collapsed. With the emergence of Christianity and the rise of Islam, Constantinople became the gates of Christian Europe standing at the fore of Islamic expansion. .As the Byzantine Empire was situated in-between the Islamic world and the Christian west, so did Constantinople act as Europe’s first line-of-defence against Arab advances in the 7th and 8th centuries.^ Schliemann, who first commenced excavations here in 1871, removed his finds to Europe between 1873 and 1890, some with permission and some smuggled (the A and L treasure troves).
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^ These wars were the predecessor for the many future conflicts over the next century between the two Empires.
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^ Some Byzantine ruins can be seen on Göcek and Haci Halil islands, and in Sarisu Bay on the east side of the former are the ruins of a 7th century church.
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.The city, and the empire, would ultimately fall to the Ottomans by 1453, but its enduring legacy had provided Europe centuries of resurgence following the collapse of Rome.^ The Fall of Constantinople was the conquest of that Greek city by the Ottoman Empire Mehmed II, on Tuesday, May 29, 1453.
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^ Fearing the ever-expanding Ottoman Empire, the Venetians had fortified Famagusta, Nicosia, and Kyrenia, but most other cities were easy prey.
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^ What I mean to say in the book is that in the past there was the large Ottoman Empire, and this city was a metropolis like New York, Paris or Berlin.
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Architecture

Interior view of the Hagia Sophia dome.
.The Byzantine Empire used Roman and Greek architectural models and styles to create its own unique type of architecture.^ He used the ancient Roman lettering style.
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The influence of Byzantine architecture and art can be seen in the copies taken from it throughout Europe. .Particular examples include St Mark's Basilica in Venice, the basilicas of Ravenna, and many churches throughout the Slavic East.^ The ruins include four large churches, many cisterns, mausoleums, and storage buildings on the shore, showing that it was both a religious and commercial centre.
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.Also, alone in Europe until the 13th century Italian florin, the Empire continued to produce sound gold coinage, the solidus of Diocletian becoming the bezant prized throughout the Middle Ages.^ After a century they sensed that the empire had become weaker than the West, and after another century the empire collapsed.
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^ Efforts by the Porte to reform the administration of the empire were continual during the nineteenth century; similar efforts by local authorities on Cyprus failed, as did those of the Porte.
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.Its city walls were much imitated (for example, see Caernarfon Castle) and its urban infrastructure was moreover a marvel throughout the Middle Ages, keeping alive the art, skill and technical expertise of the Roman Empire.^ Throughout the middle ages and the modern period many travellers, historians and adventurers came in search of this lost land, so keeping the dream of Troy constantly alive in people's minds.
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^ When Constantine the Great rebuilt the city between 324 and 330, the land walls which he constructed lay further eastwards than those we see today.
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^ The walls of Istanbul date from the founding of the Eastern Roman Empire.
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Religious

.Constantine's foundation gave prestige to the Bishop of Constantinople, who eventually came to be known as the Ecumenical Patriarch, vying for honour with the Pope,[40] a situation which contributed to the Great Schism that divided Western Catholicism from Eastern Orthodoxy from 1054 onwards.^ Certain types of Ottoman carpets are therefore known by the names of the western artists who frequently painted them.
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Popularity

.
Page depicting Constantinople in the Nuremberg Chronicle published in 1493, forty years after the city's fall to the Turks
  • Constantinople appears as a city of wondrous majesty, beauty, remoteness, and nostalgia in William Butler Yeats' 1926 poem "Sailing to Byzantium".
  • Constantinople, as seen under the Byzantine emperor Theodosius II, makes several on-screen appearances in the television miniseries "Attila" as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire.
  • Robert Graves, author of I, Claudius, also wrote Count Belisarius, a historical novel about Belisarius.^ The Fall of Constantinople was the conquest of that Greek city by the Ottoman Empire Mehmed II, on Tuesday, May 29, 1453.
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    ^ "Stanbulin," (Greek for "to the city") once commonly found on road signs directing travelers to the capital, was punned by devout Turks into Islambol, where "Islam abounds."
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    ^ The walls which defended this world capital for 1200 years amazed visitors to the city with their magnificence and beauty.
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    Graves set much of the novel in the Constantinople of Justinian I.
  • Constantinople provides the setting of much of the action in Umberto Eco's 2000 novel Baudolino.
  • Constantinople's change of name was the theme for a song made famous by The Four Lads and later covered by They Might Be Giants and many others entitled "Istanbul (Not Constantinople)".
  • "Constantinople" was also the title of the opening track of The Residents' EP Duck Stab!, released in 1978.
  • Constantinople under Justinian is the scene of the book "A Flame in Byzantium" (ISBN 0312930267) by Chelsea Quinn Yarbro, released in 1987.
  • "Constantinople" is the title of a song by The Decemberists.
  • Stephen Lawhead's novel Byzantium (1996) is set in 9th century Constantinople.
  • Filmmaker Peter Jackson said he wanted images of Minas Tirith in his The Lord of the Rings trilogy to look like "Constantinople in the morning".
  • Folk Metal band Turisas makes multiple references to Constantinople in their song "Miklagard Overture", referring to it as "Konstantinopolis", "Tsargrad", and "Miklagard".
  • Constantinople makes an appearance in the MMORPG game Silkroad as a major capital, along with a major Chinese capital.

See also

Secular buildings and monuments

Churches, monasteries and mosques

Miscellaneous

Notes

  1. ^ Pounds, Norman John Greville. An Historical Geography of Europe, 1500-1840, p. 124. CUP Archive, 1979. ISBN 0521223792.
  2. ^ BBC - Timeline: Turkey.
  3. ^ Room, Adrian, (1993), Place Name changes 1900-1991, Metuchen, N.J., & London:The Scarecrow Press, Inc., ISBN 0-8108-2600-3 pp. 46, 86.
  4. ^ Britannica, Istanbul.
  5. ^ Lexicorient, Istanbul.
  6. ^ Commemorative coins that were issued during the 330s already refer to the city as Constantinopolis (see e.g. Michael Grant, The climax of Rome (London 1968), p. 133), or "Constantine's City". According to the Reallexikon für Antike und Christentum, vol. 164 (Stuttgart 2005), column 442, there is no evidence for the tradition that Constantine officially dubbed the city "New Rome" (Nova Roma). It is possible that the emperor called the city "Second Rome" (Greek: Δευτέρα Ῥώμη, Deutéra Rhōmē) by official decree, as reported by the 5th-century church historian Socrates of Constantinople: see Names of Constantinople.
  7. ^ A description can be found in the Notitia urbis Constantinopolitanae.
  8. ^ Socrates II.13, cited by J B Bury, History of the Later Roman Empire, p. 74.
  9. ^ J B Bury, History of the Later Roman Empire, p. 75. et seqq.
  10. ^ Description des îles de l'archipel, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris.
  11. ^ Margaret Barker, Times Literary Supplement 4 May 2007 p. 26.
  12. ^ Procopius' Secret History: see P Neville-Ure, Justinian and his Age, 1951.
  13. ^ St Sophia was converted into a mosque after the Ottoman conquest of the city, and is now a museum.
  14. ^ Source for quote: Scriptores originum Constantinopolitanarum, ed T Preger I 105 (see A. A. Vasiliev, History of the Byzantine Empire, 1952, vol I p. 188).
  15. ^ T. Madden, Crusades: The Illustrated History, 114.
  16. ^ Justinian, Novellae 63 and 165.
  17. ^ Early Medieval and Byzantine Civilization: Constantine to Crusades, Dr. Kenneth W. Harl.
  18. ^ Past pandemics that ravaged Europe, BBC News, November 7, 2005.
  19. ^ Vasiliev 1952, p. 251.
  20. ^ George Finlay, History of the Byzantine Empire, Dent, London, 1906, pp. 156-161.
  21. ^ Finlay, 1906 pp. 174-5.
  22. ^ Finlay, 1906, p. 379.
  23. ^ Enoksen, Lars Magnar. (1998). Runor : historia, tydning, tolkning. Historiska Media, Falun. ISBN 91-88930-32-7 p. 135.
  24. ^ J M Hussey, The Byzantine World, Hutchinson, London, 1967, p. 92.
  25. ^ Vasiliev 1952, pp. 343-4.
  26. ^ Silk Road Seattle - Constantinople, Daniel C. Waugh.
  27. ^ The officer given the task was killed by the crowd, and in the end the image was removed rather than destroyed: it was to be restored by Irene and removed again by Leo V: Finlay 1906, p. 111.
  28. ^ Vasiliev 1952, p. 261.
  29. ^ The Pechenegs, Steven Lowe and Dmitriy V. Ryaboy.
  30. ^ There is an excellent source for these events: the writer and historian Anna Comnena in her work The Alexiad.
  31. ^ Vasiliev 1952, p. 472.
  32. ^ J. Phillips, The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople, 144.
  33. ^ J. Phillips, The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople, 155.
  34. ^ Steven Runciman, History of the Crusades, Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, 1965, vol 3, pp. 111-128.
  35. ^ Hussey 1967, p. 70.
  36. ^ T. Madden, Crusades: The Illustrated History, 113.
  37. ^ J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Decline and Fall, 217.
  38. ^ The Black Death, Channel 4 - History.
  39. ^ D. Nicolle, Constantinople 1453: The end of Byzantium, 32.
  40. ^ The Fourth Canon of the First Council of Constantinople: http://www.ccel.org/fathers2/NPNF2-14/Npnf2-14-61.htm#P3914_689786.

References

  • Bury, J. B. (1958). .History of the Later Roman Empire: From the Death of Theodosius I to the Death of Justinian.^ This marked the final destruction of the Eastern Roman Empire, and the death of Constantine XI, the last Roman Emperor.
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    Dover Publications.
     
  • Crowley, Roger (2005). Constantinople: Their Last Great Siege, 1453. Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-571221851. 
  • Murr Nehme, Lina (2003). .1453: The Fall of Constantinople.^ The Fall of Constantinople was the conquest of that Greek city by the Ottoman Empire Mehmed II, on Tuesday, May 29, 1453.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Turkey 0 [postlink]http://d.bloggerdestek.com/2007/06/1453-fall-of-constantinople.html[/postlink] 1453 The Fall of Constantinople .
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    Aleph Et Taw. ISBN 2868398162.
     
  • Freely, John (1998). Istanbul: The Imperial City. Penguin. ISBN 9780140244618. 
  • Freely, John; Ahmet S. Cakmak (2004). The Byzantine Monuments of Istanbul. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521772570. 
  • Gibbon, Edward (2005). The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Phoenix Press. ISBN 9780753818817. 
  • Hanna-Riitta, Toivanen (2007). The Influence of Constantinople on Middle Byzantine Architecture (843-1204). A typological and morphological approach at the provincial level. .Suomen kirkkohistoriallisen seuran toimituksia 202 (Publications of the Finnish Society of Church History No.^ The Bosphorus joins Asia to Europe, and it is safe to say that no society that has lived in this region since the dawn of history has been indifferent to its fish.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    202). ISBN 9789525031416.
     
  • Harris, Jonathan (2007). Constantinople: Capital of Byzantium. Hambledon Continuum. ISBN 978-1-84725-179-4. 
  • Harris, Jonathan (2003). Byzantium and the Crusades. Hambledon and London. ISBN 978-1-85285-501-7. 
  • Herrin, Judith (2008). Byzantium: The Surprising Life of a Medieval Empire. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-69113-151-1. 
  • Mansel, Philip (1998). .Constantinople: City of the World's Desire, 1453-1924.^ The Fall of Constantinople was the conquest of that Greek city by the Ottoman Empire Mehmed II, on Tuesday, May 29, 1453.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 9780312187088.
     
  • Phillips, Jonathan (2005). The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople. Pimlico. ISBN 978-1-84413-080-1. 
  • Runciman, Steven (1990). .The Fall of Constantinople, 1453.^ The Fall of Constantinople was the conquest of that Greek city by the Ottoman Empire Mehmed II, on Tuesday, May 29, 1453.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Turkey 0 [postlink]http://d.bloggerdestek.com/2007/06/1453-fall-of-constantinople.html[/postlink] 1453 The Fall of Constantinople .
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    Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781844130801.
     
  • Treadgold, Warren (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804726306. 

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Istanbul article)

From Wikitravel

Istanbul is a huge city with several district articles containing sightseeing, restaurant, nightlife and accommodation listings — consider printing them all.
Sultan Ahmet Mosque at dusk
Sultan Ahmet Mosque at dusk
.Istanbul (Turkish: İstanbul) is Turkey's most populous city, and its cultural and financial center.^ Most of the city’s population are ethnic Turks .

^ Istanbul is also Turkey's largest industrial center.

^ Istanbul is the largest city in Turkey with a population that is over nine million.
  • Istanbul Hotel | Istanbul Tours | Istanbul Hotels Accommodation | Taksim Hotels Istanbul 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.istanbul-hotels.travel [Source type: General]

.Located on both sides of the Bosphorus, the narrow strait between the Black Sea and the Marmara Sea, Istanbul bridges Asia and Europe both physically and culturally.^ Located on both sides of the Bosphorus , the narrow strait between the Black Sea and the Marmara Sea, Istanbul bridges Asia and Europe both physically and culturally.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ The bridge on the south, closer to the Marmara Sea, is called the "Bosphorus Bridge".
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Turkey is in Asia ("Asia Minor"), but Istanbul itself straddles the entrance to the Black Sea -- the divisor between Europe and Asia.
  • Istanbul 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.arie.org [Source type: Original source]

.Istanbul's population is estimated to be between 12 and 19 million people, making it also the largest in Europe and one of the largest cities in the world.^ Istanbul is the largest city in Turkey with a population that is over nine million.
  • Istanbul Hotel | Istanbul Tours | Istanbul Hotels Accommodation | Taksim Hotels Istanbul 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.istanbul-hotels.travel [Source type: General]

^ Istanbul ) is the largest city in Turkey and fifth largest city proper in the world with a population of 12.6 million.

^ Istanbul City Tour Bosphorus Cruise & Egyptian Bazaar Istanbul Two Continents Tour Imperial Istanbul See all experiences Other destinations in Europe .

.Istanbul is one of three European Capitals of Culture in 2010 [1].^ Istanbul, one of the three European capitals of culture for 2010 .
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The city was chosen as joint European Capital of Culture for 2010.
  • Turkey Istanbul Gay Travel Guide 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.turkeygay.net [Source type: General]
  • Istanbul - Archiplanet 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC data.greatbuildings.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following Patras this year, the next European Capitals of Culture will be Luxembourg and Sibiu (Romania) in 2007, Liverpool and Stavanger (Norway) in 2008, and Linz and Vilnius in 2009.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]


.Sultanahmet-Old City
Essentially Constantinople of Roman, Byzantine, and much of the Ottoman period, this is where most of the famous historical sights of Istanbul are located.^ Identify this most Famous Ottoman Sultan .
  • Ottoman Empire History Encyclopedia | Learn Ottoman Turkish History | Pictures | Sound files | Voice recordings 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.learningpracticalturkish.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ramada Istanbul Old City Hotel istanbul .
  • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

^ Sultanahmet-Old City Essentially Constantinople of Roman, Byzantine, and much of the Ottoman period, this is where most of the famous historical sights of Istanbul [¤] are located.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Galata
Housing much of the nightlife venues of the city, this district which includes Beyoğlu, Istiklal Street, and Taksim Square has also its own share of sights and accommodation.^ Galata Housing much of the nightlife venues of the city, this district which includes Beyoğlu , Istiklal Street, and Taksim Square has also its own share of sights and accommodation.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Istanbul Hop On Hop Off Tours See the Archaeological Museum, Galata Tower, Blue Mosque, Taksim Square plus much more on this fantastic tour of Istanbul.
  • Istanbul trip planner, Istanbul travel guide and travel planner | Viakeo.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC viakeo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yet visitors should be mindful of standard charges, such as 15 lira between Sultanahmet and Taksim Square, or 35 lira for an airport run from the center of the city.
  • Istanbul Celebrates Culture - WSJ.com 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

.New City
Main business district of the city, also home to many modern shopping malls and districts such as Elmadağ, Nişantaşı, and Etiler.^ Park (2007) and City's Nişantaşı (2008) are two new malls which target high-end consumers and are almost exclusively dedicated to world-famous fashion brands.

^ Bankalar Caddesi continued to be Istanbul's main financial district until the 1990s, when most Turkish banks began moving their headquarters to the modern central business districts of Levent and Maslak .

^ Swissôtel The Bosphorus is situated in the heart of Istanbul, near the main business and shopping districts.
  • Istanbul Hotel | Istanbul Tours | Istanbul Hotels Accommodation | Taksim Hotels Istanbul 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.istanbul-hotels.travel [Source type: General]

.Bosphorus
European bank of Bosphorus that is dotted by numerous palaces, parks, water-front mansions, and bohemian neighborhoods.^ Bosphorus European bank of Bosphorus that is dotted by numerous palaces , parks, water-front mansions, and bohemian neighborhoods.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Location: Nisantasi Guest recommendation: 93 % - 14 opinions On the banks of the Bosphorus straits - Wooded hilltop setting - Elegant luxury - Numerous bars and ...
  • Hotels Istanbul - Luxury, boutique hotels and design hotels in Istanbul 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.splendia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alvise Gritti was one of the many western Europeans who made his fortune on the banks of the Bosphorus.
  • washingtonpost.com: Constantinople: City of the World's Desire, 1453-1924 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.Golden Horn
Banks of Golden Horn, the estuary that separates European Side into distinctive districts.^ Golden Horn Banks of Golden Horn, the estuary that separates European Side [¤] into distinctive districts.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ In 413 it reached its actual (1908) size on the right bank of the Golden Horn, under the city prefect, Anthemius .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Constantinople 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The narrow Golden Horn separates the old city of Stamboul to the south from the “new” city of Beyoğlu to the north; the broader Bosporus divides European Istanbul from the city’s districts on the Asian shore—Üsküdar (ancient Chrysopolis) and Kadiköy (ancient Chalcedon).
  • Istanbul (Turkey) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Eyüp with an Ottoman ambience is located here.^ Eyüp with an Ottoman ambience is located here.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Princes’ Islands
An archipelago of nine car-free islands—some of them small, some of them big—with splendid wooden mansions, verdant pine forests and nice views-both on the islands themselves, and also on the way there.^ The bishops had unanimously condemned these, but since there were yet some who defended them, he had thought it good that the bishops should be given the chance to express their views as a council.
  • A History of the General Councils - AD 325 through AD 1870 - Mgr. Philip Hughes 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.christusrex.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "Lady named Selma and some blacks" and the President's ear joke are about the way that Big Current Events sound to a first grader in 1964.
  • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

^ Nor were they few in number, for there were of them some fifteen thousand, small 52 and great; and afterwards it proved to be of advantage to the pilgrims that these should have crossed over to them.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Asian Side
Eastern half of Istanbul, with lovely neighborhoods at the Marmara and Bosphorus coasts.^ Asian Side [¤] Eastern half of Istanbul [¤] , with lovely neighborhoods at the Marmara and Bosphorus coasts.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Located on either side of the Bosphorus, Istanbul is widely considered to be the gateway to both Europe and Asia – the nearest European city to Asia, and the nearest Asian city to Europe.
  • easyJet.com - Istanbul 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.easyjet.com [Source type: General]

^ It extends both on the European (Thrace) and on the Asian (Anatolia) side of the Bosphorus, and is thereby the only metropolis in the world which is situated on two continents.
  • Turkey Istanbul Gay Travel Guide 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.turkeygay.net [Source type: General]

.Western Suburbs
Western chunk of the European Side.^ Western Suburbs Western chunk of the European Side [¤] .
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

Understand

History

.Expanding the ancient Greek colony of Byzantium by the order of the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great, the imperial city of Constantinople was for nearly a thousand years the last remaining outpost of the Roman (later termed Eastern Roman or Byzantine) Empire.^ Later Constantine the Great chose it as his new capital, renaming it Constantinople, and it remained the capital of the eastern part of the Roman empire.

^ It was there that the Emperor Constantine was last seen.
  • Nicol. Last Centuries of Byzantium 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC coursesa.matrix.msu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The last Byzantine emperor, Constantine XI (Palaeologus) , was killed in battle.
  • Istanbul (Turkey) :: History -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was finally conquered by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II on May 29th, 1453, an event often used to mark the end of the Middle Ages.^ When Constantinople ultimately fell on May 29, 1453, to the Ottoman rule Mehmed II (r.
  • Art/Museums: Byzantium, Faith and Power (1261-1557) at the Metropolitan Museum of Art 11 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.thecityreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sultan Mehmed II (1449-1481).
  • The Conquest of Constantiniple—the Queen of Cities—by the Muslim Turks in 1453 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.reformation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was finally conquered by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II on May 29th, 1453, an event often used to mark the end of the Middle Ages.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.It was the nerve center for military campaigns that were to enlarge the Ottoman Empire dramatically.^ It was the nerve center for military campaigns that were to enlarge the Ottoman Empire dramatically.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Russia's Balkan Wars Russia actively campaigned against the Ottoman Empire from 1772 to 1812.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The motor that drove the Ottoman Empire was military conquest, and when the sultan’s armies reached their geographical and technological limits, decline set in for good.
  • History of Istanbul - Lonely Planet Travel Information 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By the mid 1500s, Istanbul, with a population of almost half a million, was a major cultural, political, and commercial center.^ By the mid 1500s, Istanbul [¤] , with a population of almost half a million, was a major cultural, political, and commercial center.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Istanbul is becoming increasingly colourful in terms of its rich social, cultural, and commercial activities.

^ Istanbul's population is estimated to be between 12 and 19 million people, making it also one of the largest cities in Europe and Western Asia .
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Ottoman rule continued until it was defeated in WWI and Istanbul was occupied by the allies.^ Ottoman rule continued until it was defeated in WWI and Istanbul was occupied by the allies.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.When the Republic of Turkey was born in 1923 after the War of Independence, Kemal Atatürk moved its capital to the city of Ankara.^ When the Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923 by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk , the capital was moved from Istanbul to Ankara .

^ When the Republic of Turkey was born in 1923 after the War of Independence, Kemal Atatürk moved its capital to the city of Ankara [¤] .
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1923, following the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, the capital was moved to Ankara.
  • Constantinople travel - Turkey 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.virtual-earth.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, Istanbul has continued to expand dramatically; today its population is approximately 16 million and increases at an estimated 700,000 immigrants per year.^ However, Istanbul has continued to expand dramatically; today its population is approximately 16 million and increases at an estimated 700,000 immigrants per year.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ In the period following World War II, the size and population of Istanbul increased dramatically as vast numbers of rural residents moved to the city in search of employment.
  • Istanbul (Turkey) :: History -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, population growth, traffic, preventing disorganized housing, restoration of historic buildings and planning a 3rd motorway transition to the Bosphorus continue to be issues.
  • Constantinople travel - Turkey 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.virtual-earth.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Industry has expanded even as tourism has grown.^ Industry has expanded even as tourism has grown.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.It continues to be a city that creates its own history at the intersection where both continents meet.^ It continues to be a city that creates its own history at the intersection where both continents meet.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ In his latest book, Istanbul, Memories and the City, he relates his own 50 years as it coincides with the history of the city.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ And, precisely, the Labarum of Constantine glows in our time in both distinguished cities in the North and the South of the Continent.
  • From Constantine the Great and Christopher Columbus: behold, NEW BYZANTIUM 11 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.new-byzantium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Orientation

.Istanbul is divided in three by the north-south Bosphorus Strait (Istanbul Bogazi), the dividing line between Europe and Asia, the estuary of the Golden Horn (Haliç) bisecting the western part and the Sea of Marmara (Marmara Denizi) forming a boundary to the south.^ The peninsula is surrounded by the Sea of Marmara on the south and the entrance of the Bosphorus on the east.

^ From Byzantium to Constantinople and from then on to Istanbul,this fabled city, divided by the Bosphorus strait lies both in Europe and Asia.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The peninsula is surrounded by the Sea of Marmara on the south and the Bosphorus on the east.
  • Constantinople travel - Turkey 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.virtual-earth.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most sights are concentrated in the old city on the peninsula of Sultanahmet, to the west of the Bosphorus between the Horn and the Sea.^ Most sights are concentrated in the old city on the peninsula of Sultanahmet [¤] , to the west of the Bosphorus between the Horn and the Sea.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ The European side of the city is the historical peninsula, also known as the “Golden Horn” because of the colour of the water at sunset.
  • easyJet.com - Istanbul 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.easyjet.com [Source type: General]

^ For Constantinople was surrounded by the most majestic city walls in Europe, built between 412 and 422 AD. Moated, battlemented, interspersed by 192 towers, and of treble thickness throughout, the walls marched a distance of six kilometres from the Golden Horn to the Sea of Marmara, rising and descending with the inequalities of the ground.
  • washingtonpost.com: Constantinople: City of the World's Desire, 1453-1924 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.Across the Horn to the north are Galata, Beyoğlu and Taksim, the heart of modern Istanbul, while Kadıköy is the major district on the comparatively less-visited Anatolian side of the city.^ Suadiye district is located in the Anatolian side of Istanbul .
  • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

^ Across the Horn to the north are Galata , Beyoğlu and Taksim , the heart of modern Istanbul, while Üsküdar is the major district on the comparatively less-visited Anatolian Side [¤] of the city.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ The European side of the city is the historical peninsula, also known as the “Golden Horn” because of the colour of the water at sunset.
  • easyJet.com - Istanbul 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.easyjet.com [Source type: General]

.The Black Sea forms the northern boundary of Istanbul.^ The Black Sea forms the northern boundary of Istanbul.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ But due to Istanbul's geographical location and longitude, it has a "transitional climate", midway between that of the oceanic climate of the Black Sea, the humid continental climate of the Balkan peninsula and the mediterranean climate of the southwest.

^ Istanbul [¤] is divided in three by the north-south Bosphorus Strait (Istanbul Bogazi), the dividing line between Europe and Asia, the estuary of the Golden Horn ( Haliç ) bisecting the western part and the Sea of Marmara ( Marmara Denizi ) forming a boundary to the south.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

Climate Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Daily highs (°C) 7 8 10 15 20 25 27 27 24 19 13 10
Nightly lows (°C) 2 2 4 8 12 16 18 18 16 12 8 5
It can be cloudy, rainy, or even snowy in Istanbul
It can be cloudy, rainy, or even snowy in Istanbul
.Forget the stereotypical Istanbul image of a city of 1001 Nights situated in the desert amidst date palms.^ Forget the stereotypical Istanbul [¤] image of a city of 1001 Nights situated in the desert amidst date palms.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Atatürk Caddesi, an avenue fringed with palm trees and date palms, is the best venue for acquainting yourself with the city’s exotic, modern face.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Riva Hotel is situated in the heart of Taksim just off Taksim square and near to Istiklal Street and all the major points of interest in Istanbul City .
  • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

.It lies on the same latitude as New York City to which it bears many similarities in climate and vegetation, as they both do not enjoy warm sea currents such as the Gulf Stream unlike the Mediterranean cities of Naples and Barcelona which also lie on the same latitude and are therefore much warmer and exotic in climate and vegetation than is normal for this latitude and for the very northerly Western Europe as well.^ [NOTE: Despite the general belief worldwide that the word, Istanbul, is Turkish, the reader would be well informed to know that in fact the word is Greek Similar to the custom of residents of San Francisco and of New York who refer to their large urban areas as "the City," the Byzantines did exactly the same.
  • From Constantine the Great and Christopher Columbus: behold, NEW BYZANTIUM 11 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.new-byzantium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The city was both a natural fortress and a matchless deep-water port, enjoying easy access by sea to Africa, the Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
  • washingtonpost.com: Constantinople: City of the World's Desire, 1453-1924 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Humidity is often rather high which can make temperatures feel much warmer or colder than they actually are.
  • Constantinople travel - Turkey 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.virtual-earth.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.And again unlike the stereotype it snows in this city, almost every winter - and a lot occasionally, although the standart precipitation is rain and sleet.^ Despite its fairly southerly latitude (which is about the same as Naples or Barcelona ), it snows in this city - a lot occasionally.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Hilltop fortresses watch over almost every city and border crossing in Anatolia.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Summer is generally hot as expected averaging around 27ºC during the day and 18ºC at night.^ Summers are as hot as expected.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Then they issued from their quarters, and thought to find a sorer battle than the day before, for no word had come to them that the emperor had fled during the night.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It was traditional to consume fruit, lemonade and various fruit juices and sherbets in the bath, where hot water flowed from the taps night and day and the interiors were fashionably sheathed in marble.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.High relative humidity levels and the ‘concrete-island effect’ only make things worse.^ Humidity is often rather high which can make temperatures feel much warmer or colder than they actually are.
  • Constantinople travel - Turkey 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.virtual-earth.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But things were only to get worse for Constantinople as the Saracens then took to Egypt under the commander Amru.

.Expect temperatures of up to 35° C for the hottest days of the year.^ Expect temperatures of up to 40° C for the hottest days of the year.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Summer is also the driest season, but it does rain, albeit not a lot, as showers which tend to last for 15-30 minutes, and the sun usually reappears again on the same day.^ Summer is by far the driest season, although there is no real summer drought such as occurs further west, and so the climate cannot be considered truly Mediterranean.
  • Constantinople travel - Turkey 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.virtual-earth.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From 15-Aug-10 to 30-Sep-10: Early booking offer (up to 21 days before arrival).
  • Hotels Istanbul - Luxury, boutique hotels and design hotels in Istanbul 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.splendia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even if it rains, you only need to wait 10 minutes for the sun to reappear again.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Winter is cold and wet averaging 2ºC at night and 7ºC during the day, and although rarely below freezing during the day, high relative humidity levels and the wind chill makes it feel bitterly cold and very unpleasant.^ Humidity is often rather high which can make temperatures feel much warmer or colder than they actually are.
  • Constantinople travel - Turkey 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.virtual-earth.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Temperate-Continental The city has hot and humid summers with cold, rainy and sometimes snowy winters.
  • Constantinople travel - Turkey 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.virtual-earth.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During Tuesday night a number of attacks on Armenians in their lodging-places were made and from 70 to 80 were thus killed in cold blood.
  • Politics and Massacre at Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC armenianhouse.org [Source type: Original source]

.Snowfall which occurs almost annually is common between the months of December and March, with an annual total snow cover of almost three weeks, but average winter snowfall often varies considerably from year to year, and snow cover usually remains only for a few days after each snowfall, even if it snows a lot.^ A traveler happening to meet an official on the road was turned back and imprisoned for a week on no charge whatever, and released only on the payment of three Turkish pounds.
  • Politics and Massacre at Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC armenianhouse.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This type of building was erected by the Ottoman Turks to serve as a covered market, and there are only three left in Greece now, in Thessaloniki,in Ioannina and in Serres.
  • Ottoman Architecture [Archive] - Forums of Pravda.Ru 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC engforum.pravda.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ At a time when the average lifespan was about 45 years, Sinan was appointed to the post of Royal Architect when he was 48 (fortunately he lived to almost 100).
  • Istanbul 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.arie.org [Source type: Original source]

.Late spring from second half of May to the first half of June and early autumn from the second half of September to the first half October are very pleasant and therefore the best times to visit the city, as it is neither cold and nor hot, and still sunny, though the nights can be chilly and rainfall is common.^ This is a good visit for late afternoon, early evening, fleeing the city.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Springs (April-May) and autumns (late September-early November) are the most pleasant times to be in this city, as it’s neither too cold nor too hot.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Temperate-Continental The city has hot and humid summers with cold, rainy and sometimes snowy winters.
  • Constantinople travel - Turkey 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.virtual-earth.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For visitors an unbrella is essential during spring, autumn and winter, and during the summer to avoid the sun and occasionally the rain. .However, it’s not such a big problem, since streets of Istanbul are suddenly filled by umbrella sellers as soon as it starts raining.^ However, it’s not such a big problem, since streets of Istanbul [¤] are suddenly filled by umbrella sellers as soon as it starts raining.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ While homosexual priests as such may not be the problem, conservatives sometimes think it is, since much of the abuse really isn't of children , but of teenage boys.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the way of all such projects, however, the terms of the discussion began to expand almost as soon as I set to work.
  • The Urban Image of Late Antique Constantinople - Cambridge University Press 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: Academic]

.Although the umbrellas they provide are a little shoddy, going rate is only TL 5 –about US$ 3- per umbrella (though you can find much better umbrellas for that price at shops if you look around a bit).^ Although the umbrellas they provide are a little shoddy, going rate is only YTL 5 –about US$ 3- per umbrella (though you can find much better umbrellas for that price at shops if you look around a bit).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ And be it known to you that he might have done much better.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ We all removed our shoes and put them in little plastic grocery bags that we carried with us (in smaller mosques you can just leave them outside) and it was suggested to the women that they cover their heads with scarves, but few did.
  • Istanbul 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.arie.org [Source type: Original source]

.Light clothing is recommended during summer and a light jacket and/or light sweater if the summer evenings do become chilly, warm clothing is essential during winter and a mixture of the two during spring and autumn.^ Thunderstorms , which are not common, usually occur in late spring, summer and early autumn, with an annual total of 22 days, and are particularly rare during the rest of the year and almost unheard of in winter.

^ However fog cover during the whole day is rare, and it usually occurs in winter, spring and autumn.

^ Snowfall is quite common, snowing for a week or two during the winter season, but it can be heavy once it snows.
  • Constantinople travel - Turkey 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.virtual-earth.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also take note that due to its huge size, topography and maritime influences, Istanbul exhibits a multitude of distinct microclimates.^ Due to its size, topography and maritime influences, Istanbul exhibits a multitude of distinct microclimates .

^ Also take note that being a huge city, different parts of Istanbul [¤] may experience different weather conditions at the same time.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Others may take unnecessarily long routes to increase the amount due (although sometimes alternate routes are also taken to avoid Istanbul [¤] traffic, which can be very bad).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.That is why different parts of Istanbul can experience different weather conditions at the same time.^ Also take note that being a huge city, different parts of Istanbul [¤] may experience different weather conditions at the same time.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ The army gathered by Murad was culturally diverse and colourful at the same time, each group of soldiers differing from the other.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.For example, at the same moment, it can be heavily raining in Sarıyer in the north, mildly raining in Levent (northern terminus of metro line), while Taksim, the southern terminus of metro line, is having a perfectly sunny day.^ In northern line it is also announced on a display, but not in the southern line.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ For example, at the same moment, it can be heavily raining in Sarıyer in the north, mildly raining in Levent (northern terminus of metro line), while Taksim , the southern terminus of metro line, is having a perfectly sunny day.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ All stations and trains in the northern metro line are accessible for people using a wheelchair.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

Duty Free area, inside Ataturk Airport
Duty Free area, inside Ataturk Airport
.Planes arrive at Istanbul Atatürk Airport [2] (IST), 20 km west of the city centre.^ Planes arrive at Istanbul [¤] Atatürk Airport [1] ( IST ), 20 km west of the city centre.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Arena Hotel is located in Sultanahmet in Istanbul approximately 20 km from Ataturk International Airport and central to the most famous traveller district in the old city Arena Hotel is owned by a woman who was born in the stone house and she has created a home for tourists that provides examples of fascinating past Istanbul living .
  • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

^ Istanbul has two international airports: The larger is Ataturk International, in Yeşilköy, 24 kilometers from the city center which used to be at the edge of the European part but is now inside the city, the more modern is the airport Sabiha Gökçen Airport, 20 kilometers east of the Asiatic side and 45 kilometers east of the European city centre.
  • Constantinople travel - Turkey 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.virtual-earth.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

From the airport, there are various options for getting into Istanbul: you can take a taxi (about 30 TL), the express bus service run by the local airport service called "Havas" [3] which departs half-hourly and costs about 10 TL to Taksim, the IETT bus (96T) costing 2.5 TL
.By Metro to city center - 3 lira, 45 minutes: When you get outside the baggage claim its about a 10 minute walk in the airport to the metro line.^ Grand Gulsoy Hotel is located in Beyazit near Beyazit Mosque, Suleymaniye Mosque, the Grand Bazaar, the main bus terminal, the city tram line and is just 10 km from Ataturk International Airport .
  • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

^ Istanbul Ataturk Airport is the major organization of congresses and exhibitions and the CNR Expo Center Istanbul Expo Center in walking distance WOW Airport Hotel is inviting you to a privileged world .
  • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

^ Yeilrmak'n tamas sonucu 45 bin dekar tarm alan sular altnda kald, 543 ev boaltld,; zarar 10 milyon lira.
  • Tarihte Bug�n [Arşiv] - Her�eyde biraz 2de1 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC www.2de1.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Just follow the signs to the metro.
.You need to by a jeton (token) for 1.50 lira.^ Be careful on what notes you hand them for payment; some drivers have tried to pretend that the 50 lira note that was handed handed was just a 5 lira note.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Each time you use a tram, metro, bus, or boat on the Public Transport system, you will need to use a token.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Just hand the cashier 1.50 lira and he'll give you a token.^ Be careful on what notes you hand them for payment; some drivers have tried to pretend that the 50 lira note that was handed handed was just a 5 lira note.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ When you turn your back to Black Sea on the other hand, you’ll have a distant view of business district of the city, full of skyscrapers.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ YTL 1.30/person, though you’ll have to buy multi-use cards (at least 5 uses for YTL 6.50), which makes a bad investment assuming that you are leaving the city.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.They don't accept credit card or foreign currency here.^ You may pay using foreign currency or Turkish Lira (only cash is accepted, though, no credit cards).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ In the beginning things were difficult, but because I have insisted on it readers have accepted me, even if they sometimes don't understand.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.This will get you on the red metro line (towards Aksaray).^ Although you may use the same tokens (1.40 YTL) or AKBİL on the metro and tram, you must pay another fare each time you change lines.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ The tram is also connected to the southern metro line (for the Otogar and Ataturk Airport) at Aksaray station, though the metro and tram lines are a short walk from each other.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ If you intend to head west (towards Europe ) by hitchhiking , take public bus HT48 ( Yenibosna Metro-Mimarsinan ) which departs from the bus stops located next to the ‘Yenibosna’ station of southern metro line.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.From this line, if you are going to Sultanahmet, you can transfer at Zeytinburnu and buy another jeton (1.50 lira).^ Istanbul [¤] 's public transit system can be difficult to figure out; maps are rare and you often have to transfer, and pay another fare, to get where you are going.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Be careful on what notes you hand them for payment; some drivers have tried to pretend that the 50 lira note that was handed handed was just a 5 lira note.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Although you may use the same tokens (1.40 YTL) or AKBİL on the metro and tram, you must pay another fare each time you change lines.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Note that the jeton token here is different than the first one.^ The 7th Station is actually the first one in the Christian rather than the Moselm Quarter of the City.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The shopkeeper suggested that one of my ten million lire notes was counterfeit and I had to give him a different one -- I showed the guide and he said it was legitimate.
  • Istanbul 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.arie.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There the main entrances were at the semi-circular extremity; here this was impossible, and the main entrances (if there was more than one) were on the western side.
  • J. B. Bury: History of the Later Roman Empire • Vol. I Chap. 3 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From Zeytinburnu, take the blue tram line T1, towards Kabataş which passes by: Sultanahmet, Eminönu and Tophane.^ Trams first entered service in Istanbul on September 3, 1869, at the Tophane – Ortaköy line.

^ In September 2006, a second tram line (T2) was added, running west from Zeytinburnu to Bağcılar .

.The trip from the airport to Sultanahmet takes about 45 min.^ From the airport, there are various options for getting into Istanbul: you can take a Taxi (about 30 YTL), the express bus service run by the local airport service called "Havas" [2] which departs half-hourly and costs about 10 YTL to Taksim , the IETT bus (96T) costing 2.5 YTL or by Metro to Aksaray and a tram on to Kabataş, which also passes through Sultanahmet [¤] , Eminönu and Tophane, for 1.4-2.8 YTL. The trip from the airport to Sultanahmet takes about 45 min.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Hali Hotel is located in Sultanahmet about 17 km from Ataturk International Airport and down a street just off Divan Yolu, the Way of Kings Hali Hotel can be reached by taxi taking the coast road and turning off into Sultanahmet .
  • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

^ A Havas bus connects this airport with Taksim in the city center for 10 YTL and takes about an hour.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Other Notes: Note that people are working on commission at the airport trying to make you use special shuttle buses for very high fees (30+ TL), so for people who wish to travel more economically the Metro/tram-combination is easy and fairly quick, and offers very good value.^ Note that people are working on commission at the airport trying to make you use special shuttle buses for very high fees (30+ YTL per person), so for people who wish to travel more economically the Metro/tram-combination is easy and fairly quick, and offers very good value.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Many Turks who have lived in Istanbul for over 30 or more years can still recollect how areas such as large parts of Maltepe, Kartal, Pendik, and others were green fields when they were young.
  • Constantinople travel - Turkey 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.virtual-earth.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You will find Ottoman and other antique metal ware - copper bowls, jugs, pots and the like - once used in hammams and kitchens.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Travel by metro/tram cost 1 token per trip which is equal to 1.5 TL. No matter how long you travel, it cost 1 token per trip.^ You can buy or refill them at designated booths located at any major bus, tram, to metro station, as well as some other places.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Mike Levy adds:          You can now also hear Token Back to Brooklyn on Long Tall Weekend , TMBG's first MP3 release.
  • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

^ And he answered them: " You see how matters stand with us.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Visa: Depending on nationality, foreigners arriving in Istanbul may need to purchase tourist visas (USA and some EU citizens, depending on exact nationality, do).^ Depending on nationality, foreigners arriving in Istanbul [¤] may need to purchase tourist visas ( USA and some EU citizens, depending on exact nationality, do).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ On some CD players, you may need to press "pause" before rewinding, and many CD players do not recognize this track at all.
  • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

^ As of April 2009, EU pays €10 (note that GB citizens may pay in Pounds), or the fee is is 35 Turkish Lira.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.This must be done upon arrival before queuing for passport control.^ This must be done upon arrival before queuing for Passport control.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.The windows for purchasing the visa are located immediately to the left of the main passport control booths.^ The windows for purchasing the Visa are located immediately to the left of the main Passport control booths.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.You may pay using foreign currency or Turkish Lira (TL) (only cash is accepted, though, no credit cards).^ You may pay using foreign currency or Turkish Lira (only cash is accepted, though, no credit cards).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Since 2006, the Bosphorus Bridge toll stations do not accept cash, and payment must be made using electronic cards, either manually (KGS) or automatically via a transponder mounted on the front of the car (OGS).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ The currency used in Istanbul [¤] is the New Turkish Lira (YTL) though the euro and US dollar are also accepted at places frequented by tourists (although certain tourist attractions such as the Hagia Sophia only accept liras).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.The fee varies depending on the visitor’s nationality.^ The fee varies depending on the visitor’s nationality.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.As of Jan 2010, the fee was $20 (or €15 or 10 GBP) for visitors traveling with U.S. and Australian passports.^ As of March 2008, the fee was $20 (or €15 or 10 GBP) for visitors travelling with U.S. passports.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ PrЄttyWомаИ 10-03-2009, 15:20 Tarihte Bugn/10 Mart 1879.
  • Tarihte Bug�n [Arşiv] - Her�eyde biraz 2de1 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC www.2de1.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As of Sep 2008, Canadians pay US$60 (or €45).^ As of September 2008, Canadians pay US$60 (or €45).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

As of Aug 2009, EU pays €15 (note that GB citizens may pay in Pounds), or the fee is is 35 TL.
.Note that food and drinks at the airport may cost up to five times more than in the city proper, as usual in other international airports.^ In 1453 Galata was more prosperous and densely populated than the Byzantine city south of the Golden Horn.
  • washingtonpost.com: Constantinople: City of the World's Desire, 1453-1924 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He had played his part in the defence of the city, more out of desperation than loyalty.
  • Nicol. Last Centuries of Byzantium 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC coursesa.matrix.msu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In his forty-five-year professional career he composed more than one hundred songs and made more than two hundred recordings.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.If you are traveling on budget and plan to spend some time at the airport, it may be wise to bring your own meals from town instead of buying them there.^ If you are travelling on budget and plan to spend some time at the airport, it may be wise to bring your own meals from town instead of buying them there.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ You know because of your own conscience if someone is doing right or wrong!
  • Patriarchate of Constantinople 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.monachos.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On some CD players, you may need to press "pause" before rewinding, and many CD players do not recognize this track at all.
  • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

.If you come from the Metro, there is a supermarket in the tunnel leading to the elevators / stairs to the airport proper where you can do some last-minute shopping.^ If you come from the Metro, there is a supermarket in the tunnel leading to the elevators / stairs to the airport proper where you can do some last-minute shopping.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ You might be better off taking the metro out of the old city and then a Taxi from there.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Most major shopping malls have security checkpoints you usually see in airports and Museums prior to entry.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Istanbul also has a second airport Sabiha Gökçen International Airport [4](SAW), located in the Anatolian side of the city.^ The quarters of Üsküdar (ancient Chrysopolis and later Scutari ) and Kadıköy (ancient Chalcedon ) which are located on the Asian side were originally independent cities, like Pera also used to be.
  • Constantinople travel - Turkey 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.virtual-earth.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Istanbul has two international airports: The larger is Ataturk International, in Yeşilköy, 24 kilometers from the city center which used to be at the edge of the European part but is now inside the city, the more modern is the airport Sabiha Gökçen Airport, 20 kilometers east of the Asiatic side and 45 kilometers east of the European city centre.
  • Constantinople travel - Turkey 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.virtual-earth.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The smaller one is the Sabiha Gökçen International Airport located in the Kurtköy district on the Asian side, close to the Istanbul Park GP Racing Circuit .

.Charter flights as well as European low cost carriers operate from here most of the time.^ Charter flights as well as European low cost carriers operate from here most of the time.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.A Havas bus connects this airport with Taksim in the city center for 12TL and takes about an hour.^ A Havas bus connects this airport with Taksim in the city center for 10 YTL and takes about an hour.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ It’s about one hour bus ride away from central parts of the city, near Bahcekoy in the north of the city, near the Black Sea coast ( buses: 42T from Taksim and Besiktas, 42M from 4.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Most internet cafes have high speed ADSL connections, and they are very inexpensive compared to Europe (about 0.50-1.50 Euros per hour).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

It runs day and night. A cheaper option is to take bus E10 which brings you to Kadıkoy in 70 min (3TL). .From there take a ferry to Eminonu or Karakoy.^ From there take a ferry to Eminonu or Karakoy.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

Inside Sirkeci Train Station
Inside Sirkeci Train Station
Haydarpasa Station
Haydarpasa Station
.International trains from across Europe arrive at the station in Sirkeci, close to Sultanahmet.^ Asian trains arrive at Haydarpasa station.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ International trains from across Europe arrive at the station in Sirkeci, close to Sultanahmet [¤] .
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ International trains to and from Sirkeci: .
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Asian trains arrive at Haydarpasa station.^ Asian trains arrive at Haydarpasa station.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Weekly trains to Aleppo ( Syria ) Weekly train to Teheran ( Iran ) (from Haydarpasa station) every Wednesday 10.55pm, costing 105 Turkish lira.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ International trains from across Europe arrive at the station in Sirkeci, close to Sultanahmet [¤] .
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.To get between the two, catch a ferry across the Bosphorus (see Get around).^ For now the two stations are connected by ferry across the Bosphorus.
  • Constantinople travel - Turkey 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.virtual-earth.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To get between the two, catch a ferry across the Bosphorus (see Get around).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Marmaray, the Rail Tube Tunnel and Commuter Rail Mass Transit System is being built, and is projected to be one of the most challenging infrastructure projects in Turkey.^ Marmaray, the Rail Tube Tunnel and Commuter Rail Mass Transit System is being built, and is projected to be one of the most challenging infrastructure projects in Turkey .
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Istanbul is one of the most important tourism spots of Turkey.

^ Marmaray (Bosphorus Rail Tunnel) will also connect the metro lines on the European and Asian parts of the city.

International trains to and from Sirkeci:
.
  • Daily overnight train Balkan Express from Belgrade (Serbia) via Sofia (Bulgaria).
  • Daily overnight Bosphorus Express from Bucharest (Romania) (departure at 12.16PM from Bucharest, arrival at 8.30AM in Istanbul, but expect about 2 hours delay) Cost: 146 Lei (about 30 euro) for a second class sleeper.^ Lines to Sofia , Belgrade , Budapest , and Chişinău are established over the Bosphorus Express connection to Bucharest.

    ^ Daily overnight trains from Sofia ( Bulgaria ) - coming from Belgrade ( Serbia ) and Budapest ( Hungary ) Daily overnight "Bosphorus train" from Bucharest ( Romania ) (departure at 12.16pm from Bucharest , arrival at 8.30am in Istanbul [¤] , but expect about 2 hours delay) Cost: 146 Lei for a second class sleeper.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The cheapest train ticket costs 3.75 YTL (3.00 YTL if you have a valid student ID, this is the rate for Doğu Express , which departs 08:35 every morning) from Istanbul [¤] ’s Haydarpasa station to Izmit currently.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .No restaurant.
  • TransBalkan Express from Budapest (Hungary) also has one of its cars attached to Bosphorus Exp.^ Lines to Sofia , Belgrade , Budapest , and Chişinău are established over the Bosphorus Express connection to Bucharest.

    in Bucharest, thus providing a direct service from Budapest to Istanbul.
  • Twice a day there are trains to Thessaloniki (Greece) - the slow morning train that takes almost a whole day and the fast night train that is quicker but more expensive.
.In September 2009, all train service between Istanbul and Europe were suspended due to flooding, but have since re-opened.^ But due to Istanbul's geographical location and longitude, it has a "transitional climate", midway between that of the oceanic climate of the Black Sea, the humid continental climate of the Balkan peninsula and the mediterranean climate of the southwest.

^ Trams first entered service in Istanbul on September 3, 1869, at the Tophane – Ortaköy line.

^ Located on both sides of the Bosphorus , the narrow strait between the Black Sea and the Marmara Sea, Istanbul bridges Asia and Europe both physically and culturally.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

International trains to and from Haydarpasa:
.
  • Weekly trains to Aleppo (Syria) - taken out of service in 2008; it is unknown whether and when this service will resume.
  • Weekly train to Teheran (Iran) (from Haydarpasa station) every Wednesday 10.55PM, costing 105 Turkish lira.^ Weekly trains to Aleppo ( Syria ) Weekly train to Teheran ( Iran ) (from Haydarpasa station) every Wednesday 10.55pm, costing 105 Turkish lira.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Asian trains arrive at Haydarpasa station.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The cheapest train ticket costs 3.75 YTL (3.00 YTL if you have a valid student ID, this is the rate for Doğu Express , which departs 08:35 every morning) from Istanbul [¤] ’s Haydarpasa station to Izmit currently.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .It is also a good way to drive in the Eastern part of Turkey.^ It is also a good way to drive in the Eastern part of Turkey .
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In a way, the most interesting part of the tour was driving through traffic.
    • Istanbul 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.arie.org [Source type: Original source]

    .You change trains on Friday at Lake Van which requires a four hour ferry ride to get across.^ You change trains on Friday at Lake Van which requires a four hour ferry ride to get across.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Edirne [¤] in the west is a two-hour car drive or bus ride away (train is also an option but it takes much longer).
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    Both the Turkish and Iranian trains are comfortable and clean. .Waggon restaurants are rather cheap.^ Waggon restaurants are rather cheap.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    Arrival in Tehran on Saturday at 6.45PM (but expect up to 10 hours delay…).
.Schedule and price list of railway trips can be gathered from TCDD (Turkish Republic State Railways) [5].^ Schedule and price list of railway trips can be gathered from TCDD (Turkish Republic State Railways) [4] .
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Today, the Sirkeci Terminal of the Turkish State Railways (TCDD), which was originally opened in 1890 as the terminus of the Orient Express , is the terminus of all the lines on the European side and the main connection node of the Turkish railway network with the rest of Europe.

.When arriving at the Turkish border from Europe, you may need to buy a visa before getting your passport stamp.^ A visit to a hamam (Turkish Bath ) is an essential part of any trip to Istanbul [¤] and is something you'll be sure to repeat before leaving.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Exchange only what you need as you will find difficulty exchanging your leftover YTL back to foreign currency after you leave the country.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ You may pay using foreign currency or Turkish Lira (only cash is accepted, though, no credit cards).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

This counter accepts only Euros or USD, not Turkish Lira. .You need to go to the visa counter first to purchase your visa, then to passport control to get it stamped.^ Exchange only what you need as you will find difficulty exchanging your leftover YTL back to foreign currency after you leave the country.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ The windows for purchasing the Visa are located immediately to the left of the main Passport control booths.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ I want you to send the messages at first daylight, we do not need to lose any more days thinking over it.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

By bus

.Buses and coaches terminate at the colossal Esenler Otogar, about 10 km west of the city center, located on the European side.^ Taksim is the main center of the New City on the European Side [¤] .
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Buses and coaches terminate at the colossal Esenler Otogar , about 10 km west of the city center, located on the European Side [¤] .
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Grand Gulsoy Hotel is located in Beyazit near Beyazit Mosque, Suleymaniye Mosque, the Grand Bazaar, the main bus terminal, the city tram line and is just 10 km from Ataturk International Airport .
  • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

.Courtesy minibuses or taxis will easily get you into the center.^ Courtesy minibuses or taxis will easily get you into the center.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ However, if you put some effort into it, you can avoid taxis and not walk too much.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Sevcan Hotel Istanbul is located very near to the E-5 main road It's an ideal location for business travellers Also, you can easily reach the main points of the city from here There are taxis, public buses and public minibuses available in front of the Hotel Sevcan .
  • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

.The metro also stops at the Otogar.^ The metro also stops at the Otogar.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.There are several daily buses to/from cities in Romania and Bulgaria.^ There are several daily buses to/from cities in Romania and Bulgaria .
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ There are two types of public buses in Istanbul [¤] ; those run by the private sector and those run by the city-owned IETT. You can differentiate these two types by their colors.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ For several months there had been occasional exiles from Adapazar, but we felt safe because we had a good Mayor and a good Military Commander in the city.
  • Documents 95-108. Bryce. Armenians. XII---The City of Angora; XIII---Thrace, Constantinople, Broussa, and Ismid; XIV---The Anatolian Railway. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC net.lib.byu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.With 168 ticket offices and gates, shops, restaurants, hotel, police station, clinic and mosque, the Büyük Otogar is a town in itself.^ With 168 ticket offices and gates, shops, restaurants, hotel, police station, clinic and mosque, the Büyük Otogar is a town in itself.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Location: Old City Sultanahmet Guest recommendation: 79% - 39 opinions In the Old Town - Boutique hotel - Restaurant - Rooftop terrace Situated in the historic area of Sultanahmet, the ...
  • Hotels Istanbul - Luxury, boutique hotels and design hotels in Istanbul 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.splendia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

From/To Thessaloniki(Greece): ticket prices around €35 (one way) Sofia (Bulgaria): 10-15€
."Harem" is the major hub for the buses on the Anatolian (Asian) side, which can be reached easily from the European side with a Ferryboat.^ Istanbul's main cargo port is located in the Harem district on the Asian side of the city.

^ The Ottomans called the Asian side of Istanbul 'Anadolu/Anatolia' and the European side 'Rumeli/Roman Country' a terminology which we still use.
  • Istanbul 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.arie.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On both the European and Asian sides of the Bosphorus, wealthy Istanbulites built luxurious chalet mansions, called yalı , which were used as summer residences.

By boat

.International ferries, carrying tourist groups from outside Turkey stop at Karakoy Port.^ International ferries, carrying tourist groups from outside Turkey stop at Karakoy Port.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.The port is ideally located close to Sultanahmet and Taksim.^ The port is ideally located close to Sultanahmet [¤] and Taksim .
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Cem Sultan Hotel is located in Sultanahmet near all the backpacking hostels and bars and close to the Blue Mosque .
  • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

^ Feronya Hotel is located in the Taksim district of Old Istanbul close to many amentities, shopping and entertainment districts and Sultanahmet where the main sights can be found .
  • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

.Cruise ships often dock close to downtown.^ Cruise ships often dock close to downtown.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Passengers not on tours will find taxis readily available at the port entrance, and modern streetcars a short walk away.^ Passengers not on tours will find taxis readily available at the port entrance, and modern streetcars a short walk away.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Levent metro station; entrance of the arboretum is a 15-min walk away from the last stop of aforementioned lines ).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Try to avoid using taxis for short distances (5-10 minutes of walk) if possible.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

By car

.Traffic in Istanbul can be manic; expect a stressful drive because you will be cut off and honked at constantly.^ Traffic in Istanbul [¤] can be manic; expect a stressful drive because you will be cut off and honked at constantly.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Passenger traffic was limited to one train a week until shortly after the time of which I write, when that was cut off too, leaving no train connection with the interior open to the civilian.
  • Documents 95-108. Bryce. Armenians. XII---The City of Angora; XIII---Thrace, Constantinople, Broussa, and Ismid; XIV---The Anatolian Railway. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC net.lib.byu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The city currently holds more than 1,500,000 automobiles and there is a strong demand for building of new or alternate highways.^ The city currently holds more than 1,500,000 automobiles and there is a strong demand for building of new or alternate highways.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ More than 200,000 fled first to Tangier , Algiers , Genova and Marseille , later to Salonica and finally to Istanbul.

^ Nika revolt (532), on which occasion Justinian nearly lost his throne, more than 80,000 persons were killed, and fire destroyed the greater part of the city.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Constantinople 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.If you've arrived in Istanbul by car, and you're not familiar with the streets, it's better to park your car in a safe place and take public transportation to get around.^ If you've arrived in Istanbul [¤] by car, and you're not familiar with the streets, it's better to park your car in a safe place and take public transportation to get around.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Buying an AKBİL (AKıllı BİLet - Turkish acronym for Smart Ticket) is a good idea if you are in Istanbul [¤] for more than a day or two, and intend to use Public Transport .
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Istanbul [¤] 's public transit system can be difficult to figure out; maps are rare and you often have to transfer, and pay another fare, to get where you are going.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.The city, lying on two different continents and separated by the Bosphorus, is connected by two bridges.^ The city, lying on two different continents and separated by the Bosphorus, is connected by two bridges.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Marmaray (Bosphorus Rail Tunnel) will also connect the metro lines on the European and Asian parts of the city.

^ It encloses the southern Bosporus which places the city on two continents—the western portion of Istanbul is in Europe , while the eastern portion is in Asia .

.The bridge on the south, closer to the Marmara Sea, is called the "Bosphorus Bridge". The bridge closer to the Black Sea is named "Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge" and is longer than the first one.^ The peninsula is surrounded by the Sea of Marmara on the south and the entrance of the Bosphorus on the east.

^ The bridge on the south, closer to the Marmara Sea, is called the "Bosphorus Bridge".
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ The bridge closer to the Black Sea is named "Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge" and is longer than the first one.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Both are toll bridges, and you must pay a fee to cross.^ Both are toll bridges, and you must pay a fee to cross.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ If you actively decide that you would like your shoes shined, then expect to pay not more than 5 lira for both.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ For the first three days crossing the bridge was free, after which a toll known as mürüriye was paid to the Naval Ministry.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Since 2006, the Bosphorus Bridge toll stations do not accept cash, and payment must be made using electronic cards, either manually (KGS) or automatically via a transponder mounted on the front of the car (OGS).^ Since 2006, the Bosphorus Bridge toll stations do not accept cash, and payment must be made using electronic cards, either manually (KGS) or automatically via a transponder mounted on the front of the car (OGS).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ You may pay using foreign currency or Turkish Lira (only cash is accepted, though, no credit cards).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Both are toll bridges, and you must pay a fee to cross.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Drivers without either of these two methods must take the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge.^ Drivers without either of these two methods must take the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ In this respect the bridge bonded these two distinctive cultures.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Fatih Sultan Mehmet zamannda Osmanl topraklarna katld.
  • Dizinin ge�ti�i d�nemle ilgili d�k�manlar [Ar�iv] - DiziFilm.com Forum 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC www.dizifilm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On weekdays, drivers should be aware of potentially hour-long traffic jams on the highways leading to both bridges, particularly heading west in the mornings and east in the evenings, since most people live on the Anatolian side but work on the European side.^ On weekdays, drivers should be aware of potentially hour-long traffic jams on the highways leading to both bridges, particularly heading west in the mornings and east in the evenings, since most people live on the Anatolian Side [¤] but work on the European side.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Many Istanbulites live on the Asian side of the city but work on the European side (or vice-versa) and the city's famous commuter ferries form the backbone of the daily transition between the two parts of the city – even more so than the two suspension bridges which span the Bosphorus.

^ The Genoese were one of the most hated people in Constantinople, along with the Venetians, who ironically, both of them, were close traders with the Empire and the imperial family.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.There is a great shortage of parking in Istanbul, and existing lots are quite expensive.^ There is a great shortage of parking in Istanbul [¤] , and existing lots are quite expensive.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ There are pleasant cafés in the beautiful tree-filled park, and along the west side are Istanbul Sailing Club, Fenerbahçe Sports Club and Galatasaray Sports Club.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.You will see many cars parked on the sides of the road, in front of garage doors even.^ You will see many Cars parked on the sides of the road, in front of garage doors even.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Burnt-out husks of cars littered the sides of the roads.
  • Istanbul 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.arie.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By tomorrow morning, I want to see all of you in front of the St. Romanus gate, and Sphrantzes, bring the maps of the city with you.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.Drivers unfamiliar with the city should also be aware that street signs are rare.^ Drivers unfamiliar with the city should also be aware that street signs are rare.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.It is a common thing to pull over and ask for directions, something the natives and taxi drivers do quite often.^ It is a common thing to pull over and ask for directions, something the natives and Taxi drivers do quite often.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

Get around

Public transport

.Istanbul's public transit system can be difficult to figure out; maps are rare and you often have to transfer, and pay another fare, to get where you are going.^ Istanbul [¤] 's public transit system can be difficult to figure out; maps are rare and you often have to transfer, and pay another fare, to get where you are going.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Figure it out, you're the general, not me!
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There are two types of public buses in Istanbul [¤] ; those run by the private sector and those run by the city-owned IETT. You can differentiate these two types by their colors.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.However, if you put some effort into it, you can avoid taxis and not walk too much.^ However, if you put some effort into it, you can avoid taxis and not walk too much.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ And he marvels much why, and for what purpose, you have come into his land and kingdom.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ You should avoid these cabs and simply take another one as you will almost certainly end paying too much.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Each time you use a tram, metro, bus, or boat on the public transport system, you will need to use a token.^ "You need to use bathroom?
  • Istanbul 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.arie.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You buzz the AKBİL when you get on the bus or enter the tram/metro platform.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Each time you use a tram, metro, bus, or boat on the Public Transport system, you will need to use a token.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.The small metal tokens cost 1.50 TL and can be bought at various ticket kiosks at bus, train, and metro stations.^ The small metal tokens cost YTL 1.40 and can be bought at various ticket kiosks at bus, train, and metro stations.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ The cheapest train ticket costs 3.75 YTL (3.00 YTL if you have a valid student ID, this is the rate for Doğu Express , which departs 08:35 every morning) from Istanbul [¤] ’s Haydarpasa station to Izmit currently.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Weekly trains to Aleppo ( Syria ) Weekly train to Teheran ( Iran ) (from Haydarpasa station) every Wednesday 10.55pm, costing 105 Turkish lira.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

Ticket fares across buses, trams and metros are at a flat rate(i.e. not dependent on how far you go).
.Buying an AKBİL (AKıllı BİLet - Turkish acronym for Smart Ticket) is a good idea if you are in Istanbul for more than a day or two, and intend to use public transport.^ Buying an AKBİL (AKıllı BİLet - Turkish acronym for Smart Ticket) is a good idea if you are in Istanbul [¤] for more than a day or two, and intend to use Public Transport .
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ What do you want more than this?
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ More than 200,000 fled first to Tangier , Algiers , Genova and Marseille , later to Salonica and finally to Istanbul.

.AKBİL is a small electronic device serving as a ticket which may be used on buses, trams, suburban trains, metro, local ferries, etc.^ At Yenikapı the M2 network will intersect with the extended light metro and suburban train lines, and with the Marmaray tunnel .

.You buzz the AKBİL when you get on the bus or enter the tram/metro platform.^ You buzz the AKBİL when you get on the bus or enter the tram/metro platform.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ AKBİL is a small electronic device serving as a ticket which may be used on buses, trams, suburban trains, metro, local ferries, etc.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ You can buy or refill them at designated booths located at any major bus, tram, to metro station, as well as some other places.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.The great part for travelers is that you can buy only one and buzz it as many times as there are passengers.^ There is only one answer.
  • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

^ The great part for travelers is that you can buy only one and buzz it as many times as there are passengers.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ We're only two-three generations of people into the republican time and there are still residues in the corners of some people minds about being a subject of a dynasty one day.
  • Istanbul 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.arie.org [Source type: Original source]

.You can buy or refill them at designated booths located at any major bus, tram, to metro station, as well as some other places.^ You can buy or refill them at designated booths located at any major bus, tram, to metro station, as well as some other places.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ You buzz the AKBİL when you get on the bus or enter the tram/metro platform.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ As in other places, a number of leading Armenians were first arrested, including some Catholics.
  • Documents 95-108. Bryce. Armenians. XII---The City of Angora; XIII---Thrace, Constantinople, Broussa, and Ismid; XIV---The Anatolian Railway. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC net.lib.byu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.An AKBİL provides discounted rates compared to regular single tickets, as well as discounts in transfers (when used multiple times within a limited period).^ An AKBİL provides discounted rates compared to regular single tickets, as well as discounts in transfers (when used multiple times within a limited period).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Although you may use the same tokens (1.40 YTL) or AKBİL on the metro and tram, you must pay another fare each time you change lines.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.A deposit for the device itself is payable when you buy it, which is refundable if you choose to return it later.^ A deposit for the device itself is payable when you buy it, which is refundable if you choose to return it later.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Buses and streetcars tend to be very crowded during rush hours, especially on Mondays and Fridays.^ Buses and streetcars tend to be very crowded during rush hours, especially on Mondays and Fridays.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.That can also create opportunities for pickpockets.^ That can also create opportunities for Pickpockets .
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

By bus

Bus and tram, together
Bus and tram, together
IETT, [6].  .'listing', 'Istanbul');return false;" title="click to edit IETT">edit There are two types of public buses in Istanbul; those run by the private sector and those run by the city-owned IETT. You can differentiate these two types by their colors.^ There are two types of public buses in Istanbul [¤] ; those run by the private sector and those run by the city-owned IETT. You can differentiate these two types by their colors.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ There were two types of archery.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Location: Osmanbey-Sisli Walking distance to major monuments - Free Wi-Fi in public areas Welcome to the Crowne Plaza Istanbul Old City Hotel, opened on June 2008 and delighted to offer you ...
  • Hotels Istanbul - Luxury, boutique hotels and design hotels in Istanbul 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.splendia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Privately run buses are blue-green with yellow non-electronic destination signs while IETT-run buses come in many flavors including old red-blue ones, newer green ones and red double-deckers.^ Privately run buses are blue-green with yellow non-electronic destination signs while IETT-run buses come in many flavors including old red-blue ones, newer green ones and red double-deckers.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ There are two types of public buses in Istanbul [¤] ; those run by the private sector and those run by the city-owned IETT. You can differentiate these two types by their colors.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Greeks, Armenians and Jews were distinguished respectively by sky blue, dark blue (later red) and yellow hats, and by black, violet and blue slippers.
  • washingtonpost.com: Constantinople: City of the World's Desire, 1453-1924 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Akbil Transit Pass is valid universally while tickets that can be obtained in kiosks near bus stops for 1.4 TL are valid only on IETT buses and cash payment only on private buses, although if you get on an IETT bus the driver will normally accept cash (normally 1.5 TL but this is dependent entirely upon what the driver wishes to charge) and hand you his Akbil for you to use.^ The Akbil Transit Pass is valid universally while tickets that can be obtained in kiosks near bus stops for 1.4 YTL are valid only on IETT buses and cash payment only on private buses, although if you get on an IETT bus the driver will normally accept cash (normally 1.5 YTL but this is dependent entirely upon what the driver wishes to charge) and hand you his Akbil for you to use.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Since 2006, the Bosphorus Bridge toll stations do not accept cash, and payment must be made using electronic cards, either manually (KGS) or automatically via a transponder mounted on the front of the car (OGS).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ As a tourist, you are most likely to use the T4 bus the most.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Recently installed Metrobüs, long hybrid buses running on their special lanes seperated from all other traffic and thus saving lots of time in Istanbul's usually congested roads, connect western suburb of Avcılar with Kadıköy in Asian Side via Bakırköy, Cevizlibağ which is just out of old city walls near Topkapı Gate, and Mecidiyeköy.^ Western Suburbs Western chunk of the European Side [¤] .
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Ramada Istanbul Old City Hotel istanbul .
  • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

^ The city walls of Istanbul .
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.As a tourist, you are most likely to use the tram and the metro in the Sultanahmet and Taksim area since there are no bus lines operating in the area anymore.^ As a tourist, you are most likely to use the T4 bus the most.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ I'd like to say that you get used to it.
  • Istanbul 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.arie.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You buzz the AKBİL when you get on the bus or enter the tram/metro platform.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

By metro

.Istanbul's first underground system dates back to 19th century, when the funicular subway "Tünel" was constructed to operate from Karakoy to Istıklal Street in 1875. The distance travelled was 573 metres.^ The distance travelled was 573 metres.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Istanbul [¤] 's first underground system dates back to 19th century, when the funicular subway "Tünel" was constructed to operate from Karakoy to Istıklal Street in 1875.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ The construction of the Dolmabahce Palace and the introduction of steamship travel in the 19th century facilitated settlement even in the waterway’s most remote recesses.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Recommended option to go up-hill from Galata Bridge (Beyoglu side) to the famous Istiklal Caddesi (main street).^ Recommended option to go up-hill from Galata Bridge (Beyoglu Side [¤] ) to the famous Istiklal Caddesi (main street).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ His engineers had already begun work on building a road up and over the hill behind Galata from the Bosporos.
  • Nicol. Last Centuries of Byzantium 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC coursesa.matrix.msu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The famous Camondo Stairs on Bankalar Caddesi (Banks Street) in Karaköy ( Galata ) is also a beautiful example of Art Nouveau architecture.

As of July 2009 a token was 1.5 TL (around 0.75 Eur).
.In 1990's, a modern tram line was constructed in the European side of the city, and now it's being extended to the inner parts of the city, as well as to the Anatolian side with a sea-tunnel named "Marmaray" crossing below the Bosphorus.^ In 1990's, a modern tram line was constructed in the European Side [¤] of the city, and now it's being extended to the inner parts of the city, as well as to the Anatolian side with a sea-tunnel named "Marmaray" crossing below the Bosphorus.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ European side of the city every day.

^ The Marmaray tunnel (Bosporus undersea railway tunnel) will connect the metro lines of the Asian and European parts of the city.

.Istanbul's metro consists of two lines, the northern line is currently just a short stub connecting Taksim to 4.Levent.^ Istanbul [¤] 's metro consists of two lines, the northern line is currently just a short stub connecting Taksim to 4.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ For example, at the same moment, it can be heavily raining in Sarıyer in the north, mildly raining in Levent (northern terminus of metro line), while Taksim , the southern terminus of metro line, is having a perfectly sunny day.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ All stations and trains in the northern metro line are accessible for people using a wheelchair.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.There is also a funicular system connecting Taksim to Kabatas where you can get on ferries and cross to the Anatolian side.^ There is also a funicular system connecting Taksim to Kabatas where you can get on ferries and cross to the Anatolian Side [¤] .
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Ferries depart from Eminönü (once or twice a day, from the pier named Boğaz İskelesi ) and Sariyer (much more frequently), which is the northernmost district on European Side [¤] (to get to Sariyer, you should take public bus #40 from Taksim ).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Between Taksim and Kabatas, there is a modern underground funicular to connect this tram line to the Taksim metro.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.The southern line is most useful for visitors, connecting Aksaray (with its connections to the tram line) to Atatürk Airport, via the Otogar.^ The southern line is most useful for visitors, connecting Aksaray (with its connections to the tram line) to Atatürk Airport, via the Otogar.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ The tram is also connected to the southern metro line (for the Otogar and Ataturk Airport) at Aksaray station, though the metro and tram lines are a short walk from each other.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Between Taksim and Kabatas, there is a modern underground funicular to connect this tram line to the Taksim metro.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

By tram

.A tram connects Zeytinburnu (connection to the metro line to the airport) to Kabataş (connection to the underground funicular to Taksim).^ Between Taksim and Kabatas, there is a modern underground funicular to connect this tram line to the Taksim metro.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ This system connects the Seabus station and the tram stop in Kabataş to the metro station at Taksim Square .

^ A tram connects Zeytinburnu (connection to the metro line to the airport) to Kabataş (connection to the underground funicular to Taksim ).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.The line is 14km long, has 24 stations and serves many popular tourist sites (e.g.^ The line is 14km long, has 24 stations and serves many popular tourist sites (e.g.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ This section of the line is long and has 6 stations.

^ The line has 24 stations on a length of 14 km.

in Sultanahmet) and ferries (e.g. Eminönü). .An entire trip takes 42 minutes.^ An entire trip takes 42 minutes.

^ The trip takes 21 minutes.

^ A single trip takes 48 minutes.

.Although you may use the same tokens (1.50 TL) or AKBİL on the metro and tram, you must pay another fare each time you change lines.^ Although you may use the same tokens (1.40 YTL) or AKBİL on the metro and tram, you must pay another fare each time you change lines.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ You buzz the AKBİL when you get on the bus or enter the tram/metro platform.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Each time you use a tram, metro, bus, or boat on the Public Transport system, you will need to use a token.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.The tram was put in service in 1992 on standard gauge track with modern cars, connecting Sirkeci with Topkapi.^ The tram was put in service in 1992 on standard gauge track with modern Cars , connecting Sirkeci with Topkapi.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Between Taksim and Kabatas, there is a modern underground funicular to connect this tram line to the Taksim metro.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.The line was extended on one end from Topkapi to Zeytinburnu in March 1994 and, on the other end from Sirkeci to Eminönü in April 1996. On January 30, 2005 it was extended from Sirkeci to Kabataş crossing Golden Horn after 44 years again.^ On 30 January 2005 it was extended from Eminönü to Fındıklı, crossing the Golden Horn through the Galata Bridge for the first time after 44 years.

^ The line was extended on one end from Topkapi to Zeytinburnu in March 1994 and, on the other end from Sirkeci to Eminönü in April 1996.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ On January 30, 2005 it was extended from Sirkeci to Kabataş crossing Golden Horn after 44 years again.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.55 vehicles built by ABB run on the line.^ ABB run on the line.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Service is operated with LRT vehicles built by ABB in 1988.

^ Service was initially operated with 22 LRT vehicles built by ABB , now reassigned to other lines; while stations were provided with temporary high platforms.

.The daily transport capacity is 155,000 passengers.^ The daily transport capacity is 155,000 passengers.

^ In 2000, there were 8 Alstom -built 4-car train sets in service, which ran every 5 minutes on average and transported 130,000 passengers daily.

Hızlı Tramway stations are: Zeytinburnu, Mithatpaşa, Akşemsettin, Seyitnizam, Merkezefendi, Cevizlibağ, Topkapı, Pazartekke, Çapa, Fındıkzade, Haseki, Yusufpaşa, Aksaray, Laleli (Üniversite), Beyazıt (Kapalıçarşı), Çemberlitaş, Sultanahmet, Gülhane, Sirkeci, Eminönü (ferryboats), Karaköy, Tophane, Fındıklı, Kabataş
.Between Taksim and Kabatas, there is a modern underground funicular to connect this tram line to the Taksim metro.^ Between Taksim and Kabatas, there is a modern underground funicular to connect this tram line to the Taksim metro.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ File:Funikuler kabatas-taksim.jpg|thumb|The modern funicular line running between Kabataş and Taksim .

^ A tram connects Zeytinburnu (connection to the metro line to the airport) to Kabataş (connection to the underground funicular to Taksim ).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.The tram is also connected to the southern metro line (for the Otogar and Ataturk Airport) at Aksaray station, though the metro and tram lines are a short walk from each other.^ The southern line is most useful for visitors, connecting Aksaray (with its connections to the tram line) to Atatürk Airport, via the Otogar.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ The tram is also connected to the southern metro line (for the Otogar and Ataturk Airport) at Aksaray station, though the metro and tram lines are a short walk from each other.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ A tram connects Zeytinburnu (connection to the metro line to the airport) to Kabataş (connection to the underground funicular to Taksim ).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

Information for disabled travelers

Buses
.The process of replacing old buses with newer ones accessible for people using a wheelchair is ongoing.^ The process of replacing old buses with newer ones accessible for people using a wheelchair is ongoing.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ All stations and trains in the northern metro line are accessible for people using a wheelchair.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ This was used until 1912, when it was pulled upstream to replace the now genuinely old Cisr-i Atik Bridge.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Many buses on central lines have a low floor and a built-in ramp (consult the driver to lean the bus down nearer to the ground, to open the ramp, and to assist into the bus, though any of these might unfortunately be impossible during peak hours in interval stops.^ Many buses on central lines have a low floor and a built-in ramp (consult the driver to lean the bus down nearer to the ground, to open the ramp, and to assist into the bus, though any of these might unfortunately be impossible during peak hours in interval stops.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ It’s about one hour bus ride away from central parts of the city, near Bahcekoy in the north of the city, near the Black Sea coast ( buses: 42T from Taksim and Besiktas, 42M from 4.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Think of a sardine-packed bus unloading all of its passengers to lean down).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Think of a sardine-packed bus unloading all of its passengers to lean down).^ Think of a sardine-packed bus unloading all of its passengers to lean down).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Unfortunately, no stops are announced on a display or by voice in the buses.^ Unfortunately, no stops are announced on a display or by voice in the buses.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ All stations are announced both on a display and by voice in the trams.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

Trams
.Trams are accessible for people using a wheelchair from the station platforms if you can manage to get into the station in the first place.^ All stations and trains in the northern metro line are accessible for people using a wheelchair.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Trams are accessible for people using a wheelchair from the station platforms if you can manage to get into the station in the first place.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ You can ask the guys in grey/black uniforms (security guards, they can be seen in the entrances of the station platforms if not elsewhere) for assistance, it’s their duty.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Some of the stations are located in the middle of very wide avenues and the only access to them is via underground passages (tens of stairs) or overpasses (more stairs!^ Some of the stations are located in the middle of very wide avenues and the only access to them is via underground passages (tens of stairs) or overpasses (more stairs!
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ You can buy or refill them at designated booths located at any major bus, tram, to metro station, as well as some other places.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Some of the people were shut up ten days in the church, but special favour was shown to the Protestants ; none were beaten, and they had more liberty to go in and out.
  • Documents 95-108. Bryce. Armenians. XII---The City of Angora; XIII---Thrace, Constantinople, Broussa, and Ismid; XIV---The Anatolian Railway. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC net.lib.byu.edu [Source type: Original source]

). .Otherwise, platforms in tram stations are low and equipped with gentle ramps right from the street (or sidewalk) level.^ Otherwise, platforms in tram stations are low and equipped with gentle ramps right from the street (or sidewalk) level.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Stations have high platforms at the level of the car floor.

^ Trams are accessible for people using a wheelchair from the station platforms if you can manage to get into the station in the first place.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.All stations are announced both on a display and by voice in the trams.^ All stations are announced both on a display and by voice in the trams.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ All stations are announced by voice in the metro trains.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Unfortunately, no stops are announced on a display or by voice in the buses.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

Metro
.All stations and trains in the northern metro line are accessible for people using a wheelchair.^ All stations and trains in the northern metro line are accessible for people using a wheelchair.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ All stations are announced by voice in the metro trains.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ AKBİL is a small electronic device serving as a ticket which may be used on buses, trams, suburban trains, metro, local ferries, etc.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Look around the station entrances for handicapped lifts/elevators.^ Look around the station entrances for handicapped lifts/elevators.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Only some of the stations in the southern metro line are equipped with such elevators (among the stations which have elevators are Aksaray-the main station of the city centre, Otogar-the main bus station, and Havalimanı (Airport) station), but whether there is an elevator or not, if you manage to get into the station (there is a good chance that you can do with a little assistance because the stations in the southern line aren’t located as deep as the stations of the northern line are; only about one floor’s height under the ground), all trains are accessible from the station platforms, though a little assistance more will be helpful for passing over the narrow gap between the train and the platform.^ All stations and trains in the northern metro line are accessible for people using a wheelchair.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ In northern line it is also announced on a display, but not in the southern line.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ There is only one answer.
  • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

.You can ask the guys in grey/black uniforms (security guards, they can be seen in the entrances of the station platforms if not elsewhere) for assistance, it’s their duty.^ You can ask the guys in grey/black uniforms (security guards, they can be seen in the entrances of the station platforms if not elsewhere) for assistance, it’s their duty.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ A Turkish guy holds you and asks where you are from.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ "Fair Sir," said the barons, "we have seen your letters, and they tell us that we are to give credit to what you say, and we credit you right well.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.All stations are announced by voice in the metro trains.^ All stations are announced both on a display and by voice in the trams.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ All stations are announced by voice in the metro trains.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ All stations and trains in the northern metro line are accessible for people using a wheelchair.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.In northern line it is also announced on a display, but not in the southern line.^ In northern line it is also announced on a display, but not in the southern line.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Instead, you should look at the signs in the stations, which are big and common enough.^ Instead, you should look at the signs in the stations, which are big and common enough.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

Istanbul liner crossing the Bosphorus
Istanbul liner crossing the Bosphorus
"Sea-bus"
"Sea-bus"
Private ferry
Private ferry
.Unique Istanbul liners, sea-buses, or mid-sized private ferries travel between the European and Asian sides of the city.^ European side of the city every day.

^ Unique Istanbul [¤] liners, sea-buses , or mid-sized private ferries travel between the European and Asian sides of the city.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Four main private ferry routes for travelling between Asia and Europe sides are: .
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.The crossing takes about 20 minutes and costs 1.50 TL, and gives great views of the Bosphorous.^ The crossing takes about 20 minutes and costs 1.40 YTL, and gives great views of the Bosphorous.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ He knew it would take his entire skill to deflect the blows from an ever expanding enemy which viewed the Byzantines as a painful thorn in their ambitions to greatness and eternal glory.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While in Anadolu Kavağı, climb up to the citadel on the hill (follow the signs starting from the square near the quay, it takes about 20 minutes on foot, free admission).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Be aware that sometimes the ferry when arriving at a dock can bounce off the pier accidentally, even on calm days.^ Be aware that sometimes the ferry when arriving at a dock can bounce off the pier accidentally, even on calm days.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ The evening before last, two gendarmes looted the tents of the exiles from the village of Kelidj (who had only arrived that day).
  • Documents 95-108. Bryce. Armenians. XII---The City of Angora; XIII---Thrace, Constantinople, Broussa, and Ismid; XIV---The Anatolian Railway. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC net.lib.byu.edu [Source type: Original source]

This can cause people to fall over if they are standing up, so it is advisable to remain seated until the ferry has come to an absolute stop.
.In Istanbul, liners from any given quay generally take only a certain route, and these quays are signposted ‘X Iskelesi’ (“X Quay”).^ Some of these plants are endemic; in other words, they live only in Istanbul and nowhere else in the whole world.

^ Others may take unnecessarily long routes to increase the amount due (although sometimes alternate routes are also taken to avoid Istanbul [¤] traffic, which can be very bad).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ I have classified these characters according to certain shared attributes, although this is only a rough guide.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.For instance, Eminönü alone has more than 5 quays (including the ones used by other ferries apart from liners), so if you should head for, say, Üsküdar, you should take the ferry which departs from ‘Üsküdar Iskelesi’.^ I'd like to say that you get used to it.
  • Istanbul 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.arie.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Why should we trust what you say?
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What do you want more than this?
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.Replace ‘Üsküdar’ with the destination of your choice.^ Replace ‘Üsküdar’ with the destination of your choice.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

Istanbul liners [8] travel on the following routes:
  • Karaköy - Haydarpaşa - Kadıköy
  • Kadıköy - Eminönü
  • Üsküdar - Eminönü
  • Üsküdar - Karaköy - Eminönü - Eyüp (The Golden Horn Route)
  • Kadıköy - Besiktaş
  • Kabatas - Uskudar - Harem
  • Istinye - Emirgan - Kanlıca - Anadolu Hisarı - Kandilli - Bebek - Arnavutköy - Çengelköy (The Whole Bosphorus Route)
  • Anadolu Kavağı - Rumeli Kavağı - Sariyer
  • Eminönü - Kavaklar (Special Bosphorus Tour-Recommended For Tourists)
  • Sirkeci - Adalar - Yalova - Cınarcık (The Princes' Islands Route)
.Furthermore, the sea-buses (deniz otobüsü) follow the same (or more) routes, usually much faster than liners.^ There isn't much that's more entertaining than the Care Bears dubbed into Turkish.
  • Istanbul 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.arie.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This agonising journey along the route of the railway was protracted for more than three months.
  • Documents 95-108. Bryce. Armenians. XII---The City of Angora; XIII---Thrace, Constantinople, Broussa, and Ismid; XIV---The Anatolian Railway. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC net.lib.byu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Jerusalem-centric maps generally were much more schematic than I show here and so introduce much greater distortions than just a foreshortening of Asia.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Please visit the link above for extra information.
Four main private ferry routes for travelling between Asia and Europe sides are:
  • Besiktaş - Üsküdar
  • Kabataş - Üsküdar (close to tram and funicular system in Kabataş)
  • Eminönü - Üsküdar (close to tram in Eminönü)
  • Eminönü - Kadıköy (close to tram in Eminönü)
.Very useful are the fast ferryboats (travelling at 55 kilometers) running from several points, such as the Yenikapi - Yalova one, that allows you (with a connecting bus in Yalova) to be in Bursa centre in less than three hours.^ Besiktaş - Üsküdar Kabataş - Üsküdar (close to tram and funicular system in Kabataş) Eminönü - Üsküdar (close to tram in Eminönü) Eminönü - Kadıköy (close to tram in Eminönü) Very useful are the fast ferryboats (travelling at 55 kilometers) Running from several points, such as the Yenikapi - Yalova one, that allows you (with a connecting bus in Yalova) to be in Bursa [¤] centre in less than three hours.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ The British delegate was Lord Salisbury, one of the ministers who had less fear of Russia and more sympathy for the Balkan Christians than did Disraeli.
  • THE TREATY OF BERLIN: 1878 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.serbianunity.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Without exception the food in every one was excellent, the service was generally fast, and the prices were very reasonable.
  • Istanbul 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.arie.org [Source type: Original source]

.Prices are marginally higher and the gain in time is considerable, though the view is not as nice.^ Prices are marginally higher and the gain in time is considerable, though the view is not as nice.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.All of the ferries, including private ones, can be paid by AKBIL system.^ All of the ferries, including private ones, can be paid by AKBIL system.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

By taxi

.Taxis are an easy and cheap way to get around.^ Taxis are an easy and cheap way to get around.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ The taxi system in Istanbul works really well for tourists -- there are taxis everywhere so they're easy to get and they're very cheap.
  • Istanbul 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.arie.org [Source type: Original source]

.As of October 2009, start off rate is 2.50 TL (€1.2) and then 1.4 TL (€0.67) for each km afterwards.^ As of April 2009, start off rate is 2.00 YTL (€1.00) and then 0.1 YTL (€0.05) for each 1/10 km afterwards.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.A one-way travel from Taksim to Sultanahmet costs approximately 10-15 TL. Tipping is generally unnecessary.^ A one-way travel from Taksim to Sultanahmet [¤] costs approximately 7-10 YTL. Tipping is generally unnecessary.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Ibrahim Pasa Hotel Istanbul is an historical boutique hotel in the centre of Istanbul It was built 200 years ago in historical Sultanahmet approximately 15 km from Ataturk International Airport .
  • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

^ As of March 2008, the fee was $20 (or €15 or 10 GBP) for visitors travelling with U.S. passports.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Occasionally, drivers will refuse to start the meter and try to negotiate a fixed prize (but most drivers will start taximeters at all times).^ Occasionally, drivers will refuse to start the meter and try to negotiate a fixed prize (but most drivers will start taximeters at all times).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Drivers do normally work with the taximeter, so they will not be surprised at all when you ask them to put it on.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Taximeter will show GÜNDÜZ during the day and GECE during the night; look at the taximeter during the ride because some drivers try to change the rate.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.You should avoid these cabs and simply take another one as you will almost certainly end paying too much.^ You should avoid these cabs and simply take another one as you will almost certainly end paying too much.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ If you take one of these buses, get off as soon as the bus leaves the highway (colloquially known as E-5, pronounced “ay besh” in Turkish, 4-lane one-way, you can easily recognize what is this highway and what is not).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Istanbul [¤] 's public transit system can be difficult to figure out; maps are rare and you often have to transfer, and pay another fare, to get where you are going.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.To be sure, before getting in, just ask "how much to go to ...?"^ He was annoyed by how things were going and he wanted to make sure everyone knew his state of spirit.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ How seriously Dante took this cosmology as literal geography is a good question, but it would be centuries before he would be in much danger of being contradicted.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Your site is ranked by how much traffic it gets.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.(most of the drivers understand basic English) since the price they tell then is quite accurate.^ English) since the price they tell then is quite accurate.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ And when the barons saw them, they marvelled greatly, and said to the envoys: " We understand right well what you tell us.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The price at the end will be quite close to the one they tell you at the beginning.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

Tell them then to put the taximeter on. .Drivers do normally work with the taximeter, so they will not be surprised at all when you ask them to put it on.^ We all removed our shoes and put them in little plastic grocery bags that we carried with us (in smaller mosques you can just leave them outside) and it was suggested to the women that they cover their heads with scarves, but few did.
  • Istanbul 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.arie.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They would put thee in mind of the great service they have done to thee-a service known to the people and manifest to all men.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Then the day began to dawn, and the host to put on their armour; and all gat them to their arms throughout the host, because they did not greatly trust the Greeks.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The price at the end will be quite close to the one they tell you at the beginning.^ The price at the end will be quite close to the one they tell you at the beginning.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ English) since the price they tell then is quite accurate.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Price will be quite accurate to the one in the taximeter at the end of the ride.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

There is now, as of October 2009, just one fare unit, it means, there is no extra fare at night.
.Taxis that wait near a bus station are usually a tourist trap.^ Taxis that wait near a bus station are usually a tourist trap.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ There they waited, with their baggage, for days, by the roadside near the station.
  • Documents 95-108. Bryce. Armenians. XII---The City of Angora; XIII---Thrace, Constantinople, Broussa, and Ismid; XIV---The Anatolian Railway. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC net.lib.byu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.They start the meter but charge you 20 TL at least.^ They start the meter but charge you 20 YTL at least.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ You have these poor Byzantine soldiers charged with defending some hill that they know can't really be defended.
  • Istanbul 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.arie.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Before the exiles reach a station they are told : "You can start off, we will see that your baggage follows you ; " and they are sent on their journey after their money, too, has been taken from them.
  • Documents 95-108. Bryce. Armenians. XII---The City of Angora; XIII---Thrace, Constantinople, Broussa, and Ismid; XIV---The Anatolian Railway. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC net.lib.byu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Emphasize to the driver that you will pay for the meter price before getting in.^ Emphasize to the driver that you will pay for the meter price before getting in.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Insist on going to the destination that you want because some drivers are payed by commission for each time they have someone go to a certain site.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Watch the driver (especially when you're paying).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

Do not buy their quick-sell tricks. .Always try to stop a taxi that is passing by on the road or find a legitimate taxi stop.^ Always try to stop a Taxi that is passing by on the road or find a legitimate taxi stop.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Insist on going to the destination that you want because some drivers are payed by commission for each time they have someone go to a certain site.^ Insist on going to the destination that you want because some drivers are payed by commission for each time they have someone go to a certain site.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ They then go to the altar, kiss the Gospel on it and the deacon holding up his orarion says: It is time to sacrifice to the Lord.
  • The Rite of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.catholicity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Istanbul [¤] 's public transit system can be difficult to figure out; maps are rare and you often have to transfer, and pay another fare, to get where you are going.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Beware riding a taxi other than the "yellow-colored" ones since the other-colored taxis are registered under different cities and have a different rating system.^ Beware riding a Taxi other than the "yellow-colored" ones since the other-colored taxis are registered under different cities and have a different rating system.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ The 7th Station is actually the first one in the Christian rather than the Moselm Quarter of the City.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But in the Levant, at any rate, the Liturgy is always sung, and incense is always used; so that the minimum of persons required for the Liturgy is a celebrant, server, and one other man who forms the choir.
  • The Rite of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.catholicity.com [Source type: Original source]

.Be careful on what notes you hand them for payment; some drivers have tried to pretend that the 50 lira note that was handed handed was just a 5 lira note.^ Be careful on what notes you hand them for payment; some drivers have tried to pretend that the 50 lira note that was handed handed was just a 5 lira note.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ If you mention a Euro-country, the guy wants you to change a 50 Euro note from you into two-Euro coins he is showing.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Insist on going to the destination that you want because some drivers are payed by commission for each time they have someone go to a certain site.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Traffic can be very bad, it can take an hour for a few km through the old city.^ Traffic can be very bad, it can take an hour for a few km through the old city.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Topkapi is inside the Old City of Istanbul, a few blocks from our hotel.
  • Istanbul 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.arie.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You might be better off taking the metro out of the old city and then a Taxi from there.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.You might be better off taking the metro out of the old city and then a taxi from there.^ And be it known to you that he might have done much better.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There might you have seen many tears wept, and many hands wrung for sorrow and pity.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ You've got the needle out and back on that old time is money kick, right?"
  • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

By shared taxi

.Dolmuş (Turkish: "full") is a shared taxi, travelling on a fixed route, which costs more than a city autobus but less than a normal taxi.^ Dolmuş (Turkish: "full") is a shared Taxi , travelling on a fixed route, which costs more than a city autobus but less than a normal taxi.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ The British delegate was Lord Salisbury, one of the ministers who had less fear of Russia and more sympathy for the Balkan Christians than did Disraeli.
  • THE TREATY OF BERLIN: 1878 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.serbianunity.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He had played his part in the defence of the city, more out of desperation than loyalty.
  • Nicol. Last Centuries of Byzantium 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC coursesa.matrix.msu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.They can carry up to 8 passengers.^ They can carry up to 8 passengers.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ These Protestants and the families of a few Armenian soldiers remained in Süngürlü for a few weeks, and then all at once they were taken up and carried to different villages.
  • Documents 95-108. Bryce. Armenians. XII---The City of Angora; XIII---Thrace, Constantinople, Broussa, and Ismid; XIV---The Anatolian Railway. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC net.lib.byu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.They are easy to recognize, because they also have the yellow painting as taxis and carry a Dolmus sign on its top.^ They are easy to recognize, because they also have the yellow painting as taxis and carry a Dolmus sign on its top.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ The taxi system in Istanbul works really well for tourists -- there are taxis everywhere so they're easy to get and they're very cheap.
  • Istanbul 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.arie.org [Source type: Original source]

.They will only start driving when all eight places are filled, which is also where the name derives from.^ He didn't like it at all, just like his Senators, but the Crusades looked as if they were the only choice left for them.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They knew that the Christians of the place were all loyal and useful subjects of the Empire.
  • Documents 95-108. Bryce. Armenians. XII---The City of Angora; XIII---Thrace, Constantinople, Broussa, and Ismid; XIV---The Anatolian Railway. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC net.lib.byu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They believed, among other things, that all matter is evfl, and that Christ suffered in appearance only.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

The main and most important routes for Dolmuses are :
  • Taksim - Eminönü (Taksim stop, near the Ataturk Cultural Center, in Taksim square)
  • Taksim - Kadıköy
  • Taksim - Aksaray (Taksim stop, Tarlabasi Avenue, close to Taksim square)
  • Kadıköy - Bostanci (Bostanci stop, in front of the Bostanci ferry port)
  • Taksim - Tesvikiye (Taksim stop, in front of Patisserie Gezi, in Taksim square)
  • Beşiktaş - Nisantasi (Beşiktaş stop, in front of the Beşiktaş - Üsküdar ferry port)
  • Kadıköy - Üsküdar (Üsküdar stop, Near the Üsküdar - Beşiktaş and Üsküdar - Kabataş ferry port)
.If you want the driver to make a stop, you can say İnecek var.(EE-neh-djek war!^ Taksim - Eminönü (Taksim stop, near the Ataturk Cultural Center, in Taksim square) Taksim - Kadıköy Taksim - Aksaray (Taksim stop, Tarlabasi Avenue, close to Taksim square) Kadıköy - Bostanci (Bostanci stop, in front of the Bostanci ferry port) Taksim - Tesvikiye (Taksim stop, in front of Patisserie Gezi, in Taksim square) Beşiktaş - Nisantasi (Beşiktaş stop, in front of the Beşiktaş - Üsküdar ferry port) Kadıköy - Üsküdar (Üsküdar stop, Near the Üsküdar - Beşiktaş and Üsküdar - Kabataş ferry port) If you want the driver to make a stop, you can say İnecek var .
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ If you wish for the driver to slow down, say "yavash lütfen" (slow please).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Insist on going to the destination that you want because some drivers are payed by commission for each time they have someone go to a certain site.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

) .(Someone's getting out.^ (Someone's getting out.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

) or Müsait bir yerde.(mU-sa-EEt bir yer-deh.) (At a convenient spot.).
Hagia Sofia
Hagia Sofia
Sultanahmet a.k.a. Blue Mosque
Sultanahmet a.k.a. Blue Mosque
.With its long history at the center of empires, Istanbul offers a wealth of historic and religious places to take in.^ With its long history at the center of empires, Istanbul [¤] offers a wealth of historic and religious places to take in.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Rather than suppressing the empire's many religious communities, the Turks allowed them a degree of automony as long as they complied with the demands of the sultan.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The religious convictions and functions of the ethnarch were of no concern to the empire as long as its needs were met.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.The bulk of these are located in Sultanahmet-Old City, including the Hagia Sophia, Topkapı Palace and the Sultanahmet Mosque (Blue Mosque).^ The bulk of these are located in Sultanahmet-Old City , including the Hagia Sophia , Topkapı Palace and the Sultanahmet [¤] Mosque (Blue Mosque).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Seven Hills Hotel is located on a quiet, cobbled street in Sultanahmet which is a tourist paradise Set aside from the hustle and bustle of the commuter city, Sultanahmet is a flower filled, cobbled district almost like a village made up of gardens, cute and colourful guest houses, the Blue Mosque, Aya Sophia and Sultan Palace at Topkapi .
  • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

^ Hippodrome Hotel; located in Sultanahmet in the heart of the old City centre Ideally situated for holiday makers and business travelers, we offer one of the finest hotels in Istanbul With a view of the Blue Mosque and Marmara Sea, was a former Ottoman House, which has been transformed into a modern hotel while retaining the style and atmosphere of the Ottoman retreat .
  • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

.Galata has the Galata Tower and the Galata Whirling Dervish Hall, while the Bosphorus has a number of waterside palaces where where you can admire what money could buy in times gone by.^ You've got the needle out and back on that old time is money kick, right?"
  • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

.These places are all on the "must-see" list of Istanbul.^ These places are all on the "must-see" list of Istanbul.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ For a more detailed account of all these rites see "Orth.
  • The Rite of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.catholicity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They were told that these things would be taken care of by the Government and that they would find them all safe at the place of their destination.
  • Documents 95-108. Bryce. Armenians. XII---The City of Angora; XIII---Thrace, Constantinople, Broussa, and Ismid; XIV---The Anatolian Railway. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC net.lib.byu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Other districts also have a number of less significant, but interesting nonetheless, sights.^ Other districts also has a number of less significant, but interesting nonetheless, sights as well.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

Church of St. Savior in Chora is an example of a church somewhat out of the traditional center, but is an absolute must see. .Mindblowing frescoes and mosaics cover the entire inside of this church.^ Muslims do not permit pictures of living things inside their holy places, but they recognized the value of the Christian mosaics -- rather than destroy them, they covered them with plaster.
  • Istanbul 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.arie.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The art was fairly impressive, but the church seemed most proud of its mosaics ; they covered just about every space.
  • Istanbul 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.arie.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This grand mosaic consists of 126 images acquired in a tile-like fashion, covering one end of Saturn's rings to the other and the entire planet in between.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.An impressive section of Theodosian walls is right next to the church.^ Excavations at the substructures of the Great Palace of Constantinople , which is located right next to the Hagia Sophia, are still continuing; while its floor mosaics and wall decorations are displayed at the Great Palace Mosaic Museum .

.Long ignored for their bad connotation with the Tulip era of 1700s, a period of ostentation and costly parties conducted by state elite (and also when the first bulbs were introduced to the Netherlands, by the way), which was later accused of economic destruction and the eventual dissolution of Ottoman Empire, tulips have regained much of their former popularity in the last decade and now serve as some sort of symbol of both Istanbul and the whole Turkey.^ In the last decades of the Byzantine Empire, the city had decayed as the Byzantine state became increasingly isolated and financially bankrupt , its population had dwindled to some thirty or forty thousand people whilst large sections remained uninhabited.

^ After the fall of the Ottoman Empire and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey , language reforms were implemented, including the establishment of the Türk Dil Kurumu (Turkish Language Association), which is the official regulatory body of the Turkish language.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ The result was that now, as in the time of the Crimean War, Britain emerged as the defender of the Ottoman Empire.
  • THE TREATY OF BERLIN: 1878 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.serbianunity.net [Source type: Original source]

.They bloom around April and May and while they can be seen on many avenues of the city wherever there is enough space for planting at the sides and the centre strip of the road, if you are after admiring and/or photographing large patches of tulips with relatively exotic varieties, head to Sultanahmet Park and Gülhane Park in Sultanahmet; Emirgan Park near the northern Bosphorus neighbourhood of Emirgan; or Çamlıca Hill in Asian Side.^ The people were largely nomadic, each family would have a giant poplar-boned tent that took about an hour to assemble, and they would pack them up onto horses and move to wherever there was game or water or whatever they needed.
  • Istanbul 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.arie.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Many Istanbulites live on the Asian side of the city but work on the European side (or vice-versa) and the city's famous commuter ferries form the backbone of the daily transition between the two parts of the city – even more so than the two suspension bridges which span the Bosphorus.

^ Many centuries later the Byzantines built the Mangana Palace, Haghia Sophia and other churches here, and the Ottomans subsequently chose the same site for their imperial palace of Topkapý and Sultanahmet Mosque Gülhane Park on the northern side of the headland, and the many restaurants and tea gardens in the area also attract many people here.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

Do

Hamams

.A visit to a hamam (Turkish bath) is an essential part of any trip to Istanbul and is something you'll be sure to repeat before leaving.^ A visit to a hamam (Turkish Bath ) is an essential part of any trip to Istanbul [¤] and is something you'll be sure to repeat before leaving.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Location: Topkapi Guest recommendation: 83% - 24 opinions In the historic part of town - Aqua Life Club spa - Turkish bath (Hamam) - Wide gastronomic selectio...
  • Hotels Istanbul - Luxury, boutique hotels and design hotels in Istanbul 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.splendia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ YTL 1.30/person, though you’ll have to buy multi-use cards (at least 5 uses for YTL 6.50), which makes a bad investment assuming that you are leaving the city.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.There are at least one historical hamam in each neighborhood of Istanbul.^ There was at least one respect in which the empire had suffered from the establishment of the Latin kingdom.

^ Nobel Hostel is can be found down arguably one of the best streets in Sultanahmet which is the historical and cultural heart of Istanbul city and a tourist paradise .
  • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

^ Akkus Hotel is a 2 stars hotel in Istanbul Aksaray It's walking distance to the historical and touristic centers There are total 20 rooms, 35 beds capacity .
  • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

.Take care in selecting a hamam, as they can vary greatly in cleanliness.^ Take care in selecting a hamam, as they can vary greatly in cleanliness.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Most places will offer a scrubbing and/or a massage.^ You can get a "service" which mean one of the staff helps you get scrubbing, and the most expensive option contain scrubbing AND massage.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

But just being in the Hamam (as a sauna), is enough for seeing and experiencing the place. .The massage is not necessarily better than those found in western countries.^ At the moment when the final siege of Constantinople was about to begin there must surely have been those who thought that it would be better to surrender than to resist.
  • Nicol. Last Centuries of Byzantium 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC coursesa.matrix.msu.edu [Source type: Original source]

  • Suleymaniye Bath, +90 212 520 34 10 [9]. .Sultan Suleyman had this Hamam built by the famous Architect Sinan in 1550. Architect Sinan build this hamam for himself.^ Sultan Suleyman had this Hamam built by the famous Architect Sinan in 1550.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Architect Sinan build this hamam for himself.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It was also built by architect Sinan in 1584.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .He used this hamam for washing.^ He used this hamam for washing.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .Suleymaniye hamam is the only mixed hamam in Istanbul.^ Suleymaniye hamam is the only mixed hamam in Istanbul [¤] .
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .There are no different sections for each sex, thus the families may comfortably enjoy this hamam together.^ There was no prospect of comfort ahead.
    • Nicol. Last Centuries of Byzantium 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC coursesa.matrix.msu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There are no different sections for each sex, thus the families may comfortably enjoy this hamam together.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ There is no way of knowing what evidence, traditions, or documents this may have been based on.
    • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Hamam also has two way free shuttle services for the hotel guests if the booking comes through their reception.^ Hamam also has two way free shuttle services for the hotel guests if the booking comes through their reception.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ They come out through the north door in procession, the deacon holding the book of the Gospels, with acolytes bearing candles.
    • The Rite of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.catholicity.com [Source type: Original source]

    Entry €31.50.
  • Cağaloğlu Bath, +90 212 522 24 24 [10]. .The Cağaloğlu hamam was constructed in 1741 and is the last hamam to be built after a long period during the Ottoman Empire.^ The Cağaloğlu hamam was constructed in 1741 and is the last hamam to be built after a long period during the Ottoman Empire.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It was a culture of leisure during the Ottoman period, the finest example being the Çemberlitaş Hamamı (1584) in Istanbul, located on the Çemberlitaş (Column of Constantine) Square.

    ^ Ottoman Turkish was the form of Turkish spoken during the era of the Ottoman Empire, and is significantly different to the form of Turkish spoken today.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .It was constructed in İstanbul Eminönü.^ It was constructed in İstanbul Eminönü.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    It is three blocks from the Hagia Sophia. It has separated sections. .Popular and normally visited by tourists.^ Popular and normally visited by tourists.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .You can get a "service" which mean one of the staff helps you get scrubbing, and the most expensive option contain scrubbing AND massage.^ You can get a "service" which mean one of the staff helps you get scrubbing, and the most expensive option contain scrubbing AND massage.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Most of the people accepted their fate in silence, but one man said boldly: "You must answer to God in heaven for these things."
    • Documents 95-108. Bryce. Armenians. XII---The City of Angora; XIII---Thrace, Constantinople, Broussa, and Ismid; XIV---The Anatolian Railway. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC net.lib.byu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ So the help you have so greatly approved of means nothing to us.
    • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

    .The payment is done befor, but if choose not to take massage, don’t be surprise if one of the stuff member will secretly offer you one, letting you deicide how much to add to his tip.^ If you have read them before, make sure you take another read now, it's different.
    • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ You can get a "service" which mean one of the staff helps you get scrubbing, and the most expensive option contain scrubbing AND massage.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ And they came to the Doge, and said: " Sire, we will help you to take the city in despite of those who would let and hinder us."
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .It should be said that the atmosphere is very touristic, and everything has a price.^ It should be said that the atmosphere is very touristic, and everything has a price.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .Self-service €20, scrubbing €23, massage €30, self-service, scrubbing, and massage €40, and luxury service €45. Once you are done, they give you a souvenir; a pair of underwear and a comb.^ YTL for self-service, 40 for Turkish massage, 68 for Turkish massage and oil massage).
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ "Fair Sir," said the barons, "we have seen your letters, and they tell us that we are to give credit to what you say, and we credit you right well.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ You can get a "service" which mean one of the staff helps you get scrubbing, and the most expensive option contain scrubbing AND massage.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .Does not accept credit cards.
  • Cemberlitas Bath, +90 212 511 25 35 [11].^ Cemberlitas Bath , +90 212 511 25 35 [10] .
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ ArkeoPera, Yenicarsi Caddesi, 16/A Petek Han, Galatasaray, +90 212 2930378 [25] .
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Derviş, 33-35 Keseciler Sokak, +90 212 514 4525 [18] .
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .The Cemberlitas Bath is on Cemberlitas Square in the midst of some of Istanbul's greatest monuments.^ The Cemberlitas Bath is located on Cemberlitas Square in the midst of some of Istanbul [¤] 's greatest monuments.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .It was also built by architect Sinan in 1584. It has 2 sections, female and male.^ It has 2 sections, female and Male .
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It was also built by architect Sinan in 1584.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Sultan Suleyman had this Hamam built by the famous Architect Sinan in 1550.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .Entry €15. (28 TL for self-service, 40 for Turkish massage, 68 for Turkish massage and oil massage).
  • Sultanahmet Hamami, +90 212 513 72 04 [12] Every day from 07:00 to 24:00 (so you shouldn't come later than 22:30).^ YTL for self-service, 40 for Turkish massage, 68 for Turkish massage and oil massage).
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Mehmet Cetinkaya Gallery, Kucuk Ayasofya Caddesi, 7 Tavukhane Sokak, +90 212 5176808 [22] .
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Buying an AKBİL (AKıllı BİLet - Turkish acronym for Smart Ticket) is a good idea if you are in Istanbul [¤] for more than a day or two, and intend to use Public Transport .
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    few steps from .Sultanahmet tram station, the place is very much close to the main attractions at Sultanahmet.^ Seres Hotel is located within a stone's throw of Sultanahmet's major and wonderous sights on the historical peninsula Seres Hotel is also near to the tram, main Sirkeci train station and the ferry port to the Asian side .
    • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

    ^ You can buy or refill them at designated booths located at any major bus, tram, to metro station, as well as some other places.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Kent Hotel is in the old area of Beyazit very close to Sultanahmet on the historical peninsula of European Istanbul Here you have easy access to all major sights and the hotel is close to all amenities, eateries and the city's efficient tram line .
    • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

    Of course many of the visitors are tourist, however it isn’t feeling too commercialize as the Cağaloğlu Bath one (e.g. No souvenirs are given, no tourist shop). There's a women section, and mixed section. The place is nice, the hosting is kind, and the whole experience is fun. .But, if you're looking for a strong, thorough and long massage – you might find that disappointing.^ Parts of it now are rather touristy and you're likely to pay a little more for your purchase than elsewhere but with the vast selection you'll find what you're looking for and it's one of Istanbul's character pieces.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Ted Rathkopf writes:     Paul: I didn't expect to find a salesman drinking coffee this           late in the morning.  How long you been here, Joe?
    • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

    .Prices: 40 TL for hamam only, 50 for hamam and massage (which is done by mean staff member in the hamam room), and 60 for the "full program" (oil massage, on top of the others).^ YTL for self-service, 40 for Turkish massage, 68 for Turkish massage and oil massage).
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ You can get a "service" which mean one of the staff helps you get scrubbing, and the most expensive option contain scrubbing AND massage.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    The tip can be given in one box by the doors, which reduce some of the "trading" filling. [13]

Hooka /Narghile

.Once upon a time, the narghile, or Turkish water pipe, was the centre of Istanbul’s social and political life.^ Once upon a time, the narghile, or Turkish water pipe, was the centre of Istanbul [¤] ’s social and political life.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Upon the rejection of the conditions by the Byzantines,yıldırım Beyazıd’s army onc more surrounded Istanbul.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ From time to time Istanbul also hosts the Turkish leg of the F1 Powerboat Racing on the Bosphorus .

.Today the locals still consider it one of life’s great pleasures and is something interesting to try.^ Today the locals still consider it one of life’s great pleasures and is something interesting to try.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ The Ethnographical Section of the museum, with its fascinating collection of artefacts relating to local folk culture, is also of great interest.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Another possible (drug-free) interpretation of "turn your brain around": Jimi was and still is considered one of the most (if not the most) influential rock musicians in history.
  • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

.Most of the places where you can smoke a hooka are in Yaniceriler Ceaddesi, near the Grand Bazar.^ Most of the places where you can smoke a hooka are in Yaniceriler Ceaddesi, near the Grand Bazar.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Kybele Hotel is located in Sultanahmet near everything you can't find a better district to stay in if you are a tourist in Istanbul If you are a first time visitor, this is the place you will want to stay .
  • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

^ You have to go to the darkest places of the earth to see the brightest lights, to the most obscure spot to find the greatest heroes.
  • Documents 95-108. Bryce. Armenians. XII---The City of Angora; XIII---Thrace, Constantinople, Broussa, and Ismid; XIV---The Anatolian Railway. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC net.lib.byu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Corlulu Ali Pasa and Koca Sinan Pasa Turbesi are both in secluded internal courts, just around the corner from some tomb yards, while Rumeli Kahvesi is actually inside the cemetery of an old medersa, though it’s not as spooky as you might think.^ Corlulu Ali Pasa and Koca Sinan Pasa Turbesi are both in secluded internal courts, just around the corner from some tomb yards, while Rumeli Kahvesi is actually inside the cemetery of an old medersa, though it’s not as spooky as you might think.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ You might be better off taking the metro out of the old city and then a Taxi from there.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Be careful on what notes you hand them for payment; some drivers have tried to pretend that the 50 lira note that was handed handed was just a 5 lira note.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.In the south of Sultanahmet, near the sea, is Yeni Marmara (Cayiroglu Sokak), where you can also sit in the terrace and enjoy the view.^ In the south of Sultanahmet [¤] , near the sea, is Yeni Marmara (Cayiroglu Sokak), where you can also sit in the terrace and enjoy the view.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Kalyon Hotel has the ideal location of being by the Marmara seashore, near the main road from the airport to Sultanahmet at the heart of the historcal peninsula Kalyon Hotel has a range of rooms with different views and comforts .
  • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

^ Kybele Hotel is located in Sultanahmet near everything you can't find a better district to stay in if you are a tourist in Istanbul If you are a first time visitor, this is the place you will want to stay .
  • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

.In Beyoglu, at the Ortakahve (Buyukparmakkapi), there’s even the choice of a wide range of flavors.^ In Beyoglu, at the Ortakahve (Buyukparmakkapi), there’s even the choice of a wide range of flavors.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Another area with few big good looking places is the Rihtim Cad, between Galata bridge and Istanbul Modern.^ Another area with few big good looking places is the Rihtim Cad, between Galata bridge and Istanbul Modern.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Located on both sides of the Bosphorus , the narrow strait between the Black Sea and the Marmara Sea, Istanbul bridges Asia and Europe both physically and culturally.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ However, technical drawbacks made it impossible to realize this project, and another Italian artist, Michelangelo was invited to design a bridge for Istanbul.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

Walking tours

.Museums and such: Haghia Sophia, then on to the Topkapı museum (these two should take at least three to five hours), preferably along the road in the back of the Haghia Sophia, where there are some nicely restored houses.^ Museums and such: Haghia Sophia, then on to the Topkapı museum (these two should take at least three to five hours), preferably along the road in the back of the Haghia Sophia, where there are some nicely restored houses.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ There are also at least five Patriarchs of Antioch.
  • Patriarchs of Constantinople, Armenia, and the East 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.spiritrestoration.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In its most extreme form, some Assyrian nationalists reject Christianity altogether and suggest that the gods of ancient Assyria, or at least the principal god, Ashur, should be revived.
  • Patriarchs of Constantinople, Armenia, and the East 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.spiritrestoration.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Then on to the Blue Mosque and the square with the obelisks on it (At Meydani).^ Then on to the Blue Mosque and the square with the obelisks on it (At Meydani).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Along its side is the very good Museum of Islam Art.^ Along its Side [¤] is the very good Museum of Islam Art.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Descend slightly and find the small Haghia Sophia with its nice garden (it was under restoration, but you probably can get in).^ Descend slightly and find the small Haghia Sophia with its nice garden (it was under restoration, but you probably can get in).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Museums and such: Haghia Sophia, then on to the Topkapı museum (these two should take at least three to five hours), preferably along the road in the back of the Haghia Sophia, where there are some nicely restored houses.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Then uphill to the Sokollu Mehmet mosque complex, top notch tiles inside.^ Then uphill to the Sokollu Mehmet mosque complex, top notch tiles inside.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Take a tram or walk to Eminönü (where the boats leave for trips to Asia or up the Bosphorus).^ Take a tram or walk to Eminönü (where the boats leave for trips to Asia or up the Bosphorus).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Travelling north up the Bosphorus we come next to Defterdar Burnu, the headland at Ortaköy which takes its name from Defterdar Pasa Mosque.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Once again go to Eminönü, but this time take the boat (those large ferries) to Üsküdar .
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Visit the New Mosque at the back, then the Egyptian Bazaar next to it, and going further in that direction, locate the Rüstem Pasha mosque with its excellent tiles.^ Visit the New Mosque at the back, then the Egyptian Bazaar next to it, and going further in that direction, locate the Rüstem Pasha mosque with its excellent tiles.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ When Chief of Staff Marshal Fevzi Çakmak visited Pergamum in 1932 he was so impressed by what he saw, that he gave the go-ahead for the eagerly awaited new museum.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.It's on a raised platform near an old clothes market, you may have to ask directions.^ It's on a raised platform near an old clothes market, you may have to ask directions.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ You can ask the guys in grey/black uniforms (security guards, they can be seen in the entrances of the station platforms if not elsewhere) for assistance, it’s their duty.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ If you may recall, the Angheloi, to raise money to pay the Crusaders in 1204, sold some Imperial assets.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.Then take a cab or find a bus to Eyüp mosque complex, a mile or three up the Golden Horn.^ Then take a cab or find a bus to Eyüp mosque complex, a mile or three up the Golden Horn .
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Visit this Eyüp complex at your leisure (the mosque is not particular, the court is, and the milling of believers, with many boys-to-be-circumcised amongst it; a Friday might be a good day to do this).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Mehmed now knew that he must find a way to get part of his fleet into the Golden Horn.
  • Nicol. Last Centuries of Byzantium 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC coursesa.matrix.msu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Visit this Eyüp complex at your leisure (the mosque is not particular, the court is, and the milling of believers, with many boys-to-be-circumcised amongst it; a Friday might be a good day to do this).^ I fear you might be developing a habit of over-explaining, which is not a good thing to have (believe me).
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ RobotStats - A free Open Source PHP application tracking the visits of Googlebot and many more robots to your site with full statistics in tables and graphs.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ There might you have seen many a fine war-horse, and many a good knight thereon.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Then, if you have the stamina, it might be nice to walk back too; maybe all the way (five miles or so), but taking a route along part of the city wall to first the famous Kariye Church with its mosaics, then on to Selimiye Mosque with its great view on the Golden Horn (and a fine mosque by itself), then the Fatih Mosque (passing through some very religious and lively neighborhoods), then on to the well-restored Sehzade mosque, and next to Süleymaniye (don't forget to enjoy the view from the Golden Horn side).^ You will be quite close to Yedikule, a nice fortress, and will have fine views of the city walls.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Then, if you have the stamina, it might be nice to walk back too; maybe all the way (five miles or so), but taking a route along part of the city wall to first the famous Kariye Church with its mosaics, then on to Selimiye Mosque with its great view on the Golden Horn (and a fine mosque by itself), then the Fatih Mosque (passing through some very religious and lively neighborhoods), then on to the well-restored Sehzade mosque, and next to Süleymaniye (don't forget to enjoy the view from the Golden Horn Side [¤] ).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1509 a catastrophic earthquake caused a tsunami which broke over the sea-walls of the city, destroying over 100 mosques and killing 10,000 people.

.If you have some energy left, you might go on to the University complex, and by then you are very close to the Beyazit mosque.^ If you have some energy left, you might go on to the University complex, and by then you are very close to the Beyazit mosque.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Visit this Eyüp complex at your leisure (the mosque is not particular, the court is, and the milling of believers, with many boys-to-be-circumcised amongst it; a Friday might be a good day to do this).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Sweating heavily, he left his bed and exited the room, going towards the chamber of the parakoikomenos close to his own.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.A book market (it’s small) is behind this good, unexceptional (nice courtyard though) mosque.^ A book market (it’s small) is behind this good, unexceptional (nice courtyard though) mosque.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Once again go to Eminönü, but this time take the boat (those large ferries) to Üsküdar.^ Once again go to Eminönü, but this time take the boat (those large ferries) to Üsküdar .
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Ferries depart from Eminönü (once or twice a day, from the pier named Boğaz İskelesi ) and Sariyer (much more frequently), which is the northernmost district on European Side [¤] (to get to Sariyer, you should take public bus #40 from Taksim ).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Take a tram or walk to Eminönü (where the boats leave for trips to Asia or up the Bosphorus).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.You will arrive before a fine mosque in front, another one four hundred meters off to the right, slightly inland behind a traffic roundabout, and a third, very small, at the sea front.^ You will arrive before a fine mosque in front, another one four hundred meters off to the right, slightly inland behind a traffic roundabout, and a third, very small, at the sea front.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ If you have read them before, make sure you take another read now, it's different.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Well may you be assured that the spoil wa- very great, for if it had not been for what was stolet- and for the part given to the Venetians, there would if have been at least four hundred thousand marks of silver and at least ten thousand horses-one with another.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.See the market stretching inland, walk about and don't forget to walk along the shore, maybe eating a fish meal in one of the bobbing boats along it.^ For the people of Istanbul another important point is the freshness of the fish, and they insist on seeing it before eating.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ And don’t forget, if tourism is one source of livelihood in Alanya, the River Dim is the fount of the region’s agriculture.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ And about this coward, said Murad pointing towards Ishak, send him back to Edirne, I don't want to see him for the next couple of weeks.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.This is a good visit for late afternoon, early evening, fleeing the city.^ This is a good visit for late afternoon, early evening, fleeing the city.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Visiting this city can be a long day trip if you have a car at your disposal, or if you can get up very early and catch, say, 7 o’clock in the morning bus.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Springs (April-May) and autumns (late September-early November) are the most pleasant times to be in this city, as it’s neither too cold nor too hot.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.You will be joined by thousands of people going home from "town" but the way back will be on a near-empty ferry.^ You will be joined by thousands of people going home from "town" but the way back will be on a near-empty ferry.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ You go, too, to the houses and persuade the people to give up their arms, and it will be well with them."
  • Documents 95-108. Bryce. Armenians. XII---The City of Angora; XIII---Thrace, Constantinople, Broussa, and Ismid; XIV---The Anatolian Railway. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC net.lib.byu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Thence he departed to go to King Philip of Germany, who had his sister for wife; and he came to Verona in Lombardy, and lodged in the town, and found there a number of pilgrims and other people who were on their way to join the host.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The frequency of ferries will go down in the evening, so make sure there is a connection back.^ The frequency of ferries will go down in the evening, so make sure there is a connection back.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ There is also a funicular system connecting Taksim to Kabatas where you can get on ferries and cross to the Anatolian Side [¤] .
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ He was annoyed by how things were going and he wanted to make sure everyone knew his state of spirit.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.Go to the railroad station and find a Sirkeci-Halkali suburban train, and get out at (from memory, Yedikule station).^ Go to the railroad station and find a Sirkeci-Halkali suburban train, and get out at (from memory, Yedikule station).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ International trains from across Europe arrive at the station in Sirkeci, close to Sultanahmet [¤] .
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Another suburban line runs on the Anatolian part from the main train station, the Haydarpaşa Terminal , to Gebze at the eastern end of the city.

.You will be quite close to Yedikule, a nice fortress, and will have fine views of the city walls.^ You will be quite close to Yedikule, a nice fortress, and will have fine views of the city walls.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ The following morning came with dense fog which completely covered the entire Constantinople area, blanketing the city from the Ottoman view despite the close distance between the camp and the first walls.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The price at the end will be quite close to the one they tell you at the beginning.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.The trains leave every 15 minutes or so, the ride is peculiar (the material is bad, but if you are in luck every second stop another salesman will enter and try selling his wares, it’s fun).^ The trains leave every 15 minutes or so, the ride is peculiar (the material is bad, but if you are in luck every second stop another salesman will enter and try selling his wares, it’s fun).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ At every station where we stopped, we came side by side with one of these trains.
  • Documents 95-108. Bryce. Armenians. XII---The City of Angora; XIII---Thrace, Constantinople, Broussa, and Ismid; XIV---The Anatolian Railway. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC net.lib.byu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ YTL 1.30/person, though you’ll have to buy multi-use cards (at least 5 uses for YTL 6.50), which makes a bad investment assuming that you are leaving the city.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.The ride is takes anywhere from twenty minutes to half an hour.^ The ride is takes anywhere from twenty minutes to half an hour.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Edirne [¤] in the west is a two-hour car drive or bus ride away (train is also an option but it takes much longer).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.This is not a "must", but it can be great fun.^ This is not a "must", but it can be great fun.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.You will have missed the covered bazaar in all this.^ You will have missed the covered bazaar in all this.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ And after having explored the covered part, take a relaxing walk downhill, into the general direction of Eminönü, where it is "uncovered bazaar" all the way.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.That is because you will get there anyhow.^ That is because you will get there anyhow.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ And for this end they have elected to come to you, because they know full well that there is none other people having so great power on the seas, as you and your people.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.If you go to Beyazit and the book market you are almost at two of its many entrances.^ If you go to Beyazit and the book market you are almost at two of its many entrances.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ During all this time the Armenian shops were closed, and Armenians were not allowed to go to market to buy food or even to their gardens to gather their fruits, so that many were on the verge of starvation.
  • Documents 95-108. Bryce. Armenians. XII---The City of Angora; XIII---Thrace, Constantinople, Broussa, and Ismid; XIV---The Anatolian Railway. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC net.lib.byu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If you have some energy left, you might go on to the University complex, and by then you are very close to the Beyazit mosque.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Try and find the Nuruosmaniye Mosque and its complex at the other side, it’s worth it.^ Try and find the Nuruosmaniye Mosque and its complex at the other Side [¤] , it’s worth it.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Then take a cab or find a bus to Eyüp mosque complex, a mile or three up the Golden Horn .
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ In some quarters, such as Kuzguncuk , an Armenian church sits next to a synagogue, and on the other side of the road a Greek Orthodox church is found beside a mosque.

.And after having explored the covered part, take a relaxing walk downhill, into the general direction of Eminönü, where it is "uncovered bazaar" all the way.^ You will have missed the covered bazaar in all this.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ And after having explored the covered part, take a relaxing walk downhill, into the general direction of Eminönü, where it is "uncovered bazaar" all the way.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Egyptian Bazaar ( Mısır Çarşısı , also known as Spice Bazaar ) in Eminönü is also a covered bazaar, which is a lot smaller than Grand Bazaar , and as its name implies, houses herbalist and spice shops.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Cross the Galata bridge to see some things on the Northern side (for instance take the "tünel" teleferik ride up much of the hill (entrance close to the opposite side of Galata bridge, ask around)), then continue to Taksim.^ Cross the Galata bridge to see some things on the Northern side (for instance take the "tünel" teleferik ride up much of the hill (entrance close to the opposite side of Galata bridge, ask around)), then continue to Taksim .
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Ferries depart from Eminönü (once or twice a day, from the pier named Boğaz İskelesi ) and Sariyer (much more frequently), which is the northernmost district on European Side [¤] (to get to Sariyer, you should take public bus #40 from Taksim ).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ In the early 19th century Mahmut II (1808-1839) had a bridge built at some distance up the waterway between Azapkapi and Unkapani.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Shops are of the international variety.^ Shops are of the international variety.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Or if you want somebody to take you to all the places you want to see,you can hire a guide ,that is a lot easier in this huge city.^ "I want you to take my money and give it to my son if I die," he said.
  • Documents 95-108. Bryce. Armenians. XII---The City of Angora; XIII---Thrace, Constantinople, Broussa, and Ismid; XIV---The Anatolian Railway. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC net.lib.byu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Also take note that being a huge city, different parts of Istanbul [¤] may experience different weather conditions at the same time.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ You might be better off taking the metro out of the old city and then a Taxi from there.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

Learn

.Many foreigners visiting or living in Istanbul decide to study Turkish formally in a language school.^ Some of the biggest and most respected Turkish language schools in Istanbul are: .
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Many foreigners visiting or living in Istanbul [¤] decide to study Turkish formally in a language school.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Anadolu Liseleri (Anatolian High Schools) were originally furnished for the Turkish children who returned home from foreign countries, such as the Üsküdar Anadolu Lisesi with German as the primary foreign language and technical instruction in German.

Some of the biggest and most respected Turkish language schools in Istanbul are:
.
  • Dilmer in Gümüşsuyu [14].
  • Tömer, Ankara University affiliated [15].
  • Concept Languages in Etiler [16].
  • Boğaziçi University [17].^ Concept Languages in Etiler [13] .
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Boğaziçi University [14] .
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Tömer , Ankara [¤] University affiliated [12] .
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    Runs a summer long intensive Turkish language course for all levels.
.Both Boğaziçi University and Bilgi University [18] have well established Study Abroad programs in English for foreigners.^ Both Boğaziçi University and Bilgi University [15] have well established Study Abroad programs in English for foreigners.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Almost all Turkish private high schools and universities in Istanbul teach in English, German or French as the primary foreign language, usually accompanied by a secondary foreign language.

Ottoman Turkish

.If you already speak Turkish, Ottoman Turkish may also be interesting to learn.^ If you already speak Turkish, Ottoman Turkish may also be interesting to learn.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ With Ottoman Turkish, not only can you read historical archives, but you can also read Ottoman literature and letters dated back to the Ottoman period.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ You may pay using foreign currency or Turkish Lira (only cash is accepted, though, no credit cards).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Ottoman Turkish was the form of Turkish spoken during the era of the Ottoman Empire, and is significantly different to the form of Turkish spoken today.^ Ottoman Turkish was the form of Turkish spoken during the era of the Ottoman Empire, and is significantly different to the form of Turkish spoken today.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ After the fall of the Ottoman Empire and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey , language reforms were implemented, including the establishment of the Türk Dil Kurumu (Turkish Language Association), which is the official regulatory body of the Turkish language.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ This brings me back to the first point I have mentioned to you today commercial concessions from the Ottoman Empire would greatly help our economic situation.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.Approximately 80% of Ottoman Turkish words were loanwords from other languages, mostly Arabic, Persian and French.^ Approximately 80% of Ottoman Turkish words were loanwords from other languages, mostly Arabic, Persian and French.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ After the fall of the Ottoman Empire and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey , language reforms were implemented, including the establishment of the Türk Dil Kurumu (Turkish Language Association), which is the official regulatory body of the Turkish language.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ This association, with a philosophy of linguistic purism, decided to cleanse the Turkish language of loanwords and replace them with more Turkic alternatives.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.After the fall of the Ottoman Empire and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, language reforms were implemented, including the establishment of the Türk Dil Kurumu (Turkish Language Association), which is the official regulatory body of the Turkish language.^ After the fall of the Ottoman Empire and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey , language reforms were implemented, including the establishment of the Türk Dil Kurumu (Turkish Language Association), which is the official regulatory body of the Turkish language.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ This association, with a philosophy of linguistic purism, decided to cleanse the Turkish language of loanwords and replace them with more Turkic alternatives.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ The Fall of Constantinople was the conquest of that Greek city by the Ottoman Empire Mehmed II, on Tuesday, May 29, 1453.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.This association, with a philosophy of linguistic purism, decided to cleanse the Turkish language of loanwords and replace them with more Turkic alternatives.^ This association, with a philosophy of linguistic purism, decided to cleanse the Turkish language of loanwords and replace them with more Turkic alternatives.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ After the fall of the Ottoman Empire and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey , language reforms were implemented, including the establishment of the Türk Dil Kurumu (Turkish Language Association), which is the official regulatory body of the Turkish language.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Approximately 80% of Ottoman Turkish words were loanwords from other languages, mostly Arabic, Persian and French.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.As such, only about 14% of modern Turkish words are of foreign origin.^ As such, only about 14% of modern Turkish words are of foreign origin.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ You may pay using foreign currency or Turkish Lira (only cash is accepted, though, no credit cards).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Turkish Raki goes to Texas 0 [postlink]http://d.bloggerdestek.com/2007/06/word-origin-turkey.html[/postlink]Word origin .
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.See the major difference now?^ See the major difference now?
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

Ottoman Turkish is the key to learning about Turkey's Ottoman past. .With Ottoman Turkish, not only can you read historical archives, but you can also read Ottoman literature and letters dated back to the Ottoman period.^ With Ottoman Turkish, not only can you read historical archives, but you can also read Ottoman literature and letters dated back to the Ottoman period.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Exchange only what you need as you will find difficulty exchanging your leftover YTL back to foreign currency after you leave the country.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ You may pay using foreign currency or Turkish Lira (only cash is accepted, though, no credit cards).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

In Istanbul, you can learn Ottoman Turkish from the following places:
  • İsmek +90 212 531 01 41 İskenderpaşa Mahallesi, Ahmediye Caddesi, Hacı Salih Efendi Sokak, 6 Fatih.
  • Tarih Vakfı +90 212 522 02 02 Zindankapı Değirmen Sokak, 15 Eminönü [19].

Work

There is always a high demand for qualified - and, to a lesser extent, unqualified - ESOL/EFL teachers in Istanbul. Many teachers work with private instructional companies. Others contract out on a freelance basis.
Istanbul is Turkey's financial capital. All big investment banks, commercial banks, large foreign retail and consumer companies have offices in Istanbul. The business district has been coming up with high-rise buildings and business centers in the last decade.

Buy

.The currency used in Istanbul is the Turkish Lira (TL) though the euro and US dollar are also accepted at places frequented by tourists (although certain tourist attractions such as the Hagia Sophia only accept liras).^ You may pay using foreign currency or Turkish Lira (only cash is accepted, though, no credit cards).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ The currency used in Istanbul [¤] is the New Turkish Lira (YTL) though the euro and US dollar are also accepted at places frequented by tourists (although certain tourist attractions such as the Hagia Sophia only accept liras).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Some Turkish foods are known to use a variety of spices which may affect international tourists who may not be accustomed to such ingredients, although most of it is edible for any tongue.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Currency exchanges and banks are plentiful in Istanbul and offer extremely competitive exchange rates with no commission charged.^ Currency exchanges and banks are plentiful in Istanbul and offer extremely competitive exchange rates with no commission charged.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ If you are planning to visit Istanbul, bring hard foreign currency and exchange them after you arrive, preferably at a bank or a currency exchange.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.If you are planning to visit Istanbul, bring hard foreign currency and exchange them after you arrive, preferably at a bank or a currency exchange.^ Since we reached this point, I wish to inform you all that soon I have a planned expedition towards Venice, Genoa and France, with the hope of securing foreign aid.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.Exchange only what you need as you will find difficulty exchanging your leftover TL back to foreign currency after you leave the country.^ Exchange only what you need as you will find difficulty exchanging your leftover YTL back to foreign currency after you leave the country.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ With Ottoman Turkish, not only can you read historical archives, but you can also read Ottoman literature and letters dated back to the Ottoman period.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ You may pay using foreign currency or Turkish Lira (only cash is accepted, though, no credit cards).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Alternatively, withdraw money from ATMs whenever you need cash.^ Alternatively, withdraw Money from ATMs whenever you need cash.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Shops may be closed on Sundays.^ Shops may be closed on Sundays.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Most major shopping malls have security checkpoints you usually see in airports and museums prior to entry.^ Most major shopping malls have security checkpoints you usually see in airports and Museums prior to entry.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ This most surprises you, I see.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Istanbul Ataturk Airport is the major organization of congresses and exhibitions and the CNR Expo Center Istanbul Expo Center in walking distance WOW Airport Hotel is inviting you to a privileged world .
  • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

The Grand Bazaar during Republic Day
.
The Grand Bazaar during Republic Day
  • Grand Bazaar (Kapalı Çarşı).^ Grand Bazaar ( Kapalı Çarşı ).
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    [20]. .Istanbul's grand old bazaar with an estimated 4400 shops lined along covered walkways.^ Istanbul [¤] 's grand old bazaar with an estimated 4400 shops lined along covered walkways.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Egyptian Bazaar ( Mısır Çarşısı , also known as Spice Bazaar ) in Eminönü is also a covered bazaar, which is a lot smaller than Grand Bazaar , and as its name implies, houses herbalist and spice shops.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Akgun Hotel surrounded by walls around the old Istanbul,Flour in the center of historical Topkapi Palace, Hagia Sophia Museum, Sultanahmet Mosque, Kariye Museum, Grand Covered Bazaar and other magnificent mosques, monuments and museums at a distance of 2-3km are located .
    • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

    .It is said to be the world's oldest shopping mall, covers several blocks and features a labyrinth of side streets to keep you lost for the better part of a day.^ Lords, we have full power," said the envoys, " to conclude this agreement, if you are willing to conclude it on your parts.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And you must know that on that day those of the host lost more than the Greeks, and much were the Greeks rejoiced thereat.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "And the covenants we are now explaining to you, we undertake to keep, wheresoever we may be, for a year, reckoning from the day on which we sail from the port of Venice in the service of God and of Christendom.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .The shops are organized around their wares, e.g.^ The shops are organized around their wares, e.g.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    the silver jewelers are clustered together, the carpet shops are clustered elsewhere and the shoe shops are bunched together somewhere else. .Parts of it now are rather touristy and you're likely to pay a little more for your purchase than elsewhere but with the vast selection you'll find what you're looking for and it's one of Istanbul's character pieces.^ You're a part of it.
    • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ What do you want more than this?
    • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Parts of it now are rather touristy and you're likely to pay a little more for your purchase than elsewhere but with the vast selection you'll find what you're looking for and it's one of Istanbul's character pieces.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .
    • Polisajci Brothers Antique Show, 37-39 Yaglikcilar Sokak, Ic Cebeci Han, +90 212 5261831. You will find Ottoman and other antique metal ware - copper bowls, jugs, pots and the like - once used in hammams and kitchens.
    • Derviş, 33-35 Keseciler Sokak, +90 212 514 4525 [21].^ Polisajci Brothers Antique Show, 37-39 Yaglikcilar Sokak, Ic Cebeci Han, +90 212 5261831.
      • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

      ^ You will find Ottoman and other antique metal ware - copper bowls, jugs, pots and the like - once used in hammams and kitchens.
      • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Derviş, 33-35 Keseciler Sokak, +90 212 514 4525 [18] .
      • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

      .Turko-Californian spa shop with raw silk and cotton clothing made to last a long time.
    • Chalabi, 6 Sandal Bedesten Sokak, +90 212 5228171. Grand Bazaars’ oldest family-run antiques dealer offers Ottoman silver, furniture and jewelry from old Ottoman families, and other oriental treasures.
    • Deli Kızın Yeri, 82 Halıcılar Çarşısı, +90 212 526 1251 [22].^ This combat lasted a long time.
      • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Deli Kızın Yeri, 82 Halıcılar Çarşısı, +90 212 526 1251 [19] .
      • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Grand Bazaars’ oldest family-run antiques dealer offers Ottoman silver, furniture and jewelry from old Ottoman families, and other oriental treasures.
      • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

      .Deli Kızın Yeri (The Crazy Lady's Place) was founded by The Crazy Lady herself, an American who has retired in Turkey, who specializes in creating flat, useful, packable items using traditional Turkish motifs, handicrafts and fabrics.^ Deli Kızın Yeri ( The Crazy Lady's Place ) was founded by The Crazy Lady herself, an American who has retired in Turkey , who specializes in creating flat, useful, packable items using traditional Turkish motifs, handicrafts and fabrics.
      • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Bringing their Asian tradition with them, they merged it with the bath culture they found in Anatolia , and a new synthesis was born, the 'Turkish bath'.
      • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Deli Kızın Yeri, 82 Halıcılar Çarşısı, +90 212 526 1251 [19] .
      • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

      .Items produced by local artists suiting the flavor of the shop comprise the rest of their inventory.^ Items produced by local artists suiting the flavor of the shop comprise the rest of their inventory.
      • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

      .The selection of items changes constantly, but generally includes items such as placemats, tablecloths, purses, doorstops, plastic bag holders, napkin rings, tea cozies, Turkish-flavored teddy bears and dolls, luggage tags, aprons, pillows, and limited edition clothing.
    • Deli Kızın Yeri Junior, 42 Halıcılar Çarşısı, +90 224 757 4229. The Grand Bazaar's first and only children's store, filled with Turkish inspired toys and games for kids of all ages.^ Deli Kızın Yeri Junior, 42 Halıcılar Çarşısı, +90 224 757 4229.
      • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Deli Kızın Yeri, 82 Halıcılar Çarşısı, +90 212 526 1251 [19] .
      • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

      ^ The Grand Bazaar's first and only children's store, filled with Turkish inspired toys and games for kids of all ages.
      • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

      .Your kids will love it!
  • Egyptian Bazaar (Mısır Çarşısı, also known as Spice Bazaar) in Eminönü is also a covered bazaar, which is a lot smaller than Grand Bazaar, and as its name implies, houses herbalist and spice shops.
  • Turkish Delight, or Lokum (as the locals call it).^ He left a so-called empire smaller even than it had been on his accession.

    ^ Of course, the Violent Femmes are also a lot more intelligent than your average punkster, and it shows.
    • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

    ^ The art of the Turkish carpet was widespread outside these centers as well, with the production of carpets as a folk art, known by the name of the locale in which they were woven.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    .A good buy since you're in Turkey.^ A good buy since you're in Turkey .
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .It is advisable to buy it fresh rather than in pre-packed boxes and to get a variety of flavors rather than the stereotypical rose-water or lemon flavors available abroad.^ It is advisable to buy it fresh rather than in pre-packed boxes and to get a variety of flavors rather than the stereotypical rose-water or lemon flavors available abroad.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ At first Alexius had been inspired rather by fear of the Seljuks than by ambition, but his hopes rose with the disintegration of the Seljuk power on the death of Malik Shah in 1092.

    .Pistachio in particular is very good.^ Pistachio in particular is very good.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    The best place to buy lokum in Istanbul is from a store. .Istiklal Caddesi in particular features a number of stores that sell Turkish sweets by the kilogram including lokum and helvah.^ Istiklal Caddesi in particular features a number of stores that sell Turkish sweets by the kilogram including lokum and helvah.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ From the end of the 19th century in particular, the bridge has featured in Turkish literature; in theater, poetry and novels.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    .There are quite a few shops selling delicious Turkish Delight in the Grand Bazaar, although I wouldn't recommend buying from them unless you have advanced haggling skills, or you don't mind being ripped off.
  • Turkish Tea (çay, CHAI).^ There are quite a few shops selling delicious Turkish Delight in the Grand Bazaar , although I wouldn't recommend buying from them unless you have advanced haggling skills, or you don't mind being ripped off.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Egyptian Bazaar ( Mısır Çarşısı , also known as Spice Bazaar ) in Eminönü is also a covered bazaar, which is a lot smaller than Grand Bazaar , and as its name implies, houses herbalist and spice shops.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Istanbul [¤] 's grand old bazaar with an estimated 4400 shops lined along covered walkways.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .The national drink of Turkey, brewed from leaves grown on the steep, verdant mountain slopes of Turkey's eastern Black Sea coast.^ A winter's tale on the coast of the Black Sea .
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The national drink of Turkey , brewed from leaves grown on the steep, verdant mountain slopes of Turkey 's eastern Black Sea coast.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ To enjoy memorable winter landscapes, the western Black Sea coast is the perfect destination over the next few months.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    .Traditionally, Turkish tea is brewed samovar-style, with a small pot of very strong tea sitting on a larger vessel of boiling water.^ Traditionally, Turkish tea is brewed samovar-style, with a small pot of very strong tea sitting on a larger vessel of boiling water.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Pour a small amount of strong tea into a little tulip-shaped glass and cut it to the desired strength with hot water.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .Pour a small amount of strong tea into a little tulip-shaped glass and cut it to the desired strength with hot water.^ Pour a small amount of strong tea into a little tulip-shaped glass and cut it to the desired strength with hot water.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Traditionally, Turkish tea is brewed samovar-style, with a small pot of very strong tea sitting on a larger vessel of boiling water.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Having fresh, hot tea always available everywhere is one of life's splendid little luxuries in Turkey .
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .Turks usually add cube sugar (never milk, although you can often get milk if you ask.^ Turks usually add cube sugar (never milk, although you can often get milk if you ask.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ) .Having fresh, hot tea always available everywhere is one of life's splendid little luxuries in Turkey.^ Having fresh, hot tea always available everywhere is one of life's splendid little luxuries in Turkey .
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Pour a small amount of strong tea into a little tulip-shaped glass and cut it to the desired strength with hot water.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .Elma Çay: apple tea, like hot apple juice (EHL-mah chah-yee) is the flavor of preference.
  • Rugs & Kilims
    • Mevlana Rug Store, Torun sok.^ Elma Çay: apple tea, like hot apple juice (EHL-mah chah-yee) is the flavor of preference.
      • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Mevlana Rug store is the only store which is recommended by The New York Times.
      • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Rugs & Kilims Mevlana Rug Store, Torun sok.
      • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

      .1, Sultanahmet, +90 212 5171260 (fax:+90 212 5177476) [23].^ Sultanahmet [¤] , +90 212 5171260 (fax:+90 212 5177476) [20] .
      • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Sultanahmet , +90 212 6382289 [21] .
      • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

      .Mevlana Rug store is the only store which is recommended by The New York Times.
    • Bazaar 55 Rug House, Akbiyik Cad.^ Mevlana Rug store is the only store which is recommended by The New York Times.
      • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Bazaar 55 Rug House, Akbiyik Cad.
      • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

      ^ The Grand Bazaar's first and only children's store, filled with Turkish inspired toys and games for kids of all ages.
      • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

      .55, Sultanahmet, +90 212 6382289 [24].^ Sultanahmet [¤] , +90 212 5171260 (fax:+90 212 5177476) [20] .
      • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Sultanahmet , +90 212 6382289 [21] .
      • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Cağaloğlu Bath , +90 212 522 24 24 [9] .
      • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

      .The carpet shop known to be most trust-worthy.
    • Mehmet Cetinkaya Gallery, Kucuk Ayasofya Caddesi, 7 Tavukhane Sokak, +90 212 5176808 [25].^ The carpet shop known to be most trust-worthy.
      • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Mehmet Cetinkaya Gallery, Kucuk Ayasofya Caddesi, 7 Tavukhane Sokak, +90 212 5176808 [22] .
      • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Chalcedony, 2 Ayasofya Caferiye Sokak, +90 212 5276376 [24] .
      • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

      .Glorious museum-quality textiles, a feast for the eyes.
    • Best Carpet Gallery, Binbirdirek Caddesi No.^ Glorious museum-quality textiles, a feast for the eyes.
      • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Best Carpet Gallery, Binbirdirek Caddesi No.
      • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

      3/36 , +90 535 722 01 75 [26]. buy online Rugs and Kilims.
  • Chalcedony. .Turkey's only indigenous precious stone is a great buy within Istanbul's many jewelry shops.^ Turkey 's only indigenous precious stone is a great buy within Istanbul [¤] 's many jewelry shops.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ One stop shop for raw rocks, smooth stones and finished jewelry of the pale-blue, semiprecious chalcedony.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Istanbul [¤] is the only city/province in Turkey which has more than one telephone code: 212 for European Side [¤] , 216 for Asian side and Princes’ Islands .
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .
    • Chalcedony, 2 Ayasofya Caferiye Sokak, +90 212 5276376 [27].^ Chalcedony, 2 Ayasofya Caferiye Sokak, +90 212 5276376 [24] .
      • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Mehmet Cetinkaya Gallery, Kucuk Ayasofya Caddesi, 7 Tavukhane Sokak, +90 212 5176808 [22] .
      • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Polisajci Brothers Antique Show, 37-39 Yaglikcilar Sokak, Ic Cebeci Han, +90 212 5261831.
      • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

      .One stop shop for raw rocks, smooth stones and finished jewelry of the pale-blue, semiprecious chalcedony.
  • Off the Beaten Path.^ One stop shop for raw rocks, smooth stones and finished jewelry of the pale-blue, semiprecious chalcedony.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Turkey 's only indigenous precious stone is a great buy within Istanbul [¤] 's many jewelry shops.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Off the Beaten Path .
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .Places that offer the best at what they do but are not on any of the traditional tourist paths.^ Places that offer the best at what they do but are not on any of the traditional tourist paths.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .
    • ArkeoPera, Yenicarsi Caddesi, 16/A Petek Han, Galatasaray, +90 212 2930378 [28].^ ArkeoPera, Yenicarsi Caddesi, 16/A Petek Han, Galatasaray, +90 212 2930378 [25] .
      • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Mehmet Cetinkaya Gallery, Kucuk Ayasofya Caddesi, 7 Tavukhane Sokak, +90 212 5176808 [22] .
      • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Polisajci Brothers Antique Show, 37-39 Yaglikcilar Sokak, Ic Cebeci Han, +90 212 5261831.
      • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

      .Best antiquarian bookshop in Turkey, owner knows every Turkish excavation site first hand.
    • Gonul Paksoy, 6/A Atiye Sokak, Tesvikiye, +90 212 2360209. Peerless one-of-a-kind dresses made for royalty from refined, antique Ottoman-era cloth.
    • Iznik Foundation, 7 Oksuz Cocuk Sokak, Kurucesme, +90 212 2873243 [29].^ Peerless one-of-a-kind dresses made for royalty from refined, antique Ottoman-era cloth.
      • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Iznik Foundation, 7 Oksuz Cocuk Sokak, Kurucesme, +90 212 2873243 [26] .
      • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Gonul Paksoy, 6/A Atiye Sokak, Tesvikiye, +90 212 2360209.
      • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

      Offers neo-Iznik pottery after recreating original formulas from original Iznik kilns, which functioned between 1450 and 1650.
    • Sedef Mum, 50 Irmak Caddesi, Dolapdere, +90 212 2535793. Artisans of the time honored art of candle making, intricately sculpted and aromatic wares make very portable gifts.

Eat

For restaurant listings, see individual district articles.
Local Doner Restaurant (büfe-buffet)
Local Doner Restaurant (büfe-buffet)
  • Döner. .Always a good option for having fast and cheap food.^ Always a good option for having fast and cheap food.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Another option to leave the city is to take the not-so-cheap fast ferries to Yalova, if you don’t object to pay much for Public Transport .
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .The entrance to Istiklal Street contains dozens of small doner restaurants and they serve almost 24 hours.^ The entrance to Istiklal Street contains dozens of small doner restaurants and they serve almost 24 hours.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It's usually served in small buffets along the Uskudar coast and a sandwich costs 1.50 YTL. The cheap price can raise eyebrows but these buffets are open 24/7 and they serve around 1000 sandwiches per day.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .In Besiktas neighborhood, Karadeniz is a non-touristy, small place but local favorite for not using minced meat but full chunks of beef (the place is near fish market in Besiktas).^ In Besiktas neighborhood, Karadeniz is a non-touristy, small place but local favorite for not using minced meat but full chunks of beef (the place is near fish market in Besiktas).
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ AKBİL is a small electronic device serving as a ticket which may be used on buses, trams, suburban trains, metro, local ferries, etc.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Arrived at ------, I found the Armenian market-place closed and the shop doors shut and sealed by the Government, although as yet but a small proportion of the Armenian population had been deported from that particular place.
    • Documents 95-108. Bryce. Armenians. XII---The City of Angora; XIII---Thrace, Constantinople, Broussa, and Ismid; XIV---The Anatolian Railway. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC net.lib.byu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .It costs slightly more (8 liras per portion) but it is probably one of the best in the entire country.^ It costs slightly more (8 liras per portion) but it is probably one of the best in the entire country.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ When the barons had thus claimed the cost of the passages, and when the payments had been collected, the moneys came to less than the sum due-yea, by more than one half.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Also, in the Sultanahmet area, "Sedef" is a small buffet-type restaurant which has quality Turkish fast-food.^ The large Syriac Christian population of the area was hit by the Turkish attacks on Armenians and other Christians during World War I and today has dwindled to a small remant.
    • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Also, in the Sultanahmet [¤] area, "Sedef" is a small buffet-type restaurant which has quality Turkish fast-food.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    "Doner Durum with yellow cheese" is delicious, don't miss.
  • Balık-Ekmek. .Balik-Ekmek (literally "fish and bread") is a fish sandwich served in small boats and little buffets in Eminonu.^ Balik-Ekmek (literally "fish and bread") is a fish sandwich served in small boats and little buffets in Eminonu.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It's usually served in small buffets along the Uskudar coast and a sandwich costs 1.50 YTL. The cheap price can raise eyebrows but these buffets are open 24/7 and they serve around 1000 sandwiches per day.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ A regular sandwich consists of one small fried fish, slices of tomatoes and onion.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .It is also increasingly popular in buffets in Kadıköy coast.^ It is also increasingly popular in buffets in Kadıköy coast.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .A regular sandwich consists of one small fried fish, slices of tomatoes and onion.^ A regular sandwich consists of one small fried fish, slices of tomatoes and onion.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Balik-Ekmek (literally "fish and bread") is a fish sandwich served in small boats and little buffets in Eminonu.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Patso is a type of sandwich consisting of hot dog and french fries.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .However, the taste is beyond expectations for such a basic menu.^ However, the taste is beyond expectations for such a basic menu.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .The price is around 2-3 TL. Again, it's a local favorite.
  • Patso.^ The price is around 2-3 YTL. Again, it's a local favorite.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .Patso is a type of sandwich consisting of hot dog and french fries.^ Patso is a type of sandwich consisting of hot dog and french fries.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ A regular sandwich consists of one small fried fish, slices of tomatoes and onion.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .It's usually served in small buffets along the Uskudar coast and a sandwich costs 1.50 TL. The cheap price can raise eyebrows but these buffets are open 24/7 and they serve around 1000 sandwiches per day.^ For them they left a small opening in the middle.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It's usually served in small buffets along the Uskudar coast and a sandwich costs 1.50 YTL. The cheap price can raise eyebrows but these buffets are open 24/7 and they serve around 1000 sandwiches per day.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Balik-Ekmek (literally "fish and bread") is a fish sandwich served in small boats and little buffets in Eminonu.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .Even though the profit margin is low, they make a fortune, so they don't lower the quality too much (except hamburgers, don't touch those in Uskudar, but definitely try the spicy hamburgers in Taksim).
  • One thing not to be missed is the local ice cream sold at the street stands, called Dondurma.^ They even refused to be called Armenians.
    • Documents 95-108. Bryce. Armenians. XII---The City of Angora; XIII---Thrace, Constantinople, Broussa, and Ismid; XIV---The Anatolian Railway. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC net.lib.byu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Even though the profit margin is low, they make a fortune, so they don't lower the quality too much (except hamburgers, don't touch those in Uskudar, but definitely try the spicy hamburgers in Taksim ).
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ One thing not to be missed is the local ice cream sold at the street stands, called Dondurma .
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .While flavors are relatively standard for the region, the ice cream usually incorporates orchid root extract, which gives it an incredibly chewy and stringy texture, also lending itself to be used for marketing and attracting attention while the sellers do tricks to try to sell the ice cream.^ While flavors are relatively standard for the region, the ice cream usually incorporates orchid root extract, which gives it an incredibly chewy and stringy texture, also lending itself to be used for marketing and attracting attention while the sellers do tricks to try to sell the ice cream.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .Try it!
  • Roasted chestnuts("kestane Kebap, as locals call it) are sold from carts around the city, and is a very nice snack to have when the weather is cold, as it keeps your hands warm.^ Chestnut is sold from carts here and there, and it is a very nice snack to have when the weather is cold, as it keeps your hands warm.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ And they sailed up the straits to a city called Abydos, which lies on the straits of St. George, towards Turkey, and is very fair, and well situate.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ When you turn your back to Black Sea on the other hand, you’ll have a distant view of business district of the city, full of skyscrapers.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .3 Lr for 100 gr.
  • Boiled and roasted corn on the cob is sold from carts around the city, and is a fantastic snack to walk around.^ Lr for 100 gr.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Chestnut is sold from carts here and there, and it is a very nice snack to have when the weather is cold, as it keeps your hands warm.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .Price varies from cart to cart and area of the city (between 1 and 1.5 Lr).
  • Don't miss "Simit" a warm bread sold from carts around the city, and is a fantastic snack to walk around.^ Ephesus Hotel Istanbul is located right near the Old Town in the district of Laleli It's also part of the old city mainly surrounded by whole sale shops You will spend happy hours walking around and exploring the whole area .
    • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Chestnut is sold from carts here and there, and it is a very nice snack to have when the weather is cold, as it keeps your hands warm.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In the middle of the men was a long table which contained vellum maps showing the area around Constantinople and the city itself in amazing detail.
    • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

    The texture and taste is a bit like a sesame bagel. .Price varies from cart to cart and area of the city (between .75 and 1 Lr).
  • Also, be sure to try Ayran , a local drink based on yoghurt, although sour and much thinner.^ Also, be sure to try Ayran , a local drink based on yoghurt, although sour and much thinner.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Although the tap water itself is clean, many local water tanks are not maintained properly, and one should try to avoid tap water if possible.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .It isn't always on the menu or displayed, but it's there, so ask for it.
  • Freshly squeezed juice and juice blends are sold from stands and small shops all around the city, and are a refreshing treat (especially in the warmer months).^ It isn't always on the menu or displayed, but it's there, so ask for it.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ "There is not much our small fleet can do because of the boom placed around the Golden Horn.
    • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There is still little hope of a compromise or peaceful solution to all this, though it is obvious that at least some of the city (e.g.
    • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    The combinations range from a simple orange juice to the more rare options like pomengranate or kiwi. .Price varies from shop to shop, area of the city and complexity of your order (between 2 and 4 Lr).
  • Beyoğlu is notoriously known for its night life; it's full of cafés and bars with live music.^ Beyoğlu is notoriously known for its night life; it's full of cafés and bars with live music.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In AD 532 much of the city was destroyed during what is known as the Nika rebellion, which began as a riot between two sets of fans, the 'Blues' and the 'Greens', in the circus, and developed into a full-scale revolt against his authority.

    ^ When you turn your back to Black Sea on the other hand, you’ll have a distant view of business district of the city, full of skyscrapers.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .People from all classes and ethnicities can be found here.
  • Nişantaşı is the place for young entrepreneurs and artists, the prices are higher than Taksim.
  • Kadıköy also has a nightlife scene, serving mostly locals of this part of the city.^ Kadıköy also has a nightlife scene, serving mostly locals of this part of the city.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ People from all classes and ethnicities can be found here.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Nişantaşı is the place for young entrepreneurs and artists, the prices are higher than Taksim .
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .If you are not staying on that side of the city, it may not worth the trouble to make an inter-continental trip just to have a drink, but drop by if you are around and thirsty.^ If you are not staying on that Side [¤] of the city, it may not worth the trouble to make an inter-continental trip just to have a drink, but drop by if you are around and thirsty.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Similar to many European countries tap water is mostly drinkable, but it may not be safe depending on where you drink it.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ YTL 1.30/person, though you’ll have to buy multi-use cards (at least 5 uses for YTL 6.50), which makes a bad investment assuming that you are leaving the city.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    Most of the locals in Kadıköy go to Taxim mostly.
  • Nightclubs - While there are night clubs all over the city, two of the hottest clubs of Istanbul are in Ortaköy.

Sleep

.In general, it is possible to find some kind of accommodation in any district of Istanbul.^ In general, it is possible to find some kind of accommodation in any district of Istanbul [¤] .
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

Here is a quick list of the districts where they are concentrated most:
.
  • Harbiye is a popular place to stay, as in the main center of the new city on the European side, and contains a variety of international standard apartments, hotels, and moderate hotels for budget travelers.^ Taksim is the main center of the New City on the European Side [¤] .
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Harbiye is a popular place to stay, as in the main center of the New City on the European Side [¤] , and contains a variety of international standard apartments, Hotels , and moderate Hotels for budget travelers.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Gunes Hotel is 10 km from Ataturk International Airport in the area of Merter in Old Istanbul on the European side It's 20 minutes to the city center and only 10 minutes away from the main railway station, Bakirkoy Seabus port and 15 minutes away from the CNR Congress and Exhibiton Centre .
    • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

    .Nişantaşı and Taxim are 5 minutes from Harbiye so you can stay in Harbiye and benefit from all activities in Nişantaşı and Taxim.
  • Taksim is the main center of the new city on the European side.^ Nişantaşı and Taxim are 5 minutes from Harbiye so you can stay in Harbiye and benefit from all activities in Nişantaşı and Taxim.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Taksim is the main center of the New City on the European Side [¤] .
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ As with most European cities, but especially in crowded areas of Istanbul [¤] , watch your pockets and travel documents as Pickpockets have devised all sorts of strategies to obtain them from you.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    .Locals and tourists go to Taksim for shopping and entertainment, as well as moderate hotels for budget travelers.^ Locals and tourists go to Taksim for shopping and entertainment, as well as moderate Hotels for budget travelers.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Madison Hotel is situated in the Beyoglu/Taksim district of Istanbul close to the entertainment and shopping centre and near to all amentities such as public transport, taxis, public minibuses (dolmus) and a short ride away from the centre of the historical part .
    • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Grand Anka Hotel is in Aksaray in Old Istanbul on the historical peninsula Grand Anka Hotel is central to all major sights, is near a tram and metro line and is a short ride from Taksim, the shopping and entertainment district .
    • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

    .There are also two hostels in this area.
  • Sultanahmet the main center for the old city on the European side.^ Taksim is the main center of the New City on the European Side [¤] .
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ There are also two Hostels in this area.
    • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

    ^ And greatly were they harassed by the people of the land and by the Greeks; and they rode -from day to day till they came to a city called Pamphyle, and lodged there, and sojourned in it for two months.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    It has a selection of quality, reasonably priced hotels, many with terraces overlooking the Golden Horn, or with views of the Marmara Sea and the Blue Mosque.

Contact

Telephone codes

.Istanbul is the only city/province in Turkey which has more than one telephone code: 212 for European side, 216 for Asian side and Princes’ Islands.^ European side of the city every day.

^ Istanbul [¤] is the only city/province in Turkey which has more than one telephone code: 212 for European Side [¤] , 216 for Asian side and Princes’ Islands .
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ It is situated approximately east of the Asian side and east of the European city center.

.When calling from one continent to the other, the usual dialing format used for intercity calls should be used, as if it’s an intercity call: 0+area code (212 or 216)+7-digit telephone number.^ When calling from one continent to the other, the usual dialing format used for intercity calls should be used, as if it’s an intercity call: 0+area code (212 or 216)+7-digit telephone number .
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Istanbul [¤] is the only city/province in Turkey which has more than one telephone code: 212 for European Side [¤] , 216 for Asian side and Princes’ Islands .
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ And two ships that were bound together, of which the one was called the Pilgrim and the other the Paradise, approached so near to a tower, the one on the one side and the other on the other-so as God and the wind drove them-that the ladder of the Pilgrim joined on to the tower.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It may appear as an intercity call, but it will be treated as a local call in respect to payment.^ It may appear as an intercity call, but it will be treated as a local call in respect to payment.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.When making an intercontinental call, if you forget to dial the code, your call will not be automatically routed to the other continent number, it is likely that you will be connected to the “wrong” number which is in the same continent with you, because much of the number sets are used on both continents (albeit with different codes of course).^ When making an intercontinental call, if you forget to dial the code, your call will not be automatically routed to the other continent number, it is likely that you will be connected to the “wrong” number which is located in the same continent with you, because much of the number sets are used on both continents (albeit with different codes of course).
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ You will find Ottoman and other antique metal ware - copper bowls, jugs, pots and the like - once used in hammams and kitchens.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Don’t forget to dial the code first no matter which continent you are in if you are calling a landline number from a cell phone (even if it’s a number that is located in the same continent with you), though.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.When dialing a number that is on the continent you are already standing on, only 7-digit number is enough.^ Only three things stand between you and this evening's event and 2!
  • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

.Don’t forget to dial the code first no matter which continent you are in if you are calling a landline number from a cell phone (even if it’s a number that is in the same continent with you), though.^ We don't have enough to even mount a small raid in Rumelia, and we don't have money at all to supplement our existing forces, and you expect us to attack?
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You initially supported my attack, and now you don't even want to hear about it.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If you want your head chopped off and your family killed with the same brutality displayed by the Crusaders in 1204, don't give in and refuse their demands.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

Internet

Cafés with free wireless internet (wi fi):
  • Several of the nargile places in Tophane
  • Several cafes in Cihangir, including Kahvedan, Meyva, Komşufırın and Kahve Altı
  • Many cafés and restaurants along Istiklal Caddesi in Beyoglu
  • Both the large American fast food restaurant chains
  • There is one upstairs by the restaurants facing the side of Aya Sofia and behind the entrance to the Basilica in Sultanahmet.
  • Starbucks has quite a few shops around, and (at least) those at the touristic zones, has a free wireless connection.
.In the recent years, the number of cafes and shopping centers with wi fi Internet access has increased dramatically, most of them still being free.^ Another possible (drug-free) interpretation of "turn your brain around": Jimi was and still is considered one of the most (if not the most) influential rock musicians in history.
  • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

^ This township, which hosts over a million tourists a year, has recently become the most serious contender for tourism among Turkey’s southern resorts such as Bodrum, Çeşme and Antalya.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Ancak daha kaliteli bir şifreleme standardı olarak Wi-Fi
Protected Access (WPA) kullanmanızı öneririm.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Most internet cafes have high speed ADSL connections, and they are very inexpensive compared to Europe (about 0.50-1.50 Euros per hour).^ Flansburgh: "Most rock shows are very schematic -- they're about bigness.
  • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

^ It was a very high festival, and the people of the land were there, and the most part of the barons and pilgrims.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And the Emperor Baldwin, and the rest of the people also received them very gladly, for they were of high rank, and very rich, and brouaht very many good people with them.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

  • Most hostels of the Sultanahmet area has wi fi Internet access at thier lobby, often in the rooms too.
  • Most of Taksim hotels of the Sultanahmet area has wi fi Internet access at their lobby, often in the rooms too.

Stay safe

.As with most European cities, but especially in crowded areas of Istanbul, watch your pockets and travel documents as pickpockets have devised all sorts of strategies to obtain them from you.^ As with most European cities, but especially in crowded areas of Istanbul [¤] , watch your pockets and travel documents as Pickpockets have devised all sorts of strategies to obtain them from you.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ Thanks to the constantly very humid climate of Istanbul, plants of the European-Siberian ecoregion are concentrated here, especially in the northern areas near the Black Sea coast.

^ Unique Istanbul [¤] liners, sea-buses , or mid-sized private ferries travel between the European and Asian sides of the city.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

.Do not rely too much on the 'safe' feeling you get from the omnipresence of policemen.^ Do not rely too much on the 'safe' feeling you get from the omnipresence of policemen.
  • Istanbul - FlexiJourney Travel 28 January 2010 0:00 UTC www.flexijourney.com [Source type: General]

^ The whole metaphor makes sense: a glowing nightlight [in the shape of a] bird in the birdhouse in your soul, making you feel safe from danger.
  • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

.Istanbul is home to three of the biggest clubs in Turkey and arguably European football: Fenerbahçe, Beşiktaş, and Galatasaray.^ In addition to Galatasaray , Fenerbahçe and Beşiktaş , which field teams in multiple sports, several other clubs have also excelled in particular team sports; such as Efes Pilsen , Fenerbahçe Ülker , Galatasaray Cafe Crown and Beşiktaş Cola Turka in basketball; or Eczacıbaşı , Vakıfbank , Fenerbahçe and Galatasaray in volleyball.

^ Even more importantly, this means that Istanbul is home to approximately one-fourth of the more than ten thousand documented species of plants that grow naturally in Turkey.

^ Istanbul, one of the three European capitals of culture for 2010 .
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.It is advisable not to wear colours associating yourself with any of the clubs—blue&yellow, black&white, red&yellow respectively, particularly on the days of matches between the sides due to the fearsome rivalry they share.^ But due to Istanbul's geographical location and longitude, it has a "transitional climate", midway between that of the oceanic climate of the Black Sea, the humid continental climate of the Balkan peninsula and the mediterranean climate of the southwest.

^ Winter has come with its white quilt, concealing the autumn colours in the forests of the western Black Sea forests.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ If not, be it known to you that from this day forth they will not hold you as lord or friend, but will endeavour to obtain their due by all the means in their 54 Power.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

Scams

Taksim bar/club scams

.Tourists must be aware of high-drink prices scams encountered in so-called night-clubs mostly located in Aksaray, Beyazit and Taksim areas.^ Birbey Hotel Istanbul is located in the area known as Sehzadebasi in the Aksaray district part of the historical peninsula and close to all sights .
  • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

^ Sogut Hotel is an Ottoman style hotel in the area of Beyazit, a very old part of historical Istanbul Sogut Hotel is centrally located and within walking distance of all the major points of touristic interest .
  • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

^ Galata Antique Hotel is located on Istiklal Street which starts at Taksim Square and ends at the very old area of Tunel where the oldest funiculer in the world is .
  • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

These clubs usually charge overpriced bills, based on a replica of the original menu, or simply on the menu that had been standing upside down on the table.
.Also be aware of friendly behaving groups of young men or male-female couples striking up a conversation in the street and inviting you to a "good nightclub they know". This has frequently been reported as a prelude to such a scam.^ And you must know that by his death the good men of the host were much discomforted.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And you must know that they were but little pitied by the people, because they had behaved in such evil sort to one whom they were bound to treat quite otherwise.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I don't know of any other such hidden tracks, but if they are technically before the first song, a Playstation can do the trick.
  • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

.The person(s) in on the scam may offer to take you to dinner first, in order to lower your suspicions.^ Do not worry, you are not the first person to be amazed by this.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is for you to take counsel thereon according to your pleasure."
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Please tell us what you search for or buy online and our partners will send you third party offers targeted to your interests*.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Another way they will try to lure you in is by talking to you in Turkish, and when you mumble back in your language they will be surprised you're not Turkish and immediately will feel the urge to repay you for their accident with a beer.^ "Fair Sir," said the barons, "we have seen your letters, and they tell us that we are to give credit to what you say, and we credit you right well.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For you are Christians, and he is a Christian, and well he knows that you are on your way to deliver the Holy Land overseass and the Holy Cross, and the Sepulchre.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Andrew Weiskopf writes: In the song "Which Describes How You're Feeling," there is a passage which has been cleverly recorded backwards.
  • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

.In either of these scams, if you refuse to pay the high prices or try to call the police (dial #155) to file a complaint, the club managers may use physical intimidation to bring the impasse to a close.^ If you may recall, the Angheloi, to raise money to pay the Crusaders in 1204, sold some Imperial assets.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And you may know that their fortunes were at the lowest, seeing that outside of Constantinople they had kepl& possession of no more than these two cities.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ "Now there are islands close by which you can see from here, and these are inhabited, and produce corn, and food, and other things.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.A recently encountered variant of this involved an invitation in Taksim to two male tourists (separately, within an hour of one another) to buy them beer (as they were "guests").^ Friends as they were, the two Genoese were significantly different from one another.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And when the pilgrims saw it, they marvelled greatly, and said one to another, " How could such a city be taken by force, save by the help of God himself?
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Then the men of mark, who did not want this evil to befall, came fully armed into the strife, and began to separate the combatants; and when they had separated them in one place, they began again in another.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

At the club, two attractive ladies, also with beers, joined them. .When the time came for the bill, the person inviting the tourist denied having said he would pay for the drinks, and a bill was presented for 1500 Lira; when the tourists in question expressed an inability to pay such a high amount, burly "security" personnel emerged, who the manager explained would accompany the tourist to an ATM machine (presumably to clean out their bank account).^ Who came up with person man?
  • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

^ Under constant pressure by the Huns Constantinople was blackmailed to pay an annual subsidy to them, who by now dominated Hungary and were an ever-present threat to the eastern empire.

^ But the Venetians, who had fuller knowledge of the sea, said that if they went to that other side, the current would carry them down the straits, and that they would be unable to stop their ships.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In one of the above examples, the tourist escaped by shouting for the police once on the street; in the other, a much lower amount was accepted from the tourist.^ For example, "monotheism" means belief in one God, while "henotheism," using the independent word for "one" in the masculine gender, henos , has been used to mean belief in many gods, where one in particular is superior to the others (e.g.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nobel Hostel is can be found down arguably one of the best streets in Sultanahmet which is the historical and cultural heart of Istanbul city and a tourist paradise .
  • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

Another recent incident occurred at a bar/club named SIA, located near the interception of Acara and Istiklal Streets. .3 tourists were approached by 2 men, asking them to go for "drinks together". The tourists were led by the men into the club named SIA (these three letters appear in silver beside the club's entrance), and ordered drinks.^ Theodosius II named as his successor an able officer, Marcian, with whom Pulcheria consented to go through the form of marriage in order to bring him into the imperial family circle.

^ And he, of his own person, will go with you into the land of Babylon, or, if you hold that that will be better, send thither 10,000 men, at his own charges.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And when it came to three weeks after Christmas, he sent these men into the land of Roumania to help those at Adrianople and Demotica; and the latter, being now in force, grew bolder and rode abroad with the greater assurance.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Later, some ladies working for the club joined the group and ordered drinks, which the club put on the tabs of the 3 tourists.^ But it will not be published until next autumn, because I have to think about it and put some work into it.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

Overall, they were cheated of over 600 Lira. .The original bill was much higher, and the tourists suffered verbal and physical intimidation when they did not have enough money to pay up.^ The new emperor went oft to see the barons in the camp, and did them great honour, as much as he could; and this was but fitting, seeing that they had served him right well.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus did the war begin; and each side did to the other as much harm as they could, by sea and by land.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ When they heard that the marquis was coming, they went out to meet him, and did him much honour.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

Finally the people at the club gave up and let them go. Travelers should avoid the above-mentioned club, for their own safety.
.All these point to these scams in Taksim becoming more serious, and the possible involvement of organized crime.^ Riva Hotel is situated in the heart of Taksim just off Taksim square and near to Istiklal Street and all the major points of interest in Istanbul City .
  • Istanbul Hotels Guide Istanbul Hotel List Online Reservation 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.icemtour.com [Source type: General]

^ Then the Doge spoke to his people, and said unto them: Signors, these people cannot pay more; and in so far as they have paid at all, we have benefited by an agreement which they cannot now fulfil.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

Be careful. .If you find yourself in a situation for any reason, do whatever they want you to do, pay the bill, buy the things they are forcing you to buy, etc.^ And be it known to you that, by reason of the treachery of the Greeks, they went in great peril, and on a hard adventure.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words, those enraptured pay as if they are buying tickets for each and every dance they are going to bounce and dance with.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ And they said, " We are already on our way; and when you come, you will find us ready."
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

Try to get out of situation as soon as possible, go to a safe place and call the police (dial #155).
That said, sometimes there is a chance to run, shows a case in August, 2009, when a man was able to escape. .His sudden leave may have caught the waiters off guard; in all hastiness they forget to put someone at the door, thus leaving an opening.^ All share the joys and sorrows of their neighbours, whatever their faith or race, and a friendly greeting suffices for doors and hearts to be opened.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ They would put thee in mind of the great service they have done to thee-a service known to the people and manifest to all men.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And they went on, all an-ned as they were, till they came to where Geoffry, the Marshal of Champagne, was keeping guard in the rear, in very great anxiety and misease.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

Lira/Euro Scams

.A frequent scam, often in smaller hotels (but it can also happen in a variety of other contexts), is to quote prices in Lira and then later, when payment is due, claim the price was given in Euros.^ When the barons had thus claimed the cost of the passages, and when the payments had been collected, the moneys came to less than the sum due-yea, by more than one half.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Hotels which reject payment early in a stay and prefer you to "pay when you leave" should raise suspicions.^ If you may recall, the Angheloi, to raise money to pay the Crusaders in 1204, sold some Imperial assets.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.Hotels which operate this scam often offer excellent service and accommodation at a reasonable price and know most guests will conclude as much and pay without complaint - thus (ironically) this can be a sign of a good hotel.^ Sign in Home > Turkey > Istanbul (region) > Istanbul Newsletter Discover exclusive offers and the world's most desirable hotels.
  • Hotels Istanbul - Luxury, boutique hotels and design hotels in Istanbul 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.splendia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus did the count make an end and die; and much evil ensued, for he was a baron high and honoured, and a good knight.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Another scam is coin-related and happens just as you're walking into the streets.^ Watson: God, you're just like Don Quixote, you think everything's always something else.
  • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

A Turkish guy holds you and asks where you are from. .If you mention a Euro-country, the guy wants you to change a €50 note from you into two-Euro coins he is showing.^ After an unsuccessful run at a talent show, the guy told them they could use the name if they wanted.
  • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

He is holding the coins stack-wise in his hands. .For the trouble, he says he will offer you '30 two-Euro coins, making €60 in total'. Do not agree with this exchange of money, as the first coin is indeed a two-Euro coin, but (many of) the rest of the coins will probably be 1 Lira coins (looking very similar), worth only 1/3 of the value of €2 (in August 2007).^ And the Emperor Baldwin, and the rest of the people also received them very gladly, for they were of high rank, and very rich, and brouaht very many good people with them.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Setting this value higher
; only wastes RAM and screws up your broadcast when more people connect
; than you can support.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Raymond Thomson offers the following: The Flaming Lips - Are actually very similar lyrics-wise to Tmbg.
  • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

Many bars in the Taksim area give you counterfeit bills. They are usually well-made and hard to identify as fakes in the dark. .One way to verify its authenticity is to check its size against another bill.^ Far more he was a politician, who preferred compromise and whose political astuteness is best displayed in the way he played off Odoacer and Theodoric against one another in order to have his empire spared of their aggression.

.Another is to hold the bill up to a strong light, face side up, and check for an outline of the same face which is on the bill.^ The water splashed on his face as the boat went up and down on the strong waves that were forecasting a gloomy night for the boat and its passengers.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Neither side was willing to give up their positions, at the same time trying to strike the decisive blow.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The water side walls are fairly strong, so we can leave only a light defence in that area, making more troops available where it is needed.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

The value of the bill (20, 50, etc) should appear next to the outline, light and translucent. If either if these two security features are missing, try to have the bill changed or speak to the police.

Shoebrush

Some people will walk around Taksim with a shoeshine kit, and the brush will fall off. .This is a scam to cause some Western tourist with a conscience to pick it up and return it to the owner, who will then express gratitude and offer to shine your shoes for free.^ It took some time before all the men were rounded up from Mistra by their officers and returned inside the barracks.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.While doing that, he will talk about how he is from another city and how he has a sick child.^ And when the pilgrims saw it, they marvelled greatly, and said one to another, " How could such a city be taken by force, save by the help of God himself?
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I'm sorry Khalil, I respect your decisions and do not worry, I will talk to you about this matter another time.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.At the end, the shiner will demand a much higher price for the "free" services provided than is the actual market norm.^ Hit Counter - Hit Counter is a free Internet service that provides detailed and valuable statistics to its users Hit-Counters.com - Counter service with simple real-time statistics.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The help we provided them is worth much more than a couple of heartless professionals who just want to be paid and the 5 cannons which are actually the ones they don't like because of whatever reason!
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

.If you actively decide that you would like your shoes shined, then expect to pay not more than 5 lira for both.^ Now you must know that this Count Thibaut was but a young man, and not more than twenty-two years of age, and the Count Louis not more than twenty-seven.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Of course, the Violent Femmes are also a lot more intelligent than your average punkster, and it shows.
  • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

^ If you like your meal extra spicy, sprinkle on some pul biber (hot red pepper flakes).
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

Taxi drivers

Taxis are plentiful in Istanbul and inexpensive by Western European and American standards. .They can be picked up at taxi hubs throughout the city or on the streets.^ And they sailed up the straits to a city called Abydos, which lies on the straits of St. George, towards Turkey, and is very fair, and well situate.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ When those within the city saw this, they proposed an agreement, such as they had before refused by the advice of those who wished to break up the host.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And it was proclaimed throughout the city that all were to follow the emperor in the utter need wherein he stood, to go and rescue his men, seeing that without help they were but lost.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Empty cabs on the streets will honk at pedestrians to see if they would like a ride, or cabs can be hailed by pedestrians by making eye contact with the driver and waving.^ He watched closely as his troops slowly arranged in a perfectly organized defensive stance, ready for the waves of attackers that would be hurled like a giant hammer towards them.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I would also like to mention a band from England called The Creams who describe themselves as a cross between They Might Be Giants and The Who.
  • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

^ There is a second tribute album in the works, see the page if you would like to contribute.
  • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

.Few taxi drivers speak languages other than Turkish, but do a fair job at deciphering mispronounced location names given by riders.^ We have left it to others to speak of conflict and have spoken the language of peace, not war.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

It may help to have the name of the destination written down to show the driver. Be aware that taxis are harder to find when it is raining.
Try to avoid using taxis for short distances (5-10 minutes of walk) if possible. Some taxi drivers can be annoyed with this, especially if you called the cab from a taxi hub instead of hailing it from the street. .If you want taxis for short distances, just hail them from the street, do not go to the taxi hub.^ I know what you can do, I just want to know if you agree with this or not.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You might want to get a CD of the music, if you like cheezy musicals, or, just go to a good library and get the lyrics.
  • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

^ Since we are going to siege Constantinople, I want you to double the border guards in the eastern side of the empire, and supplement them with regular troops which will not be assigned to the siege.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

Few taxis have seatbelts, and some drivers may seem to be reckless. .If you wish for the driver to slow down, say "yavash lütfen" (slow please).^ It's the FATHER, SON, and HOLY GHOST. It's only by the Holy Ghost that one can say this, so it comes down to your personal relationship with GOD Himself on how you react to this.
  • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

^ And the envoys answered: " Sire, we would that you should assemble your council; and before your council we will declare the wishes of our lords; and let this be tomorrow, if it so pleases you."
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

Your request may or may not be honored.
.Unfortunately, as in any major city, tourists are more vulnerable to taxi scams than locals.^ And be it known to you that the vessels carried more than three hundred petraries and mangonels, and all such engines as are needed for the taking of cities, in great plenty.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Unlike the other cities of Syria, however, Antioch returned more than once to Christian control.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And this was the third fire there had been in Constantinople since the Franks arrived in the land; and more houses had been burned in the city than there are houses in any three of the greatest cities in the kingdom of France.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

Be aware that taxi drivers use cars affiliated with a particular hub, and that the name and phone number of the hub, as well as the license plate number, are written on the side of each car. .Noting or photographing this information may be useful if you run into problems.^ Note : your "e-mail@address" is optional if you have subscribed with the address you use to send the command.
  • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

^ Lords,' says the king, ' I will send you the brother of my wife; and I commit him into the hands of God-may He keep him from death!
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

In general, riding in taxis affiliated with major hotels (Hilton, Marriot, Ritz, etc.) is safe, and it is not necessary to stay in these hotels to use a taxis leaving from their hubs.
.Others may take unnecessarily long routes to increase the amount due (although sometimes alternate routes are also taken to avoid Istanbul traffic, which can be very bad).^ It's gonna be a very long story and who knows, I might publish it after I compose all the chapters that will take the reader in the Siege of Constantinople....
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Eternity is a long time, and other religious traditions with Hells, like Buddhism , do not actually see eternal punishment as necessary (although this is sometimes the belief).
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some scams involve the payment transaction; for example, if the rider pays 50 TL when only 20 TL are needed, the driver may quickly switch it with a 5 TL note and insist that the rest of the 20 TL is still due or may switch the real bill for a fake one and insist that different money be given.^ When the barons had thus claimed the cost of the passages, and when the payments had been collected, the moneys came to less than the sum due-yea, by more than one half.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

Methods to avoid taxi scams: 1. SIT IN THE FRONT PASSENGER SEAT. Watch the meter. Watch the driver's actions (beeping the horn, pumping the brakes, etc) and note what the taximeter does. While it is rare, some drivers will wire parts of their controls to increase the fare upon activation. .If you're with your significant other, do it anyway.^ It does depend on which side you're listing to, as was mentioned in the FAQ. But the highs and the lows don't sync up with each other.
  • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

^ And for this end they have elected to come to you, because they know full well that there is none other people having so great power on the seas, as you and your people.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

Save the cuddling for after the ride.
2. Ask "How much to go to...?" (basic English is understood), before getting in the taxi. Price will be quite accurate to the one in the taximeter at the end of the ride. If the price sounds ok for you, get in the cab and tell them to put the Taximeter on. .Since 2009, the rate they are applying is same during night and day.^ Then they issued from their quarters, and thought to find a sorer battle than the day before, for no word had come to them that the emperor had fled during the night.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ So they remained all the day in that city until night.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ So they went rowing hard all the evening, as long as the light lasted, and all through the night till the dawn of the following day.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.3. Know the route. If you have a chance, find a map and demand that the driver take your chosen route to the destination.^ My friends, your presence here gladdens my soul and I am sure God himself is happy that you have chosen to help yourself with his followers.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is for you to take counsel thereon according to your pleasure."
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For you are Christians, and he is a Christian, and well he knows that you are on your way to deliver the Holy Land overseass and the Holy Cross, and the Sepulchre.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Often times they will drive the long way or pretend not to know where you're going in order to get more money out of you.^ Figure it out, you're the general, not me!
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Now you must know that this Count Thibaut was but a young man, and not more than twenty-two years of age, and the Count Louis not more than twenty-seven.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Then they rode out a day's march, and ordered their array with as many people as they had.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.If the driver claims not to know the route to a major landmark or gathering place, refuse his services as he is likely lying.^ It's name resonates like something from legend or mythology, and many who hear the name may not quite know what it was or where to place it in their conceptual or historical universe.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

4. Choose an elderly driver. Elderly taxi drivers are less likely cheat.
5. Let taxi driver see money on your hands and show values and take commitment on it. This is 50 Lira. OK? Take this 50 Lira and give 30 Lira back OK?. This guarantees your money value. Otherwise, your 50 Lira can be 5 Lira immediately on his hands.

Stalking

Men intent on stalking foreign women will, obviously, be present in tourist locations. Such men may presume that foreigners have a lot of money or liberal values and may approach foreign women in a flirtatious or forward manner looking for sex or for money (either by theft or selling over-priced goods). .If you are being harassed, use common sense and go to where other people are; often this is the nearest store.^ Your five senses swell as you realize that history is not  being made tonight, rather it is being consumed by a creeping numbness standing next to you.
  • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

^ Karagöz is a rough diamond, earthy and outspoken, representing the morality and common sense of ordinary people.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Be it known to you that if we go on dry ground, the land is great and large, and our people are poor and ill-provided.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

Creating a public scene will deter many stalkers, and these phrases may be useful in such cases:
  • "Ayıp!" - "Rude!"
  • "Bırak beni!" "Leave me alone!"
  • "Dursana!" - "Stop it!"
Or to really ruin him:
  • "Lütfen beni takip etme?!" - "Can you please stop stalking me?!"
  • "Polisi ariyorum- "I am calling the cops!"

Black travelers

.Modern Turkey with having the Ottoman Empires heritage in its roots, has no problem with the skin colours of the people.^ The problems on table were vital towards the safeguarding the future of the Empire, but Manuel knew all too well this would be no easy task.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Commercial concessions in all of the Ottoman ports, good relations and almost no chance of an impending war which would irreversibly harm our Empire.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Smyrna is a city currently in Turkey (Izmir) then part of the Ottoman Empire.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.Remember, Ottomans ruled on North Africa & Middle East for centuries and this resulted a great ethnic mosaic in the capital Istanbul.^ Although their homeland had been dominated by foreigners for many centuries, it was only after the imposition of Ottoman rule that Orthodox Christians began to develop a really strong sense of cohesiveness.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ Karagöz also became popular elsewhere in North Africa, including Algeria and Tunisia, and in cities of the Middle East like Damascus, Beirut, Aleppo, Haifa and Jerusalem.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ When captured by Mehmet the Conqueror; the city became the capital of the Ottoman Empire, assuming its present name, Istanbul (1453 A.D.) .
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

.If any kind of service providers (hotels, shop keepers, taxis, luxury night clubs's entrances) today have a negative attitude towards black people, that will be because they might think you do not have enough money to spend,due to the fact that most of the black people who settled in Istanbul have a poor economical background.^ Location: Çengelkoy Bosphorus shore - Luxury hotel - Classic and warm design - Beautiful spa - Club - Wine cellar Located at the most magnificent part of the Bosphorus, the “Muhsinzade Mehmet Pasha Mansion” has bee...
  • Hotels Istanbul - Luxury, boutique hotels and design hotels in Istanbul 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.splendia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If not, be it known to you that from this day forth they will not hold you as lord or friend, but will endeavour to obtain their due by all the means in their 54 Power.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This troubled them greatly, because they would thus be unable to fulfil the promise made to the Venetians, and find the moneys that were due.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

Istanbul is famous with having a great tolerance on different cultures, ethnicities and religions. .Next to that, "Turkish Hospitality" is a well known fact.^ The reason for the panel's choice, he explained, was not only the well-known fact that Istanbul lies at a geographical cross-roads with Europe and has interacted with European civilisations for centuries.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ For years, the mother and daughter have been America's most well known singers singing in Turkish.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The art of the Turkish carpet was widespread outside these centers as well, with the production of carpets as a folk art, known by the name of the locale in which they were woven.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

Tourism Police

Istanbul PD has a "Tourism Police" department where travelers may report passport loss and theft or any other criminal activity by which they are victimized. They have an office in Sultanahmet and can reportedly speak English, German, French, and Arabic.
.
  • Tourism Police (Turizm Polisi), Yerebatan Caddesi 6, Sultanahmet (in the blue wooden building between Hagia Sophia and the entrance of Basilica Cistern, few meters away from each), +90 212 527 45 03 (fax: +90 212 512 76 76).^ Location: Old City Sultanahmet Guest recommendation: 100 % - 16 opinions In the Old Town - Marvellous views of Hagia Sophia and the blue Mosque - 2 gourmet restaurants - Roo...
    • Hotels Istanbul - Luxury, boutique hotels and design hotels in Istanbul 17 September 2009 8:54 UTC www.splendia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

     edit

Stay healthy

.Similar to many European countries tap water is mostly drinkable, but it may not be safe depending on where you drink it.^ On some CD players, you may need to press "pause" before rewinding, and many CD players do not recognize this track at all.
  • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

.Although the tap water itself is clean, many local water tanks are not maintained properly, and one should try to avoid tap water if possible.^ This one should be easy, but I see many of you guessing erratically.
  • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

^ At this, I said with a smile to a local next to me "Here one should be a singer or musician."
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

Locals widely prefer bottled water and the same applies for the restaurants.
Food and drinks are mostly of international standards. .Some Turkish foods are known to use a variety of spices which may affect international tourists who may not be accustomed to such ingredients, although most of it is edible for any tongue.^ For years, the mother and daughter have been America's most well known singers singing in Turkish.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ This township, which hosts over a million tourists a year, has recently become the most serious contender for tourism among Turkey’s southern resorts such as Bodrum, Çeşme and Antalya.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The first such appointee was Frumentius, a Syrian who had been living at the Ethiopian court for some time and journeyed to Alexandria in order to ask for a Bishop to be appointed.
  • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

Use common sense when buying certain foods, particularly from street vendors. .Delicacies such as "Firin Sutlac" (a kind of rice pudding) can go bad rapidly on a hot day, as can the oysters occasionally for sale on the streets.^ HOUR HOT WATER Public baths, where such occasions were celebrated as a group, were located in the cities and towns and in some villages and were open to everyone.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

Cope

.Keep in mind that Istanbul's less-than-scrupulous hotel and restaurant owners are as market savvy as they come—they actually read the popular travel guides to Istanbul and when they get listed or favorably reviewed, they raise prices through the roof and skimp on costs.^ When the barons had thus claimed the cost of the passages, and when the payments had been collected, the moneys came to less than the sum due-yea, by more than one half.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Of middle height but as strong as a ox, Stavros was one of the main trainers as well, guiding the recruits through their baptism from the first moment they were passed on to his hand.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Then they issued from their quarters, and thought to find a sorer battle than the day before, for no word had come to them that the emperor had fled during the night.
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

.For mid-range and cheap hotels/restaurants, you may actually have a better time if you avoid places listed in your guide. Trust your nose.^ Strategos, you may go to your assigned place.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This upcoming morning I want you to secretly prepare two diplomatic missions, sending your most trusted men with these missions.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If you are concerned about the number of messages you receive, you may want to subscribe to the "digest" list rather than the "bounce" list.
  • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

  • Kilyos— Located by the Black-sea shore on the European side, Kilyos is a half-hour drive from Taksim under normal circumstances. .The village has more than a dozen private and public beaches, some of which require membership to enter.^ Some considered the Senate no more important than a municipal council, so why have it in the first place at all?
    • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They are louder and probably more stoned than John and John, but their lyrics are interesting, and some of the songs are very similar.
    • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

    ^ When my Lord Peter heard this, he and his people who were without, they entered in; and there were no more than ten knights with him, but there were some sixty sergeants, and they were all on foot.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Though there are ways to get to Kilyos with buses and dolmus, the best way is to use a private car, since the journey will take longer than usual during summer.
  • Atatürk Arboretum (living tree museum) is the place for nature lovers.^ Atatürk Caddesi, an avenue fringed with palm trees and date palms, is the best venue for acquainting yourself with the city’s exotic, modern face.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In the bridge section of the song, the lyrics are a WORD palindrome (rather than the usual LETTER palindromes):     "Son I am able", she said "though you scare me."
    • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Since the Patriarch of Constantinople, living in Turkey, no longer is responsible for the national Church of a traditionally Christian nation, he has come to be simple the "Ecumenical" Patriarch.
    • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    .It’s about one hour bus ride away from central parts of the city, near Bahcekoy in the north of the city, near the Black Sea coast (buses: 42T from Taksim and Besiktas, 42M from 4. Levent metro station; entrance of the arboretum is a 15-min walk away from the last stop of aforementioned lines).^ A winter's tale on the coast of the Black Sea .
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    ^ To enjoy memorable winter landscapes, the western Black Sea coast is the perfect destination over the next few months.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    ^ One and a half hours away, in the direction of Kartalkaya, is Sarialan, where twelve high pastures dotted with wooden houses, woods and streams make wonderful winter walking.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    .It’s located in an oak forest and includes many non-native tree species (some of which go increasingly photogenic with crimson/golden/purple leaves as winter approaches), and a pond complete with ducks.^ It is possible to ski throughout the winter here, while many others come just to enjoy the scenery of coniferous forests, streams, waterfalls and lakes.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Sorry, tape owners, this track is only on the CD. And some non-USA CDs do not include the track either.
    • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

    ^ And some of them did not go back to the tower, but ran to the barges by which they had come, and there many were drowned, and some escaped.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .There is also a wooden observation tower on one of the hilltops, offering a view of the surrounding forests and a spectacular sight of Bosporus which is seen as a turquoise lake from that point.^ Climbing up the tower offered a spectacular view of the entire military parade, Murad laying his eyes upon the perfect formations of the elite troops .
    • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For this reason was it well seen that two ships would attack each tower with greater effect than one.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .That same tower can also be used for bird watching during autumn, as these hills are on one of the major routes of migratory birds on their way from Europe to Africa.^ Emin Barin was the one selected to carve these names on the stones of the towers.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    ^ That bird, native to Africa, was brought to Europe via Turkey.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The larger North American bird (Meleagris gallopavo) was domesticated by the Aztecs, introduced to Spain by conquistadors (1523) and thence to wider Europe, by way of Africa and Turkey (Indian corn was originally turkey corn or turkey wheat in Eng.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    During weekdays arboretum is open to public for a token fee (about 2 TL), however weekends are exclusively for members. Remember, no eating, no picnicking, and no smoking.
Anadolu Kavağı with Yoros Castle to the upper left
.
Anadolu Kavağı with Yoros Castle to the upper left
  • Anadolu Kavağı— While officially the northernmost district of the city, Anadolu Kavağı (also known simply as Kavak) on the Asian bank of Bosporus is in reality a separate town, accessible only by a windy and narrow road through the forest, by infrequent public buses, or by ferries (the best way to go there).^ Thence he departed to go to King Philip of Germany, who had his sister for wife; and he came to Verona in Lombardy, and lodged in the town, and found there a number of pilgrims and other people who were on their way to join the host.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On the right side only, the (way) in "away" comes from the "waiting" in "waiting for the dinner bell", but on the left side only, the way comes and then the "waiting" from "waiting for the dinner bell" comes afterwards separately, as Matthew S Coon said, clearly showing that there are two messages.
    • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

    ^ The reason for the panel's choice, he explained, was not only the well-known fact that Istanbul lies at a geographical cross-roads with Europe and has interacted with European civilisations for centuries.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    .Ferries depart from Eminönü (once or twice a day, from the pier named Boğaz İskelesi) and Sariyer (much more frequently), which is the northernmost district on European side (to get to Sariyer, you should take public bus #40 from Taksim).^ The day was fixed on which the host should embark on the ships and transports to take the land by force, and either live or die.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And be it known to you that the vessels carried more than three hundred petraries and mangonels, and all such engines as are needed for the taking of cities, in great plenty.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Then the ships and transports began to depart; and it was settled that they should take port at Corfu, an island of Roumania, and that the first to arrive should wait for the last; and so it was done.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .While in Anadolu Kavağı, climb up to the citadel on the hill (follow the signs starting from the square near the quay, it takes about 20 minutes on foot, free admission).^ And they began to assemble in a great open space that was in Constantinople, and decided that they would take up their quarters near the walls and towers they had captured.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .The citadel is named Yoros and it’s unclear who built it, maybe Byzantines or the Genoese perhaps, but it’s pretty obvious that it was built to protect the northern entrance of Bosporus.^ Sergius and Bacchus in Constantinople: Who Built It and Why?," Byzantine Studies Conference, Abstracts of Papers 22, 1996, p.
    • Bibliography on Women in Byzantium | Byzantine Studies | Research | Dumbarton Oaks 11 September 2009 15:42 UTC www.doaks.org [Source type: Academic]

    .The castle offers a perfect view of the entrance of Bosporus and the Black Sea beyond, as if not much has changed since Jason and the Argonauts sailed through here in pursuit of Golden Fleece.^ To enjoy memorable winter landscapes, the western Black Sea coast is the perfect destination over the next few months.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    ^ There is a surface current from the Black Sea to the Sea of Marmara, which changes course when it hits the points.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    ^ So long as there is no mist, the view from the summit over the Eastern Black Sea Mountains is unforgettable.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    .When you turn your back to Black Sea on the other hand, you’ll have a distant view of business district of the city, full of skyscrapers.^ By the help and comfort that he gave them, and because he accompanied them with as many men as he could, they turned back to a city, some twelve lea-ues distant, called Arcadiopolis, which belonged to the Venetians, and they found it empty.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And they commanded us to fall at your feet, and not to rise till you consent to take pity on the Holy Land which is beyond the seas."
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And they journeyed towards a city that lies upon the sea, called Rodosto, and that was full three days' journey distant.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .When you’re done in the castle, return back to town centre, and before boarding the ship that will take you back to the city, have a waffle and a hot coffee in one of the cafés near the shore if it’s winter.^ If you have read them before, make sure you take another read now, it's different.
    • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And they held a council, and the council was but short, and the emperor went down to the shore, and entered into a galleon; and each one was to take ship such as he could find.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And two ships that were bound together, of which the one was called the Pilgrim and the other the Paradise, approached so near to a tower, the one on the one side and the other on the other-so as God and the wind drove them-that the ladder of the Pilgrim joined on to the tower.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .(note: Citadel and surrounding areas get really crowded at weekends during summer months, which makes falling into mythical dreams a little difficult).
  • Polonezkoy— A village in the Asian side of Istanbul, about 20 km away from central parts of the city.^ The counts and barons landed and lodged themselves in the palace; and in the city round about, the main part pitched their tents.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Western accounts of the old city during this period make regular references to the name.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    ^ And they made agreement to meet at the end of the summer, in the month of October, with all their forces, in the meadow before the city of Adrianople, and make war against the King of Wallachia.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    It was founded by Polish settlers in 19th century.
Ağva
Ağva
  • Sile (Şile)— Located by the Black-Sea shore on the Anatolian side, Sile is a 45 minutes drive to Taksim. Though, it will take ca. .1.5-2 hours to get there if you take the bus from Uskudar.^ You could say that when I take up pen and paper these are what come out.Is there such a concept as the Istanbul of your dreams?
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    It is a village growing rapidly, famous for its fish and special cotton fabric Sile Bezi (cloth of Sile). Similar to Kilyos, Sile also has its own private and public beaches. .However, the dangerous sand type of the sea, and tides make it difficult and somewhat dangerous to swim for people who are not expert and cautious.^ If these people depart from us, after so many who have departed from us aforetime, our host is doomed, and we shall make no conquests.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    Drownings occur every year. From Sile, you can get to Agva (Ağva) by bus or car. By car, it will take 20-30' and by bus ca. 1 hour. Agva is a tourist-attracting, small holiday village. It has less make-up for tourist. You can observe the local life. Its beach became due to the increase of visitors dirty recently. .But if you ask locals, you can find wonderful, hidden beaches (such as "Kilimli").^ And be it known to you, that no man there was of such hardihood but his flesh trembled: and it was no wonder, for never was so great an enterprise undertaken by any people since the creation of the world.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Every year, more international tourists buy/build houses in Agva.
  • The Princes' Islands— A group of islands across the Anatolian side of Istanbul.^ The palace was one of the most beautiful and delectable that ever eyes could see, with every delight therein that the heart of man could desire, and convenient for the house of a prince.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ According to Gölpınarlı, the Anatolian Kızılbaş resemble the other groups in every respect, except one; unlike the other Kızılbaş, they regard Hacı Bektaş veli as their saint.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    ^ And the trumpets sound, and every galley takes a transport in tow, so as to reach the other side more readily.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ."Buyukada", the biggest and most famous of them all, has ferry lines to Eminonu (on the European side) and Bostanci (on the Asian side) every day, on various hours.^ While Turkey has more than one indigenous dog breed, the Kangal is the most famous of them all.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Thus did the burning ships come towards the fleet of the pilgrims; and a great cry arose in the host, and all sprang to arms on every side.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On the third day after they were all lodged, there befell a great misadventure in the host, at about the hour of vespers; for there began a fray, exceeding fell and fierce, between the Venetians and the Franks, and they ran to arms from all sides.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .At Büyükada you can rent bikes and find some very secluded spots perfect for a picnic, highly recommended for when you're tired of being in a huge city with millions of people.
  • Silivri— It's a place of choice for people to relax & take a break from their hectic lives.^ With certain people, you can tell they're highly intelligent.
    • TMBG: FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tmbg.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Thus were they in very perilous case, for never did so few people besiege so many people in any city.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This city held a very great number of people, for the dwellers in the country round about had fled thither; and the Comans assaulted it, and took it by force.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    Silivri is a 45 minutes drive to Levent. The best way to commute is to use a private car, since the journey will take longer than usual during summer. The summer is a popular time when people move into their summer homes in Silivri and enjoy beach activities. .In fact, many new and spectacular villages have also been built there.
  • Edirne in the west is a two-hour car drive or bus ride away (train is also an option but it takes much longer).^ This section of the walls had been built much more recently, in the eleventh century, and was much weaker; the crusaders in 1204 had broken through the walls there.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In fact there are two other "Patriarchates" in Jerusalem: Coptic .
    • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Gölcük, an hou’sn drive away, takes its name from a small lake amidst fir forest.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    .The city served as the capital city of Ottoman Empire before the capital was moved to Istanbul, thus is full of history.^ Thus was the bridge repaired, and in the morning the divisions were armed, and rode one after the other in the order appointed, and came before the city.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Thus was destroyed the noble city of Philippopolis, one of the three finest cities in the empire of Constantinople.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ So Henry issued from Constantinople with as many men as he could collect, and marched to the city of Selyrnbria; and he encamped before the city for full eight days.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Visiting this city can be a long day trip if you have a car at your disposal, or if you can get up very early and catch, say, 7 o’clock in the morning bus.^ And they sailed up the straits to a city called Abydos, which lies on the straits of St. George, towards Turkey, and is very fair, and well situate.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ So one morning, at the break of day, he issued from the city in force, and got as far as the tents, and killed many before they could get to their armour.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "Fair Sir," said the barons, "we have seen your letters, and they tell us that we are to give credit to what you say, and we credit you right well.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    It’s better to stay overnight to see all the sights though.

Possible hitchhiking spots

.Istanbul is geographically huge, spanning two continents, so it is hard to hit the road with your thumb up immediately, although not entirely impossible.^ The second attempt at a final blow only hit the hard, dried up ground.
  • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You could say that when I take up pen and paper these are what come out.Is there such a concept as the Istanbul of your dreams?
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

^ The reason for the panel's choice, he explained, was not only the well-known fact that Istanbul lies at a geographical cross-roads with Europe and has interacted with European civilisations for centuries.
  • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

Here are a few ideas for spots (accessible by public transport) where to raise your thumb up when leaving the city.
.
  • If you intend to head west (towards Europe) by hitchhiking, take public bus HT48 (Yenibosna Metro-Mimarsinan) which departs from the bus stops located next to the ‘Yenibosna’ station of southern metro line.^ Pope, taking the manuscript from the table and heading towards the group.
    • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

    .HT48 takes you to the highway leading to west, to a highway on-ramp out of city, near Mimarsinan town.^ And they came to the Doge, and said: " Sire, we will help you to take the city in despite of those who would let and hinder us."
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And be it known to you that the vessels carried more than three hundred petraries and mangonels, and all such engines as are needed for the taking of cities, in great plenty.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For they stood in fear lest, when need arose, the Greeks would go over to Johannizza, who, as you have already heard, had been so near to taking Demotica.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    Don’t get off the bus until it leaves the highway by turning right in the on ramp junction. .(fare: TL 1.30/person, though you’ll have to buy multi-use cards (at least 5 uses for TL 6.50), which makes a bad investment assuming that you are leaving the city.^ Recent research has shown that the name 'Istanbul' was used if not during the Byzantine period, at least during the 11th century and that the Turks knew the city by this name.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    .You can pay directly to the driver inside the bus the single-use fare, though)
  • If you intend to head east or south by hitchhiking, however, it may be best to get to the neighbouring city of Izmit first.^ It stands in the centre of the high limestone plateau of Turabdin, with the city of Mardin to the west, Hasankeyf to the north, Cizre to the east and Nusaybin to the south.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    ^ If you may recall, the Angheloi, to raise money to pay the Crusaders in 1204, sold some Imperial assets.
    • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And you may know that their fortunes were at the lowest, seeing that outside of Constantinople they had kepl& possession of no more than these two cities.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .The cheapest train ticket costs 3.75 TL (3.00 TL if you have a valid student ID, this is the rate for Doğu Express, which departs 08:35 every morning) from Istanbul’s Haydarpasa station to Izmit currently.^ Haydarpasa Train Station, Istanbul .
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    .Near the train station in Izmit is a major highway junction, take east for Adapazari/Ankara/Central Anatolia/Black Sea Turkey, south for Yalova/Bursa.^ Fattening in the Black Sea, the fish take refuge in the coves and water canals of the Bosphorus to mature.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    ^ This ancient breed springs forth like a lion from its epicenter - the Kangal District - a region in east central Turkey located in what is known as the Anti-Taurus.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    .If you are eager for more southern locations such as Antalya, take eastward road to Adapazari first, then hit the southward road there (which eventually reaches Antalya after hundreds of kilometers).^ And you must know that this was held to be a great miracle: that the siege of a city so near to the taking should be abandoned, and by a man possessed of such power.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And be it known to you that the vessels carried more than three hundred petraries and mangonels, and all such engines as are needed for the taking of cities, in great plenty.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I want you to send the messages at first daylight, we do not need to lose any more days thinking over it.
    • Fall of Constantinople - The Guild 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC forums.totalwar.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Another option to leave the city is to take the not-so-cheap fast ferries to Yalova, if you don’t object to pay much for public transport.
  • There are also public buses from Kadiköy, Istanbul’s main centre on Asia, to Tuzla (#130 and #130A; fare: TL 1.30/person), which is the easternmost district of the city.^ And there were all the ships assembled, and all the transports, and all the galleys of the host, and many other ships of merchants that fared with them.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It stands in the centre of the high limestone plateau of Turabdin, with the city of Mardin to the west, Hasankeyf to the north, Cizre to the east and Nusaybin to the south.
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    ^ And they came to the Doge, and said: " Sire, we will help you to take the city in despite of those who would let and hinder us."
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .If you take one of these buses, get off as soon as the bus leaves the highway (colloquially known as E-5, pronounced “ay besh” in Turkish, 4-lane one-way, you can easily recognize what is this highway and what is not).^ As it happens, if we switch off between these Popes and Anti-Popes, it still leaves the count the same.
    • Popes & Patriarchs, Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, etc. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And be it known to you that the vessels carried more than three hundred petraries and mangonels, and all such engines as are needed for the taking of cities, in great plenty.
    • Medieval Sourcebook: Villehardouin: Memoirs or Chronicle of The Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople 19 November 2009 18:10 UTC www.fordham.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ You could say that when I take up pen and paper these are what come out.Is there such a concept as the Istanbul of your dreams?
    • 5/1/07 - 6/1/07-TV Shows Now! 10 February 2010 10:25 UTC d.bloggerdestek.com [Source type: General]

    Where you will get off is as far as you can get on that highway with a public bus, though most of the cars passing there will be too fast to be able to stop right beside you.
Routes through Istanbul
EdirneCorlu ← Junction  W noframe E  IzmitAnkara
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