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The constellation Orion is one of the most recognizable in the celestial sphere.
^ It exists on my web celestial charts pointed at next coordenates to find them any constellations at celestial sphere with theirs names of stars, more importants, & the international limits of each one constellations that they are accepted by I.A.U. .
  • Constellations, history, identification 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.mallorcaweb.net [Source type: General]

^ During November and December, Orion is undoubtedly the most beautiful and dominating constellation in the night sky.
  • Well known Stars And Constellations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www2.potsdam.edu [Source type: General]

^ Next to the Big Dipper, Orion is the most well known constellation of all.
  • Well known Stars And Constellations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www2.potsdam.edu [Source type: General]

The name is associated with the region of the star map marked in yellow, as well as with the pattern of stars within this area, marked in green.
In modern astronomy, a constellation is an internationally defined area of the celestial sphere. .Historically, the term was also used to refer to a pattern formed by prominent stars within apparent close proximity to one another, and this practice is still common today.^ The position of the stars relative to one another is the same.
  • Well known Stars And Constellations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www2.potsdam.edu [Source type: General]

^ Denebola points in the direction of another star and thus forms a double star.
  • Well known Stars And Constellations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www2.potsdam.edu [Source type: General]

^ Polaris considered 2nd magnitude star was used as a reference.
  • Well known Stars And Constellations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www2.potsdam.edu [Source type: General]

Contents

Definition

.In colloquial usage, a constellation is a group of celestial bodies, usually stars, which appear to form a pattern in the sky.^ Constellations are named patterns of stars.

^ In the antiquity , many other towns grouped stars in constellations, although its disposition does not correspond with those of the old West.
  • Constellations, history, identification 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.mallorcaweb.net [Source type: General]

^ For convenience, the ancients named the constellations after a certain figure that it seemed to form in the sky.
  • Constellations, history, identification 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.mallorcaweb.net [Source type: General]

.Astronomers today still utilize the term, though the current system focuses primarily on constellations as grid-like segments of the celestial sphere rather than as patterns.^ Then, in a series of resolutions from 1922 to 1930, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) divided the celestial sphere into 88 precisely defined constellations with official spellings and abbreviations.
  • SkyandTelescope.com - How To - Constellation Names and Abbreviations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.skyandtelescope.com [Source type: General]

^ Celestial Objects for Modern Telescopes specifies constellation pronunciations, most of them based on the English system, as explained on Covington's website Latin Pronunciation Demystified .
  • SkyandTelescope.com - How To - Constellation Names and Abbreviations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.skyandtelescope.com [Source type: General]

^ All constellations share many things, but fundamentally, they are all nothing more than frameworks for assembling process improvement systems.
  • CMMI FAQ - brutally honest, totally hip, no nonsense answers (a public service of Entinex) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.cmmifaq.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A star-pattern that is not officially classed as a constellation is referred to as an asterism. .One famous example is the asterism known as the Big Dipper, a term unused by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) as the stars are considered part of the larger constellation of Ursa Major.^ Examples of asterisms include the seven bright stars in Ursa Major known as “the Plough” in Europe or “the Big Dipper” in America, as well as “the Summer Triangle”, a large triangle, seen in the summer night sky in the northern hemisphere and composed of the bright stars Altair, Deneb and Vega.
  • Constellations | IAU 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.iau.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Asterisms are patterns or shapes of stars that are not related to the known constellations, but nonetheless are widely recognised by laypeople or in the amateur astronomy community.
  • Constellations | IAU 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.iau.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Whilst a grouping of stars may be officially designated a constellation by the IAU, this does not mean that the stars in that constellation are necessarily grouped together in space.
  • Constellations | IAU 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.iau.org [Source type: Academic]

.In 1922, Eugène Delporte aided the IAU in dividing the celestial sphere into 88 official constellations.^ Then, in a series of resolutions from 1922 to 1930, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) divided the celestial sphere into 88 precisely defined constellations with official spellings and abbreviations.
  • SkyandTelescope.com - How To - Constellation Names and Abbreviations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.skyandtelescope.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1932 the IAU officially changed this constellation's name from Corona Australis to Corona Austrina (genitive Coronae Austrinae), but the revised name never really caught on.
  • SkyandTelescope.com - How To - Constellation Names and Abbreviations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.skyandtelescope.com [Source type: General]

^ Anyone of the 88 groupings of stars that appear in the celestial sphere & which they take his name from religious or mithologicals figures, animals or objects.
  • Constellations, history, identification 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.mallorcaweb.net [Source type: General]

[1] .Typically, these modern constellations share the names of their Graeco-Roman predecessors, such as Orion, Leo and Scorpius.^ Rome conquered the entire Greek-speaking world by 30 BC, and the Greek constellation names were translated or transliterated into Latin, the primary language of the Roman Empire.
  • SkyandTelescope.com - How To - Constellation Names and Abbreviations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.skyandtelescope.com [Source type: General]

.While such celestial formations were originally linked to a mythical event, creature or person, the categorization of the night sky into recognizable patterns was important in early land and naval navigation prior to the invention of the compass during the Age of Discovery.^ Throughout human history and across many different cultures, names and mythical stories have been attributed to the star patterns in the night sky, thus giving birth to what we know as constellations.
  • Constellations | IAU 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.iau.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Originally the constellations were defined informally by the shapes made by their star patterns, but, as the pace of celestial discoveries quickened in the early 20th century, astronomers decided it would be helpful to have an official set of constellation boundaries.
  • Constellations | IAU 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.iau.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The symptoms of PTSD include dissociative states during which the individual relives the original traumatic event.

.With the technical advancement of astronomy, it became important to move from a pattern-based system of constellations to one based on area-mapping, which led to several historic formations becoming obsolete.^ Asterisms are patterns or shapes of stars that are not related to the known constellations, but nonetheless are widely recognised by laypeople or in the amateur astronomy community.
  • Constellations | IAU 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.iau.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In star maps it is common to mark line “patterns” that represent the shapes that give the name to the constellations.
  • Constellations | IAU 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.iau.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Such stars are named for the constellation in which they reside, so it is important to agree where one constellation ends and the next begins.
  • Constellations | IAU 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.iau.org [Source type: Academic]

[2]

Boundaries

.In 1930, the boundaries between the 88 official constellations were devised by Delporte along vertical and horizontal lines of right ascension and declination.^ The coordinates of a celestial object are the right ascension & the declination, that define in relation to the poles & the celestial equator, located over terrestrial ones.
  • Constellations, history, identification 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.mallorcaweb.net [Source type: General]

^ Then, in a series of resolutions from 1922 to 1930, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) divided the celestial sphere into 88 precisely defined constellations with official spellings and abbreviations.
  • SkyandTelescope.com - How To - Constellation Names and Abbreviations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.skyandtelescope.com [Source type: General]

.However, the data he used originated back to epoch B1875.0, which was when Benjamin A. Gould first made the proposal to designate boundaries for the celestial sphere, a suggestion upon which Delporte would base his work.^ Referring to the first proposed meaning, the associated title of Jesus Christ would be the Son of God .
  • Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One Afghan, who has worked at the base for five years as an interpreter, laughed at this suggestion.

The consequence of this early date is that due to the precession of the equinoxes, the borders on a modern star map, such as epoch J2000, are already somewhat skewed and no longer perfectly vertical or horizontal. This effect will increase over the years and centuries to come.

Proximity

.The stars within a constellation rarely have any substantial astrophysical relationship to each other, and their apparent proximity when viewed from Earth disguises the fact that they typically lie light years apart.^ They are simply our Earth-based interpretation of two dimensional star patterns on the sky made up of stars of many differing brightnesses and distances from Earth.
  • Constellations | IAU 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.iau.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sometimes stars will be physically close to each other, like the Pleiades, but constellations are generally really a matter of perspective.
  • Constellations | IAU 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.iau.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Such stars are named for the constellation in which they reside, so it is important to agree where one constellation ends and the next begins.
  • Constellations | IAU 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.iau.org [Source type: Academic]

.However, there are some exceptions: the constellation of Ursa Major is almost entirely constituted by stars approximate to one another, a phenomenon known as the Ursa Major moving group.^ There are only three ways to learn about the appraisal process, and one of them is not recommended, and another requires a lot of commitment: .
  • CMMI FAQ - brutally honest, totally hip, no nonsense answers (a public service of Entinex) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.cmmifaq.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the sky, this huge constellation only contains one bright star.
  • Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It turns out there are scientific ways to date the origin of the entire Greek set of star figures.
  • Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

Constellation systems across the world

Graeco-Roman

.In the Western world, the sky of the northern hemisphere is traditionally divided into constellations based on those described by the Ancient Greeks.^ Rome conquered the entire Greek-speaking world by 30 BC, and the Greek constellation names were translated or transliterated into Latin, the primary language of the Roman Empire.
  • SkyandTelescope.com - How To - Constellation Names and Abbreviations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.skyandtelescope.com [Source type: General]

^ Whereas little work has been done on understanding the Egyptian set, we have a list of all 48 constellations from the Persians, including how they are divided into decans.
  • Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So we'll divide the world into two groups: those who develop wares for US Federal agencies (or their prime contractors) and those who don't.
  • CMMI FAQ - brutally honest, totally hip, no nonsense answers (a public service of Entinex) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.cmmifaq.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first ancient Greek works which dealt with the constellations were books of star myths.^ Here it not the Greek myths, but the Book of Enoch which makes it clear what the white bull represents.
  • Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Greek myths, this constellation represented Asclepius, the god of medicine, who was so skilled that he could even raise the dead.
  • Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Newly discovered variable stars are named after the constellation that contains them, and this only works if everyone agrees on the constellation boundaries.
  • SkyandTelescope.com - How To - Constellation Names and Abbreviations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.skyandtelescope.com [Source type: General]

The oldest of these was a poem composed by Hesiod in or around the eighth century BC, of which only fragments survive. The most complete existing works dealing with the mythical origins of the constellations are by the Hellenistic writer termed pseudo-Eratosthenes and an early Roman writer styled pseudo-Hyginus.
.In the 2nd century AD, the Greek astronomer Ptolemy described the constellations in great detail in his influential work the Almagest.^ Ptolemy’s descriptions are probably strongly influenced by the work of Eudoxus of Knidos in around 350 BC. Between the 16th and 17th century AD, European astronomers and celestial cartographers added new constellations to the 48 previously described by Ptolemy; these new constellations were mainly “new discoveries” made by the Europeans who first explored the southern hemisphere.
  • Constellations | IAU 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.iau.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Greeks seem to have invented some constellations of their own, notably the Perseus family, around the same time that they adopted the Mesopotomian constellations, and a few more were added after 350 BC. The comprehensive list of ancient constellations appeared in a book written around AD 150 by the Greco-Egyptian astronomer Claudius Ptolemy.
  • SkyandTelescope.com - How To - Constellation Names and Abbreviations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.skyandtelescope.com [Source type: General]

^ Forty eight of the constellations we know were recorded in the seventh and eighth books of Claudius Ptolemy’s Almagest, although the exact origin of these constellations still remains uncertain.
  • Constellations | IAU 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.iau.org [Source type: Academic]

Chinese

.Chinese constellations are different from the Western constellations due to the independent development of ancient Chinese astronomy One difference is that the Chinese counterpart of the 12 western zodiac constellations is the 28 "Xiu" (宿) or "mansions" (a literal translation).^ The Babylonians already had divided the zodiac in 12 equal signs towards the 450 b .C. The present constellations of the North hemisphere are different little from which the heatings & old the Egyptians knew.
  • Constellations, history, identification 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.mallorcaweb.net [Source type: General]

^ However, some Chinese constellations are looked like the western ones, indicating the possibility of a common origin.
  • Constellations, history, identification 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.mallorcaweb.net [Source type: General]

^ The tenth zodiac constellation is the Twins (Gemini), who are two brothers, with one usually being considered immortal and the other mortal.
  • Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

Indian

.In Vedic astrology, the 12 zodiac constellations are called raasis.^ Those twelve are called the zodiac, and the Egyptians and Persians both understood that each had three associated constellations called "decans," bringing the total to 48.
  • Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

The twelve raasis along the ecliptic correspond directly to the twelve western star signs. These are however divided into 27 Nakshatras, or lunar houses.

Dark cloud constellations

.The "Emu in the sky," a constellation defined by dark clouds rather than the stars.^ In the sky, this huge constellation only contains one bright star.
  • Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Still lower in the southern sky than Antares, the lonely star Fomalhaut is seen shining brightly.
  • Well known Stars And Constellations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www2.potsdam.edu [Source type: General]

^ The brightest star in this decan (Cor Caroli) is also located in the child rather than the mother.
  • Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

.A western interpretation would recognise Crux (the Southern Cross) above the emu's head and Scorpius on the left.^ The first decan is the Cross , also called the Southern Cross (Crux).
  • Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Crux Crucis the Southern Cross .
  • SkyandTelescope.com - How To - Constellation Names and Abbreviations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.skyandtelescope.com [Source type: General]

The head of the emu is the Coalsack.
In the southern hemisphere, it is possible to discern dark patches in the Milky Way. .Some cultures have discerned shapes in these patches and have given names to these "dark cloud constellations."^ In 2006, the name given to this program (and to these organizations) was changed from Transition Partner to Partner Network .
  • CMMI FAQ - brutally honest, totally hip, no nonsense answers (a public service of Entinex) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.cmmifaq.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The names of the constellations are given in Latin, because Latin was once the language of learning.
  • Constellations, history, identification 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.mallorcaweb.net [Source type: General]

Members of the Inca civilization identified various dark areas or dark nebulae in the Milky Way as animals, and associated their appearance with the seasonal rains.[3] .Australian Aboriginal astronomy also describes dark cloud constellations, the most famous being the "emu in the sky" whose head is formed by the Coalsack.^ Because in the sky the head is on one side of the man and the tail on the other, it is often considered as two constellations, the Serpent's head (Serpens Caput) and the Serpent's Tail (Serpents Cauda).
  • Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During November and December, Orion is undoubtedly the most beautiful and dominating constellation in the night sky.
  • Well known Stars And Constellations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www2.potsdam.edu [Source type: General]

^ Most of the English translations of constellation names given in this article agree with astronomy books, which generally call this constellation the Serpent Bearer.
  • Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

See also

Notes

Further reading

Mythology, Star Lore, History, & Archaeoastronomy

  • Allen, Richard Hinckley. .(1899) Star-Names And Their Meanings, G. E. Stechert, New York, New York, U.S.A., hardcover; reprint 1963 as Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning, Dover Publications, Inc., Mineola, New York, U.S.A., ISBN 978-0486210797 softcover.
  • Olcott, William Tyler.^ Allen, Richard H., Star Names, Their Lore and Meaning (NY: Dover, 1963), reprinted from 1899 edition.
    • Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The star name Dabih (Beta Cap) means the "Slaughtered One."
    • Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ One reason was to aid in the naming of new variable stars, which brighten and fade rather than shine steadily.
    • Constellations | IAU 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.iau.org [Source type: Academic]

    .(1911); Star Lore of All Ages, G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York, New York, U.S.A., hardcover; reprint 2004 as Star Lore: Myths, Legends, and Facts, Dover Publications, Inc., Mineola, New York, U.S.A., ISBN 978-0486435817 softcover.
  • Kelley, David H. and Milone, Eugene F. (2004) Exploring Ancient Skies: An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy, Springer, ISBN 978-0-387-95310-6 hardcover.
  • Ridpath, Ian.^ Allen, Richard H., Star Names, Their Lore and Meaning (NY: Dover, 1963), reprinted from 1899 edition.
    • Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ All of the brighter stars and some of the faint stars have their own names, deriving from ancient civilizations and old mythology of ancient people.
    • Well known Stars And Constellations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www2.potsdam.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ The star figures in the sky form a very precise map of the heavens and display many allegories which have been preserved as Greek myths.
    • Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

    (1989) Star Tales, Lutterworth Press, ISBN 0718826957 hardcover.
  • Staal, Julius D. W. (1988) The New Patterns in the Sky: Myths and Legends of the Stars, McDonald & Woodward Publishing Co., ISBN 0939923106 hardcover, ISBN 0939923041 softcover.

Atlases & Celestial Maps

General & Nonspecialized – Entire Celestial Heavens:
  • Becvar, Antonin. Atlas Coeli. Published as Atlas of the Heavens, Sky Publishing Corporation, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A.; with coordinate grid transparency overlay.
  • Norton, Arthur Philip. .(1910) Norton's Star Atlas, 20th Edition 2003 as Norton's Star Atlas and Reference Handbook, edited by Ridpath, Ian, Pi Press, ISBN 978-0-13-145164-3, hardcover.
  • National Geographic Society.^ Ridpath, Ian, Star Tales (New York: Universe Books, 1988), p.
    • Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

    .(1957, 1970, 2001, 2007) The Heavens (1970), Cartographic Division of the National Geographic Society (NGS), Washington, D.C., U.S.A., two sided large map chart depicting the constellations of the heavens; as special supplement to the August 1970 issue of National Geographic.^ Because in the sky the head is on one side of the man and the tail on the other, it is often considered as two constellations, the Serpent's head (Serpens Caput) and the Serpent's Tail (Serpents Cauda).
    • Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Like the Little Bear, this constellation is also depicted as a bear with a very large tail.
    • Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

    Forerunner map as A Map of The Heavens, as special supplement to the December 1957 issue. Current version 2001 (Tirion), with 2007 reprint.
  • Sinnott, Roger W. and Perryman, Michael A.C. (1997) Millennium Star Atlas, Epoch 2000.0, Sky Publishing Corporation, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A., and European Space Agency (ESA), ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands. .Subtitle: "An All-Sky Atlas Comprising One Million Stars to Visual Magnitude Eleven from the Hipparcos and Tycho Catalogues and Ten Thousand Nonstellar Objects". 3 volumes, hardcover, in hardcover slipcase, set ISBN 0-933346-84-0. Vol.^ In the sky, this huge constellation only contains one bright star.
    • Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ One good summary is by Raymond Capt, The Glory of the Stars (Thousand Oaks, CA: Artisan Sales, 1976).
    • Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Rolleston identified the general area of the sky where it was located and in an earlier paper I attempted to identify the seven stars which it comprised.
    • Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

    1, 0–8 Hours (Right Ascension), ISBN 0-933346-81-6 hardcover; Vol. 2, 8–16 Hours, ISBN 0-933346-82-4 hardcover; Vol. 3, 16–24 Hours, ISBN 0-933346-83-2 hardcover. Softcover version available. Supplemental separate purchasable coordinate grid transparent overlays.
  • Tirion, Wil; et al. (1987) Uranometria 2000.0, Willmann-Bell, Inc., Richmond, Virginia, U.S.A., 3 volumes, hardcover. Vol. 1 (1987): "The Northern Hemisphere to −6o", by Wil Tirion, Barry Rappaport, and George Lovi, ISBN 0-943396-14-X hardcover, printed boards (blue). Vol. 2 (1988): "The Southern Hemisphere to +6o", by Wil Tirion, Barry Rappaport and George Lovi, ISBN 0-943396-15-8 hardcover, printed boards (red). Vol. 3 (1993) as a separate added work: The Deep Sky Field Guide to Uranometria 2000.0, by Murray Cragin, James Lucyk, and Barry Rappaport, ISBN 0-943396-38-7 hardcover, printed boards (gray). 2nd Edition 2001 (black or dark background) as collective set of 3 volumes – Vol. 1: Uranometria 2000.0 Deep Sky Atlas, by Wil Tirion, Barry Rappaport, and Will Remaklus, ISBN 978-0-943396-71-2 hardcover, printed boards (blue edging); Vol. 2: Uranometria 2000.0 Deep Sky Atlas, by Wil Tirion, Barry Rappaport, and Will Remaklus, ISBN 978-0-943396-72-9 hardcover, printed boards (green edging); Vol. 3: Uranometria 2000.0 Deep Sky Field Guide by Murray Cragin and Emil Bonanno, ISBN 978-0-943396-73-6, hardcover, printed boards (teal green).
  • Tirion, Wil and Sinnott, Roger W. (1998) Sky Atlas 2000.0, various editions. 2nd Deluxe Edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England (U.K.).
Northern Celestial Hemisphere & North Circumpolar Region:
  • Becvar, Antonin. (1962) Atlas Borealis 1950.0, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences (Ceskoslovenske Akademie Ved), Praha, Czechoslovakia, 1st Edition, elephant folio hardcover, with small transparency overlay coordinate grid square and separate paper magnitude legend ruler. 2nd Edition 1972 and 1978 reprint, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences (Ceskoslovenske Akademie Ved), Prague, Czechoslovakia, and Sky Publishing Corporation, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A., ISBN 0-933346-01-8 oversize folio softcover spiral bound, with transparency overlay coordinate grid ruler.
Equatorial, Ecliptic, & Zodiacal Celestial Sky:
  • Becvar, Antonin. (1958) Atlas Eclipticalis 1950.0, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences (Ceskoslovenske Akademie Ved), Praha, Czechoslovakia, 1st Edition, elephant folio hardcover, with small transparency overlay coordinate grid square and separate paper magnitude legend ruler. 2nd Edition 1974, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences (Ceskoslovenske Akademie Ved), Prague, Czechoslovakia, and Sky Publishing Corporation, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A., oversize folio softcover spiral bound, with transparency overlay coordinate grid ruler.
Southern Celestial Hemisphere & South Circumpolar Region:
  • Becvar, Antonin. Atlas Australis 1950.0, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences (Ceskoslovenske Akademie Ved), Praha, Czechoslovakia, 1st Edition, elephant folio hardcover, with small transparency overlay coordinate grid square and separate paper magnitude legend ruler. 2nd Edition, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences (Ceskoslovenske Akademie Ved), Prague, Czechoslovakia, and Sky Publishing Corporation, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A., oversize folio softcover spiral bound, with transparency overlay coordinate grid ruler.

Catalogs

  • Becvar, Antonin. (1959) Atlas Coeli II Katalog 1950.0, Praha, 1960 Prague. .Published 1964 as Atlas of the Heavens - II Catalogue 1950.0, Sky Publishing Corporation, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A.
  • Hirshfeld, Alan and Sinnott, Roger W. (1982) Sky Catalogue 2000.0, Cambridge University Press and Sky Publishing Corporation, 1st Edition, 2 volumes.^ The charts below were produced in collaboration with Sky & Telescope magazine (Roger Sinnott & Rick Fienberg).
    • Constellations | IAU 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.iau.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cambridge University Press, 1930.
    • Constellations | IAU 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.iau.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ COVINGTON, M. A. Celestial Objects for Modern Telescopes .Cambridge University Press, 2002.
    • Constellations | IAU 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.iau.org [Source type: Academic]

    LCCN 81017975 both vols., and LCCN 83240310 vol. 1. "Volume 1: Stars to Magnitude 8.0", ISBN 0-521-24710-1 (Cambridge) and 0-933346-35-2 (Sky) hardcover, ISBN 0-933346-34-4 (Sky) softcover. Vol. 2 (1985) - "Volume 2: Double Stars, Variable Stars, and Nonstellar Objects", ISBN 0-521-25818-9 (Cambridge) hardcover, ISBN 0-521-27721-3 (Cambridge) softcover. 2nd Edition (1991) with additional third author Frangois Ochsenbein, 2 volumes, LCCN 91026764. Vol. 1: ISBN 0-521-41743-0 (Cambridge) hardcover (black binding); ISBN 0-521-42736-3 (Cambridge) softcover (red lettering with Hans Vehrenberg astrophoto). Vol. 2 (1999): ISBN 0-521-27721-3 (Cambridge) softcover and 0-933346-38-7 (Sky) softcover - reprint of 1985 edition (blue lettering with Hans Vehrenberg astrophoto).
  • Yale University Observatory. (1908, et al.) Catalogue of Bright Stars, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A. Referred to commonly as "Bright Star Catalogue". Various editions with various authors historically, the longest term revising author as (Ellen) Dorrit Hoffleit. 1st Edition 1908. 2nd Edition 1940 by Frank Schlesinger and Louise F. Jenkins. 3rd Edition (1964), 4th Edition, 5th Edition (1991), and 6th Edition (pending posthumous) by Hoffleit.

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

CONSTELLATION (from the Lat. .constellatus, studded with stars; con, with, and stella, a star), in astronomy, the name given to certain groupings of stars.^ This cylinder displays the four star groups that are used for navigation in Hawaiian astronomy.
  • Science First :: STARLAB 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.starlab.com [Source type: General]

^ Most of the English translations of constellation names given in this article agree with astronomy books, which generally call this constellation the Serpent Bearer.
  • Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Anyone of the 88 groupings of stars that appear in the celestial sphere & which they take his name from religious or mithologicals figures, animals or objects.
  • Constellations, history, identification 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.mallorcaweb.net [Source type: General]

.The partition of the stellar expanse into areas characterized by specified stars can be traced back to a very remote antiquity.^ Gravitational forces then attract the fragments back into smaller size feebly shining star of the type known as White Dwarfs, e.g., companion of Sirius.
  • Well known Stars And Constellations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www2.potsdam.edu [Source type: General]

.It is believed that the ultimate origin of the constellation figures and names is to be found in the corresponding systems in vogue among the primitive civilizations of the Euphrates valley - the Sumerians, Accadians and Babylonians; that these were carried westward into ancient Greece by the Phoenicians, and to the lands of Asia Minor by the Hittites, and that Hellenic culture in its turn introduced them into Arabia, Persia and India.^ This colorful cylinder depicts constellation figures as seen by many African cultures such as the Dogon, Bushmen, Masai, Egyptians and more.
  • Science First :: STARLAB 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.starlab.com [Source type: General]

^ Rome conquered the entire Greek-speaking world by 30 BC, and the Greek constellation names were translated or transliterated into Latin, the primary language of the Roman Empire.
  • SkyandTelescope.com - How To - Constellation Names and Abbreviations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.skyandtelescope.com [Source type: General]

^ It turns out there are scientific ways to date the origin of the entire Greek set of star figures.
  • Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

.From the earliest times the star-groups known as constellations, the smaller groups (parts of constellations) known as asterisms, and also individual stars, have received names connoting some meteorological phenomena, or symbolizing religious or mythological beliefs.^ Constellations can be done in group workshops or in individual sessions.
  • Learn About Family Constellations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ In the antiquity , many other towns grouped stars in constellations, although its disposition does not correspond with those of the old West.
  • Constellations, history, identification 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.mallorcaweb.net [Source type: General]

^ In order to designate approximately 1,300 shining stars, the genitive of the name of the constellations is used, preceded by a Greek letter; this system was introduced by Johann Bayer.
  • Constellations, history, identification 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.mallorcaweb.net [Source type: General]

.At one time it was held that the constellation names and myths were of Greek origin; this view has now been disproved, and an examination of the Hellenic myths associated with the stars and star-groups in the light of the records revealed by the decipherment of Euphratean cuneiforms leads to the conclusion that in many, if not all, cases the Greek myth has a Euphratean parallel, and so renders it probable that the Greek constellation system and the cognate legends are primarily of Semitic or even pre-Semitic origin.^ The Greek name for constellations, was katasterismoi .
  • Greek Mythology: THE CONSTELLATIONS, STAR MYTHS 1 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: General]

^ NAME A character associated with the constellation in surviving compilations of star myths.
  • Greek Mythology: THE CONSTELLATIONS, STAR MYTHS 1 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: General]

^ In many cases, a family name in Latin for the all the stars in the constellation and individual stars as Greek alphabets.
  • Well known Stars And Constellations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www2.potsdam.edu [Source type: General]

.The origin and development of the grouping of the stars into constellations is more a matter of archaeological than of astronomical interest.^ Im far more interesting than he is.
  • Constellation 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC members.shaw.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Originally the constellations were defined informally by the shapes made by their star patterns, but, as the pace of celestial discoveries quickened in the early 20th century, astronomers decided it would be helpful to have an official set of constellation boundaries.
  • Constellations | IAU 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.iau.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sometimes stars will be physically close to each other, like the Pleiades, but constellations are generally really a matter of perspective.
  • Constellations | IAU 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.iau.org [Source type: Academic]

.It demands a careful study of the myths and religious thought of primitive peoples; and the tracing of the names from one language to another belongs to comparative philology.^ But when I did a careful study of the 4 x 12 table, there was a hole right in that location where another constellation was needed.
  • Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

The Sumerians and Accadians, the non-Semitic inhabitants of the Euphrates valley prior to the Babylonians, described the stars collectively as a " heavenly flock "; the sun was the " old sheep "; the seven planets were the " old-sheep stars "; the whole of the stars had certain " shepherds, " and Sibzianna (which, according to Sayce and Bosanquet, is the modern Arcturus, the brightest star in the northern sky) was the " star of the shepherds of the heavenly herds." The Accadians bequeathed their system to the Babylonians, and cuneiform tablets and cylinders, boundary stones, and Euphratean art generally, point to the existence of a well-defined system of star names in their early history. From a detailed study of such records, in their nature of rather speculative value, R. Brown, junr. .(Primitive Constellations, 1899) has compiled a Euphratean planisphere, which he regards as the mother of all others.^ Still others believe that the constellation commemorates in fact Zeus himself who took the form of an eagle in order to approach Aegina, mother of Aeacus .
  • CONSTELLATIONS & STARS - Greek Mythology Link 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Mother of All Constellation FrankenFakes .

The tablets examined range in date from 3000-500 B.C., and hence the system must be anterior to the earlier date. Of great importance is the Creation Legend, a cuneiform compiled from older records during the reign of Assur-bani-pal, c. .650 B.C., in which there occurs a passage interpretable as pointing to the acceptance of 36 constellations: 12 northern, 12 zodiacal and 12 southern.^ And there's compelling evidence that many, including the zodiacal constellations, originated in Mesopotamia sometime before 1,000 BC. Somehow, the Mesopotamian constellations were imported into ancient Greece, but there's no record of how or why this occurred.
  • SkyandTelescope.com - How To - Constellation Names and Abbreviations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.skyandtelescope.com [Source type: General]

^ The constellations revolve round a central point in the northern sky known as the pole star, or heavenly axis (Greek polos ).
  • Greek Mythology: THE CONSTELLATIONS, STAR MYTHS 1 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: General]

.These constellations were arranged in three concentric annuli, the northern ones in an inner annulus subdivided into 60 degrees, the zodiacal ones into a medial annulus of 1 zo degrees, and the southern ones into an outer annulus of 240 degrees.^ This was a huge constellation in the southern sky and has since been divided into several constellations by modern astronomers.
  • Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Puppis was in the 1750s subdivided into four constellations: Carina, Puppis, Pyxis and Vela (keel, poop, compass and sails).
  • CONSTELLATIONS & STARS - Greek Mythology Link 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The tenth zodiac constellation is the Twins (Gemini), who are two brothers, with one usually being considered immortal and the other mortal.
  • Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

Brown has suggested a correlation of the Euphratean names with those of the Greeks and moderns. His results may be exhibited in the following form: - the central line gives the modern equivalents of the names in the Euphratean zodiac; the upper line the modern equivalents of the northern paranatellons; and the lower line those of the southern paranatellons. .The zodiacal constellations have an interest peculiarly their own; placed in or about the plane of the ecliptic, their rising and setting with the sun was observed with relation to weather changes and the more general subject of chronology, the twelve subdivisions of the year being correlated with the twelve divisions of the ecliptic (see Zodiac).^ The most important of the heliacal risings were those of the twelve constellations of the zodiac.
  • Greek Mythology: THE CONSTELLATIONS, STAR MYTHS 1 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: General]

^ Twelve constellations lie on the ecliptic & are known as "the Zodiacs ."
  • Constellations, history, identification 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.mallorcaweb.net [Source type: General]

^ As the constellation gradually rises earlier and earlier in the night, its place on the solar horizon at dawn is eventually replaced by the next constellation of the zodiac, namely Cancer, in mid June.
  • Greek Mythology: THE CONSTELLATIONS, STAR MYTHS 1 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: General]

Northern. .
Cassiopeia
Auriga
Cepheus
Ursa minor
Ursa major
Bootes
Serpentarius
Hercules
Lyra
Aquila
Pegasus
Andromeda
Zodiacal. .
Aries
Taurus
Gemini
Cancer
Leo
Virgo
Libra
Scorpio
Sagittarius
Capricornus
Aquarius
Pisces
Southern .
Eridanus
Orion
Canis major
Argo
Hydra
Crater
Corvus
Centaurus
Lupus
Ara
?
Piscis
australis
Cetus
lation to weather changes. .The earliest Greek work which purported to treat the constellations qua constellations, of which we have certain knowledge, is the 4'atvoµeva of Eudoxus of Cnidus ( c. 4 0 3-35 0 B.C.).^ As for timing, the Mesopotamian constellations were not mentioned in the works of Homer and Hesiod (about 700 BC), but they were firmly entrenched in the earliest comprehensive Greek constellation lists, which appeared around 350 BC. .
  • SkyandTelescope.com - How To - Constellation Names and Abbreviations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.skyandtelescope.com [Source type: General]

The original is lost, but a versification by Aratus (c. 270 B.C.), a poet at the court of Antigonus Gonatas, king of Macedonia, and an 'E rrynves or commentary by Hipparchus, are extant. In the 'acvoµeva of Aratus 44 constellations are enumerated, viz. 19 northern: - Ursa major, Ursa minor, Bootes, Draco, Cepheus, Cassiopeia, Andromeda, Perseus, Triangulum, Pegasus, Delphinus, Auriga, Hercules, Lyra, Cygnus, Aquila, Sagitta, Corona and Serpentarius; 13 central or zodiacal: - Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricornus, Aquarius, Pisces and the Pleiades; and 12 southern: - Orion, Canis, Lepus, Argo, Cetus, Eridanus, Piscis australis, Ara, Centaurus, Hydra, Crater and The Phoenicians - a race dominated by the spirit of commercial enterprise - appear to have studied the stars more especially with respect to their service to navigators; according to Homer " the stars were sent by Zeus as portents for mariners." But all their truly astronomical writings are lost, and only by a somewhat speculative piecing together of scattered evidences can an estimate of their knowledge be formed. The inter-relations of the Phoenicians with the early Hellenes were frequent and farreaching, and in the Greek presentation of the legends concerning constellations a distinct Phoenician, and in turn Euphratean, element appears. .One of the earliest examples of Greek literature extant, the Theogonia of Hesiod (c. Boo B.C.), appears to be a curious blending of Hellenic and Phoenician thought.^ As for timing, the Mesopotamian constellations were not mentioned in the works of Homer and Hesiod (about 700 BC), but they were firmly entrenched in the earliest comprehensive Greek constellation lists, which appeared around 350 BC. .
  • SkyandTelescope.com - How To - Constellation Names and Abbreviations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.skyandtelescope.com [Source type: General]

.Although not an astronomical work, several constellation subjects are introduced.^ This was a huge constellation in the southern sky and has since been divided into several constellations by modern astronomers.
  • Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, the limits of the constellations continued being discussion subject until 1930, when the Astronomical Union the International fixed these limits.
  • Constellations, history, identification 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.mallorcaweb.net [Source type: General]

.In the same author's Works and Days, a treatise which is a sort of shepherd's calendar, there are distinct references to the Pleiades, Hyades, Orion, Sirius and Arcturus.^ There, they can earn $1.25 an hour and work eight hours a day, and sometimes overtime.

^ Sometimes also called Orion's Dog, Sirius is referred to as brining miseries to men.
  • Well known Stars And Constellations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www2.potsdam.edu [Source type: General]

^ The Book of Revelation makes it clear that there are two distinct enemies in the last days.
  • Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

.It cannot be argued, however, that these were the only stars and constellations named in his time; the omission proves nothing.^ The first of those frigates, ships which were to make American naval history, was named for the ring of 13 stars that formed a "new Constellation" on the flag of the new United States.
  • U.S. Navy - A Brief History of Aircraft Carriers - USS Constellation (CV 64) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.chinfo.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each Latin constellation name has two forms: the nominative, for use when talking about the constellation itself, and the genitive, or possessive, which is used in star names.
  • Constellations | IAU 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.iau.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In star maps it is common to mark line “patterns” that represent the shapes that give the name to the constellations.
  • Constellations | IAU 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.iau.org [Source type: Academic]

.The same is true of the Homeric epics wherein the Pleiades, Hyades, Ursa major, Orion and Bootes are mentioned, and also of the stars and constellations mentioned in Job.^ It is a part of the constellation called Ursa Major.
  • Well known Stars And Constellations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www2.potsdam.edu [Source type: General]

^ Sometimes stars will be physically close to each other, like the Pleiades, but constellations are generally really a matter of perspective.
  • Constellations | IAU 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.iau.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is thought that the Pleiades star cluster is represented alongside the nearby cluster of the Hyades.
  • Constellations | IAU 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.iau.org [Source type: Academic]

.Further support is given to the view that, in the main, the constellations were transmitted to the Greeks by the Phoenicians from Euphratean sources in the fact that Thales, the earliest Greek astronomer of any note, was of Phoenician descent.^ The form and arrangment of the heavenly constellations was adopted by the Greeks from the sea-trading Phoenicians of the East, who in turn had received them from the Assyrians, and they from their forefathers the ancient Sumerians.
  • Greek Mythology: THE CONSTELLATIONS, STAR MYTHS 1 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: General]

^ The main source for Greek star myths were the lost works of Hesiod and Pherecydes, and the later works of Pseudo-Eratosthenes, Aratus and Hyginus .
  • Greek Mythology: THE CONSTELLATIONS, STAR MYTHS 1 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: General]

^ Tolomeo , astronomer & Greek mathematician, in the Almagesto, described 48 constellations, of which, 47 are continued knowing by the same name.
  • Constellations, history, identification 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.mallorcaweb.net [Source type: General]

.According to Callimachus he taught the Greeks to steer by Ursa minor instead of Ursa major; and other astronomical observations are assigned to him.^ His oxen and plough were set alongside him as the Wain, i.e., the constellations Ursa Major and Minor.
  • Greek Mythology: THE CONSTELLATIONS, STAR MYTHS 1 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: General]

^ Cassiopeia lies on the other side of the pole from Ursa Major, almost directly opposite the Big Dipper.
  • Well known Stars And Constellations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www2.potsdam.edu [Source type: General]

^ Only those few closest to the pole - namely, Ursa Major and Minor (the Bears), and Draco (the Dragon) - appear to travel at night in an eternal circle around the pole.
  • Greek Mythology: THE CONSTELLATIONS, STAR MYTHS 1 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: General]

.But his writings are lost, as is also the case with those of Phocus the Samian, and the history of astronomy by Eudemus, the pupil of Aristotle; hence the paucity of our knowledge of Thales's astronomical learning.^ Our pronunciations are drawn from four sources: The article Pronouncing Astronomical Names by George A. Davis, Samuel G. Barton, and I. McHugh, Popular Astronomy.
  • SkyandTelescope.com - How To - Constellation Names and Abbreviations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.skyandtelescope.com [Source type: General]

From the 6th century B.C. onwards, legends concerning the constellation subjects were frequently treated by the historians and poets. .Aglaosthenes or Agaosthenes, an early writer, knew Ursa minor as Kvv600vpa, Cynosura, and recorded the translation of Aquila; Epimenides the Cretan (c. 600 B.C.) recorded the translation of Capricornus and the star Capella; Pherecydes of Athens (c. 500-450 B.C.) recorded the legend of Orion, and stated the astronomical fact that when Orion sets Scorpio rises; Aeschylus (525-456 B.C.) and Hellanicus of Mytilene (c.^ Polaris is the brightest star in the Ursa Minor.
  • Well known Stars And Constellations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www2.potsdam.edu [Source type: General]

^ This star in the constellation Ursa Minor is Cynosura (see above) (Hyg.
  • CONSTELLATIONS & STARS - Greek Mythology Link 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Star line 1, which translated means "The Canoe-Bailer of Makali'i" is formed by six stars, Capella, Castor and Pollux, Procyon, Sirius, and Canopus, curving across the sky from north to south in the shape of a bailer with Orion in the middle.
  • Science First :: STARLAB 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.starlab.com [Source type: General]

.496-411 B.C.) narrate the legend of the seven Pleiades - the daughters of Atlas; and the latter states that the Hyades are named either from their orientation, which resembles v (upsilon), " or because at their rising or setting Zeus rains "; and Hecataeus of Miletus (c. 470 B.C.) treated the legend of the Hydra.^ Because of its far northern location, most of the stars are seen to rise in the east and set in the west.
  • Greek Mythology: THE CONSTELLATIONS, STAR MYTHS 1 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: General]

^ A few Afghan employees have the privilege of being able to use either set of toilets because they have worked with the coalition long enough to be considered trusted agents.

^ This star cluster in the constellation of Taurus commemorate the PLEIADES , daughters of Atlas and Pleione (Hyg.
  • CONSTELLATIONS & STARS - Greek Mythology Link 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

In the 5th century B.C. the Athenian astronomer Euctemon, according to Geminus of Rhodes, compiled a weather calendar in which Aquarius, Aquila, Canis major, Corona, Cygnus, Delphinus, Lyra, Orion, Pegasus, Sagitta and the asterisms Hyades and Pleiades are mentioned, always, however, in re Corvus. .In this enumeration Serpens is included in Serpentarius and Lupus in Centaurus; these two constellations were separated by Hipparchus and, later, by Ptolemy.^ Forty eight of the constellations we know were recorded in the seventh and eighth books of Claudius Ptolemy’s Almagest, although the exact origin of these constellations still remains uncertain.
  • Constellations | IAU 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.iau.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When these sailors ventured south of the equator, they saw stars that were not in Ptolemy's catalog and organized them into new constellations.
  • SkyandTelescope.com - How To - Constellation Names and Abbreviations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.skyandtelescope.com [Source type: General]

^ Because in the sky the head is on one side of the man and the tail on the other, it is often considered as two constellations, the Serpent's head (Serpens Caput) and the Serpent's Tail (Serpents Cauda).
  • Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

.On the other hand, Aratus kept the Pleiades distinct from Taurus, but Hipparchus reduced these stars to an asterism.^ This star cluster in the constellation of Taurus commemorate the PLEIADES , daughters of Atlas and Pleione (Hyg.
  • CONSTELLATIONS & STARS - Greek Mythology Link 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

.Aratus was no astronomer, while Hipparchus was; and from the fact that the latter adopted, with but trifling exceptions, the constellation system portrayed by Aratus, it may be concluded that the system was already familiar in Greek thought.^ In order to designate approximately 1,300 shining stars, the genitive of the name of the constellations is used, preceded by a Greek letter; this system was introduced by Johann Bayer.
  • Constellations, history, identification 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.mallorcaweb.net [Source type: General]

^ Experienced astronomers, both professional and amateur, pronounce constellation names in many different ways, but have no trouble understanding each other.
  • Constellations | IAU 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.iau.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I am very familiar with family constellations as my sister is a trained facilitator and I have attended workshops with Jane Peterson in Portland, Oregon with the Human Systems Institute.
  • Learn About Family Constellations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.And three hundred years after Hipparchus, the Alexandrian astronomer Ptolemy adopted a very similar scheme in his uranometria, which appears in the seventh and eighth books of his Almagest, the catalogue being styled the "EKOfois Kavovud7 or " accepted version."^ The Greeks seem to have invented some constellations of their own, notably the Perseus family, around the same time that they adopted the Mesopotomian constellations, and a few more were added after 350 BC. The comprehensive list of ancient constellations appeared in a book written around AD 150 by the Greco-Egyptian astronomer Claudius Ptolemy.
  • SkyandTelescope.com - How To - Constellation Names and Abbreviations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.skyandtelescope.com [Source type: General]

^ Ptolemy, The Almagest , translated in Great Books of the Western World (Chicago: Encyclopedia Brittanica, 1952, vol.
  • Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ptolemy listed 48, and the Persians a few hundred years later also list 48.
  • Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

The Almagest has a dual interest: first, being the work of one primarily a commentator, it presents a crystallized epitome of all earlier knowledge; and secondly, it has served as a basis of subsequent star-catalogues.' The Ptolemaic catalogue embraces only those stars which were visible at Rhodes in the time of Hipparchus (c. 150 B.C.), the results being corrected for precession " by increasing the longitudes by 2° 40', and leaving the latitudes undisturbed " (Francis Baily, Mem. R.A.S., 1843). .The names and orientation of the constellations therein adopted are, with but few exceptions, identical with those used at the present day; and as it cannot be doubted that Ptolemy made only very few modifications in the system of Hipparchus, the names were adopted at least three centuries before the Almagest was compiled.^ Constellations got their names from very old legends.
  • Constellations Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Constellations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The model is very careful to only use terms that imply that requirements of the model are for the model, not for process improvement.
  • CMMI FAQ - brutally honest, totally hip, no nonsense answers (a public service of Entinex) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.cmmifaq.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Payne's "Orders of Love" describe a natural pattern that has been observed in the practice of Family Constellations--namely, that there is a distinct order stating who belongs and who does not belong, not only in a family system, but also in larger groups such as nations.
  • Learn About Family Constellations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.The names in which Ptolemy differs from modern usage are: - Hercules (iv -yovaotv), Cygnus ("Opvts), Eridanus (IIora tos), Lupus (Onpiov), Pegasus (17r7ros), Equuleus ("Iirirov irporogi i), Canis minor (IIpoidwv), and Libra (XnXai, although "vyos is used for the same constellation in other parts of the Almagest). The following table gives the names of the constellations as they occur in (1) modern catalogues; (2) Ptolemy (A.D. 150); (3) Ulugh Beg (1437); (4) Tycho Brahe (1628); the last column gives the English equivalent of the modern name.^ Throughout human history and across many different cultures, names and mythical stories have been attributed to the star patterns in the night sky, thus giving birth to what we know as constellations.
  • Constellations | IAU 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.iau.org [Source type: Academic]

^ What is the English name of the Aquila constellation?
  • Constellations Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Constellations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Experienced astronomers, both professional and amateur, pronounce constellation names in many different ways, but have no trouble understanding each other.
  • Constellations | IAU 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.iau.org [Source type: Academic]

PLATE I.
.The reverence and authority which was accorded the famous compilation of the Alexandrian astronomer is well evidenced by the catalogue of the Tatar Ulugh Beg, the Arabian names thane adopted being equivalent to the Ptolemaic names in nearly every case; this is also shown in the Latin translations given below.^ Well, given the evidence to hand, I think youre maybe not in a state to decide objectively.
  • Constellation 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC members.shaw.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ In many cases, a family name in Latin for the all the stars in the constellation and individual stars as Greek alphabets.
  • Well known Stars And Constellations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www2.potsdam.edu [Source type: General]

^ Most of the English translations of constellation names given in this article agree with astronomy books, which generally call this constellation the Serpent Bearer.
  • Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

.Tycho Brahe, when compiling his catalogue of stars, was unable to observe Lupus, Ara, Corona australis and Piscis australis, on account of the latitude of Uranienburg; and hence these constellations are omitted from his catalogue.^ In 1932 the IAU officially changed this constellation's name from Corona Australis to Corona Austrina (genitive Coronae Austrinae), but the revised name never really caught on.
  • SkyandTelescope.com - How To - Constellation Names and Abbreviations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.skyandtelescope.com [Source type: General]

^ We call these special star shapes constellations .
  • Constellations Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Constellations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When these sailors ventured south of the equator, they saw stars that were not in Ptolemy's catalog and organized them into new constellations.
  • SkyandTelescope.com - How To - Constellation Names and Abbreviations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.skyandtelescope.com [Source type: General]

He diverged from Ptolemy when he placed the asterisms Coma Berenices and Antinous upon the level of formal constellations, Ptolemy having 1 The historical development of star-catalogues in general, regarded as statistics of the co-ordinates, &c., of stars, is given in the historical section of the article 'ASTRONOMY. See also E. B. Knobel, " Chronology of Star Catalogues." Mem. R.A.S.(1877).


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Constellations article)

From BibleWiki

a cluster of stars, or stars which appear to be near each other in the heavens, and which astronomers have reduced to certain figures (as the "Great Bear," the "Bull," etc.) for the sake of classification and of memory. In Isa. 13:10, where this word only occurs, it is the rendering of the Hebrew kesil, i.e., "fool." .This was the Hebrew name of the constellation Orion (Job 9:9; 38:31), a constellation which represented Nimrod, the symbol of folly and impiety.^ In some cases a diagram of the star pattern made a good symbol - in other cases, I've illustrated the object, creature, or myth represented by the constellation.
  • New Constellation Symbols 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.suberic.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To the ancients, it represented a centaur (half-man, half-horse) archer who was aiming at the Scorpion (the next constellation) which bit Orion.

^ In star maps it is common to mark line “patterns” that represent the shapes that give the name to the constellations.
  • Constellations | IAU 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.iau.org [Source type: Academic]

.The word some interpret by "the giant" in this place, "some heaven-daring rebel who was chained to the sky for his impiety."^ The constellations, as they were described in Greek mythology, were mostly god-favoured (or cursed) heroes and beasts who received a place in the heavens in memorial of their deeds.
  • Greek Mythology: THE CONSTELLATIONS, STAR MYTHS 1 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: General]

^ To the ancients, the figure represented the giant Orion, placed in the heavens, in a heroic gesture holding the shield against Taurus the mighty Bull.
  • Well known Stars And Constellations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www2.potsdam.edu [Source type: General]

^ DOG OF ORION The dog of the giant hunter Orion who stands above it in the heavens.
  • Greek Mythology: THE CONSTELLATIONS, STAR MYTHS 1 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: General]

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.
what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)

Clusters of stars. .The number of constellations named in the Biblical writings is small.^ Later, catalogues of stars were made by naming them by numbers instead of letters but preserving the name of the constellation.
  • Well known Stars And Constellations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www2.potsdam.edu [Source type: General]

^ Tucana, the Toucan Another one of the southern constellations name for exotic birds, this constellation is the home of the Small Magellanic Cloud.
  • Stories Behind the Constellations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.pooh-corner.org [Source type: General]

.In view of the extensive astronomical attainments of the Assyro-Babylonians, it is safe to predicate of the Hebrews larger knowledge of the starry heavens (compare Ps.^ Astronomy: Roen Kelly [ View Larger Image ] On a winter evening, the sky is home to what most astronomers agree is the grandest of all constellations — Orion the Hunter .
  • Astronomy.com - Learn the constellations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.astronomy.com [Source type: General]

viii.) than appears from references actually embodied in .Biblical literature; and there is no necessity for accepting Stern's explanation that only such celestial bodies were regarded with interest by the Hebrews as were of importance for calendric purposes in ushering in the seasons (Stern, in Geiger's "Jüd.^ There is no prescribed method for connecting the stars to form the figure, so the pictures will often vary slightly depending upon the personal preferences of the celestial cartographer.
  • Constellations and Mythologies 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.astronomy.org [Source type: General]

^ In all this there is no novelty...case that arises not unfrequently in astronomy , in which a fact of broad general...regarded as a noteworthy achievement in astronomy , nor is the result to which it...
  • Constellation in Astronomy: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Theres no such word as flatulating, Lex added.
  • Constellation 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC members.shaw.ca [Source type: Original source]

Zeit." iii. 258; Friedrich Delitzsch, "Hiob," p. 169; see also Astronomy).

The Great Bear.

."'Ash" or "'Ayish" is mentioned twice in Job (Job 9:9, Job 38:32, R. V.), and has been identified with the Great Bear, though this identification has been rejected by many Biblical scholars.^ Other 16 bright stars can be identified with reference to The Big Dipper (Ursa Major), a part of the Great Bear constellation.
  • Well known Stars And Constellations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www2.potsdam.edu [Source type: General]

.The Arabs certainly knew this brilliant cluster of stars by the name of "Na'sh" (the Bier); and the three stars in the tail they designated as "Banat Na'sh" (the Daughters of the Bier); i.e., the "followers," an appellation still in vogue in modern Syria.^ The last three constellations are modern astronomical images providing identification for a few fainter stars unattacged to the older groups.
  • Constellation families 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.maa.mhn.de [Source type: General]

^ A cluster or group of fixed stars, or dvision of the heavens, designated in most cases by the name of some animal, or of some mythologial personage, within whose imaginary outline, as traced upon the heavens, the group is included.
  • constellation@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Much of Greek Mythology is linked to the objects in the sky, though whether they grouped the stars according to their myths or created their myths to explain the star clusters, I could not say.
  • constellation@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A legend is connected therewith, according to which Gedi (the pole-star) slew Na'sh, whose children now are intent upon avenging the murder; while "Suhail" (Canopus) would rush to the slayer's aid (Wetzstein, in Franz Delitzsch, "Hiob," 2d ed., p. 501). .The assumed etymological affinity between "'Ash" and "Na'sh" is more than doubtful.^ I really want to take it this term, but the workload is more than I can handle between the farm and Brodie.
  • Constellation 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC members.shaw.ca [Source type: Original source]

Still, in Job 38:32 the "children" are also introduced, while it would be strange if this most brilliant group were omitted from Job 9:9.

"'Ash."

The vocalization "'Ayush" is proposed by Hoffmann (in Stade's "Zeitschrift," iii. 107); "'Iyush," by Brown-Briggs (Gesenius, s.v.); and "'Esch," by Friedrich Delitzsch (in "Hiob," xxxviii. 32), who previously identified it with "Moth," a star known as such to the Assyrians ("Assyr. Handwörterb." s.v. "săsu"), but in his "Hiob," in ix. 9, translates by the German equivalent of "Great Bear." Luther renders "Wagen" (Wagon), and in this has been followed by Ideler ("Sternnamen," pp. 21 et seq.), Hirzel, Ewald, Franz Delitzsch, Hitzig; and R. V. Stern (l.c.) maintains that the Pleiades are meant—a view accepted by Schrader, Nöldeke (Schenkel's "Bibel-Lexikon," iv. 370), and G. Hoffmann (l.c.). Merx writes "Canopus." Of the old versions, the LXX. in Job ix. 9 has Πλειάς, and in ib. xxxviii. 32, Ἕσπερος. The Vulgate and A. V. in ix. 9 have "Arcturus," and "Vesperus" and "Arcturus" respectively in xxxviii. 32. Targum in the former verse gives the Hebrew word; in the latter renders by the Aramaic for "hen" (=Pleiades). The Syriac has "'Iyuta" (= Aldabaran; see Merx, in xxxviii.) or the Hyades, which Jensen (l.c.) also suggests. Of this Syriac word, the Talmudical (image) in some manuscripts), Ber. 58b, is the East Aramaic form. .According to Levy, the latter is the seven-starred (Little) Bear; but in the passage itself R. Judah explains it as the tail of the Ram, if not the head of the Wagon or, according to Rashi, of the Bull.^ The IAU reforms assigned the shared stars to Ophiuchus, leaving Serpens in two disjoint pieces: Serpens Caput (the Serpent's Head) and Serpens Cauda (the Serpent's Tail).
  • SkyandTelescope.com - How To - Constellation Names and Abbreviations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.skyandtelescope.com [Source type: General]

^ The Pleiades are a nearby star cluster (Seven Sisters) which occupy a small portion of the constellation of Taurus, the bull, while the Great Square of Pegasus represents the horses body.
  • Constellations and Mythologies 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.astronomy.org [Source type: General]

^ Look for...The planet begins the month in the constellation Taurus, the bull, seven and...from the bright star Capella, in the constellation Auriga, the charioteer.
  • Constellation in Astronomy: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Kohut ("Aruch Completum," s.v.) derives it, as Stern and others before him, from the Greek ϒάδες, and explains it as a cluster of seven stars in the head of Taurus.^ It contains more bright stars clustered together than any other single group.
  • Well known Stars And Constellations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www2.potsdam.edu [Source type: General]

^ The Pleiades are a nearby star cluster (Seven Sisters) which occupy a small portion of the constellation of Taurus, the bull, while the Great Square of Pegasus represents the horses body.
  • Constellations and Mythologies 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.astronomy.org [Source type: General]

^ Look for...The planet begins the month in the constellation Taurus, the bull, seven and...from the bright star Capella, in the constellation Auriga, the charioteer.
  • Constellation in Astronomy: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

Of medieval Jewish commentators, Saadia identifies it with the Bear; ReDaḲ, again, in his dictionary, under (image) , explains (image) as the tail of the Ram. Ibn Ezra merely states that (image) = "seven stars." .Gersonides locates it as a constellation "within the sphere of the fixed stars."^ This star, located in the constellation Carina, is said to be Canopus, an island in the Nile.
  • CONSTELLATIONS & STARS - Greek Mythology Link 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Normally the team with the constellation information will locate the star cluster more rapidly, thus providing a practical reason for still using the constellations in the twentieth century.
  • Constellations and Mythologies 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.astronomy.org [Source type: General]

^ Star locations are accurate to within 1 minute of right ascension and 6 minutes of declination.
  • Science First :: STARLAB 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.starlab.com [Source type: General]

What terrestrial being (image) is, is not known. Ewald thinks of the Arabic "'ayyath" (lion), and says that the Hebrews called the group the "Lioness and Her Whelps."
Orion is undoubtedly designated by the Hebrew "Kesil" ("Fool"; see below) in Job ix. 9, xxxviii. 31; Amos v. 8; Isa. xiii. .10. Of the ancient versions, the LXX. has "Orion" in Job and Isaiah, while Targum and Peshiṭta render by "Giant."^ To the ancients, the figure represented the giant Orion, placed in the heavens, in a heroic gesture holding the shield against Taurus the mighty Bull.
  • Well known Stars And Constellations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www2.potsdam.edu [Source type: General]

.In this there is a reminiscence of an ancient, perhaps pre-Semitic, myth—also current in variants among the Greeks—concerning a giant bound to the sky, whom the Hebrews, with characteristic reflection upon his presumption to resist and defy heavenly power, labeled "Fool."^ As a result the Greeks had a number of alternate myths describing each of the star groups, as the foreign traditions were translated in different ways by the various regions and poetical traditions of ancient Greece.
  • Greek Mythology: THE CONSTELLATIONS, STAR MYTHS 1 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: General]

^ Much of Greek Mythology is linked to the objects in the sky, though whether they grouped the stars according to their myths or created their myths to explain the star clusters, I could not say.
  • constellation@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Greek myths are not much help here; there are many variations, but most agree that the Swan represented Zeus in disguise.
  • Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

Nimrod was associated with this "Fool" by later folk-lore. The question in Job about loosening the bands (xxxviii. .31) has reference to this, and not, as Dillmann contends (commentary, ad loc.), to the rise and fall of the stars according as the "rope with which they are drawn" is tightened or slacked.^ The constellation paintings below were made according to astronomical maps and the size of the pebbles has been carefully chosen in accordance with the magnitude and brightness of the stars they represent.

^ Much of Greek Mythology is linked to the objects in the sky, though whether they grouped the stars according to their myths or created their myths to explain the star clusters, I could not say.
  • constellation@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most ancient astronomers carefully followed tradition about exactly where to place every star because they believed that the "gods" had drawn the figures.
  • Enoch's Constellations Testify of Christ 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.johnpratt.com [Source type: Original source]

The Jewish medieval commentators hold the "Kesil" to have been either the Arabic "Suhail" (= Canopus) or Sirius. On the plural, in Isa. xiii. 10, see Jensen, l.c. (note also his suggestion that "Kesil" is a generic name for "comet").
"Kimah" (Job ix. 9, xxxviii. 31; Amos v. 8) is the "Hen" (Luther) with her brood. .Etymologically, the name signifies "a heap," and is thus very appropriately descriptive of the cluster, now known as the Pleiades, in the zodiacal sign of the Bull.^ The cluster is the head of the well known constellation "Taurus" the bull, named by the Greeks.
  • Well known Stars And Constellations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www2.potsdam.edu [Source type: General]

Pleiades.

Stern (l.c.) argues that "Kimah" is Sirius. In the Talmud occurs this statement: "But for the heat of Kesil, the world could not endure, on account of the excessive cold of the Pleiades, and vice versa" (Ber. 59a; B. M. 106b). "Kimah" is qualified as a planet ( (image) ; Ber. 58a); the etymology (image) is, of course, fanciful. The setting of the Pleiades is said to have been the cause of the Flood (Yer. Ta'an. i. 64a, at foot). According to Abu al-Walid, "Kimah" is the Arabic "Al-Thurayya" (= Pleiades). .Ibn Ezra reports that his predecessors held it to be a group of seven stars in the tail of the Ram, but he believes it to be a single star, "the left eye of Taurus."^ A fishhook-shaped row of stars trailing down and to the left of Antares forms the Scorpion's tail and stinger, while an upright row of three stars to Antares's right marks the location of its claws.
  • Astronomy.com - Learn the constellations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.astronomy.com [Source type: General]

^ It contains more bright stars clustered together than any other single group.
  • Well known Stars And Constellations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www2.potsdam.edu [Source type: General]

^ Look for...The planet begins the month in the constellation Taurus, the bull, seven and...from the bright star Capella, in the constellation Auriga, the charioteer.
  • Constellation in Astronomy: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

In Job xxxviii. 31 A. V. occurs the puzzling phrase "the sweet influences of Pleiades" (R. V. "cluster of the Pleiades"; margin, "chain"); (image) , as shown by the parallelism with the "bands of Orion," and the expression "canst thou bind," is a transposition of (image) ("chains" or "fetters"). Some mythological allusion is probably hidden in the expression.
Ḳimḥi's explanation, that the reference is to the ripening of the fruit ("Kesil"), or the reverse ("Kimah"), is plainly too rationalistic, notwithstanding the Talmudic authority he quotes or the opinion of his father (under (image) ).
What "Mazzarot" (Job xxxviii. 32) may be is still unsettled. Perhaps it is identical with "Mazzalot" (II Kings xxiii. 5). If so, it might designate Saturn or the seven planets. Stern (l.c.) would have this strange expression denote the Hyades. .Ewald, for the passage in Job, claims the reference to be to the Northern and Southern Crowns, corresponding to the "chambers of the South" ("Teman") in Job ix.^ Triangulum Australe, the Southern Triange Much more prominent than its northern counterpart, Triangulum , this group lies south of Norma .
  • Stories Behind the Constellations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.pooh-corner.org [Source type: General]

^ This constellation is sometimes referred to as the "Southern Cross", the "Northern Cross" being a nickname for Cygnus .
  • Stories Behind the Constellations 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.pooh-corner.org [Source type: General]

.9. Others have suggested the constellation of the Southern Ship, characterized in an Arabic translation as the "heart of the South"; others again suggest Sirius.^ Greek constellations on which our present-day...translated into Arabic in about AD 820, means...mission was the X-ray astronomy satellite Ariel...gen.
  • Constellation in Astronomy: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

Friedrich Delitzsch leaves the problem open, simply transliterating the Hebrew (see his "Hiob," p. 169, note to verses 31 et seq.). It has also been held to designate the Zodiac.
According to Schrader (Schenkel, "Bibel-Lexikon," v. 398), the constellation of the Dragon is mentioned in Job xxii. 13 (R. V. "swift serpent"); but this is very problematic. Winckler has suggested to read for "Nadgalot"; in Cant. iv. 4, 10, "Nergalot"; i.e., the Twins (Gemini; see "Altorientalische, Forschungen," i. 293).
Bibliography: Ideler, Sternamen, 1869; the commentaries on Job of Dillmann, Hitzig, Merx, Ewald, Franz Delitzsch; Winer, B. R. ii. 526 et seq.; Riehm, Wörterbuch, 2d ed., ii. 1573 et seq.; Hastings, Dict. Bible, s.v. Astronomy; Schenkel, Bibelwörterbuch, iv. 370, v., s.v. Sterne.
This entry includes text from the Jewish Encyclopedia, 1906.

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 30, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Constellation, which are similar to those in the above article.








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