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Political posters in an exhibition celebrating 20 years of the Spanish Constitution of 1978.

Constituent Cortes (Spanish: Cortes constituyentes) is the description of the Cortes (Spanish parliament) when convened as a constituent assembly.

In the 20th century, only one Constituent Cortes was officially opened ("Cortes" are "opened" in accordance with a mediaeval royal proclamation), and that was the Republican Cortes in 1931.

The Cortes, in 1977, passed the new Spanish constitution; however, that was never officially considered "constituent", as the 1977 general elections were not mandated to consider a new constitution, but to rule under the constitution of the former dictatorship - the so called "Leyes Fundamentales" (fundamental laws). However, there was significant pressure from King Juan Carlos for the 1977 Cortes to draft a new constitution, and it is consequently frequently treated much like a constituent Cortes.

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