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.A constitution is a set of rules for government—often codified as a written document—that enumerates and limits the powers and functions of a political entity.^ The Constitution, by both its general design and its terms as written , limits government to the powers delegated.
  • The Constitution For The United States, Its Sources and Its Applications - Preface and Preamble 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Constitution and rules of political parties.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The constitution and rules of a political party shall- .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

These rules together make up, i.e. constitute, what the entity is. In the case of countries and autonomous regions of federal countries the term refers specifically to a constitution defining the fundamental political principles, and establishing the structure, procedures, powers and duties, of a government. .By limiting the government's own reach, most constitutions guarantee certain rights to the people.^ Each of these constitutions are the sources of their own rights.

^ Land, bowels of the earth, water, airspace, animal and vegetable kingdoms, and other natural resources are owned by the state, and the state guarantees their effective use in the interests of the people.
  • constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.osi.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ TO THE END , that justice be established, public order maintained, and liberty perpetuated; WE, the People of the State of Indiana, grateful to ALMIGHTY GOD for the free exercise of the right to choose our own form of government, do ordain this Constitution.
  • Constitution of the State of Indiana : Indiana Law 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.law.indiana.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The term constitution can be applied to any overall system of law that defines the functioning of a government, including several uncodified historical constitutions that existed before the development of modern codified constitutions.^ The constitution also lacked a system of local government.
  • North Carolina Constitution - Ballotpedia 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC ballotpedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The law defines the terms: worker and peasant.
  • The Constitution of Syria 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.mideastinfo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Any other functions stipulated in the Constitution and Law.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Yemen, 1994 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.al-bab.com [Source type: Original source]

.Constitutions concern different levels of political organization.^ The organization of local people's congresses and local people's governments at different levels is prescribed by law.
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC english.people.com.cn [Source type: Original source]

^ Article (57) In as much as it is not contrary to the Constitution, the citizens may organize themselves along political, professional and union lines.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Yemen, 1994 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.al-bab.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Already political organizations and journalists are reading the materials on our site to get constitutional information.

.They exist at national (e.g., codified Constitution of Canada, uncodified Constitution of the United Kingdom), regional (e.g., the Massachusetts Constitution), and sometimes lower levels.^ SEARCH   UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION   and CONSTITUTIONAL LAWS OF NATIONS   .
  • 1935 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES - CHAN ROBLES VIRTUAL LAW LIBRARY 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.chanrobles.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Constitution Tested: Nationalism and Sectionalism Practice Test High School level quiz on Constitutional issues in American history from Prentice Hall.

^ The Kingdom of Cambodia shall recognize and respect human rights as stipulated in the United Nations Charter, the Universal Declaration of Human rights, the covenants and conventions related to human rights, women’s and children’s rights.
  • Royal Cambodian Embassy in Washington, DC - Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.embassy.org [Source type: Original source]

.They also define many political and other groups, such as political parties, pressure groups, and trade unions.^ Status of associations, political parties and trade unions.

^ Nigeria or any such executive or administrative action, any privilege or advantage that is not accorded to citizens of Nigeria of other communities, ethnic groups, places of origin, sex, religions or political opinions.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Every political party shall submit to the Independent National Electoral Commission a detailed annual statement and analysis of its sources of funds and other assets together with a similar statement of its expenditure in such form as the Commission may require.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

.A supranational constitution is possible (e.g., proposed European Union constitution).^ Article 117  [State and Regional Legislative Power] (1) Legislative power belongs to the state and the regions in accordance with the constitution and within the limits set by european union law and international obligations.
  • ICL - Italy - Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.servat.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

^ Main page Constitution 41st National Assembly Legislation European Union Press Center History and Facts Archives Gallery Feedback .
  • National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.parliament.bg [Source type: Original source]

^ I have avoided much criticism of the proposed European "constitution" because I wanted to let the Europeans discover its shortcomings for themselves.

.The traditional absolute sovereignty of modern nations assumed in a constitution is often limited by binding international treaties such as the American Convention on Human Rights which binds the 24 American countries that have ratified it, and the European Convention on Human Rights which binds the 47 member countries of the Council of Europe.^ To approve or reject international treaties and conventions; 4.
  • Haiti: Constitution, 1987 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.georgetown.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ B. To ratify international treaties and agreements after the approval by the Council of Representatives.
  • Full Text of Iraqi Constitution - washingtonpost.com 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He shall negotiate ratify international treaties and agreements in accordance with the constitution.

.Non-political entities such as corporations and voluntary associations, whether incorporated or not, often have what is effectively a constitution, often called memorandum and articles of association (U.S. incorporation).^ To charter and regulate corporations, cooperatives, associations, special districts, educational and charitable institutions, political subdivisions, and other entities; .
  • Skokomish Tribal Constitution, 1938 and Amended 1980 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.skokomish.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the most important of such rights, established in Part 17 and especially Article 119, is that of citizens to form political parties and participate in elections.
  • Nepal Constitution Article 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC asnic.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This Church shall be known as the PIKE BAPTIST CHURCH of BLUE RIDGE, TEXAS, a non-profit corporation, organized under the laws of the state of Texas, articles of incorporation.
  • Church Constitution - Pike Baptist Church 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.pikebaptist.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Constitution of India is the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world[1], containing 448 articles, 12 schedules and 94 amendments, with 117,369 words in its English language version[2].^ Article XII. Amend­ment of Constitution Section 12.1 Amendment.
  • SCBar // Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.scbar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Articles on the Consitution Comparative tables of Articles of the Constitution of Pakistan,1973 replaced Constitution of 1962 and 1956, the Constitution of Indian 1950 and the government of India Act, 1935 Important Presidential Orders, Chief Executive orders; and all Constitution Amendments Acts.

^ Constitution of the United States Preamble Article I Article II Article III Article IV Article V Article VI Article VII AMENDMENTS Introduction Written in 1787, ratified in 1788, and in operation since 1789, the United States Constitution is the world’s longest surviving written charter of government.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Etymology

.The term constitution comes from a Latin term denoting an important law, usually one proclaimed by the Roman emperor ("constitutiones principis": the edicta, mandata, decrera and rescripta)[3].^ If the President does not issue the law, it comes into effect under the power of the Constitution, and is, at once, published in the Official Gazette and come into operation two weeks later.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Yemen, 1994 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.al-bab.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the case of death or of incapacity of one of the two candidates coming in ahead as a result of the first round, the Constitutional Council decides on the complete repetition of the electoral operations.
  • Ivoirian Constitution - U.S. Embassy Abidjan, Cote D'Ivoire 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC abidjan.usembassy.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ No one may deprive another person of any rights or freedoms or limit her or his rights in any manner other than in accordance with the Constitution and laws.
  • Constitution of Turkmenistan 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.uta.edu [Source type: Original source]

Later, the term was widely used in canon law for an important determination, especially by the Pope, which are now referred to as apostolic constitutions.

General features

.Generally, every modern constitution confers specific powers to an organization or institutional entity, established upon the primary condition that it abides by the said constitution's limitations.^ To organize general referendums in accordance with the Constitution.
  • Constitution Of The Republic Of Sudan 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.sudan.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Subject to the conditions of the Agreement between this Organization and the United Nations Organization, approved pursuant to Article X of this Constitution, states not members of the United Nations Organization may be admitted to membership of the Organization, upon recommendation of the Executive Board, by a two-thirds majority vote of the General Conference.
  • UNESCO Constitution: UNESCO 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC portal.unesco.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While the Dominion parliament has entrusted to it a jurisdiction over matters of national import, and possesses besides a general power to legislate on matters not specifically reserved to the local legislatures, the latter nevertheless have had conferred upon them powers as plenary and ample within the limits prescribed by the constitutional law as are possessed by the general parliament.
  • The Constitution. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.blupete.com [Source type: Original source]

According to Scott Gordon, a political organization is constitutional to the extent that it "contain[s] institutionalized mechanisms of power control for the protection of the interests and liberties of the citizenry, including those that may be in the minority."[4]
.The Latin term ultra vires describes activities of officials within an organization or polity that fall outside the constitutional or statutory authority of those officials.^ Constitutional authority of states authorities within the country.

^ Suppose, for example, that there are exactly one-million simples and suppose it is vague whether or not the activity of those simples constitutes a life.
  • Material Constitution (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In those cases where a procedure to fill a vacancy is unspecified, the Board of Directors has the authority to appoint an individual to serve the unexpired term.
  • ASEE.org - About ASEE - Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.asee.org [Source type: Original source]

.For example, a students' union may be prohibited as an organization from engaging in activities not concerning students; if the union becomes involved in non-student activities these activities are considered ultra vires of the union's charter, and nobody would be compelled by the charter to follow them.^ Prescribe in consultation with the Finance Board, the necessary financial reporting standards that shall be required of all Union Organizations, including the Union Government and Finance Board itself to receive their respective portions of the Student Activities Fee.
  • Student Union Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC union.brandeis.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ As such, they shall be entitled to the following privileges: The ability to submit budgets and budget adjustments to the Finance Board ahead of Chartered Organizations.
  • Student Union Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC union.brandeis.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ ARTICLE 56: An alien may be expelled from the territory of the Republic if he becomes involved in the political life of the country, or in cases determined by law.
  • Haiti: Constitution, 1987 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.georgetown.edu [Source type: Academic]

.An example from the constitutional law of nation-states would be a provincial government in a federal state trying to legislate in an area exclusively enumerated to the federal government in the constitution, such as ratifying a treaty.^ The national government may delegate powers by law to the state governments.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Palau 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.paclii.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Extent of Federal and State Legislative powers .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ TREATY , is supreme law prevailing over States.
  • The Constitution For The United States, Its Sources and Its Applications - Court Case Index 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.Ultra vires gives a legal justification for the forced cessation of such action, which might be enforced by the people with the support of a decision of the judiciary, in a case of judicial review.^ Such confirmation gives it the force of law.
  • Constitution < Vefflokkar < Hli�arval < Government Offices 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.government.is [Source type: Original source]

^ The simple fact of the existence of such a band does nothing towards proving that "the people of the United States," or any one of them, voluntarily supports the Constitution.
  • No Treason: The Constitution of No Authority 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC tmh.floonet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It still must deliver ground forces ashore, provide supporting fires, sustain the operation, and withdraw for future actions.
  • First Responder ­ USS New York commissioning 18 January 2010 13:34 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

.A violation of rights by an official would be ultra vires because a (constitutional) right is a restriction on the powers of government, and therefore that official would be exercising powers he doesn't have.^ It shall exercise its full constitutional powers.
  • ICL - Bahrain Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.oefre.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

^ Rights, restrictions on delegated powers.

^ A constitutional provision that protects a right restricts powers, and a delegation of a power restricts rights.

In most but not all modern states the constitution has supremacy over ordinary statute law (see Uncodified constitution below); in such states when an official act is unconstitutional, i.e. it is not a power granted to the government by the constitution, that act is null and void, and the nullification is ab initio, that is, from inception, not from the date of the finding. .It was never "law", even though, if it had been a statute or statutory provision, it might have been adopted according to the procedures for adopting legislation.^ The law regulates legislative procedures.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Hungary 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.lectlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Investigatory committees operate according to the procedures set by law.
  • Presidenti i Republikes se Shqiperise 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.president.al [Source type: Original source]

^ PART 2 Legislation and Procedure in Parliament Power to make laws.
  • 1983 Saint Kitts and Nevis Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Sometimes the problem is not that a statute is unconstitutional, but the application of it is, on a particular occasion, and a court may decide that while there are ways it could be applied that are constitutional, that instance was not allowed or legitimate.^ There may be no particular namesake.
  • Ex Astris Scientia - Federation Ship Names A-K 18 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.ex-astris-scientia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Article 131 The Constitutional Court decides on: .
  • Presidenti i Republikes se Shqiperise 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.president.al [Source type: Original source]

^ Decisions of the constitutional court may not be appealed.
  • ICL - Italy - Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.servat.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

.In such a case, only the application may be ruled unconstitutional.^ The Board of Directors may adopt such rules as may be necessary to ensure due process to the member.
  • Psi Chi Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.psichi.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Article 31  [Restrictions] The public rights and freedoms stated in this Constitution may only be regulated or limited by or in accordance with the law, and such regulation or limitation may not prejudice the essence of the right or freedom.
  • ICL - Bahrain Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.oefre.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

^ The Supreme Court may provide by rule for appeals from the Appellate Court in other cases.
  • Illinois Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.ilga.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Historically, the remedy for such violations have been petitions for common law writs, such as quo warranto.^ Courts of Justice for the injured person upon request of such person if it deems appropriate for the resolution of human rights violation problem as a whole as provided by law; .
  • Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand 2007 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.asianlii.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Where death ensues from any injury to employees, the legal or personal representatives of the person injured shall have the same right and remedies as are allowed by law to such representatives of other persons.
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF MISSISSIPPI 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.sos.state.ms.us [Source type: Original source]

^ It shall have power to issue prerogative writs, and shall also have such other jurisdiction as may, from time to time, by prescribed by law.
  • The State of Rhode Island General Laws 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.rilin.state.ri.us [Source type: Original source]

History and development

Early legal codes

.Excavations in modern-day Iraq by Ernest de Sarzec in 1877 found evidence of the earliest known code of justice, issued by the Sumerian king Urukagina of Lagash ca 2300 BC. Perhaps the earliest prototype for a law of government, this document itself has not yet been discovered; however it is known that it allowed some rights to his citizens.^ The citizens are equal before the law in their rights and duties.
  • The Constitution of Syria 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.mideastinfo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Any Albanian citizen with higher education, and with recognized knowledge and recognized activity in the field of human rights and law may be the People's Advocate.
  • Presidenti i Republikes se Shqiperise 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.president.al [Source type: Original source]

^ Article (50) Citizens have the right of recourse to the courts to protect their rights and lawful interests.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Yemen, 1994 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.al-bab.com [Source type: Original source]

For example, it is known that it relieved tax for widows and orphans, and protected the poor from the usury of the rich.
Detail from Hammurabi's stele shows him receiving the laws of Babylon from the seated sun deity.
.After that, many governments ruled by special codes of written laws.^ Special laws; local government.

^ A special meeting shall be held if a written request to that effect is made by at least sixteen of the representatives on the Governing Body.
  • Constitution of the International Labour Organization - UN Documents: Gathering a body of global agreements 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.un-documents.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The law shall clarify the special rules that concern the Council.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Yemen, 1994 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.al-bab.com [Source type: Original source]

The oldest such document still known to exist seems to be the Code of Ur-Nammu of Ur (ca 2050 BC). Some of the better-known ancient law codes include the code of Lipit-Ishtar of Isin, the code of Hammurabi of Babylonia, the Hittite code, the Assyrian code and Mosaic law.

Later constitutions

.In 621 BC a scribe named Draco codified the cruel oral laws of the city-state of Athens; this code prescribed the death penalty for many offences (nowadays very severe rules are often called "Draconian").^ The prevalence of the law is the basis of the rule in the State.
  • Embassy of Qatar - Constitution of Qatar 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.qatarembassy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The organization of the State Council is prescribed by law.
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC english.people.com.cn [Source type: Original source]

^ The relationship between the residents' and villagers' committees and the grass-roots organs of state power is prescribed by law.
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC english.people.com.cn [Source type: Original source]

.In 594 BC Solon, the ruler of Athens, created the new Solonian Constitution.^ The Constitution Party gratefully acknowledges the blessing of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ as Creator, Preserver and Ruler of the Universe and of these United States.

.It eased the burden of the workers, and determined that membership of the ruling class was to be based on wealth (plutocracy), rather than by birth (aristocracy).^ The People's Republic of China is a socialist state under the people's democratic dictatorship led by the working class and based on the alliance of workers and peasants.
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC english.people.com.cn [Source type: Original source]

^ The Board shall determine which issues/changes/additions/deletions to any rules, standards, or requirements must be decided by the full Active Membership.
  • Sedgley Woods Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.sedgleywoods.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, libertarians seek to RESTORE the Rule of Law rather than allow the government to do as it wishes and continually break the law, namely the Constitution, the highest law in the land.
  • Internet Archive: Free Download: Constitution Class taught by Michael Badnarik 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

Cleisthenes again reformed the Athenian constitution and set it on a democratic footing in 508 BC.
.Aristotle (ca 350 BC) was one of the first in recorded history to make a formal distinction between ordinary law and constitutional law, establishing ideas of constitution and constitutionalism, and attempting to classify different forms of constitutional government.^ The Constitutional Council is [the] judge of the constitutionality of the law.
  • Ivoirian Constitution - U.S. Embassy Abidjan, Cote D'Ivoire 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC abidjan.usembassy.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Constitution is the first law of the state.

^ The other to establish the Constitution and laws.
  • Constitution of Honduras - English Translation 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.honduras.com [Source type: Original source]

.The most basic definition he used to describe a constitution in general terms was "the arrangement of the offices in a state". In his works Constitution of Athens, Politics, and Nicomachean Ethics he explores different constitutions of his day, including those of Athens, Sparta, and Carthage.^ The State Constitution Study Commission worked throughout most of 1968.
  • The Constitution of North Carolina 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC statelibrary.ncdcr.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Terms of office; general election dates.
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF MISSISSIPPI 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.sos.state.ms.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The Founders did not, in general, use dictionary definitions of their terms.

.He classified both what he regarded as good and bad constitutions, and came to the conclusion that the best constitution was a mixed system, including monarchic, aristocratic, and democratic elements.^ Article 4 goes on to define the nature of the kingdom - i.e., the state: Nepal is a multiethnic, multilingual, democratic, independent, indivisible, sovereign, Hindu and Constitutional Monarchical Kingdom.
  • Nepal Constitution Article 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC asnic.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A jury verdict, in a criminal case, as a matter of constitutional law, is not a judgment of whether the accused is a "good" guy or a "bad" guy, or whether what he is alleged to have done is "right" or "wrong".

^ The social security system be implemented in gradual and progressive, both with regard to the risks covered as to the geographical areas and to the categories of workers covered .
  • Constitution of Honduras - English Translation 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.honduras.com [Source type: Original source]

.He also distinguished between citizens, who had the right to participate in the state, and non-citizens and slaves, who did not.^ Every citizen shall have the right and the duty to participate in the defence of the State.
  • Constitution of Indonesia 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC asnic.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Citizens of Turkmenistan who have the right to vote may participate in referenda.
  • Constitution of Turkmenistan 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.uta.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Citizens have equal rights to state service.
  • constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.osi.hu [Source type: Original source]

The Romans first codified their constitution in 449 BC as the Twelve Tables. .They operated under a series of laws that were added from time to time, but Roman law was never reorganised into a single code until the Codex Theodosianus (AD 438); later, in the Eastern Empire the Codex repetitæ prælectionis (534) was highly influential throughout Europe.^ Under the responsibility of the Government and the administrative authorities of the Regions, they shall promote social and economic development programmes as provided by the law.

^ They shall, also, prescribe the time for holding the first election of members of Congress under this Constitution, and the time for assembling the same.
  • The Confederate States of America Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC americancivilwar.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Whatever bankruptcy laws exist at the time a debt is incurred remain in effect for that debt until it is paid, regardless of future laws to the contrary.
  • Constitution of Oceania - The NEWEST Country 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.oceania.org [Source type: Original source]

This was followed in the east by the Ecloga of Leo III the Isaurian (740) and the Basilica of Basil I (878).
.The Edicts of Ashoka established constitutional principles for the 3rd century BC Maurya king's rule in Ancient India.^ They establish and implement their own taxes and revenues, in harmony with the constitution and in accordance with the principles of coordination of the public finances and the taxation system.
  • ICL - Italy - Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.servat.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

^ Except as provided in this constitution, the Tribal Council shall establish its own rules of procedure.
  • Skokomish Tribal Constitution, 1938 and Amended 1980 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.skokomish.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The qualifications of the electors shall be constitutionally prescribed by the Legislatures of the States; to whom, likewise, appertains the regulation of the elections, in conformity with the principles established by this Constitution .
  • Mexican Constitution of 1824 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tamu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Many of the Germanic peoples that filled the power vacuum left by the Western Roman Empire in the Early Middle Ages codified their laws.^ That all power of suspending laws, or the execution of laws, by any authority, without consent of the representatives of the people, is injurious to their rights, and ought not to be exercised.
  • Virginia General Assembly - Constitution of Virginia 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC legis.state.va.us [Source type: Original source]

^ In order to ensure the effective separation of the parties from State power, the law determines the social and public offices that cannot be filled by any member or officer of any party.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Hungary 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.lectlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All laws and resolutions of the National Assembly or Peoples Power, barring those in relation to reforms in the Constitution, are adopted by a simple majority vote.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Cuba 1992 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.cubanet.org [Source type: Original source]

.One of the first of these Germanic law codes to be written was the Visigothic Code of Euric (471).^ These ideas gave rise to legal aspirations (Rechtsidee) which encompassed the basic law of the state, both the written (the constitution) and the unwritten.
  • Constitution of Indonesia 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC asnic.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But outside choir it will be lawful to select any one of these three, according to the respective time of the day.
  • Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy Sacrosanctum Concilium 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the most successful of these missions, code-named Ivy Bells, was the tapping of a vital Soviet undersea communications cable.
  • USS Casimir Pulaski (SSBN-633) -- The Story Of A Cold War Warrior 18 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.usscasimirpulaski.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This was followed by the Lex Burgundionum, applying separate codes for Germans and for Romans; the Pactus Alamannorum; and the Salic Law of the Franks, all written soon after 500. In 506, the Breviarum or "Lex Romana" of Alaric II, king of the Visigoths, adopted and consolidated the Codex Theodosianus together with assorted earlier Roman laws.^ These cosmic laws that Dan Lungren follows aren’t really written down anywhere.
  • Irregular Times » constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC irregulartimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All controversies mentioned in Article 103 shall be subject to the legal forms and procedure prescribed by law, on the following bases: .
  • 1917 Constitution of Mexico 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.ilstu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ All revenues and moneys howsoever raised or received by a State shall, subject to Clause (3) and to any law, be paid into and form one fund, to be known as the Consolidated Fund of the State.
  • Constitution of Malaysia - Wikisource 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

Systems that appeared somewhat later include the Edictum Rothari of the Lombards (643), the Lex Visigothorum (654), the Lex Alamannorum (730) and the Lex Frisionum (ca 785). .These continental codes were all composed in Latin, whilst Anglo-Saxon was used for those of England, beginning with the Code of Ethelbert of Kent (602).^ The President shall preside at all meeting of the Club and of the Board, and shall have the duties and powers normally appurtenance to the office of President in addition to those particularly specified in these by-laws.
  • Shiloh Shepherd Dog Club of America Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.shilohshepherds.info [Source type: Original source]

^ In so much as 2007 will be the first election under these Bylaws, all seven positions will be elected using the procedures provided in these Bylaws.
  • United Alaskan Klee Kai Association: Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.uakka.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All references in these Bylaws to a section or sections of the Internal Revenue Code shall be to such sections of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 as amended from time to time, or to corresponding provisions of any future federal tax code.
  • United Alaskan Klee Kai Association: Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.uakka.com [Source type: Original source]

In ca. .893, Alfred the Great combined this and two other earlier Saxon codes, with various Mosaic and Christian precepts, to produce the Doom Book code of laws for England.^ HE has combined with others to subject us to a Jurisdiction foreign to our Constitution, and unacknowledged by our Laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation: .
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Federation and any other country, or any decision of an international organization of which the Federation is a member; or (b) for the purpose of promoting uniformity of the laws of two or more State; or (c) if so requested by the Legislative Assembly of any State.
  • Constitution of Malaysia - Wikisource 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If after such reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a law.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.proconstitution.com [Source type: Original source]

.Japan's Seventeen-article constitution written in 604, reportedly by Prince Shōtoku, is an early example of a constitution in Asian political history.^ Article seventeen of the amendments to the constitution is amended to read as follows: .
  • The Connecticut Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.cslib.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Article (57) In as much as it is not contrary to the Constitution, the citizens may organize themselves along political, professional and union lines.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Yemen, 1994 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.al-bab.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To the political subdivisions of the state as provided in Article VII, Sections 4 (D) and (E) of this constitution.
  • State Constitution of 1974 > Article VII:  Revenue and Finance 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC senate.legis.state.la.us [Source type: Original source]

.Influenced by Buddhist teachings, the document focuses more on social morality than institutions of government per se and remains a notable early attempt at a government constitution.^ Although considerably larger than VALLEY FORGE, CONSTITUTION was not significantly more complex, outside of its main M/AM reactor and warp nacelles.
  • The Starfleet Museum - Pyotr Velikiy Class and Constitution Class 18 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.starfleet-museum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The name of this organization shall be the IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Society (ITSS) and it shall be governed in accordance with the Constitution and Bylaws of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
  • IEEE ITSS Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.ewh.ieee.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A Locality is a Government level that does not encompass more than 100 square kilometers.
  • Constitution of Oceania - The NEWEST Country 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.oceania.org [Source type: Original source]

.Another is the Constitution of Medina, drafted by the prophet of Islam, Muhammad, in 622. It is said to be one of the earliest constitutions which guarantees basic rights to religions and adherents as well as reinforcing a judiciary process regarding the rules of warfare, tax and civil disputes.^ The Constitution guarantees as natural and civil rights: .
  • The Constitution of 1791 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC sourcebook.fsc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Constitution guarantees likewise as natural and civil rights: .
  • The Constitution of 1791 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC sourcebook.fsc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ TITLE III Basic Rights and Duties of the Citizen CHAPTER I The Nature of the Citizenship ARTICLE 16: Citizenship entails both civil and political rights.
  • Haiti: Constitution, 1987 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.georgetown.edu [Source type: Academic]

In Wales, the Cyfraith Hywel was codified by Hywel Dda c. 942–950.
.The Pravda Yaroslava, originally combined by Yaroslav the Wise the Grand Prince of Kiev, was granted to Great Novgorod around 1017, and in 1054 was incorporated into the Russkaya Pravda, that became the law for all of Kievan Rus.^ All grants and commissions shall be in the name and by the authority of the State of Nevada, sealed with the Great Seal of the State, signed by the Governor and counter-signed by the Secretary of State.
  • THE CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF NEVADA 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.leg.state.nv.us [Source type: Original source]

^ All revenues and moneys howsoever raised or received by a State shall, subject to Clause (3) and to any law, be paid into and form one fund, to be known as the Consolidated Fund of the State.
  • Constitution of Malaysia - Wikisource 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There shall be in and for Kiribati a Consolidated Fund into which, subject to the provisions of any law in force in Kiribati, shall be paid all revenues of the Government.
  • Parliament of Kiribati - Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.parliament.gov.ki [Source type: Original source]

It survived only in later editions of the 15th century.
The Gayanashagowa, or 'oral' constitution of the Iroquois nation, has been estimated to date from between 1090 and 1150. It is also thought to have provided a partial inspiration for the US Constitution and Bill of Rights, as was recognised by the US Congress in a resolution passed in October, 1988.
.In England, Henry I's proclamation of the Charter of Liberties in 1100 bound the king for the first time in his treatment of the clergy and the nobility.^ The King may convoke the Legislative Assembly at any time and may dissolve it at his pleasure and command that new representatives of the nobles and people be elected to enter the Assembly.
  • Constitution of Tonga 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.paclii.org [Source type: Original source]

^ July 2 - USS CONSTITUTION leaves Boston, for the first time in over thirty years, for a goodwill tour of ports on the New England coast.
  • USS Constitution 14" Ship Model for Sale - Tall Ships Replicas - USS Constitution - Tall Ship Models 18 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.tallshipmodels.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This idea was extended and refined by the English barony when they forced King John to sign Magna Carta in 1215. The most important single article of the Magna Carta, related to "habeas corpus", provided that the king was not permitted to imprison, outlaw, exile or kill anyone at a whim—there must be due process of law first.^ Due process of law .
  • OCIS Document Index 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.oscn.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Due process of law.
  • OK Constitution Articles 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.lsb.state.ok.us [Source type: Academic]
  • Document Title 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.neded.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Article 1, Section 9, Clause 2: "The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it."

This article, Article 39, of the Magna Carta read:
No free man shall be arrested, or imprisoned, or deprived of his property, or outlawed, or exiled, or in any way destroyed, nor shall we go against him or send against him, unless by legal judgement of his peers, or by the law of the land.
Constitution of May 3, 1791 (painting by Jan Matejko, 1891). Polish King Stanisław August (left, in regal ermine-trimmed cloak), enters St. John's Cathedral, where Sejm deputies will swear to uphold the new Constitution; in background, Warsaw's Royal Castle, where the Constitution has just been adopted.
This provision became the cornerstone of English liberty after that point. .The social contract in the original case was between the king and the nobility, but was gradually extended to all of the people.^ The King is the Sovereign of all the Chiefs and all the people.
  • Constitution of Tonga 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.paclii.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In all cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction.
  • Supreme Law Library : Reference : White House Constitution : whuscons 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.supremelaw.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution (vessel) Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Constitution (vessel) 18 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The State shall strengthen military and mass discipline in the army and promote the display of the noble traditional trait of unity between officers and men and unity between the army and the people.
  • Socialist Constitution of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (Full Text) 1998 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.novexcn.com [Source type: Original source]

.It led to the system of Constitutional Monarchy, with further reforms shifting the balance of power from the monarchy and nobility to the House of Commons.^ They base our political system on a constitutional monarchy founded on counsel [shura], which in Islam is the highest model for governance, and on the people's participation in the exercise of power, which is the foundation of modern political thought.
  • ICL - Bahrain Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.oefre.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

^ Revision or amendment affecting the system of liberal and pluralistic democracy and the regime of Constitutional Monarchy shall be prohibited.
  • Royal Cambodian Embassy in Washington, DC - Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.embassy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Return to the money system set forth in the Constitution; Repeal the Federal Reserve Act, and reform the current Federal Reserve banks to become clearing houses only; and Prohibit fractional reserve banking.

In 1222, Hungarian King Andrew II issued the Golden Bull of 1222.
Between 1220 and 1230, a Saxon administrator, Eike von Repgow, composed the Sachsenspiegel, which became the supreme law used in parts of Germany as late as 1900.
.In 1236, Sundiata Keita presented an oral constitution federating the Mali Empire, called the Kouroukan Fouga.^ The area is called Constitution Wharf and is the present site of Coast Guard Base, Boston, on Atlantic Avenue.
  • MM33 Celebrating The History Of The USS Constitution 18 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.legendinc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There shall be constituted for the purposes of this Chapter a Court to be called the Federal Shariat Court.
  • The Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.ljcp.gov.pk [Source type: Original source]

^ We call for a return to the states and to the people all lands which are held by the federal government without authorization by the Constitution.

Meanwhile, around 1240, the Coptic Egyptian Christian writer, 'Abul Fada'il Ibn al-'Assal, wrote the Fetha Negest in Arabic. 'Ibn al-Assal took his laws partly from apostolic writings and Mosaic law, and partly from the former Byzantine codes. .There are a few historical records claiming that this law code was translated into Ge'ez and entered Ethiopia around 1450 in the reign of Zara Yaqob.^ The draft law for the revision of the Constitution enters into force after ratification by referendum, which takes place not later than 60 days after its approval in the Assembly.
  • Presidenti i Republikes se Shqiperise 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.president.al [Source type: Original source]

^ There shall be in and for Kiribati a Consolidated Fund into which, subject to the provisions of any law in force in Kiribati, shall be paid all revenues of the Government.
  • Parliament of Kiribati - Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.parliament.gov.ki [Source type: Original source]

^ There shall be a right of appeal in all cases to a court of record from a court not of record; and there shall also be a right of appeal from a court of record or from an administrative agency to a court of record or to an appellate court, the selection of such court to be as provided by law; and there shall be such other rights of appeal as may be provided by law.
  • Constitution of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC sites.state.pa.us [Source type: Original source]

Even so, its first recorded use in the function of a constitution (supreme law of the land) is with Sarsa Dengel beginning in 1563. The Fetha Negest remained the supreme law in Ethiopia until 1931, when a modern-style Constitution was first granted by Emperor Haile Selassie I.
.Stefan Dušan, Emperor of Serbs and Greeks, made and enforced Dušan's Code in Serbia, in two state congresses: in 1349 in Skopje and in 1354 in Serres.^ George Dewey, the hero of the Battle of Manila Bay, testified before Congress in 1900 in support of Holland's submarines, the United States made a firm commitment.
  • First Responder ­ USS New York commissioning 18 January 2010 13:34 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

^ The legislative power of the United Mexican States is vested in a General Congress, which shall be divided into two chambers, one of deputies and the other of senators.
  • 1917 Constitution of Mexico 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.ilstu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
  • The United States Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • Constitution (vessel) Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Constitution (vessel) 18 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.In China, the Hongwu Emperor created and refined a document he called Ancestral Injunctions (first published in 1375, revised twice more before his death in 1398).^ "Extreme unction," which may also and more fittingly be called "anointing of the sick," is not a sacrament for those only who are at the point of death.
  • Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy Sacrosanctum Concilium 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.vatican.va [Source type: Original source]

^ To the Middle East Facts visitor - this document was written in 1964, three years before the so-called "Israeli occupation".

^ The nominations received shall then first be published in this periodical before a call is extended, so that any member-congregation may file commendations or objections with the Committee.

.These rules served in a very real sense as a constitution for the Ming Dynasty for the next 250 years.^ A judge is guided by the rule of the Constitution and law and it shall be his duty to protect these principles by distributing justice without fear or favour.
  • Constitution Of The Republic Of Sudan 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.sudan.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Consequently we have no proof that any very large portion, even of the actual voters of the United States, ever really and voluntarily consented to the Constitution, even for the time being .
  • No Treason: The Constitution of No Authority 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC tmh.floonet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ ARTICLE 287: In light of the situation of Haitians that have become expatriates voluntarily or involuntarily the deadlines for residence stipulated in this Constitution are extended for a full year for the next elections.
  • Haiti: Constitution, 1987 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.georgetown.edu [Source type: Academic]

Modern constitutions

The Bendery Constitution by Hetman Pylyp Orlyk
.The earliest written constitution still governing a sovereign nation today may be that of San Marino.^ The engineering hull at Wolf 359 , which definitely stems from a Constitution refit, suggests that these ships may have been still in service or at least acted as reserve ships in 2366.
  • Ex Astris Scientia - Starfleet Ship Classes A-K 18 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.ex-astris-scientia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was translated from the Arabic by the United Nation's Office for Constitutional Support, and the translation was approved by the Iraqi government.
  • Full Text of Iraqi Constitution - washingtonpost.com 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Within thirty days of its publication, the central government may challenge the constitutionality of a regional statute before the constitutional court.
  • ICL - Italy - Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.servat.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

The Leges Statutae Republicae Sancti Marini was written in Latin and consists of six books. .The first book, with 62 articles, establishes councils, courts, various executive officers and the powers assigned to them.^ Where was the first juvenile court established?
  • Constitution (vessel) Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Constitution (vessel) 18 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Circuit Court shall he Composed of a Judge of the law and a prosecuting Attorney, both appointed by the Supreme Executive Power, proposed by the Supreme Court, and two Associate Judges, as the law may prescribe.
  • Mexican Constitution of 1824 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.tamu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Article 80: Local executive power is held: in a region by the governor (hyakim) of the region, in a town by the governor of the town, in a district by the governor of the district, and by municipal councils.
  • Constitution of Turkmenistan 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.uta.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The remaining books cover criminal and civil law, judicial procedures and remedies.^ Nationality law and criminal, civil, and commercial laws.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of China 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.taiwandocuments.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nothing in subsection (2) shall affect any discretion relating to the institution, conduct or discontinuance of civil or criminal proceedings in any court that is vested in any person by or under any law.
  • 1983 Saint Kitts and Nevis Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The operational procedures of the Judicial Council shall be prescribed by law.

.Written in 1600, the document was based upon the Statuti Comunali (Town Statute) of 1300, itself influenced by the Codex Justinianus, and it remains in force today.^ This Constitution shall enter into force based on the referendum results and upon its publication.

^ All kinds of taxes for the needs of the State shall be based upon statutes.
  • Constitution of Indonesia 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC asnic.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The principle of the statute, be it observed, is, not merely that written contracts shall be signed, but also that all contracts, except for those specially exempted -- generally those that are for small amounts, and are to remain in force for but a short time -- shall be both written and signed .
  • No Treason: The Constitution of No Authority 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC tmh.floonet.net [Source type: Original source]

.In 1639, the Colony of Connecticut adopted the Fundamental Orders, which is considered the first North American constitution, and is the basis for every new Connecticut constitution since, and is also the reason for Connecticut's nickname, "the Constitution State". England had two short-lived written Constitutions during Cromwellian rule, known as the Instrument of Government (1653), and Humble Petition and Advice (1657).^ The written Constitution of a state is only a part of the Law which is the basis of the state.
  • Constitution of Indonesia 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC asnic.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Constitution is the first law of the state.

^ Roberts rules of order (Revised Edition) shall govern the conduct of business of this association in all matters of order and precedence where this constitution and subsequent duly adopted bylaws and rules & regulations are silent.
  • American Cavy Breeders Association - ACBA ON LINE 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC acbaonline.com [Source type: Original source]

.Agreements and Constitutions of Laws and Freedoms of the Zaporizian Host can be acknowledged as the first European constitution in a modern sense.^ The Constitution is the first law of the state.

^ Article 31  [Restrictions] The public rights and freedoms stated in this Constitution may only be regulated or limited by or in accordance with the law, and such regulation or limitation may not prejudice the essence of the right or freedom.
  • ICL - Bahrain Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.oefre.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

^ C. No law that contradicts the rights and basic freedoms stipulated in this constitution may be established.
  • Full Text of Iraqi Constitution - washingtonpost.com 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

[5] It was written in 1710 by Pylyp Orlyk, hetman of the Zaporozhian Host. .This "Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk" (as it is widely known) was written to establish a free Zaporozhian-Ukrainian Republic, with the support of Charles XII of Sweden.^ The U.S. Constitution was not written to free the common man.
  • Internet Archive: Free Download: Constitution Class taught by Michael Badnarik 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ HEREBY proclaim the establishment of the united and free Republic of Vanuatu founded on traditional Melanesian values, faith in God, and Christian principles, .

^ R. Religion: It is forbidden for the Government to establish a national religion or support any religion in any way or to deny the Right to worship freely.
  • Constitution of Oceania - The NEWEST Country 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.oceania.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is notable in that it established a democratic standard for the separation of powers in government between the legislative, executive, and judiciary branches, well before the publication of Montesquieu's Spirit of the Laws.^ The Government is the supreme body of executive power.
  • Constitution of the CR - Prague Castle 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.hrad.cz [Source type: Original source]

^ The judges of the State are independent of the legislative and executive branches of government.
  • Constitution of the Fiji Islands - Wikisource 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Legislative, Executive, and the Judicial powers shall be separate.
  • The constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.embassy.org [Source type: Original source]

.This Constitution also limited the executive authority of the hetman, and established a democratically elected Cossack parliament called the General Council.^ The system of local government by democratically elected local government councils is under this Constitution guaranteed; and accordingly, the Government of every State shall, subject to section 8 of this Constitution, ensure their existence under a Law which provides for the establishment, structure, composition, finance and functions of such councils.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This section applies to the President, Vice-President, Ministers, members of Parliament, holders of offices established by or continued in existence under this Constitution, members of commissions, Secretaries of departments, the Secretary to the Cabinet and persons who hold statutory appointments or governing or executive positions in statutory authorities.
  • Constitution of the Fiji Islands - Wikisource 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In respect of matters which, under this Constitution, pass to the Executive Government of the Commonwealth, all powers and functions which at the establishment of the Commonwealth are vested in the Governor of a Colony, or in the Governor of a Colony with the advice of his Executive Council, or in any authority of a Colony, shall vest in the Governor-General, or in the Governor-General in Council, or in the authority exercising similar powers under the Commonwealth, as the case requires.
  • Full Text of the Australian Constitution – As Amended | australianpolitics.com 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC australianpolitics.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, Orlyk's project for an independent Ukrainian State never materialized, and his constitution, written in exile, never went into effect.^ Carrying constitution into effect.
  • OK Constitution Articles 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.lsb.state.ok.us [Source type: Academic]

^ Carrying constitution into effect .
  • OCIS Document Index 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.oscn.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Blocked by a technicality raised in an advisory opinion of the State Supreme Court, the proposed Constitution of 1933 never reached the voters for approval.
  • The Constitution of North Carolina 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC statelibrary.ncdcr.gov [Source type: Original source]

Other examples of early European constitutions were the Corsican Constitution of 1755 and the Swedish Constitution of 1772. .All of the British colonies in North America that were to become the 13 original United States, adopted their own constitutions in 1776 and 1777, during the American Revolution (and before the later Articles of Confederation and United States Constitution), with the exceptions of Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island.^ The Constitution of the United States of America is very clear.
  • Irregular Times » constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC irregulartimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It later became the Bank of North America.
  • The Constitution of the United States: A man inspireddocument! 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.iahushua.com [Source type: Original source]

^ United States shows original meaning...

.The Commonwealth of Massachusetts adopted its Constitution in 1780, the oldest still-functioning constitution of any U.S. state; while Connecticut and Rhode Island officially continued to operate under their old colonial charters, until they adopted their first state constitutions in 1818 and 1843, respectively.^ Rhode Island, a Baptist state was one of the first colonies to tolerate Quakers and Jews.
  • Original Intent | Mother Jones 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The state authorises the operation of private schools which function under the curricula of the state.
  • Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.un.int [Source type: Original source]

^ Continuity of constitutional operation.
  • West Virginia Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.legis.state.wv.us [Source type: Original source]

.The United States Constitution, ratified June 21, 1788, was influenced by the British constitutional system and the political system of the United Provinces, plus the writings of Polybius, Locke, Montesquieu, and others.^ June 21, 1788: The Constitution becomes effective for the ratifying states when New Hampshire is the ninth state to ratify it.
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION - We the People 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC constitutionus.com [Source type: Original source]
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ [Annulled by the adoption of the Constitution of the United States, July 26, 1788.
  • Massachusetts Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.mass.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The UN Treaty and all other treaties are included in the Constitution of the United States.
  • The Constitution of the United States: A man inspireddocument! 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.iahushua.com [Source type: Original source]

.The document became a benchmark for republicanism and codified constitutions written thereafter.^ Written constitutions such as the Nepal constitution of 1990, the U. S. Constituion, and similar documents are only a part of the fundamental principles of governance of their respective polities.
  • Nepal Constitution Article 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC asnic.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Next were the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Constitution of May 3, 1791, traditionally regarded as world's second and Europe's first,[6][7][8] and the French Constitution of September 3, 1791.^ Should a second ballot be needed, only the two contenders with the best results in the first ballot may maintain their candidacy.
  • The constitution of the Principality of Andorra 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.andorramania.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The other departments of the system shall be supported as provided by law: Provided, That high schools may be maintained free in all cities of the first and second class now constituting school districts, and in such other cities and districts as may be designated by the Legislature.

^ The first session shall be from February to the end of May, and the second from September to the end of December.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of China 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.taiwandocuments.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Spanish Constitution of 1812 was the fourth modern, democratic and liberal world's national constitution gone into effect.^ Carrying constitution into effect.
  • OK Constitution Articles 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.lsb.state.ok.us [Source type: Academic]

^ Carrying constitution into effect .
  • OCIS Document Index 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.oscn.net [Source type: Academic]

^ More a concise statement of national principles than a detailed plan of governmental operation, the Constitution has evolved to meet the changing needs of a modern society profoundly different from the eighteenth-century world in which its creators lived.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

It served as a model for other liberal constitutions of several South-European and Latin American nations like Portuguese Constitution of 1822, constitutions of various Italian states during Carbonari revolts (i.e. in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies), or Mexican Constitution of 1824.[9] .As a result of the Napoleonic Wars, the absolute monarchy of Denmark lost its personal possession of Norway to another absolute monarchy, Sweden.^ The Ombudsman must give a copy of the report to the Prime Minister and Minister concerned and: (a) if the investigation was undertaken as a result of a complaint--to the complainant; or (b) if the investigation was undertaken at the request of another person or body--to that person or body.
  • Constitution of the Fiji Islands - Wikisource 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.However the Norwegians managed to infuse a radically democratic and liberal constitution in 1814, adopting many facets from the American constitution and the revolutionary French ones; but maintaining a hereditary monarch limited by the constitution, like the Spanish one.^ One man has written, "No person can be loyal to the Constitution of the US and uphold the Charter of the UN." This man, like so many others, does not understand that the UN Treaty is part of the Constitution!
  • The Constitution of the United States: A man inspireddocument! 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.iahushua.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His post is very vague, but if I'm not mistaken he is suggesting that many or most judicial conservatives believe in some kind of radical vision of the Constitution in Exile.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But, under the name of "liberalism," they will adopt every fragment of the socialist program, until one day America will be a socialist nation, without knowing how it happened....

Principles of constitutional design

.After tribal people first began to live in cities and establish nations, many of these functioned according to unwritten customs, while some developed autocratic, even tyrannical monarchs, who ruled by decree, or mere personal whim.^ The National Assembly establishes its rules.
  • Ivoirian Constitution - U.S. Embassy Abidjan, Cote D'Ivoire 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC abidjan.usembassy.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Some people live beautifully circular lives.
  • MM33 Celebrating The History Of The USS Constitution 18 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.legendinc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No person, even with the intention of discovering the truth, can resort to torture or order the torture of another person who may be under prosecution, arrest, or imprisoned, or convicted to punishment.
  • Afghanistan Online: The Constitution of Afghanistan 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.afghan-web.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Afghan Constitution 1923 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.afghangovernment.com [Source type: Original source]

.Such rule led some thinkers to take the position that what mattered was not the design of governmental institutions and operations, as much as the character of the rulers.^ What the voters lack are leaders with some stature, such as constitutional scholars, to raise the issue of constitutional compliance for much of the legislation before Congress.

^ They perceive that, even if they are ready for a president who takes such positions, most of the rest of the country is not.

^ No such governmental subdivision shall have the power to operate any such property as a business or in any manner except as the lessor thereof.
  • Document Title 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.neded.org [Source type: Original source]

This view can be seen in Plato, who called for rule by "philosopher-kings."[10] Later writers, such as Aristotle, Cicero and Plutarch, would examine designs for government from a legal and historical standpoint.
.The Renaissance brought a series of political philosophers who wrote implied criticisms of the practices of monarchs and sought to identify principles of constitutional design that would be likely to yield more effective and just governance from their viewpoints.^ Commander Cashman would like to commemorate the battle at Fort Sewall on the occasion of the Constitution's bicentennial.
  • MM33 Celebrating The History Of The USS Constitution 18 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.legendinc.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And to provide for a Constitution for the purpose of promoting the good government and welfare of all persons in our country, on the principles of freedom, equality and justice, and for the purpose of consolidating the unity of our people .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "Our Hueys (helicopters) would be loaded with 30 or more people stacked like cord wood," Jumper recalled.

.This began with revival of the Roman law of nations concept[11] and its application to the relations among nations, and they sought to establish customary "laws of war and peace"[12] to ameliorate wars and make them less likely.^ Declare war and make peace; .
  • Constitution of Honduras - English Translation 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.honduras.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To decide on matters of war or peace; 12.
  • Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.un.int [Source type: Original source]

^ The French nation renounces the undertaking of any war with a view of making conquests, and it will never use its forces against the; liberty of any people.
  • The Constitution of 1791 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC sourcebook.fsc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.This led to considerations of what authority monarchs or other officials have and don't have, from where that authority derives, and the remedies for abusing such authority.^ Where death ensues from any injury to employees, the legal or personal representatives of the person injured shall have the same right and remedies as are allowed by law to such representatives of other persons.
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF MISSISSIPPI 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.sos.state.ms.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The term "compensation" means, with respect to an elected official, such official's salary, exclusive of reimbursement for necessary expenses or any other benefit to which his office would entitle him.
  • The Connecticut Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.cslib.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And the Finance Chair and also members of this Council shall be subject to the authority of the State Democratic Chair and such other duties as the Bylaws may provide.
  • Missouri Democratic Party | Constitution & Bylaws 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.missouridems.org [Source type: Original source]

[13]
.A seminal juncture in this line of discourse arose in England from the Civil War, the Cromwellian Protectorate, the writings of Thomas Hobbes, Samuel Rutherford, the Levellers, John Milton, and James Harrington, leading to the debate between Robert Filmer, arguing for the divine right of monarchs, on the one side, and on the other, Henry Neville, James Tyrrell, Algernon Sidney, and John Locke.^ No one may be deprived of his legitimate right of ownership other than by a final judgment by a court of ordinary law, except under an agrarian reform.
  • Haiti: Constitution, 1987 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.georgetown.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison, to name only a few, were prolific writers who contradicted themselves (and one another) almost as frequently as did the authors of the Bible.
  • Original Intent | Mother Jones 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For the aft spot, they are accessed through the ship's catwalks � one on the starboard side and the other on the port side.
  • First Responder ­ USS New York commissioning 18 January 2010 13:34 UTC issuu.com [Source type: News]

.What arose from the latter was a concept of government being erected on the foundations of first, a state of nature governed by natural laws, then a state of society, established by a social contract or compact, which bring underlying natural or social laws, before governments are formally established on them as foundations.^ State, the listing of which is established by the law.
  • Ivoirian Constitution - U.S. Embassy Abidjan, Cote D'Ivoire 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC abidjan.usembassy.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The program laws establish the objectives of the economic and social action of the State.
  • Ivoirian Constitution - U.S. Embassy Abidjan, Cote D'Ivoire 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC abidjan.usembassy.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ "The government of the United States is of the latter description.
  • The Constitution For The United States, Its Sources and Its Applications - Preface and Preamble 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.Along the way several writers examined how the design of government was important, even if the government were headed by a monarch.^ Not only has this oppression not ended, but—along with the oppression of other minority nationalities—it has assumed new, and in some ways even more twisted, forms.
  • Constitution of the Revolutionary Communist Party 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC revcom.us [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, even if a constitution is imperfect, but the spirit of the government leaders is right, such a constitution will in no way hinder the process of government.
  • Constitution of Indonesia 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC asnic.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ To know WHY our current "government" is the way it is, you need to know our TRUE past history and how it all began and became this way !
  • Internet Archive: Free Download: Constitution Class taught by Michael Badnarik 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

.They also classified various historical examples of governmental designs, typically into democracies, aristocracies, or monarchies, and considered how just and effective each tended to be and why, and how the advantages of each might be obtained by combining elements of each into a more complex design that balanced competing tendencies.^ Anyone whose rights or freedoms, as guaranteed by this Charter, have been infringed or denied may apply to a court of competent jurisdiction to obtain such remedy as the court considers appropriate and just in the circumstances.
  • The Constitution Act, 1982 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.solon.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The English considered the capture of this ship a great prize because the English seamen had admired this swift, effective, and beautifully designed ship.
  • USS Constitution by Ernie Boyette 18 January 2010 13:34 UTC aviationartstore.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Much fast breaking decisionmaking would be impossible for systems consisting only of humans, no matter how skilled they might be.

.Some, such as Montesquieu, also examined how the functions of government, such as legislative, executive, and judicial, might appropriately be separated into branches.^ Separation of legislative, executive, and judicial departments; periodical elections.
  • Virginia General Assembly - Constitution of Virginia 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC legis.state.va.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Article 4: The government is based on the principle of separation of powers into legislative, executive, and judicial powers which function independently, checking and balancing each other.
  • Constitution of Turkmenistan 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.uta.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The power of the government of this state is divided into three distinct branches--legislative, executive, and judicial.
  • Montana Legislature: Current State Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.leg.mt.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The prevailing theme among these writers was that the design of constitutions is not completely arbitrary or a matter of taste.^ Eventually, one of these attacks will succeed, even if we completely revoke every single freedom that the Constitution provides us.
  • Irregular Times » constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC irregulartimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They shall have full power to act on any and all matters for the good of the Association except those matters specifically reserved for the membership vote as designated by this Constitution.
  • American Cavy Breeders Association - ACBA ON LINE 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC acbaonline.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All elections shall be by ballot, and the results shall be determined by simple majority unless otherwise designated by these bylaws or the constitution of the Upper Susquehanna Synod.
  • Constitution and Bylaws | uss-elca 18 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.uss-elca.org [Source type: Original source]

.They generally held that there are underlying principles of design that constrain all constitutions for every polity or organization.^ To organize general referendums in accordance with the Constitution.
  • Constitution Of The Republic Of Sudan 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.sudan.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The rules contained in the latest revised edition of Robert's Rules of Order shall govern ACE in all cases to which they are applicable and in which they are not inconsistent with ACE's Constitution and Bylaws.
  • Constitution and Bylaws 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.aceonline.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This Constitution shall take effect immediately upon its ratification by a majority of the votes cast in a plebiscite held for the purpose and shall supersede all previous Constitutions.
  • 1987 Philippine Constitution - The LawPhil Project 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.lawphil.net [Source type: Original source]

.Each built on the ideas of those before concerning what those principles might be.^ Ships built on these principles will render those of an enemy in a degree useless, or require a greater number before they dare attack our ships.
  • MM33 Celebrating The History Of The USS Constitution 18 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.legendinc.com [Source type: Original source]

.The later writings of Orestes Brownson[14] would try to explain what constitutional designers were trying to do.^ This method leaves the test of the Constitution and the Amendments in unbroken connection, so that the whole design is plainly seen as the explanation appears immediately under the part to be explained.
  • The Constitution For The United States, Its Sources and Its Applications - Preface and Preamble 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

.According to Brownson there are, in a sense, three "constitutions" involved: The first the constitution of nature that includes all of what was called "natural law."^ There are actually three constitutions.

^ Their protection is the duty of all, according to the law.
  • Embassy of Qatar - Constitution of Qatar 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.qatarembassy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ All controversies that involve admiralty law.
  • 1917 Constitution of Mexico 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.ilstu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The second is the constitution of society, an unwritten and commonly understood set of rules for the society formed by a social contract before it establishes a government, by which it establishes the third, a constitution of government.^ The rules contained in the latest revised edition of Robert's Rules of Order shall govern ACE in all cases to which they are applicable and in which they are not inconsistent with ACE's Constitution and Bylaws.
  • Constitution and Bylaws 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.aceonline.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The second is the unwritten constitution of the society , arising from the social contract that created the society, obliging its members to mutual defense of one anothers' rights, and involving decision by deliberative assemblies or conventions called by due public notice and conducted by established rules of procedure.

^ Govern Bills and Private Members' Bills shall be examined by the Plenum of the Chamber and by the committees in the form prescribed by the Rules of Procedure.
  • The constitution of the Principality of Andorra 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.andorramania.com [Source type: Original source]

.The second would include such elements as the making of decisions by public conventions called by public notice and conducted by established rules of procedure.^ Public discussion and decision-making.
  • Debian Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.debian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I will stick to the established 526m until further notice and until I know the exact relative proportions of the vessel that have a decisive influence on my length estimation.
  • Ex Astris Scientia - Starfleet Ship Classes A-K 18 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.ex-astris-scientia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SECTION 5 Officers of the Convention (a) The Convention shall elect its own officers and may adopt rules for the conduct of its business and such other matters as may properly come within its jurisdiction and are not hereinafter set forth.
  • Upsilon Pi Epsilon 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.acm.org [Source type: Original source]

.Each constitution must be consistent with, and derive its authority from, the ones before it, as well as from a historical act of society formation or constitutional ratification.^ The Constitutional Court consists of seven judges, one of whom is a representative of the Gornyy Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast.
  • constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.osi.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ The election thereof must be completed at least one week before the expiry date.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Yemen, 1994 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.al-bab.com [Source type: Original source]

^ An approval of a three-fifths majority of all Deputies and of a three-fifths majority of Senators in attendance is required to pass a constitutional Act, as well as to approve the ratification of an international agreement stipulated in Section 10a Subsection 1.
  • Constitution of the CR - Prague Castle 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.hrad.cz [Source type: Original source]

.Brownson argued that a state is a society with effective dominion over a well-defined territory, that consent to a well-designed constitution of government arises from presence on that territory, and that it is possible for provisions of a written constitution of government to be "unconstitutional" if they are inconsistent with the constitutions of nature or society.^ The state manages the society by the provisions of the Constitution and laws.
  • Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.un.int [Source type: Original source]

^ Provisions or amendments not derived from or in conflict with them are unconstitutional, just as are statutes not derived from or in conflict with the written constitution of government.

^ The authority of each level of church government is limited by the stated provisions of the church's constitution.
  • Constitution-Netscape Composer 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.cumberland.org [Source type: Original source]

.Brownson argued that it is not ratification alone that makes a written constitution of government legitimate, but that it must also be competently designed and applied.^ This provision shall govern whenever the constitution of a State does not make provision for such cases.
  • 1917 Constitution of Mexico 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.ilstu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The rights recognized in the First Amendment precede and are superior to the written Constitution of government.

^ After each convention at which this Constitution is amended, the Constitution Committee and any legal advisers must oversee the publication of this Constitution as amended and may, in so doing, and subject to the ratification of the Federal Council: .
  • Constitution of the Green Party of Canada | Green Party of Canada - Parti vert du Canada 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC greenparty.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Other writers[15] have argued that such considerations apply not only to all national constitutions of government, but also to the constitutions of private organizations, that it is not an accident that the constitutions that tend to satisfy their members contain certain elements, as a minimum, or that their provisions tend to become very similar as they are amended after experience with their use.^ Similar relationships will be established with an organization for men and an organization for youth when they are constituted.
  • Constitution and Bylaws | uss-elca 18 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.uss-elca.org [Source type: Original source]

^ All its members shall be Andorran nationals.
  • The constitution of the Principality of Andorra 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.andorramania.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To amend the provisions of this Constitution.
  • Afghanistan Online: The Constitution of Afghanistan 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.afghan-web.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Afghan Constitution 1923 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.afghangovernment.com [Source type: Original source]

.Provisions that give rise to certain kinds of questions are seen to need additional provisions for how to resolve those questions, and provisions that offer no course of action may best be omitted and left to policy decisions.^ No provisions of this Constitution that any person or authority shall not be subject to the direction or control of any other person or authority in the exercise of any function under this Constitution shall be construed as precluding a court of law from exercising jurisdiction in relation to any question whether that person or authority has exercised those functions in accordance with this Constitution or any other law.
  • 1983 Saint Kitts and Nevis Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They shall also participate in policy and decision-making processes affecting their rights and benefits as may be provided by law.
  • 1987 Philippine Constitution - The LawPhil Project 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.lawphil.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Republic of Hungary no one may be regarded as guilty until his culpability has been established by a legally valid decision of the court.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Hungary 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.lectlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

.Provisions that conflict with what Brownson and others can discern are the underlying "constitutions" of nature and society tend to be difficult or impossible to execute, or to lead to unresolvable disputes.^ Execute the provision of this Constitution, other laws, and final orders of the courts.
  • Afghanistan Online: The Constitution of Afghanistan 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.afghan-web.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Afghan Constitution 1923 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.afghangovernment.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A. Provisions of Chapter to override other provisions of Constitution.

^ Notwithstanding any other provision of this Constitution to the contrary: .
  • THE CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF NEVADA 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.leg.state.nv.us [Source type: Original source]

.Constitutional design has been treated as a kind of metagame in which play consists of finding the best design and provisions for a written constitution that will be the rules for the game of government, and that will be most likely to optimize a balance of the utilities of justice, liberty, and security.^ A constitution sets out the rules by which we play the game of government.
  • Colorado Constitution, Independence Institute 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.i2i.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As in any game, it helps if everyone plays by the rules.
  • Colorado Constitution, Independence Institute 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.i2i.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Several provisions prohibit entanglements between government and private parties, like the kind that led to abuses by railroad "Robber Barons" as settlement moved westward.
  • Colorado Constitution, Independence Institute 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.i2i.org [Source type: Original source]

An example is the metagame Nomic.[16]

Governmental constitutions

.Most commonly, the term constitution refers to a set of rules and principles that define the nature and extent of government.^ The Constitutional Chamber following terms of reference: .
  • Constitution of Honduras - English Translation 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.honduras.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cases referred to in items 1 and 2 shall require a resolution of the National Assembly; cases referred to in item 3 shall require a ruling by the Constitutional Court.
  • National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.parliament.bg [Source type: Original source]

^ Article 4 goes on to define the nature of the kingdom - i.e., the state: Nepal is a multiethnic, multilingual, democratic, independent, indivisible, sovereign, Hindu and Constitutional Monarchical Kingdom.
  • Nepal Constitution Article 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC asnic.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Most constitutions seek to regulate the relationship between institutions of the state, in a basic sense the relationship between the executive, legislature and the judiciary, but also the relationship of institutions within those branches.^ It supervises the execution of the laws and regulations and the work of the state machinery and institutions.
  • The Constitution of Syria 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.mideastinfo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The organic laws are those which have for their object the direction [de regir] of the different Institutions, structures and systems specified or qualified as such by the Constitution.
  • Ivoirian Constitution - U.S. Embassy Abidjan, Cote D'Ivoire 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC abidjan.usembassy.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ While these purchasing regulations make Constitution unique within the historic ship community the definitions of the many parts and pieces used may be of benefit to other ships.
  • Materials on USS Constitution 18 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.maritime.org [Source type: Original source]

.For example, executive branches can be divided into a head of government, government departments/ministries, executive agencies and a civil service/bureaucracy.^ Civil departments in the state government.
  • New York State Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.dos.state.ny.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Permanent Secretaries and heads of government departments.

^ [Civil departments in the state government] .
  • New York State Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.dos.state.ny.us [Source type: Original source]

.Most constitutions also attempt to define the relationship between individuals and the state, and to establish the broad rights of individual citizens.^ Citizens have equal rights to state service.
  • constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.osi.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ The relationship between the residents' and villagers' committees and the grass-roots organs of state power is prescribed by law.
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC english.people.com.cn [Source type: Original source]

^ It seems likely that this decision will at least settle the issues of whether the right is individual, and whether participation in state-organized militia is necessary to assert the right.

It is thus the most basic law of a territory from which all the other laws and rules are hierarchically derived; in some territories it is in fact called "Basic Law."

Key features

.The following are features of democratic constitutions that have been identified by political scientists to exist, in one form or another, in virtually all national constitutions.^ This constitution that we have promulgated contains the amendments that have been carried out in accordance with the provisions of the National Action Charter and that complement all the unamended texts.
  • ICL - Bahrain Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.oefre.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

^ Article 197.- members are obliged to meet in Assembly in the dates identified by the Constitution and attend all sessions to hold the National Congress, except inability duly established.
  • Constitution of Honduras - English Translation 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.honduras.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The third challenge for the constitution theorist was to identify a ground for the non-categorical features of coinciding objects.
  • Material Constitution (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

Codification

A fundamental classification is codification or lack of codification. .A codified constitution is one that is contained in a single document, which is the single source of constitutional law in a state.^ The Constitution is the first law of the state.

^ The Constitution is the supreme law of State.
  • Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand 2007 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.asianlii.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Loyalty to State and obedience to Constitution and law.

.An uncodified constitution is one that is not contained in a single document, consisting of several different sources, which may be written or unwritten.^ The Constitutional Court consists of seven judges, one of whom is a representative of the Gornyy Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast.
  • constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.osi.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ One man has written, "No person can be loyal to the Constitution of the US and uphold the Charter of the UN." This man, like so many others, does not understand that the UN Treaty is part of the Constitution!
  • The Constitution of the United States: A man inspireddocument! 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.iahushua.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Beretitenti or one-third of the member of the Maneaba may, subject to the provisions of this Constitution and of the rules of procedure of the Maneaba, advise the Speaker to summon the Maneaba at any times.
  • Parliament of Kiribati - Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.parliament.gov.ki [Source type: Original source]

Codified constitution
.Most states in the world have codified constitutions.^ The amendment's "due process" clause has had enormous constitutional importance, since the Supreme Court has used it to apply most of the Bill of Rights to the states.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Modern language would define the United States as the "most cosmopolitan country in the world."
  • The Constitution of the United States: A man inspireddocument! 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.iahushua.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For the Constitution in Exile movement, that world is the era of Republican dominance in the United States from 1896 through the Roaring Twenties.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

.Codified constitutions are often the product of some dramatic political change, such as a revolution.^ Such a revolution requires leadership; it requires an organization with a sweeping vision, a scientific method to analyze reality and how to go about changing it, and serious discipline.
  • Constitution of the Revolutionary Communist Party 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC revcom.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Then a revolution in the political superstructure—in which the rising class overthrows the old ruling class—must occur to bring about new production relations that correspond to the new productive forces...and a new class comes to rule.
  • Constitution of the Revolutionary Communist Party 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC revcom.us [Source type: Original source]

^ What the voters lack are leaders with some stature, such as constitutional scholars, to raise the issue of constitutional compliance for much of the legislation before Congress.

.The process by which a country adopts a constitution is closely tied to the historical and political context driving this fundamental change.^ All the country's artistic and historic wealth constitutes the cultural treasure of the nation and shall be under the protection of the State which may regulate its disposition.
  • 1987 Philippine Constitution - The LawPhil Project 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.lawphil.net [Source type: Original source]

^ GENERAL TRANSITION The rights and duties of all public bodies shall remain as if this Constitution had not been adopted with the exception of such changes as are contained in this Constitution.
  • Illinois Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.ilga.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Gives freely and solemnly as the fundamental law this Constitution adopted by Referendum.
  • Ivoirian Constitution - U.S. Embassy Abidjan, Cote D'Ivoire 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC abidjan.usembassy.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The legitimacy (and often the longevity) of codified constitutions has often been tied to the process by which they are initially adopted.^ The King may refer to the Court any draft laws before they are adopted to determine the extent of their agreement with the Constitution.
  • ICL - Bahrain Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.oefre.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

^ If the question is framed as a choice between constitutional compliance and their pocketbooks, they often will vote for the Constitution.

^ The Constitution shall be adopted or amended by referendum which may be initiated by the President of the Republic or the National Assembly.

.States that have codified constitutions normally give the constitution supremacy over ordinary statute law.^ Supremacy of the Constitution and the Law Article 15.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.mansurovs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Constitution supreme law of the state.
  • The State of Rhode Island General Laws 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.rilin.state.ri.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The Constitution is the supreme law of State.
  • Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand 2007 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.asianlii.org [Source type: Original source]

.That is, if there is any conflict between a legal statute and the codified constitution, all or part of the statute can be declared ultra vires by a court, and struck down as unconstitutional.^ Any law or legal measure found unconstitutional is annulled by the Constitutional Court.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Hungary 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.lectlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Decisions of the Constitutional Court are obligatory for all courts.
  • Presidenti i Republikes se Shqiperise 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.president.al [Source type: Original source]

^ As everybody who supports the Constitution by voting (if there are any such) does so secretly (by secret ballot), and in a way to avoid all personal responsibility for the acts of his agents or representatives, it cannot legally or reasonably be said that anybody at all supports the Constitution by voting.
  • No Treason: The Constitution of No Authority 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC tmh.floonet.net [Source type: Original source]

.In addition, exceptional procedures are often required to amend a constitution.^ This Constitution may be amended through the following procedure only: .

^ By this procedure may not be interpreted Articles 373 and 374 constitutional requirements.
  • Constitution of Honduras - English Translation 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.honduras.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Where the original text has been amended or where a new provision has been added to the original constitution, the source of the amendment or addition is indicated in the source note immediately following the text of the amended or new section.
  • THE CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF NEVADA 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.leg.state.nv.us [Source type: Original source]

.These procedures may include: convocation of a special constituent assembly or constitutional convention, requiring a supermajority of legislators' votes, the consent of regional legislatures, a referendum process, and other procedures that make amending a constitution more difficult than passing a simple law.^ Revision or amendments shall be enacted by a Constitution law passed by the Assembly with a 2/3 majority vote.
  • The constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.embassy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This Constitution may be amended through the following procedure only: .

^ PART 2 Legislation and Procedure in Parliament Power to make laws.
  • 1983 Saint Kitts and Nevis Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Constitutions may also provide that their most basic principles can never be abolished, even by amendment.^ Any amendment to, or revision of, this Constitution may be proposed by: .
  • 1987 Philippine Constitution - The LawPhil Project 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.lawphil.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Petitions may not be amendments to the Union Constitution.
  • Student Union Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC union.brandeis.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

.In case a formally valid amendment of a constitution infringes these principles protected against any amendment, it may constitute a so-called unconstitutional constitutional law.^ Unconstitutional laws may not be enforced.
  • Constitution of Oceania - The NEWEST Country 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.oceania.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These provisions shall have constitutional validity.
  • Embassy of Qatar - Constitution of Qatar 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.qatarembassy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Any amendment to, or revision of, this Constitution may be proposed by: .
  • 1987 Philippine Constitution - The LawPhil Project 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.lawphil.net [Source type: Original source]

.Codified constitutions normally consist of a ceremonial preamble, which sets forth the goals of the state and the motivation for the constitution, and several articles containing the substantive provisions.^ What are the fundamentals contained in the Preamble to the Constitution?
  • Constitution of Indonesia 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC asnic.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Notwithstanding the provisions of Article III, Section 2 of this constitution, such law may be introduced and considered in any regular session of the legislature.
  • State Constitution of 1974 > Article VII:  Revenue and Finance 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC senate.legis.state.la.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Article 356.- The State only ensures the payment of public debt, which entered the constitutional governments , according to this Constitution and laws.
  • Constitution of Honduras - English Translation 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.honduras.com [Source type: Original source]

.The preamble, which is omitted in some constitutions, may contain a reference to God and/or to fundamental values of the state such as liberty, democracy or human rights.^ Liberty is the natural right of human beings.
  • Afghanistan Online: The Constitution of Afghanistan 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.afghan-web.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Embassy of Afghanistan, Washington, DC 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.embassyofafghanistan.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Afghan Constitution 1923 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.afghangovernment.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What are the fundamentals contained in the Preamble to the Constitution?
  • Constitution of Indonesia 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC asnic.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Basic rights and liberties may not be suspended.
  • http://www.mideastweb.org/palconstitution.htm 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.mideastweb.org [Source type: Original source]

Uncodified constitution
.As of 2010 only three states have uncodified constitutions: Israel, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom.^ Article 356.- The State only ensures the payment of public debt, which entered the constitutional governments , according to this Constitution and laws.
  • Constitution of Honduras - English Translation 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.honduras.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No decision shall become the judgment of the Court, however, except on the concurrence of at least three justices, and no law shall be declared unconstitutional under either this Constitution or the Constitution of the United States except on the concurrence of at least a majority of all justices of the Supreme Court.
  • Virginia General Assembly - Constitution of Virginia 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC legis.state.va.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Article 31  [Restrictions] The public rights and freedoms stated in this Constitution may only be regulated or limited by or in accordance with the law, and such regulation or limitation may not prejudice the essence of the right or freedom.
  • ICL - Bahrain Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.oefre.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

.Uncodified constitutions (also known as unwritten constitutions) are the product of an "evolution" of laws and conventions over centuries.^ These ideas gave rise to legal aspirations (Rechtsidee) which encompassed the basic law of the state, both the written (the constitution) and the unwritten.
  • Constitution of Indonesia 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC asnic.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If a majority of the votes cast upon the question is in the affirmative, a Constitution Convention shall be convened within six (6) months thereafter, in a manner prescribed by law; .
  • Constitution of the Republic of Palau 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.paclii.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Supreme Court upon request of the Government or the Courts can review compliance with the Constitution of laws, legislative decrees, international treaties, and international conventions, and interpret them, in accordance with the law.
  • Afghanistan Online: The Constitution of Afghanistan 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.afghan-web.com [Source type: Original source]

.By contrast to codified constitutions, in the Westminster tradition that originated in England, uncodified constitutions include written sources: e.g.^ Where the original text has been amended or where a new provision has been added to the original constitution, the source of the amendment or addition is indicated in the source note immediately following the text of the amended or new section.
  • THE CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF NEVADA 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.leg.state.nv.us [Source type: Original source]

constitutional statutes enacted by the .Parliament (House of Commons Disqualification Act 1975, Northern Ireland Act 1998, Scotland Act 1998, Government of Wales Act 1998, European Communities Act 1972 and Human Rights Act 1998); and also unwritten sources: constitutional conventions, observation of precedents, royal prerogatives, custom and tradition, such as always holding the General Election on Thursdays; together these constitute the British constitutional law.^ "Act of Parliament" means any law made by Parliament; .

^ Each of these constitutions are the sources of their own rights.

^ (Source: Amendment adopted at general election November 3, 1998.
  • Illinois Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.ilga.gov [Source type: Original source]

.In the days of the British Empire, the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council acted as the constitutional court for many of the British colonies such as Canada and Australia which had federal constitutions.^ Judicial Committee” means the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council established by the Judicial Committee Act 1833; .
  • Parliament of Kiribati - Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.parliament.gov.ki [Source type: Original source]

^ Constitution and powers of Privy Council .
  • Constitution of Tonga 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.paclii.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Constitution and powers of Privy Council.
  • Constitution of Tonga 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.paclii.org [Source type: Original source]

.In states using uncodified constitutions there is no entrenchment of constitutional provisions and thus constitutional law as such: laws of constitutional significance can be created, altered, or repealed by the legislative body in the same was as any statute.^ Therefore, in law and reason, there was no such corporation.
  • No Treason: The Constitution of No Authority 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC tmh.floonet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Provisions of Constitution of 1921 Repealed 18.
  • Louisiana State Senate > Documents > Louisiana Constitution of 1974 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC senate.legis.state.la.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Constitution for provisions relating to the partial repeal of Schedule No.
  • Constitution of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC sites.state.pa.us [Source type: Original source]

Written versus unwritten / codified versus uncodified
.The term written constitution is used to describe a constitution that is entirely written, which by definition includes every codified constitution; but not all constitutions based entirely on written documents are codified.^ While these purchasing regulations make Constitution unique within the historic ship community the definitions of the many parts and pieces used may be of benefit to other ships.
  • Materials on USS Constitution 18 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.maritime.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Citizens of all nationalities have the right to use the spoken and written languages of their own nationalities in court proceedings.
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC english.people.com.cn [Source type: Original source]

^ Today, steel -- galvanized, is the material of choice used for all fasteners above the water line of Constitution .
  • Materials on USS Constitution 18 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.maritime.org [Source type: Original source]

Some constitutions are largely, but not wholly, codified. .For example, in the Constitution of Australia, most of its fundamental political principles and regulations concerning the relationship between branches of government, and concerning the government and the individual are codified in a single document, the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Australia.^ The political system is based on free and voluntary formation of and free competition between political parties respecting the basic democratic principles and rejecting violence as a means of asserting their interests.
  • Constitution of the CR - Prague Castle 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.hrad.cz [Source type: Original source]

^ Article 160  [Minister of Justice] (1) The Minister of Justice owes responsibility in all matters concerning the relationship between the judiciary on the one hand and the executive and legislative branches on the other hand.  He will be elected from among the individuals proposed to the President by the head of the judiciary branch.
  • ICL - Iran - Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.servat.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

^ The various committees of the Legislative Yuan may invite government officials and concerned individuals in society at large to be present at the committee meetings to present their views.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of China 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.taiwandocuments.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, the presence of statutes with constitutional significance, namely the Statute of Westminster, as adopted by the Commonwealth in the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942, and the Australia Act 1986 means that Australia's constitution is not contained in a single constitutional document.^ The Commonwealth” shall mean the Commonwealth of Australia as established under this Act.
  • Full Text of the Australian Constitution – As Amended | australianpolitics.com 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC australianpolitics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Such Digest shall be in the form and upon the plan of “Brightley’s Digest” of the Statutes of the United States, and shall contain the Constitution of the United States and of the State.
  • Florida Constitution of 1868 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.floridamemory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, the General Assembly is limited by rigid restrictions in the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
  • Constitution of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC sites.state.pa.us [Source type: Original source]

.The Constitution of Canada, which evolved from the British North America Acts until severed from nominal British control by the Canada Act 1982 (analogous to the Australia Act 1986), is a similar example.^ British North America Act, 1951, 1 Eliz.
  • The Constitution Act, 1982 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.solon.org [Source type: Original source]

^ British North America Act, 1930, 20-21 Geo.
  • The Constitution Act, 1982 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.solon.org [Source type: Original source]

^ British North America Act, 1960, 9 Eliz.
  • The Constitution Act, 1982 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.solon.org [Source type: Original source]

.The terms written constitution and codified constitution are often used interchangeably, as are unwritten constitution and uncodified constitution, although this usage is technically inaccurate.^ Of more interest to me, as a constitutional historian, is the way the grand jury often is abused by being used as an inquisitorial tool by prosecutors.

^ Wherever the term "citizen" is used in previous legal regulations, this is understood to mean every person, wherever this concerns the rights and liberties that this Constitution extends regardless of citizenship.
  • The Constitution Of The Slovak Republic | Slovakia 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.slovakia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The slave states tried to do that for blacks to maintain slavery, although they tried to do it using the term "citizen" rather than "person" and attaching rights to citizenship instead of personhood, which is contrary to the usage of those terms in the Constitution.

.Strictly speaking, unwritten constitution is never an accurate synonym for uncodified constitution, because all modern democratic constitutions mainly comprise written sources, even if they have no different legal status than ordinary statutes.^ So far, therefore, as voting is concerned, the Constitution, legally speaking, has no supporters at all.
  • No Treason: The Constitution of No Authority 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC tmh.floonet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ More a concise statement of national principles than a detailed plan of governmental operation, the Constitution has evolved to meet the changing needs of a modern society profoundly different from the eighteenth-century world in which its creators lived.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ One man has written, "No person can be loyal to the Constitution of the US and uphold the Charter of the UN." This man, like so many others, does not understand that the UN Treaty is part of the Constitution!
  • The Constitution of the United States: A man inspireddocument! 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.iahushua.com [Source type: Original source]

.Another, correct, term used is formal (or formal written) constitution, for example in the following context: "The United Kingdom has no formal [written] constitution" (which does not preclude a constitution based on documents but not codified).^ The Constitutional Chamber following terms of reference: .
  • Constitution of Honduras - English Translation 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.honduras.com [Source type: Original source]

^ WE inscribe the following as the Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia: .
  • The constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.embassy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One man has written, "No person can be loyal to the Constitution of the US and uphold the Charter of the UN." This man, like so many others, does not understand that the UN Treaty is part of the Constitution!
  • The Constitution of the United States: A man inspireddocument! 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.iahushua.com [Source type: Original source]

Entrenchment

The presence or lack of entrenchment is a fundamental feature of constitutions. .An entrenched constitution cannot be altered in any way by a legislature as part of its normal business concerning ordinary statutory laws, but can only be amended by a different and more onerous procedure.^ This Constitution may be amended through the following procedure only: .

^ The written Constitution of a state is only a part of the Law which is the basis of the state.
  • Constitution of Indonesia 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC asnic.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It is subject only to the Constitution and laws.
  • Presidenti i Republikes se Shqiperise 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.president.al [Source type: Original source]

.There may be a requirement for a special body to be set up, and the proportion of favourable votes of members of this body may be required to be higher to pass an amendment than for statutes.^ The enactment or amendment of such definitions shall require the vote of three-fifths of the members of each house of the general assembly.
  • SOTS: Constitution of the State of Connecticut 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.sots.ct.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ There shall be a Commission on Appointments consisting of twelve Senators and twelve Members of the House of Representatives, elected by each House, respectively, on the basis of proportional representation of the political parties therein.
  • 1935 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES - CHAN ROBLES VIRTUAL LAW LIBRARY 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.chanrobles.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The votes of two thirds of the MPs present are required to pass the law on the rights of national and ethnic minorities.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Hungary 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.lectlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

Some constitutions contain entrenched clauses, i.e. articles stating that certain modifications are either more difficult to make than normal modifications, or may never be made under any circumstances. Entrenchment is an inherent feature in most codified constitutions. .A codified constitution will incorporate the rules which must be followed for the constitution itself to be changed.^ The President of the Supreme Court may make rules of court, not inconsistent with this Constitution or a law made by the Parliament, for regulating and prescribing the practice and procedure to be followed in the Supreme Court.
  • Constitution of the Fiji Islands - Wikisource 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Each member of the Council of Representatives must take the following constitutional oath before the Council prior to assuming his duties: .
  • Full Text of Iraqi Constitution - washingtonpost.com 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Party must adapt itself to the march of events and changing circumstances, improving its system and style of leadership and raising its governing capacity.
  • Chinese Communist Party Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.chinability.com [Source type: Original source]

The US constitution is an example of an entrenched constitution, and the UK constitution is an example of a constitution that is not entrenched (or codified). .In some states the text of the constitution may be changed; in others the original text is not changed, and amendments are passed which add to and may override the original text and earlier amendments.^ A. Provisions of Chapter to override other provisions of Constitution.

^ Procedure for passing Constitutional amendments 86.

^ We affirm the original text of the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights.

.Procedures for constitutional amendment vary between states.^ Procedure for passing Constitutional amendments 86.

^ Constitutional amendments: Procedure; concurrent and consecutive amendments.
  • THE CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF NEVADA 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.leg.state.nv.us [Source type: Original source]

^ This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]

.In a nation with a federal system of government the approval of a majority of state or provincial legislatures may be required.^ At any time before an Order under clause (4) is made, the President may, by Order, make such amendments or modifications in the law relating to the distribution of revenues between the Federal Government and the Provincial Governments as he may deem necessary or expedient.
  • The Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.ljcp.gov.pk [Source type: Original source]

^ Measures to combat certain offences committed in connection with matters concerning the Federal and Provincial Government and the establishment of a police force for that purpose.
  • The Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.ljcp.gov.pk [Source type: Original source]

^ If the legislature is not in session, the two-thirds requirement may be satisfied upon obtaining the written consent of two-thirds of the elected members of each house of the legislature in a manner provided by law.
  • State Constitution of 1974 > Article VII:  Revenue and Finance 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC senate.legis.state.la.us [Source type: Original source]

.Alternatively, a national referendum may be required.^ War: The people may, by referendum as specified in Article Four, National Security, declare war.
  • Constitution of Oceania - The NEWEST Country 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.oceania.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Article (100) The President of the Republic may not dissolve the House of Representatives except in urgent circumstances and only after a nation-wide referendum on the reasons for the dissolution.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Yemen, 1994 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.al-bab.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Laws may be submitted to a referendum upon the request of the National Assembly or the Government in accordance with Article 111 of the Constitution.

.Details are to be found in the articles on the constitutions of the various nations and federal states in the world.^ More a concise statement of national principles than a detailed plan of governmental operation, the Constitution has evolved to meet the changing needs of a modern society profoundly different from the eighteenth-century world in which its creators lived.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Article 356.- The State only ensures the payment of public debt, which entered the constitutional governments , according to this Constitution and laws.
  • Constitution of Honduras - English Translation 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.honduras.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

.In constitutions that are not entrenched, no special procedure is required for modification.^ Decisions of the chambers and of the parliament require the presence of a majority of the members and the consent of a majority of those present, notwichtstanding special majorities required by the constitution.
  • ICL - Italy - Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.servat.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

^ Appropriations for the special election shall be charged against any current appropriations and shall be exempt from the requirements of paragraph 4, Section 25, Article V1 of this Constitution.
  • 1987 Philippine Constitution - The LawPhil Project 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.lawphil.net [Source type: Original source]

^ A special law approved by two thirds of the totality of the members of the National Congress, determine the procedures, requirements and other aspects needed for the exercise of the popular consultations.
  • Constitution of Honduras - English Translation 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.honduras.com [Source type: Original source]

.Lack of entrenchment is a characteristic of uncodified constitutions; the constitution is not recognised with any higher legal status than ordinary statutes.^ The ordinary people of the new American states in 1787 were in some ways more legally educated and sophisticated than are people today.

^ ARTICLE 323.- officials are custodians of the authority, legally responsible for its official conduct, subject to the law and never higher than it.
  • Constitution of Honduras - English Translation 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.honduras.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Citizens who have attained the age of 30 and are no older than 60 and who have 10 years' experience in the legal profession may be judges of the Constitutional Court.
  • constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.osi.hu [Source type: Original source]

.In the UK, for example laws which modify written or unwritten provisions of the constitution are passed on a simple majority in Parliament.^ Suppose, for example, that there are exactly one-million simples and suppose it is vague whether or not the activity of those simples constitutes a life.
  • Material Constitution (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Notwithstanding the provisions of Article III, Section 2 of this constitution, such law may be introduced and considered in any regular session of the legislature.
  • State Constitution of 1974 > Article VII:  Revenue and Finance 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC senate.legis.state.la.us [Source type: Original source]

^ There shall be an Inter-State Commission, with such powers of adjudication and administration as the Parliament deems necessary for the execution and maintenance, within the Commonwealth, of the provisions of this Constitution relating to trade and commerce, and of all laws made thereunder.
  • Full Text of the Australian Constitution – As Amended | australianpolitics.com 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC australianpolitics.com [Source type: Original source]

.No special "constitutional amendment" procedure is required.^ Procedure for passing Constitutional amendments 86.

^ Constitutional amendments: Procedure; concurrent and consecutive amendments.
  • THE CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF NEVADA 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.leg.state.nv.us [Source type: Original source]

^ For the amendment of the Constitution, or for passing certain decisions defined in the Constitution, the affirmative votes of two thirds of the Members of Parliament are required.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Hungary 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.lectlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

.Indeed it is an often-stated principle of UK Parliamentary Sovereignty that no sovereign Parliament is bound by the acts of its predecessors.^ The Commonwealth shall compensate the State for the value of any property passing to the Commonwealth under this section; if no agreement can be made as to the mode of compensation, it shall be determined under laws to be made by the Parliament: (iv.
  • Full Text of the Australian Constitution – As Amended | australianpolitics.com 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC australianpolitics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ XVII. On general principles of law and reason, debts contracted in the name of "the United States," or of "the people of the United States," are of no validity.
  • No Treason: The Constitution of No Authority 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC tmh.floonet.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Article (1) The Republic of Yemen is an Arab, Islamic and independent sovereign state whose integrity is inviolable, and no part of which may be ceded.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Yemen, 1994 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.al-bab.com [Source type: Original source]

.[17]; and there is no higher authority that can create law which binds Parliament.^ Judges are independent and there is no authority over them except that of the law.
  • Full Text of Iraqi Constitution - washingtonpost.com 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Article 35 All persons are equal before the law and there shall be no discrimination whatsoever on grounds of sex, race, language, or religion.
  • Welcome to MOFA web site 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC english.mofa.gov.qa [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no authority in France superior to that of the law; the King reigns only thereby, and only in the name of the law may he exact obedience.
  • The Constitution of 1791 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC sourcebook.fsc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In practice democratic governments do not use the lack of entrenchment of the constitution to impose the will of the government or abolish all civil rights, as they could in theory do, but the distinction between constitutional and other law is still somewhat arbitrary, usually following historical principles embodied in important past legislation.^ To enjoy all the rights cited in this constitution,   .
  • Fateh Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.acpr.org.il [Source type: Academic]

^ To enjoy all the rights cited in this constitution, .

^ The other conferred the Constitution and laws ; .
  • Constitution of Honduras - English Translation 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.honduras.com [Source type: Original source]

.For example, several UK Acts of Parliament such as the Bill of Rights, Human Rights Act and, prior to the creation of Parliament, Magna Carta are regarded as granting fundamental rights and principles which are treated as almost constitutional.^ Fundamental rights and Principles of Policy .
  • The Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.ljcp.gov.pk [Source type: Original source]

^ Courts of Justice for the injured person upon request of such person if it deems appropriate for the resolution of human rights violation problem as a whole as provided by law; .
  • Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand 2007 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.asianlii.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Article 31  [Restrictions] The public rights and freedoms stated in this Constitution may only be regulated or limited by or in accordance with the law, and such regulation or limitation may not prejudice the essence of the right or freedom.
  • ICL - Bahrain Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.oefre.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

.Several rights that in another state might be guaranteed by constitution have indeed been abolished or modified by the UK Parliament in the early twentyfirst century, including the unconditional right to trial by jury, the right to silence without prejudicial inference, permissible detention before a charge is made extended from 24 hours to 42 days, and the right not to be tried twice for the same offence.^ Every person charged with an offence has the right to a fair trial before a court of law.
  • Constitution of the Fiji Islands - Wikisource 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The right to life is guaranteed by the Constitution.
  • http://www.mideastweb.org/palconstitution.htm 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.mideastweb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Right of jury trial in criminal cases.
  • NC Institute for Constitutional Law NC Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.ncicl.org [Source type: Original source]

Absolutely unmodifiable articles
The strongest level of entrenchment exists in those constitutions that state that some of their most fundamental principles are absolute, i.e. certain articles may not be amended under any circumstances. An amendment of a constitution that is made consistently with that constitution, except that it violates the absolute non-modifiability, can be called an unconstitutional constitutional law. .Ultimately it is always possible for a constitution to be overthrown by internal or external force, for example, a revolution (perhaps claiming to be justified by the right to revolution) or invasion.^ International treaties or agreements concluded with and by Georgia, if they are not in contradiction to the Constitution of Georgia, have prior legal force over internal normative acts.

^ It shall be the duty of the Federation to protect every Province against external aggression and internal disturbances and to ensure that the Government of every Province is carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.
  • The Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.ljcp.gov.pk [Source type: Original source]

^ The Government (under this Constitution) is a restricted Entity that protects Oceanians against external and internal Force and Fraud.
  • Constitution of Oceania - The NEWEST Country 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.oceania.org [Source type: Original source]

An example of absolute unmodifiability is the German Federal Constitution. .This states in Article 20 that the country has to be a democratic, federal and social republic, and in Article 1 that the state powers have to: (i) leave dignity of man inviolable; (ii) where rule of law prevails; and (iii) where sovereignty lies with the people.^ The Republic of Armenia is a sovereign, democratic state, based on social justice and the rule of law.

^ The prevalence of the law is the basis of the rule in the State.
  • Embassy of Qatar - Constitution of Qatar 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.qatarembassy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Republic of Armenia power lies with the people.

.Article 79, Section 3 states that these articles cannot be changed, even according to the methods of amendment defined elsewhere in the document.^ CV-31 These amendments are alternative to and cumulative with the methods of removal of Justices and judges provided in Article III, section 17, and Article IV, section 5, of this Constitution, and any other provision of law relating to the methods and manner of the removal of Justices, Judges, and judges of the courts of this state.
  • Document Title 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.neded.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Article 79 The electoral constituencies into which the State is divided and the districts thereof shall be determined by a decree.
  • Welcome to MOFA web site 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC english.mofa.gov.qa [Source type: Original source]

^ Article 356.- The State only ensures the payment of public debt, which entered the constitutional governments , according to this Constitution and laws.
  • Constitution of Honduras - English Translation 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.honduras.com [Source type: Original source]

.Another example is the Constitution of Honduras, which has an article stating that the article itself and certain other articles cannot be changed in any circumstances.^ ARTICLE 11.- also belong to the State of Honduras: .
  • Constitution of Honduras - English Translation 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.honduras.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Article 356.- The State only ensures the payment of public debt, which entered the constitutional governments , according to this Constitution and laws.
  • Constitution of Honduras - English Translation 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.honduras.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Article 374 of the Honduras Constitution asserts this unmodifiability, stating, "It is not possible to reform, in any case, the preceding article, the present article, the constitutional articles referring to the form of government, to the national territory, to the presidential period, the prohibition to serve again as President of the Republic, the citizen who has performed under any title in consequence of which she/he cannot be President of the Republic in the subsequent period."^ The Prime Minister substitutes the President of the Republic when he is absent from the national territory.
  • Ivoirian Constitution - U.S. Embassy Abidjan, Cote D'Ivoire 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC abidjan.usembassy.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ TITLE V National Sovereignty ARTICLE 58: National sovereignty is vested in all citizens.
  • Haiti: Constitution, 1987 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.georgetown.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ ARTICLE 11.- also belong to the State of Honduras: .
  • Constitution of Honduras - English Translation 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.honduras.com [Source type: Original source]

[18] .This unmodifiability article has played an important role in the 2009 Honduran constitutional crisis.^ Article (3) The Palestinian Revolution plays a leading role in liberating Palestine.
  • MidEast Web - Fatah Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.mideastweb.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Fateh Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.acpr.org.il [Source type: Academic]
  • The Fatah Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.middleeastfacts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ ARTICLE 26.- No naturalized honduran may play in their country of origin, official functions on behalf of Honduras.
  • Constitution of Honduras - English Translation 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.honduras.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The idea he doesn't realize that Article I of the Constitution defines the role of the vice president of the United States, that's the Executive Branch.

Distribution of sovereignty

See also: Federalism
.Constitutions also establish where sovereignty is located in the state.^ The Constitution of each State of the Commonwealth shall, subject to this Constitution, continue as at the establishment of the Commonwealth, or as at the admission of establishment of the State, as the case may be, until altered in accordance with the Constitution of the State.
  • Full Text of the Australian Constitution – As Amended | australianpolitics.com 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC australianpolitics.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.
  • The United States Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.usconstitution.net [Source type: Original source]
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION - We the People 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC constitutionus.com [Source type: Original source]
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The People of the State of Nevada want to amend the United States Constitution to establish Term Limits on Congress that will ensure representation in Congress by true citizen lawmakers.
  • THE CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF NEVADA 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.leg.state.nv.us [Source type: Original source]

.There are three basic types of distribution of sovereignty according to the degree of centralisation of power: unitary, federal, and confederal.^ There shall be a law on local revenue prescribing powers and duties for the collection of taxes and other revenues of local government organisations and the provisions of which shall be in compliance with the nature of each type of taxes, the distribution of resources in public sector and the balance of revenue and expenditure of local government organisations.
  • Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand 2007 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.asianlii.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Chapter Two The Federal Legislative Power Article 67 National Assembly National Assembly shall be established to exercise the legislative authority or any other power accorded it by the Constitution.
  • Constitution Of The Republic Of Sudan 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.sudan.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The problem for leadership is further complicated by the fact that the powers of government are not delegated to a single unitary hierarchy, but are distributed , or separated.

The distinction is not absolute.
.In a unitary state, sovereignty resides in the state itself, and the constitution determines this.^ For the purposes of a constitutional amendment, the number of qualified electors in each county and in the state shall be determined by the number of votes cast for the office of governor in the preceding general election.
  • Montana Legislature: Current State Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.leg.mt.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Article 1 This prescribes that the form of the state shall be unitary and a Republic, and contains the fundamental idea of sovereignty of the State.
  • Constitution of Indonesia 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC asnic.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It also determines the fundamental rights and duties recognized in the Constitution, its exercise being regulated in a different manner during the time the state of emergency is in force.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Cuba 1992 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.cubanet.org [Source type: Original source]

.The territory of the state may be divided into regions, but they are not sovereign and are subordinate to the state.^ The territory of the Republic of Bulgaria shall be divided into municipalities and regions.
  • National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.parliament.bg [Source type: Original source]

^ Additional territory may be admitted into state.
  • West Virginia Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.legis.state.wv.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The Governor may, on extraordinary occasions, by and with the advice of the Council of State, convene the General Assembly in extra session by his proclamation, stating therein the purpose or purposes for which they are thus convened.
  • NC Institute for Constitutional Law NC Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.ncicl.org [Source type: Original source]

In the UK, the constitutional doctrine of Parliamentary sovereignty dictates than sovereignty is ultimately contained at the centre. .Some powers have been devolved to Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales (but not England).Some unitary states (Spain is an example) devolve more and more power to sub-national governments until the state functions in practice much like a federal state.^ The Federal Government has the power to establish national reserves and to abolish them.
  • 1917 Constitution of Mexico 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.ilstu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The national government may delegate powers by law to the state governments.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Palau 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.paclii.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To settle disputes between the State powers, including the National Elections Tribunal (TNE), as well as, among other entities or bodies to indicate the Law.
  • Constitution of Honduras - English Translation 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.honduras.com [Source type: Original source]

.A federal state has a central structure with at most a small amount of territory mainly containing the institutions of the federal government, and several regions (called states, provinces, etc.^ The main separation of powers was between the central government and the several states, a system called federalism .

^ The provinces shall be governed by the state Government.

^ Normative acts of ministers and steering organs of other central institutions of the state are effective in the entire territory of the Republic of Albania within the sphere of their jurisdiction.
  • Presidenti i Republikes se Shqiperise 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.president.al [Source type: Original source]

) which comprise the territory of the whole state. Sovereignty is divided between the centre and the constituent regions. .The constitutions of Canada and the United States establish federal states, with power divided between the federal government and the provinces or states.^ Relations to the government of the United States.
  • West Virginia Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.legis.state.wv.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Seat of government established--state university.
  • Iowa General Assembly - Iowa Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ It was such conventions that established the written Constitutions of governments, both federal and state.

.Each of the regions may in turn have its own constitution (of unitary nature).^ ARTICLE 284-4: No amendment to the Constitution may effect the democratic and republican nature of the State.
  • Haiti: Constitution, 1987 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.georgetown.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, each House may regulate its own procedure and for this purpose may make Standing Orders.
  • JAMAICA: Constitution of 1962 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Each Region, after consulting the population involved, may within its own territory and by its own acts establish new municipalities and modify their boundaries and names.
  • ICL - Italy - Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.servat.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

.A confederal state comprises again several regions, but the central structure has only limited coordinating power, and sovereignty is located in the regions.^ ARTICLE 2.- The sovereignty belongs to the people of which emanate all the powers of the State to be exercised through representation.
  • Constitution of Honduras - English Translation 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.honduras.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Article 31  [Restrictions] The public rights and freedoms stated in this Constitution may only be regulated or limited by or in accordance with the law, and such regulation or limitation may not prejudice the essence of the right or freedom.
  • ICL - Bahrain Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.oefre.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

^ Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education - Establishment - Membership - Appointment - Terms - Vacancy - Powers as coordinating board of control.
  • OCIS Document Index 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.oscn.net [Source type: Academic]

.Confederal constitutions are rare, and there is often dispute to whether so-called "confederal" states are actually federal.^ There are actually three constitutions.

^ This Constitution shall be called the “State of Palestine Constitution”.
  • http://www.mideastweb.org/palconstitution.htm 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.mideastweb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There shall be for each State of the Federation a Governor.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

.A historical example of a confederal constitution is the Swiss Federal Constitution.^ The militia clauses of the Swiss Federal Constitution are contained in Art.

[citation needed]
.To some extent a group of states which do not constitute a federation as such may by treaties and accords give up parts of their sovereignty to a supranational entity.^ The State practises its sovereignty on its territory and shall not give up its sovereignty or any part of its territory.
  • Embassy of Qatar - Constitution of Qatar 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.qatarembassy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Any Oceanian may create such an Entity.
  • Constitution of Oceania - The NEWEST Country 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.oceania.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Close-up of the United States Constitution .
  • Constitution Stock Photos and Images. 1576 Constitution pictures and royalty free photography available to search from over 100 stock photo brands. 18 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

.For example the countries comprising the European Union have agreed to abide by some Union-wide measures which restrict their absolute sovereignty in some ways, e.g., the use of the metric system of measurement instead of national units previously used.^ American troops must serve only under American commanders, not those of the United Nations or foreign countries.

^ The only reason for the restriction on trade is that other nations often use the drug trade as an excuse for military action.
  • Constitution of Oceania - The NEWEST Country 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.oceania.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Republic of Malta has sovereignty, or in pursuance of measures or actions decided by the Security Council of the United Nations; or .

Separation of powers

.Constitutions usually explicitly divide power between various branches of government.^ How would the amendment shift the balance of power between the three branches of government?
  • Irregular Times » constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC irregulartimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A key design objective of constitutional government is to avoid excessive or unbalanced concentrations of power , mainly by dividing it among many branches and individuals, so that abuses by any can be blocked or corrected by the combined action of others.

^ The powers of government shall be divided into three distinct departments: legislative, executive and judicial.

.The standard model, described by the Baron de Montesquieu, involves three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial.^ The power of the government of this state is divided into three distinct branches--legislative, executive, and judicial.
  • Montana Legislature: Current State Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.leg.mt.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The judicial power is independent of the executive power and of the legislative power.
  • Ivoirian Constitution - U.S. Embassy Abidjan, Cote D'Ivoire 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC abidjan.usembassy.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The judges of the State are independent of the legislative and executive branches of government.
  • Constitution of the Fiji Islands - Wikisource 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.Some constitutions include additional branches, such as an auditory branch.^ In addition to the functions conferred upon it by or under this Constitution, a commission has such powers and other functions (if any) as are prescribed.
  • Constitution of the Fiji Islands - Wikisource 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In this Constitution, references to a person holding an office shall include reference to a person acting in such office.
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What the voters lack are leaders with some stature, such as constitutional scholars, to raise the issue of constitutional compliance for much of the legislation before Congress.

.Constitutions vary extensively as to the degree of separation of powers between these branches.^ These words encompass the concepts of adversity between parties, and require that litigants must have suffered injury sufficient to invoke the power of a federal court.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Interpretation of constitutional texts when a dispute arises over the rights, duties ‎and competencies of the three ‎ branches, and in case of a jurisdictional dispute between the head of state and the ‎prime minister; .
  • http://www.mideastweb.org/palconstitution.htm 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.mideastweb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The system of government rests on a separation of the legislative, executive and judicial authorities while maintaining cooperation between them in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.
  • ICL - Bahrain Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.oefre.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

Lines of accountability

.In presidential and semi-presidential systems of government, department secretaries/ministers are accountable to the president, who has patronage powers to appoint and dismiss ministers.^ The President appoints and dismisses the ministers of state.
  • Constitution of Indonesia 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC asnic.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He appoints the Prime Minister, [the] Head of Government, who is responsible to him.
  • Ivoirian Constitution - U.S. Embassy Abidjan, Cote D'Ivoire 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC abidjan.usembassy.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The President who is appointed by the Majelis shall be subordinate and accountable to the Majelis.
  • Constitution of Indonesia 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC asnic.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The president is accountable to the people in an election.^ The House of Representatives is bound to recommend at least two persons for the post of the President of the Republic before submitting the candidates to the people in competitive elections.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Yemen, 1994 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.al-bab.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Article (107) Nomination and election of the President shall be as follows: Election of the President of the Republic shall be by the people and in a competitive elections.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Yemen, 1994 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.al-bab.com [Source type: Original source]

.In parliamentary systems, ministers are accountable to Parliament, but it is the prime minister who appoints and dismisses them.^ The President appoints and dismisses the ministers of state.
  • Constitution of Indonesia 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC asnic.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The President appoints and dismisses other Ministers on the advice of the Prime Minister.
  • Constitution of the Fiji Islands - Wikisource 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He appoints the Prime Minister, [the] Head of Government, who is responsible to him.
  • Ivoirian Constitution - U.S. Embassy Abidjan, Cote D'Ivoire 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC abidjan.usembassy.gov [Source type: Original source]

.In Westminster systems, this power derives from the monarch (or head of state in Westminster-style republics, such as India and the Republic of Ireland), a component of Parliament.^ The President is the head of the executive power in the State.
  • Constitution of Indonesia 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC asnic.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The President of the Republic of Uzbekistan is head of state and executive authority in the Republic of Uzbekistan.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.mansurovs.com [Source type: Original source]
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.uta.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.
  • U.S. Senate: Reference Home > Constitution of the United States 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]

.There is the concept of a vote of no confidence in many countries with parliamentary systems, which means that if a majority of the legislature vote for a no confidence motion, then the government must resign, and a new one will be formed, or parliament will be dissolved and a general election called.^ Elections by Legislature - Voting and entry in journal .
  • OCIS Document Index 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.oscn.net [Source type: Academic]

^ If Parliament does not vote its confidence to the Government as laid down in paragraphs (3) and (4), the Government must resign.
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Hungary 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.lectlaw.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A majority is necessary to pass a vote of no-confidence.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Yemen, 1994 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.al-bab.com [Source type: Original source]

State of emergency

.Many constitutions allow the declaration under exceptional circumstances of some form of state of emergency during which some rights and guarantees are suspended.^ The state guarantees this right; .
  • Constitution of the Republic of Cuba 1992 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.cubanet.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The right to litigate is guaranteed under the law.
  • ICL - Bahrain Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.oefre.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

^ The right to life is guaranteed by the Constitution.
  • http://www.mideastweb.org/palconstitution.htm 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.mideastweb.org [Source type: Original source]

.This deliberate loophole can be and has been abused to allow a government to suppress dissent without regard for human rights—see the article on state of emergency.^ Article 22 This article concerns the emergency rights (noodverordeningsrect) of the President.
  • Constitution of Indonesia 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC asnic.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Article 356.- The State only ensures the payment of public debt, which entered the constitutional governments , according to this Constitution and laws.
  • Constitution of Honduras - English Translation 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.honduras.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Article 31  [Restrictions] The public rights and freedoms stated in this Constitution may only be regulated or limited by or in accordance with the law, and such regulation or limitation may not prejudice the essence of the right or freedom.
  • ICL - Bahrain Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.oefre.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

Façade constitutions

.Italian political theorist Giovanni Sartori noted the existence of national constitutions which are a façade for authoritarian sources of power.^ The powers of the National Assembly are determined by the Constitution.

^ All laws and resolutions of the National Assembly or Peoples Power, barring those in relation to reforms in the Constitution, are adopted by a simple majority vote.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Cuba 1992 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.cubanet.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Constitution, stating his decision, as soon as the circumstances permit it, to the National Assembly of Peoples Power or to the Council of State if the Assembly is unable to meet, according to legal effects; .
  • Constitution of the Republic of Cuba 1992 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.cubanet.org [Source type: Original source]

.While such documents may express respect for human rights or establish an independent judiciary, they may be ignored when the government feels threatened, or never put into practice.^ The Law will establish the rules pertaining to such jurisdiction and the agencies that have to put them into practice.
  • Constitution of Honduras - English Translation 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.honduras.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This section establishes a Human Rights Commission.
  • Constitution of the Fiji Islands - Wikisource 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Every person has the right to fair labour practices, including humane treatment and proper working conditions.
  • Constitution of the Fiji Islands - Wikisource 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.An extreme example was the Constitution of the Soviet Union that on paper supported freedom of assembly and freedom of speech; however, citizens who transgressed unwritten limits were summarily imprisoned.^ Citizens are guaranteed freedom of speech, of the press, of assembly, demonstration and association.
  • Socialist Constitution of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (Full Text) 1998 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.novexcn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Article 31  [Restrictions] The public rights and freedoms stated in this Constitution may only be regulated or limited by or in accordance with the law, and such regulation or limitation may not prejudice the essence of the right or freedom.
  • ICL - Bahrain Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.oefre.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

^ Article (57) In as much as it is not contrary to the Constitution, the citizens may organize themselves along political, professional and union lines.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Yemen, 1994 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.al-bab.com [Source type: Original source]

.The example demonstrates that the protections and benefits of a constitution are ultimately provided not through its written terms but through deference by government and society to its principles.^ If the Society should ever cease to operate as provided for in its charter of incorporation or in its Constitution, the accumulated assets shall be distributed in accordance with the laws of the State of Incorporation and the laws of the United States of America.
  • Phi Theta Kappa - International Honor Society of the Two Year College 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.ptk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To fulfill this obligation, the Preamble of the Constitution states one of the duties specifically delegated to the Federal Government is to "Provide for the common defense" .

^ This Constitution, and any laws hereunder enacted, shall not limit the lawful government hereby constituted from seeking any other remedy provided by law.

.A constitution may change from being real to a façade and back again as democratic and autocratic governments succeed each other.^ They may exercise this right by way of self-government, referendums and democratic formation of state bodies.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.mansurovs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Judges and members of the Constitutional Court may not hold any other public office, nor engage in any other paid occupation, except for scientific, educational and creative work.

^ Article (126) The President of the Republic may be charged with grand treason, violation of the Constitution, or any other action that prejudices the independence and sovereignty of the country.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Yemen, 1994 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.al-bab.com [Source type: Original source]

.The constitution of the United States, being the first document of its type, necessarily had many unforeseen shortcomings which had to be patched through amendments, but has generally been honored and a powerful structure, and no dictatorship has been able to take hold; the constitution of Argentina written many years later in 1853 building on many years of experience of the US constitution was arguably a better document, but did not prevent a succession of dictatorial governments from ignoring it—a state of emergency was declared 52 times to bypass constitutional guarantees[19].^ The rights recognized in the First Amendment precede and are superior to the written Constitution of government.

^ The First Amendment was a safe-guard so that the State can have no jurisdiction over the Church.
  • Original Intent | Mother Jones 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Relations to the government of the United States.
  • West Virginia Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.legis.state.wv.us [Source type: Original source]

Constitutional courts

.The constitution is often protected by a certain legal body in each country with various names, such as supreme, constitutional or high court.^ Jurisdiction of High Court in constitutional questions .
  • Parliament of Kiribati - Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.parliament.gov.ki [Source type: Original source]

^ Reference of constitutional questions to High Court.
  • 1983 Saint Kitts and Nevis Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC pdba.georgetown.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Constitute itself as a High Court of Justice; 3.
  • Haiti: Constitution, 1987 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.georgetown.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This court judges the compatibility of legislation with the provisions and principles of the constitution, which is termed "constitutionality."^ At the end of the judge’s term as stated in the Constitution; .
  • http://www.mideastweb.org/palconstitution.htm 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.mideastweb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Term of office of Supreme Court judges.
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF MISSISSIPPI 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.sos.state.ms.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The term of a High Court judge ends when he: .
  • Presidenti i Republikes se Shqiperise 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.president.al [Source type: Original source]

.Especially important is the court's responsibility to protect constitutionally established rights and freedoms.^ Each individual has the right of appeal to the court to protect his rights and freedoms.

^ J. The Right to Judicial Review: All three levels of Courts, the Supreme Court, the County Courts, and the Local Courts, have the responsibility to decide if a law is constitutional.
  • Constitution of Oceania - The NEWEST Country 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.oceania.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Article (50) Citizens have the right of recourse to the courts to protect their rights and lawful interests.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Yemen, 1994 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.al-bab.com [Source type: Original source]

.In constitutions without the concept of supreme law, such as the United Kingdom constitution, the concept of "constitutionality" has little meaning, and constitutional courts do not exist.^ Constitution is supreme law .
  • Parliament of Kiribati - Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.parliament.gov.ki [Source type: Original source]

^ Constitution supreme law 3.

^ Constitution to be supreme law.

.A "constitutional violation" is an action or legislative act that is judged by a constitutional court to be contrary to the constitution, that is, "unconstitutional."^ The term of a judge of the Constitutional Court ends when he: .
  • Presidenti i Republikes se Shqiperise 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.president.al [Source type: Original source]

^ The Constitutional Court consists of seven judges, one of whom is a representative of the Gornyy Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast.
  • constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.osi.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ While agreeing with me that the Constitution is supreme, and that the opinion of Judge Thompson was contrary to the Constitution, the attorney general has argued that he must follow an order he himself believes to be in direct violation of the supreme law of the land.
  • USS Fort Snelling LSD-30 - USS Northampton CC-1 - USS LaSalle LPD-3 - USS Seattle AOE-3 - USS Roanoke AOR-7 - Crosspoint Church - Woodward-Family Missionaries - Used Heavy Duty Trucks for Sale - 18 January 2010 13:34 UTC aworldwide.com [Source type: Original source]

.An example of constitutional violation by the executive could be a politician who abuses the powers of his constitutionally-established office.^ Executive power; Governor's term of office.
  • Virginia General Assembly - Constitution of Virginia 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC legis.state.va.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Nothing in this Constitution shall be construed as affecting the power of a court of law or any tribunal established by law to declare invalid any provision of an existing law on the ground of inconsistency with the provision of any other law, that is to say- .
  • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The ethics commission shall have the authority to investigate violations of the code of ethics and to impose penalties, as provided by law; and the commission shall have the power to remove from office officials who are not subject to impeachment.
  • The State of Rhode Island General Laws 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.rilin.state.ri.us [Source type: Original source]

.An example of constitutional violation by the legislature is an attempt to pass a law that would contradict the constitution, without first going through the proper constitutional amendment process.^ Procedure for passing Constitutional amendments 86.

^ Legislature to pass necessary laws.
  • Document Title 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.neded.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Constitution is the first law of the state.

.A constitutional court is normally the court of last resort, the highest judicial body in the government.^ The Constitutional Court is a judicial body charged with protection of constitutional rule.
  • Constitution of the CR - Prague Castle 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.hrad.cz [Source type: Original source]

^ J. The Right to Judicial Review: All three levels of Courts, the Supreme Court, the County Courts, and the Local Courts, have the responsibility to decide if a law is constitutional.
  • Constitution of Oceania - The NEWEST Country 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.oceania.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Kiribati, other than a court established by a disciplinary laws, and includes the Judicial Committee and in sections 4 and 6 of this Constitution a court established by a disciplinary law; .
  • Parliament of Kiribati - Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.parliament.gov.ki [Source type: Original source]

.The process of judicial review is then integrated into the system of courts of appeal.^ Judicial power vested in court system.
  • THE CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF NEVADA 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.leg.state.nv.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Unified court system; organization; process.
  • New York State Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.dos.state.ny.us [Source type: Original source]

^ J. The Right to Judicial Review: All three levels of Courts, the Supreme Court, the County Courts, and the Local Courts, have the responsibility to decide if a law is constitutional.
  • Constitution of Oceania - The NEWEST Country 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.oceania.org [Source type: Original source]

.This is the case, for example, with the Supreme Court of the United States or Supreme Court of India.^ CV-7 No person shall be eligible to the office of Chief Justice or Judge of the Supreme Court unless he shall be at least thirty years of age, and a citizen of the United States, and shall have resided in this state at least three years next preceding his selection; nor, in the case of a Judge of the Supreme Court selected from a Supreme Court judicial district, unless he shall be a resident and elector of the district from which selected.
  • Document Title 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.neded.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It only briefly mentions the case and does not contradict it: These principles were applied by Judge Shipman in United States v.

^ The judicial power of the State vests in the High Court, the Court of Appeal and the Supreme Court and in such other courts as are created by law.
  • Constitution of the Fiji Islands - Wikisource 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.Cases must normally be heard in lower courts before being brought before the Supreme Court, except cases for which the Supreme Court has original jurisdiction.^ Jurisdiction of supreme and inferior courts -- Quorum of supreme court.
  • The State of Rhode Island General Laws 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.rilin.state.ri.us [Source type: Original source]

^ SUPREME COURT , has original jurisdiction of controversies between States.
  • The Constitution For The United States, Its Sources and Its Applications - Court Case Index 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.barefootsworld.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Supreme court jurisdiction.
  • Montana Legislature: Current State Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.leg.mt.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Some other countries dedicate a special court solely to the protection of the constitution, as with the German Constitutional Court.^ For Judge Ginsburg, and for some others, the court had the Constitution right in 1930.
  • The Volokh Conspiracy - 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC volokh.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The People's Republic of China establishes the Supreme People's Court and the local people's courts at different levels, military courts and other special people's courts.
  • CONSTITUTION OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC english.people.com.cn [Source type: Original source]

^ Everyone shall have the right to seek, obtain and disseminate any information, except that which is directed against the existing constitutional system and in some other instances specified by law.
  • Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.mansurovs.com [Source type: Original source]

.Most constitutional courts are powerful instruments of judicial review, with the power to declare laws "unconstitutional," that is, incompatible with the constitution.^ Any other powers in accordance with this Constitution and the law.
  • Embassy of Qatar - Constitution of Qatar 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.qatarembassy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The judicial authority shall be handled by the courts of law as stipulated in this Constitution.
  • Embassy of Qatar - Constitution of Qatar 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.qatarembassy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Judicial power vested in court system.
  • THE CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF NEVADA 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.leg.state.nv.us [Source type: Original source]

.The effect of this ruling varies between governments, but it is common for the courts' action to rule a law unenforceable, as is the case in the United States.^ The prevalence of the law is the basis of the rule in the State.
  • Embassy of Qatar - Constitution of Qatar 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.qatarembassy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Relations to the government of the United States.
  • West Virginia Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.legis.state.wv.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Madison An earlier case, United States v.

.However, many courts have the problem of relying on the legislative and executive branches' co-operation to properly enforce their decisions.^ Veto groups can also operate in the Legislative branch.

^ Be ultimately responsible for the execution of Senate legislation, Union Finance Board decisions, and Union Judiciary decisions.
  • Student Union Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC union.brandeis.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They are to be observed in all projects and policies of the executive branch of government and to be developed by the legislative branch in its laws, advice, investigations.
  • Constitution Of The Republic Of Sudan 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.sudan.net [Source type: Original source]

.For example, in the United States, the Supreme Court's ruling overturning the "separate but equal" doctrine in the 1950s depended on individual states co-operation to enforce.^ The Supreme Court is the final appellate court of the State.
  • Constitution of the Fiji Islands - Wikisource 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If the Society should ever cease to operate as provided for in its charter of incorporation or in its Constitution, the accumulated assets shall be distributed in accordance with the laws of the State of Incorporation and the laws of the United States of America.
  • Phi Theta Kappa - International Honor Society of the Two Year College 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.ptk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Supreme Court to promulgate rules of practice; to make recommendations to Legislature.
  • Document Title 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.neded.org [Source type: Original source]

Some failed to do so, prompting the federal government to intervene. .Other countries, such as France, have a Constitutional Council which may only judge the constitutionality of laws before the ratification process.^ They may be removed from office only in accordance with the Constitution and the laws.

^ Other judges may be criminally prosecuted only with the approval of the High Council of Justice.
  • Presidenti i Republikes se Shqiperise 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.president.al [Source type: Original source]

^ Judges may only be distinguished by function.
  • ICL - Italy - Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.servat.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

.Some countries, mainly those with uncodified constitutions, have no such courts at all – for example, as the United Kingdom traditionally functions under the principle of parliamentary sovereignty: the legislature has the power to enact any law it wishes.^ The structure and powers of those courts of law shall be regulated by statute.
  • Constitution of Indonesia 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC asnic.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ All are equal before the law and the courts.
  • constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.osi.hu [Source type: Original source]

^ Any other powers in accordance with this Constitution and the law.
  • Embassy of Qatar - Constitution of Qatar 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.qatarembassy.net [Source type: Original source]

.However, through its membership in the European Union, the UK is now subject to the jurisdiction of European Union law and the European Court of Justice; similarly, by acceding to the Council of Europe's European Convention on Human Rights, it is subject to the European Court of Human Rights.^ J. The Right to Judicial Review: All three levels of Courts, the Supreme Court, the County Courts, and the Local Courts, have the responsibility to decide if a law is constitutional.
  • Constitution of Oceania - The NEWEST Country 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.oceania.org [Source type: Original source]

^ HE has combined with others to subject us to a Jurisdiction foreign to our Constitution, and unacknowledged by our Laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation: .
  • FCIC: Constitution of the United States and the Declaration of Independence 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The right to be heard at sentencing of the accused in a manner prescribed by law, and at other times as prescribed by law or deemed appropriate by the court.
  • NC Institute for Constitutional Law NC Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.ncicl.org [Source type: Original source]

.In effect, these bodies can invalidate or interpret UK legislation for compliance with international treaty obligations, first established as a principle by the Factortame case.^ It only briefly mentions the case and does not contradict it: These principles were applied by Judge Shipman in United States v.

^ First: Formulating foreign policy and diplomatic representation; negotiating, signing, and ratifying international treaties and agreements; negotiating, signing and ratifying debt policies and formulating foreign sovereign economic and trade policy; .
  • Full Text of Iraqi Constitution - washingtonpost.com 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ XI. On general principles of law and reason, the oaths which these pretended agents of the people take "to support the Constitution," are of no validity or obligation.
  • No Treason: The Constitution of No Authority 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC tmh.floonet.net [Source type: Original source]

See also

Judicial philosophies of constitutional interpretation (note: generally specific to United States constitutional law)

References

  1. ^ Pylee, M.V. (1997). India's Constitution. S. Chand & Co.. pp. 3. ISBN 812190403X. 
  2. ^ "Constitution of India". Ministry of Law and Justice of India. July, 2008. http://indiacode.nic.in/coiweb/welcome.html. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  3. ^ The historical and institutional context of Roman law, George Mousourakis, 2003, p. 243
  4. ^ Gordon, Scott (1999). Controlling the State: Constitutionalism from Ancient Athens to Today. Harvard University Press. p. 4. ISBN 0674169875. 
  5. ^ Pylyp Orlyk Constitution, European commission for democracy through law (Venice Commission) The Constitutional Heritage of Europe. Montpellier, 22–23 November 1996.
  6. ^ Blaustein, Albert (January 1993). Constitutions of the World. Fred B. Rothman & Company. http://books.google.com/books?ie=UTF-8&vid=ISBN083770362X&id=2xCMVAFyGi8C&pg=PA15&lpg=PA15&dq=May+second+constitution+1791&sig=CSUWpkkxK7voCkrPXYAmFyfMWMY. 
  7. ^ Isaac Kramnick, Introduction, Madison, James (November 1987). The Federalist Papers. Penguin Classics. ISBN 0-14-044495-5. http://books.google.com/books?ie=UTF-8&visbn=0140444955&id=WSzKOORzyQ4C&pg=PA13&lpg=PA13&dq=May+second+oldest+constitution&sig=V8SxrTUQsbI3LI8RUgTbFKJFgE0. 
  8. ^ John Markoff describes the advent of modern codified national constitutions as one of the milestones of democracy, and states that "The first European country to follow the U.S. example was Poland in 1791." John Markoff, Waves of Democracy, 1996, ISBN 0-8039-9019-7, p.121.
  9. ^ Payne, Stanley G. (1973). A History of Spain and Portugal: Eighteenth Century to Franco. 2. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 432–433. ISBN 9780299062705. http://libro.uca.edu/payne2/spainport2.htm. "The Spanish pattern of conspiracy and revolt by liberal army officers ... was emulated in both Portugal and Italy. In the wake of Riego's successful rebellion, the first and only pronunciamiento in Italian history was carried out by liberal officers in the kingdom of the Two Sicilies. The Spanish-style military conspiracy also helped to inspire the beginning of the Russian revolutionary movement with the revolt of the Decembrist army officers in 1825. Italian liberalism in 1820-1821 relied on junior officers and the provincial middle classes, essentially the same social base as in Spain. It even used a Hispanized political vocabulary, for it was led by giunte (juntas), appointed local capi politici (jefes políticos), used the terms of liberali and servili (emulating the Spanish word serviles applied to supporters of absolutism), and in the end talked of resisting by means of a guerrilla. For both Portuguese and Italian liberals of these years, the Spanish constitution of 1812 remained the standard document of reference." 
  10. ^ Aristotle, by Francesco Hayez
  11. ^ Relectiones, Franciscus de Victoria (lect. 1532, first pub. 1557).
  12. ^ The Law of War and Peace[1], Hugo Grotius (1625)
  13. ^ Vindiciae Contra Tyrannos (Defense of Liberty Against Tyrants), "Junius Brutus" (Orig. Fr. 1581, Eng. tr. 1622, 1689)
  14. ^ The American Republic: its Constitution, Tendencies, and Destiny, O. A. Brownson (1866)
  15. ^ Principles of Constitutional Design, Donald S. Lutz (2006) ISBN 0-521-86168-3
  16. ^ The Paradox of Self-Amendment, byPeter Suber (1990) ISBN 0-8204-1212-0
  17. ^ UK principle: no Parliament is bound by the acts of its predecessors
  18. ^ Honduran Constitution "Republic of Honduras: Political Constitution of 1982 through 2005 reforms; Article 374" (in Spanish), Political Database of the Americas (Georgetown University), http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Honduras/hond05.html Honduran Constitution 
  19. ^ State of emergency in Argentina and other Spanish-speaking countries (in Spanish)

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

.
  • A good constitution cannot alone make a nation’s happiness.^ Act of the National Assembly to the extent that it is a law with respect to any matter on which the National Assembly is empowered by this Constitution to make laws; and .
    • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Federal National Council (FNC) and the Federal Supreme Council (FSC) amended the 1971 interim constitution of the United Arab Emirates, drafted with the establishment of the federation, to make it permanent in 1996.
    • UNDP-POGAR: Country Themes 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.pogar.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Each Chapter may make such Bylaws for itself as it deems suitable, provided such Bylaws are not in conflict with any of the provisions of the Constitution or National Bylaws.
    • Pi Mu Epsilon Constitution 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.pme-math.org [Source type: Original source]

    A bad one can alone make its unhappiness.
    • (fr) Une bonne constitution ne peut suffire à faire le bonheur d’une nation. Une mauvaise peut suffire à faire son malheur.
    • Guy Carcassonne: La Constitution (6th ed.). Paris: Éditions du Seuil, p. .33
  • The problem in any constitutional change is the great care put to solve the problems of the past instead of grasping those of the future.^ The safety and welfare of the Commonwealth requires the prompt amendment to the Constitution to aid those already inflicted by the Great Storms of 1976 or 1977 and any future emergency that may strike Commonwealth citizens.
    • Constitution of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC sites.state.pa.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In the past, such prohibitions were sometimes interpreted broadly enough to justify action against those who changed their own religious affiliations to another religion.
    • Nepal Constitution Article 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC asnic.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Constitution Act, 1960 (Formerly British North America Act, 1960 ) Changed the length of term of office for superior court judges (including those of the Supreme Court) to 75 years of age instead of for-life.
    • Canadian Constitutional Documents 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.solon.org [Source type: Original source]

    • (fr) Le défaut inhérent à tout changement constitutionnel tient au grand soin mis à régler les problèmes du passé au lieu de saisir ceux de l’avenir.
    • Olivier Duhamel: Droit constitutionnel 2: Les Démocraties (3rd ed.). Paris: Éditions du Seuil, 2000, p. .105
  • A constitution, as Solon said, is good for a certain people and for a certain time.^ Once set, as George Washington in his Farewell Address said: "The basis of our political systems is the right of the people to make and alter their constitutions of government.
    • The Constitution. 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.blupete.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And to provide for a Constitution for the purpose of promoting the good government and welfare of all persons in our country, on the principles of freedom, equality and justice, and for the purpose of consolidating the unity of our people .
    • Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.nigeria-law.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In the s ummer of 1996 the U.S.S. CONSTITUTION sailed for the first and last time in the 20th Century - and it is said, for the last time ever.
    • Sail the Constitution 18 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.matttaylor.com [Source type: Original source]

    It shouldn’t be mummified.
    • (fr) Une constitution, comme disait Solon, est bonne pour un peuple et pour un temps. .Il ne faut pas la momifier.
    • Charles de Gaulle, quoted in Alain Peyrefitte: C’était De Gaulle.^ French nuclear aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle .

      ^ Particularly interesting are the shots of our curious neighbors, the French aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle and an unknown American submarine.
      • USS LST Ship Memorial - Progress Report 18 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.lstmemorial.org [Source type: General]

      ^ Nuclear aircraft carriers USS Enterprise and Charles De Gaulle .

      Paris: Gallimard, 2002, p. .250
  • A constitution is made of a spirit, institutions, and a practice.^ The President of the Supreme Court may make rules of court, not inconsistent with this Constitution or a law made by the Parliament, for regulating and prescribing the practice and procedure to be followed in the Supreme Court.
    • Constitution of the Fiji Islands - Wikisource 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    • (fr) Une constitution, c’est un esprit, des institutions, une pratique.
    • Charles de Gaulle, Press Conference on 31 January 1964, Élysée Palace, Paris

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also constitution

English

Proper noun

Singular
the Constitution
Plural
-
the Constitution
.
  1. The supreme law of some countries, such as Australia, Ireland, and the United States.^ The Constitution of Ireland is the basic law of the State.

    ^ The Constitution is the supreme law of State.
    • Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand 2007 10 February 2010 13:42 UTC www.asianlii.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Not even three decades after the signing of the Treaty of Paris, which formalized Britain’s recognition of the United States of America, the two countries were again in conflict.

    The Constitution is anchored in English liberal thought and the Magna Carta.

Simple English

[[File:|thumbnail|200px|Detail from Hammurabi's stele shows him receiving the laws of Babylon from the seated sun deity.]]

This page is about constitutions in general. If you are looking for the article on the US Constitution, see United States Constitution.

The constitution of a country (or a state) is a special type of law document that tells how its government is supposed to work. It tells how the country's leaders are to be chosen and how long they get to stay in office, how new laws are made and old laws are to be changed or removed based on law, what kind of people are allowed to vote and what other rights they are guaranteed, and how the constitution can be changed.

Limits are put on the Government in how much power they have within the Constitution (see Rule of Law ). On the other hand, countries with repressive or corrupt governments frequently do not stick to their constitutions, or have bad constitutions without giving freedom to citizens and others. This can be known as dictatorship or simply "bending the rules". A Constitution is often a way of a uniting within a Federation.

The UK Constitution

Scholars do not agree whether the UK has a Constitution or not. There is a debate because the UK has parts of its Constitution codified (written) and uncodified (not written). If the constitution is uncodified, then sources for the agreement are still accessible, they are just written in different various political books or tradition, instead of written all in one place like a codified Constitution.

History

The Magna Carta of England, written in 1215, was an early type of constitution. The first modern constitution in the world was that of the United States in 1787, but some Native American tribes had similar charters before that.

The U.S. has one of the oldest constitutions that people are still using, and it has been changed (amended) many times over the years. It was made after the colonists won their independence from Britain. At first they had the Articles of Confederation but the Articles seemed too weak so they were replaced with today's Constitution.

Other pages

Other websites

The US Constitution in basic English

krc:Конституция


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 29, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Constitution, which are similar to those in the above article.








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