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Construction engineering concerns the planning and management of the construction of structures such as highways, bridges, airports, railroads, buildings, dams, and reservoirs. Construction of such projects requires knowledge of engineering and management principles and business procedures, economics, and human behavior. Construction engineers engage in the design of temporary structures, quality assurance and quality control, building and site layout surveys, on site material testing, concrete mix design, cost estimating, planning and scheduling, safety engineering, materials procurement, and cost engineering and budgeting.

Contents

Career

The construction industry in the United States provides employment to millions with all types and levels of education. Construction contributes 14% of the United States Gross National Product. Construction engineering provides much of the design aspect used both in the construction office and in the field on project sites. To complete projects construction engineers rely on plans and specifications created by architects, engineers and other constructors. During most of the 20th century structures have been first designed then engineering staff ensure it is built to plans and specifications by testing and overseeing the construction. Prior to the 20th century and more commonly since the start of the 21st century structures are designed and built in combination, allowing for site considerations and construction methods to influence the design process.

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Work activities

Construction engineers have a wide range of work areas. Typically, entry level construction engineers analyze topographical information. Construction engineers also have to use computer software to design hydraulic systems and structures while following construction codes. Keeping a workplace safe is key to having a successful construction company. It is the construction engineer's job to make sure that everything is conducted correctly. In addition to safety, the construction engineer has to make sure that the site stays clean and sanitary. They have to make sure that there are no impediments in the way of the structure's planned location and must move any that exist. Finally, more seasoned construction engineers will assume the role of project management on a construction site and are involved heavily with the construction schedule and document control as well as budget and cost control. Their role on site is to provide construction information, including repairs, requests for information, change orders and payment applications

Construction engineers should have strong understanding for math and science, but many other skills are required, including critical thinking, listening, learning, problem solving, monitoring and decision making. Construction engineers have to be able to think about all aspects of a problem and listen to other’s ideas so that they can learn everything about a project before it begins. During project construction they must solve the problems that they encounter using math and science. Construction engineers must maintain project control of labor and equipment for safety, to ensure the project is on schedule and monitor quality control. When a problem occurs it is the construction engineer who will create and enact a solution.

Abilities

Construction engineers need different abilities to do their job. They must have the ability to reason, convey instructions to others, comprehend multi variables, anticipate problems, comprehend verbal, written and graphic instructions, organize data sets, speak clearly, visualize in 4D time-space and understand Virtual Design and Construction methods.

Educational requirements

A typical construction engineering curriculum is a mixture of engineering mechanics, engineering design, construction management and general science and mathematics. This usually leads to a Bachelor of Science degree. The B.S. degree along with some construction experience is sufficient for most entry level construction engineering jobs. Graduate school may be an option for those who want to go further in depth of the construction and engineering subjects taught at the undergraduate level. In most cases construction engineering graduates look to either civil engineering, engineering management, or business administration as a possible graduate degree. For authority to approve any final designs of public projects (and most any project), a construction engineer must have a professional engineers (P.E.) license. To obtain a P.E. license the Fundamentals of Engineering exam and Principles and Practice in Engineering Exam must be passed and education and experience requirements met.

Job prospects

Job prospects for construction engineers generally have a strong cyclical variation.

For example, job prospects have been poor for the past two years due to the bursting of housing bubbles in many parts of the world. This has sharply reduced demand for construction, and as a result, the construction industry in the United States had a 27.1% unemployment rate in early 2010, which is about three times higher than the national average unemployment rate of 9.7%[1].

For comparison, the unemployment rate during 1933, the worst part of the Great Depression was only 24.9%[2].

See also

References

  • The Book of Knowledge. (1992). Engineering. In The New Book of Knowledge (Vol. 5, pp. 224–225). Danbury, CT: Grolier Incorporated.

Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

In large construction projects, such as skyscrapers, cranes are essential.

Construction engineering concerns the planning and management of the construction of structures such as highways, bridges, airports, rail roads, buildings, dams, and reservoirs. Construction of such projects requires knowledge of engineering and management principles and business procedures, economics, and human behavior. Construction engineers engage in the design of structures temporary, cost estimating, planning and scheduling, materials procurement, selection of equipment, and cost control.

Construction Engineering is differentiated from Construction Management from the standpoint of the use of mathematics, science and engineering to analyze problems and design a construction process. Construction engineers build many of the things that people use everyday. Construction engineering involves many aspects of construction including: commercial, residential, bridges, airports, tunnels, and dams. It is an extremely large industry that provides jobs to many and continues to grow. Currently there are nearly 6 million people working on construction in the United States (http://www.ndsu.edu/ndsu/academic/factsheets/eng_arch/consteng.shtml). Construction engineers are in high demand so it is easy for a CE to get a job in any part of the country.

Careers

Construction is the largest industry in the United States. It provides jobs to millions ranging in all types of education. Construction makes 14% of our countries Gross National Product (http://www.ndsu.edu/ndsu/academic/factsheets/eng_arch/consteng.shtml). Construction engineering is an important part to the construction industry because it provides much of the design aspect to the field. Construction engineers follow the plans of architects and sometimes design the actual structure. After the structure has been designed the engineers make sure it has been built correctly by testing and overseeing the construction.

Tasks - Construction engineers have a lot of responsibilities in their job. Certain tasks have to be completed everyday in order to get the job done correctly. Analyzing reports is a main part of their job description. They must analyze maps, drawings, blueprints, aerial photography and other topographical information. Construction engineers also have to use computer software to design hydraulic systems and structures while following construction codes. They have to calculate load and grade requirements, liquid flow rates and material stress points to ensure that the structure can withstand stress. Keeping a safe workplace is key to having a successful construction company. It is the construction engineer's job to make sure that everything is conducted correctly. In addition to safety, the construction engineer has to make sure that the site stays clean and sanitary . Surveying the land before construction begins is also a job of the construction engineer. They have to make sure that there are no impediments in the way of where the structure will be built and if there are any they must move them. They also must estimate costs and keep the project under budget. Construction engineers have to test the soils and materials used for adequate strength. Finally, construction engineers have to provide construction information, including repairs and cost changes, to the managers.

Knowledge - Construction engineers build structures that are used by people everyday so they have to be safe and be able to withstand the elements. To complete the job properly construction engineers have to have the knowledge of many different aspects. Those aspects include engineering, technology, design, math, construction, English, customer service, management, transportation, public safety, and computers. They use the engineering, technology, and math aspects to make sure they build the structure to the set standards. They use English, customer service, and management knowledge to deal with the people that could possibly buy the structure. They also use this knowledge to inform the management on how the project is coming along and if any changes are needed.

Skills - Most construction engineers have a love for math and science. In addition to these abilities there are many other skills needed to be a construction engineer. Critical thinking, listening, learning, problem solving, monitoring, and decision making are all very important in construction engineering. Construction engineers have to be able to think about all aspects of a problem and listen to other’s ideas so that they can learn everything about a project before it begins. After they have begun a project they must solve the problems that they encounter using math and science. They also have to monitor the workers on the job site for safety and to make sure that the project is on time and done correctly. Whenever a problem occurs it is up to the construction engineer to make the decision on how to fix it.

Abilities - Construction engineers have many different kinds of abilities they use to do their job. They have the abilities to reason, express themselves orally, sense a problem, comprehend (oral and written), order information, speak clearly, and visualize. Construction engineers use these abilities to communicate with other workers and to solve problems. They also have to use there abilities to know what kinds of materials to order and how to get those materials while staying under the budget.

Work Activities - Construction engineers have many activities that they have to do everyday. Those activities include drafting, decision making, computer interaction, communication, documenting, creative thinking, organizing, information collecting, estimating, and analyzing. Construction engineers use drafting to design structures and to show others how to build them. They have to analyze information and make the best decision and solve problems. Computers are an important tool used by construction engineers. They use them to write programs and solve equations. Communication is used everyday to interact with coworkers and supervisors. They have to communicate in person, by telephone, and through e-mail. Documentation is used to record important information that needs to be passed on to management. Most documenting is done in electronic form. Creative thinking is used to come up with new ideas and solve problems. Construction engineers have to be organized to accomplish goals and prioritize jobs. They have to gather information on the task at hand before they can start a project. This will help ensure that the job is completed correctly. In order to keep a project under budget, construction engineers have to estimate costs of materials and workers. Finally, they have to analyze data to find answers to problems they are having on the job site.

Educational Requirements - Construction Engineers are educated to design and build structures that are necessary for everyday life. There are only a handful of schools that offer a major in Construction engineering. Some of the more popular colleges are Purdue University, Iowa State University, Bradley University, California State Polytechnic University-Pomona, and National University (http://www.usnews.com/usnews/edu/college/majors/brief/major_14-33_brief.php). Bradley University offers a Bachelor of Science degree in Construction while Cal Poly Pomona and National University offer a Bachelor of Science degree in Construction Engineering Technology. Cal Poly Pomona, Bradley University and National University are not accredited by ABET to offer degrees in Construction Engineering. However, Cal Poly Pomona is accredited by the Technology Accreditation Committee (T.A.C.) of ABET and their graduates are eligible to sit for the California E.I.T. exam. The list of accredited ABET programs in Construction Engineering can be found here (http://www.abet.org/schoolareaeac.asp ). The University of Southern California offers a Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering with an option in Construction Engineering. For most Construction engineering jobs a Bachelor of Science is required and some construction experience. In order to work on projects that will be used by the public a construction engineer has to get a professional engineers license. The Fundamentals of Engineering and Principles and Practice exams must be passed, and other requirements met, for a construction engineer to receive a Professional Engineers license.


Properties:-

1.It has high compressive strength.

2.It provides a hard surface for resisting abrasion.

3.It is free from corrosion and there is no appreciable effect of atmospheric agents on it.

4.It hardens with age and the process of hardening continues for a long time after the concrete (RCC). Concrete has good bondage with steel thus transmission of force is easy.

5.As it is weak in tension, steel reinforcement provide in tension side for taking tensile force. This concrete is known as reinforced cement concrete (R C C) concrete has good bondage with steel thus transmission of force is easy.

6.Various types of finishes can be easily given to concrete surface.

7.Voids in concrete can be reduced by the use of minimum water – cement ratio & by proper grading & consolidation.

8.Due to loss of moisture concrete has a tendency to shrink. This can be reduced by curing of concrete.

9.The concrete mixes are designated a M10,M15,M20,M25,M30,M35 and M40 where ‘M’ refers to the mix and the number denotes the strength of concrete mix in N/mm² after 28 days.


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