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Convention on Psychotropic Substances
Ecstacy monogram.jpg
The Convention allows medical and scientific uses of Schedule I drugs. The World Health Organization Expert Committee that recommended in 1985 that MDMA be placed in Schedule I internationally included a statement urging signatory nations to the Convention on Psychotropic Substances "to facilitate research on this interesting substance."
Signed
Location
February 21, 1971
Vienna
Effective
Condition
August 16, 1976
40 ratifications
Parties 175

The Convention on Psychotropic Substances is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamines, barbiturates, and psychedelics. During the 1960s such drugs became widely available. Government authorities opposed this for numerous reasons, arguing that along with negative health effects, drug use led to lowered moral standards. The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 could not ban the many newly discovered psychotropics, since its scope was limited to drugs with cannabis-, coca-, and opium-like effects.

On February 21, 1971, a conference of plenipotentiaries in Vienna signed a new Convention worded to potentially include almost any conceivable mind-altering substance. The Convention, which contains import and export restrictions and other rules aimed at limiting drug use to scientific and medical purposes, came into force on August 16, 1976. Today, 175 nations are Parties to the treaty. Many laws have been passed to implement the Convention, including the U.S. Psychotropic Substances Act, the UK Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, and the Canadian Controlled Drugs and Substances Act. Like the treaty itself, these statutes usually divide drugs into several classes or Schedules.

Provisions to end the international trafficking of drugs covered by this Convention are contained in the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances. This treaty, signed in 1988, regulates precursor chemicals to drugs controlled by the Single Convention and the Convention on Psychotropic Substances. It also strengthens provisions against money laundering and other drug-related crimes.

Adolf Lande, under the direction of the United Nations Office of Legal Affairs, prepared the Commentary on the Convention on Psychotropic Substances. The Commentary, published in 1976, is an invaluable aid to interpreting the treaty and constitutes a key part of its legislative history.

Contents

History

International drug control began with the 1912 International Opium Convention, a treaty which adopted import and export restrictions on the opium poppy's psychoactive derivatives. Over the next half-century, several additional treaties were adopted under League of Nations auspices, gradually expanding the list of controlled substances to encompass cocaine and other drugs and granting the Permanent Central Opium Board power to monitor compliance. After the United Nations was formed in 1945, those enforcement functions passed to the UN.

In 1961, a conference of plenipotentiaries in New York adopted the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, which consolidated the existing drug control treaties into one document and added cannabis to the list of prohibited plants. In order to appease the pharmaceutical interests, the Single Convention's scope was sharply limited to the list of drugs enumerated in the Schedules annexed to the treaty and to those drugs determined to have similar effects.

During the 1960s, drug use increased in Western developed nations. Young people began using hallucinogenic, stimulant, and other drugs on a widespread scale, that has continued to the present. In many jurisdictions, police had no laws under which to prosecute users and traffickers of these new drugs; LSD, for instance, was not prohibited federally in the U.S. until 1967.

In 1968, "[d]eeply concerned at reports of serious damage to health being caused by LSD and similar hallucinogenic substances," the UN Economic and Social Council passed a resolution calling on nations to limit the use of such drugs to scientific and medical purposes and to impose import and export restrictions.[1] Later that year, the UN General Assembly requested that ECOSOC call upon the Commission on Narcotic Drugs to "give urgent attention to the problem of the abuse of the psychotropic substances not yet under international control, including the possibility of placing such substances under international control".[2]

Circa 1969, with use of stimulants growing, ECOSOC noted with considerable consternation that the Commission "was unable to reach agreement on the applicability of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961 to these substances".[3] The language of the Single Convention and its legislative history precluded any interpretation that would allow international regulation of these drugs under that treaty. A new convention, with a broader scope, would be required in order to bring those substances under control. Using the Single Convention as a template, the Commission prepared a draft convention which was forwarded to all UN member states. The UN Secretary-General scheduled a conference for early 1971 to finalize the treaty.[4]

Meanwhile, countries had already begun passing legislation to implement the draft treaty. In 1969, Canada added Part IV to its Food and Drugs Act, placing a set of "restricted substances," including LSD, DMT, and MDA, under federal control. In 1970, the United States completely revamped its existing drug control laws by enacting the Controlled Substances Act (amended in 1978 by the Psychotropic Substances Act, which allows the U.S. drug control Schedules to be updated as needed to comply with the Convention). In 1971, the United Kingdom passed the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. A host of other nations followed suit. A common feature shared by most implementing legislation is the establishment of several classes or Schedules of controlled substances, similarly to the Single Convention and the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, so that compliance with international law can be assured simply by placing a drug into the appropriate Schedule.

The conference convened on January 11, 1971. Nations split into two rival factions, based on their interests. According to a Canadian Senate report, "One group included mostly developed nations with powerful pharmaceutical industries and active psychotropics markets . . . The other group consisted of developing states...with few psychotropic manufacturing facilities".[5] The organic drugmaking states that had suffered economically from the Single Convention's restrictions on cannabis, coca, and opium, fought for tough regulations on synthetic drugs. The synthetic drug-producing states opposed those restrictions. Ultimately, the developing states' lobbying power was no match for the powerful pharmaceutical industry's, and the international regulations that emerged at the conference's close on February 21 were considerably weaker than those of the Single Convention.

The Convention's adoption marked a major milestone in the development of the global drug control regime. Over 59 years, the system had evolved from a set of loose controls focused on a single drug into a comprehensive regulatory framework capable of encompassing almost any mind-altering substance imaginable. According to Rufus King, "It covers such a grab-bag of natural and manufactured items that at every stage of its consideration its proponents felt obliged to stress anew that it would not affect alcohol or tobacco abuse."[6]

Schedules of Controlled Substances

The list of Schedules and the substances presently therein can be found on the International Narcotics Control Board's website.[7]

The Convention has four Schedules of controlled substances, ranging from Schedule I (most restrictive) to Schedule IV (least restrictive). A list of psychotropic substances, and their corresponding Schedules, was annexed to the 1971 treaty. A 2002 European Parliament report describes the Schedules as follows:[8]

  • Schedule I includes drugs claimed to create a serious risk to public health, whose therapeutic value is not currently acknowledged. It includes synthetic psychedelics such as LSD in addition to natural psychedelics like DMT. MDMA, commonly known as Ecstasy, also falls under this category as does THC.
  • Schedule II includes stimulants of the amphetamine type, deemed to have limited therapeutic value, as well as some analgesics such as morphine.
  • Schedule III includes barbiturate products with fast or average effects, which have been the object of serious abuse even though useful therapeutically, flunitrazepam, temazepam, nimetazepam and some analgesics like buprenorphine.
  • Schedule IV includes some weaker barbiturates and other hypnotics, hypnotic and anxiolytic benzodiazepines (except flunitrazepam, temazepam, nimetazepam), and some weaker stimulants.

A 1999 UNODC report notes that Schedule I is a completely different regime from the other three. According to that report, Schedule I mostly contains hallucinogenic drugs such as LSD that are produced by illicit laboratories, while the other three Schedules are mainly for licitly produced pharmaceuticals. The UNODC report[9] also claims that the Convention's Schedule I controls are stricter than those provided for under the Single Convention, a contention that seems to be contradicted by the 2002 Canadian Senate[5] and 2003 European Parliament reports.[10]

Although estimates and other controls specified by the Single Convention are not present in the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, the International Narcotics Control Board corrected the omission by asking Parties to submit information and statistics not required by the Convention, and using the initial positive responses from various organic drug producing states to convince others to follow.[11] In addition, the Convention does impose tighter restrictions on imports and exports of Schedule I substances. A 1970 Bulletin on Narcotics report notes:[12]

LSD, mescaline, etc., are controlled in a way which is more stringent than morphine under the narcotics treaties. Article 7, which sets down this regime, provides that such substances can only be moved in international trade when both exporter and importer are government authorities, or government agencies or institutions specially authorized for the purpose; in addition to this very rigid identification of supplier and recipient, in each case export and import authorization is also mandatory.

Scheduling process

Article 2 sets out a process for adding additional drugs to the Schedules. First, the World Health Organization (WHO) must find that the drug meets the specific criteria set forth in Article 2, Section 4, and thus is eligible for control. Then, the WHO issues an assessment of the substance that includes:

  • The extent or likelihood of abuse,
  • The degree of gravity in the public health and social problem,
  • The degree of utility of the substance in legitimate medical therapy, and
  • Whether international control measures as provided in the treaty would be appropriate and useful.

Article 2, Paragraph 4:

If the World Health Organization finds: (a) That the substance has the capacity to produce (i) (1) A state of dependence, and (2) Central nervous system stimulation or depression, resulting in hallucinations or disturbances in motor function or thinking or behaviour or perception or mood, or (ii) Similar abuse and similar ill effects as a substance in Schedule I, II, III or IV, and (b) That there is sufficient evidence that the substance is being or is likely to be abused so as to constitute a public health and social problem warranting the placing of the substance under international control, the World Health Organization shall communicate to the Commission an assessment of the substance, including the extent or likelihood of abuse, the degree of seriousness of the public health and social problem and the degree of usefulness of the substance in medical therapy, together with recommendations on control measures, if any, that would be appropriate in the light of its assessment.

The Commentary gives alcohol and tobacco as examples of psychoactive drugs that were deemed to not fit the above criteria by the 1971 Conference which negotiated the Convention. Alcohol can cause dependence and central nervous depression resulting in disturbances of thinking and behavior, furthermore alcohol causes similar effects as barbiturates, alcohol causes very serious "public health and social problems" in many countries, and also alcohol has minimal use in modern medicine. Nevertheless, according to the Commentary:

Alcohol does not 'warrant' that type of control because it is not 'suitable' for the regime of the Vienna Convention. It appears obvious that the application of the administrative measures for which that treaty provides would not solve or alleviate the alcohol problem.

Similarly, tobacco can cause dependence and has little medical use, but it was not considered to be a stimulant or depressant or to be similar to other scheduled substances. Most important, according to the Commentary:

[Tobacco] is not suitable for the kinds of controls for which the Vienna Convention provides, and which if applied would not make any useful impact on the tobacco problem. That problem, however serious, therefore does not 'warrant' the placing of tobacco 'under international' control, i.e. under the Vienna Convention.

The Commission on Narcotic Drugs makes the final decision on whether to add the drug to a Schedule, "taking into account the communication from the World Health Organization, whose assessments shall be determinative as to medical and scientific matters, and bearing in mind the economic, social, legal, administrative and other factors it may consider relevant". A similar process is followed in deleting a drug from the Schedules or transferring a drug between Schedules. For instance, at its 33rd meeting, the WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence recommended transferring tetrahydrocannabinol to Schedule IV of the Convention, citing its medical uses and low abuse potential.[13] However, the Commission on Narcotic Drugs has decline to vote on whether to follow the WHO recommendation and re-schedule tetrahydrocannabinol.

The UN Economic and Social Council is the only body with the power to alter or reverse the Commission's scheduling decisions.

In the event of a disagreement about a drug's Scheduling, Article 2, Paragraph 7 allows a Party to, within 180 days of the communication of the Commission's decision, give the UN Secretary-General "a written notice that, in view of exceptional circumstances, it is not in a position to give effect with respect to that substance to all of the provisions of the Convention applicable to substances in that Schedule." This allows the nation to comply with a less stringent set of restrictions. The U.S. Controlled Substances Act's 21 U.S.C. § 811(d)(4) implies that placing a drug in Schedule IV or V of the Act is sufficient to "carry out the minimum United States obligations under paragraph 7 of article 2 of the Convention".[14] This provision, which calls for temporarily placing a drug under federal drug control in the event the Convention requires it, was invoked in 1984 with rohypnol. Long before abuse of the drug was sufficiently widespread in the United States to meet the Act's drug control criteria, rohypnol was added to the Schedules of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the U.S. government had to place rohypnol in Schedule IV of the Controlled Substances Act in order to meet its minimum treaty obligations.[15]

As of March 2005, 111 substances were controlled under the Convention.

World Health Organization evaluations of specific drugs

Ephedrine

In 1998, ephedrine was recommended for control under the Convention. The Dietary Supplement Safety and Science Coalition lobbied against control, stressing the drug's history and safety, and arguing that "ephedrine is not a controlled substance in the US today, nor should it be internationally".[16] After a two-year debate, the Expert Committee on Drug Dependence decided against regulating ephedrine. However, the Commission on Narcotics Drugs and the International Narcotics Control Board listed the drug as a Table I precursor under the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, a move that did not require WHO approval.

Despite its well-known presence in the rave scene, ketamine, or Special K, remains uncontrolled internationally due to its importance as an anesthetic in veterinary medicine.

Ketamine

The Expert Committee on Drug Dependence cautiously began investigating ketamine at its thirty-third meeting, noting, "Its use in veterinary medicine must also be considered in relation to its control".[17] Ketamine remains uncontrolled internationally, although many nations have enacted restrictions on the drug.

MDMA

The Expert Committee's evaluation of MDMA, or Ecstasy, during its twenty-second meeting was marked by pleas from doctors to allow further research into the drug's therapeutic uses. The UN was under considerable pressure from the United States government to control the drug in the wake of extensive seizures of the drug by American authorities. Paul Grof, chairman of the Expert Committee, argued that international control was not yet warranted, and that scheduling should be delayed pending completion of more studies. The Expert Committee concluded that because there was "insufficient evidence to indicate that the substance has therapeutic usefulness," it should be placed in Schedule I. However, its report did recommend more MDMA research:[18]

It should be noted that the Expert Committee held extensive discussions concerning therapeutic usefulness of 3,4 Methylenedioxymethamphetamine. While the Expert Committee found the reports intriguing, it felt that the studies lacked the appropriate methodological design necessary to ascertain the reliability of the observations. There was, however, sufficient interest expressed to recommend that investigations be encouraged to follow up these preliminary findings. To that end, the Expert Committee urged countries to use the provisions of Article 7 of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances to facilitate research on this interesting substance.

MBDB

MBDB (Methylbenzodioxolylbutanamine) is an entactogen with similar effects to MDMA. The thirty-second meeting of the WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence (September 2000) evaluated MBDB and recommended against scheduling.[19]

From the WHO Expert Committee assessment of MBDB:

Although MBDB is both structurally and pharmacologically similar to MDMA, the limited available data indicate that its stimulant and euphoriant effects are less pronounced than those of MDMA. There have been no reports of adverse or toxic effects of MBDB in humans. Law enforcement data on illicit trafficking of MBDB in Europe suggest that its availability and abuse may now be declining after reaching a peak during the latter half of the 1990s. For these reasons, the Committee did not consider the abuse liability of MBDB would constitute a significant risk to public health, thereby warranting its placement under international control. Scheduling of MBDB was therefore not recommended.

Methcathinone

Circa 1994, the United States government notified the UN Secretary General that it supported controlling methcathinone, an addictive stimulant manufactured with common household products, as a Schedule I drug under the Convention. The FDA report warned of the drug's dangers, even noting that addicts in Russia were observed to often have "potassium permanganate burns on their fingers" and to "tend not to pay attention to their appearance, thus looking ragged with dirty hands and hair".[20] With methcathinone having no medical use, the decision to place the drug in Schedule I was uncontested.

Nicotine

Traditionally, the UN has been reluctant to control nicotine and other drugs traditionally legal in Europe and North America, citing tolerance of a wide range of lifestyles. This contrasts with the regulatory regime for other highly addictive drugs. Gabriel Nahas, in a Bulletin on Narcotics report, noted:[21]

Some addictive drugs such as nicotine or caffeine (in moderate amounts) and alcohol (in small amounts) do not produce any measurable symptoms of neuropsychological toxicity. Some pharmacologists have associated the symptoms of neuropsychological toxicity with behavioural toxicity, which include in addition: suppression of normal anxiety, reduction in motivation and non-purposive or inappropriate behaviour. However, the latter behavioural symptoms do not present "markers" which may be measurable in societies accepting as "normal" a wide range of life styles.

Nonetheless, in October 1996, the Expert Committee considered controlling nicotine, especially products such as gum, patches, nasal spray, and inhalers.[22] The UN ultimately left nicotine unregulated. Since then, nicotine products have become even more loosely controlled; Nicorette gum, for instance, is now an over-the-counter drug in the United States.

Tetrahydrocannabinol

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main active ingredient in cannabis, was originally placed in Schedule I when the Convention was enacted in 1971. At its twenty-sixth meeting, in response to a 1987 request from the Government of the United States that THC be transferred from Schedule I to Schedule II, the WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence recommended that THC be transferred to Schedule II, citing its low abuse potential and "moderate to high therapeutic usefulness" in relieving nausea in chemotherapy patients. The Commission on Narcotic Drugs rejected the proposal. However, at its twenty-seventh meeting, the WHO Expert Committee again recommended that THC be moved to Schedule II. At its 45th meeting, on April 29, 1991, the Commission on Narcotic Drugs approved the transfer of dronabinol and its stereochemical variants from Schedule I to Schedule II of the Convention, while leaving other tetrahydrocannabinols and their stereochemical variants in Schedule I.

At its thirty-third meeting (September 2002), the WHO Committee issued another evaluation of the drug and recommended that THC be moved to Schedule IV, stating:

The abuse liability of dronabinol (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) is expected to remain very low so long as cannabis continues to be readily available. The Committee considered that the abuse liability of dronabinol does not constitute a substantial risk to public health and society. In accordance with the established scheduling criteria, the Committee considered that dronabinol should be rescheduled to schedule IV of the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances.

No action was taken on this recommendation. And at its thirty-fourth meeting the WHO Committee recommended that THC be moved instead to Schedule III. In 2007 the Commission on Narcotic Drugs decided not to vote on whether to re-schedule THC, and they requested that the WHO make another review when more information is available.[23]

2C-B (4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine)

2C-B is a psychedelic phenethylamine, with a similar structure and effects as mescaline. At its thirty-second (September 2000) meeting the WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence recommended that 2C-B be placed in Schedule II, rather than with other scheduled psychedelics in Schedule I.[24]

Without citing any actual evidence of harm from 2C-B, the Committee warned, "The altered state of mind induced by hallucinogens such as 2C-B may result in harm to the user and to others."

From the WHO Expert Committee assessment of 2C-B:

At high doses it is a strong hallucinogen, producing particularly marked visual hallucinations with an intense colour play, intriguing patterns emerging on surfaces and distortions of objects and faces. 2C-B is also reported to enhance sexual feelings, perception and performance.... Apart from its controversial experimental use in psychotherapy, 2C-B, like most other hallucinogens, does not have any known therapeutic usefulness.... The Committee noted, however, that hallucinogens are rarely associated with compulsive use and that abuse of 2C-B has been infrequent, suggesting that the drug is likely to constitute a substantial, rather than an especially serious, risk to public health. For these reasons, the Committee recommended that 2C-B be placed in Schedule II of the 1971 Convention.

Medical and scientific uses

Like the Single Convention, the Convention on Psychotropic Substances recognizes scientific and medical use of psychoactive drugs, while banning other uses. Article 7 provides that,

In respect of substances in Schedule I, the Parties shall: (a) Prohibit all use except for scientific and very limited medical purposes by duly authorized persons, in medical or scientific establishments which are directly under the control of their Governments or specifically approved by them.

In this sense, the U.S. Controlled Substances Act is stricter than the Convention requires. Both have a tightly restricted category of drugs called Schedule I, but the US Act restricts medical use of Schedule I substances to research studies, while the Convention allows broader, but limited, medical use of Schedule I substances.

Psychedelic plants and fungi

Article 32 makes an exception for peyote and other "plants growing wild which contain psychotropic substances from among those in Schedule I and which are traditionally used by certain small, clearly determined groups in magical or religious rites", to protect such use in the case that such plants themselves were in the future be added to Schedule I.

Several of the substances originally placed in Schedule I are psychedelic drugs which are contained in natural plants and fungi (such as peyote, Psilocybe mushrooms) and which have long been used in religious or healing rituals. The Commentary notes the "Mexican Indian Tribes Mazatecas, Huicholes and Tarahumaras" as well as the "Kariri and Pankararu of eastern Brazil" as examples of societies that use such plants.

Article 32, paragraph 4 allows for States, at the time of signature, ratification or accession, to make a reservation noting an exemption for

plants growing wild which contain psychotropic substances from among those in Schedule I and which are traditionally used by certain small, clearly determined groups in magical or religious rites.

However, the official Commentary on the Convention on Psychotropic Substances makes it clear that psychedelic plants (and indeed any plants) were not included in the original Schedules and are not covered at all by the Convention. This includes "infusion of the roots" of Mimosa hostilis (which contains DMT) and "beverages" made from Psilocybe mushrooms (which contain psilocybin). The purpose of Paragraph 4 of Article 32 was to allow States to "make a reservation assuring them the right to permit the continuation of the traditional use in question" in the case that plants were in the future added to the Schedule I. Currently, no plants or plant products are included in the Schedules of the 1971 Convention.

Commentary 32-12: It may be pointed out that at the time of this writing the continued toleration of the use of hallucinogenic substances which the 1971 Conference had in mind would not require a reservation under paragraph 4. Schedule I does not list any of the natural hallucinogenic materials in question, but only chemical substances which constitute the active principles contained in them. The inclusion in Schedule I of the active principle of a substance does not mean that the substance itself is also included therein if it is a substance clearly distinct from the substance constituting its active principle. This view is in accordance with the traditional understanding of that question in the field of international drug control. Neither the crown (fruit, mescal button) of the Peyote cactus nor the roots of the plant Mimosa hostilis [Footnote: "An infusion of the roots is used"] nor Psilocybe mushrooms [Footnote: "Beverages made from such mushrooms are used"] themselves are included in Schedule I, but only their respective active principles, mescaline, DMT and psilocybine (psilocine, psilotsin).
Commentary 32-13: It can however not be excluded that the fruit of the Peyote cactus, the roots of Mimosa hostilis, Psilocybe mushrooms or other hallucinogenic plant parts used in traditional magical or religious rites will in the future be placed in Schedule I by the operation of article 2, at a time at which the State concerned, having already deposited its instrument of ratification or accession, could no longer make the required reservation. It is submitted that Parties may under paragraph 4 make a reservation assuring them the right to permit the continuation of the traditional use in question in the case of such future actions by the Commission.

Furthermore, in a letter, dated Sept 13, 2001, to the Dutch Ministry of Health, Herbert Schaepe, Secretary of the UN International Narcotics Control Board, clarified that the UN Conventions do not cover "preparations" of psilocybin mushrooms:[25]

As you are aware, mushrooms containing the above substances are collected and abused for their hallucinogenic effects. As a matter of international law, no plants (natural material) containing psilocine and psilocybin are at present controlled under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971. Consequently, preparations made of these plants are not under international control and, therefore, not subject of the articles of the 1971 Convention. It should be noted, however, that criminal cases are decided with reference to domestic law, which may otherwise provide for controls over mushrooms containing psilocine and psilocybin. As the Board can only speak as to the contours of the international drug conventions, I am unable to provide an opinion on the litigation in question.

Nonetheless, in 2001 the U.S. Government, in Gonzales v. O Centro Espirita Beneficente Uniao do Vegetal, argued that ayahuasca, an infusion of Mimosa hostilis and other psychoactive plants that is used in religious rituals, was prohibited in the US because of the 1971 Convention. That case involved a seizure by U.S. Customs and Border Protection of several drums of DMT-containing liquid. Plaintiffs sued to have the drugs returned to them, claiming that they used it as a central part of their religion.[26]

In the discussions on Article 32, paragraph 4, noted in the Official Record of the 1971 Conference, the representative from the United States supported the explicit exemption of sacred psychoactive substances, stating: "Substances used for religious services should be placed under national rather than international control", while the representative of the Holy See observed: "If exemptions were made in favour of certain ethnic groups, there would be nothing to prevent certain organizations of hippies from trying to make out, on religious grounds, that their consumption of psychotropic substances was permissible."[27]

Organic plants

The Commentary on the Convention on Psychotropic Substances notes that while many plant-derived chemicals are controlled by the treaty, the plants themselves are not:[28]

Psilocybin mushrooms are not controlled by the Convention, but the drugs contained in them are.
The term "synthetic" appears to refer to a psychotropic substance manufactured by a process of full chemical synthesis. One may also assume that the authors of the Vienna Convention intended to apply the term "natural material" to parts of a plant which constitute a psychotropic substance, and the term "natural psychotropic substance" to a substance obtained directly from a plant by some process of manufacturing which was relatively simple, and in any event much simpler than a process of full chemical synthesis.
(...)
Cultivation of plants for the purpose of obtaining psychotropic substances or raw materials for the manufacture of such substances is not "manufacture" in the sense of Article 1, paragraph (i). Many provisions of the Vienna Convention governing psychotropic substances would be unsuitable for application to cultivation. The harvesting of psychotropic substances, i.e. separation of such substances from the plants from which they are obtained, is "manufacture".
(...)
The cultivation of plants from which psychotropic substances are obtained is not controlled by the Vienna Convention. (...) Neither the crown (fruit, mescal button) of the Peyote cactus nor the roots of the plant Mimosa hostilis nor Psilocybe mushrooms themselves are included in Schedule 1, but only their respective principles, Mescaline, DMT and Psilocybin.

Mexico, in particular, argued that "production" of psychotropic drugs should not apply to wild-growing plants such as peyote cacti or psilocybin mushrooms. The Bulletin on Narcotics noted that "Mexico could not undertake to eradicate or destroy these plants".[12] Compared to the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (which calls for "uprooting of all coca bushes which grow wild" and governmental licensing, purchasing, and wholesaling of licit opium, coca, and cannabis crops), the Convention on Psychotropic Substances devotes few words to the subject of psychoactive plants.

On July 2, 1987, the United States Assistant Secretary of Health recommended that the Drug Enforcement Administration initiate scheduling action under the Controlled Substances Act in order to implement restrictions required by cathinone's Schedule I status under the Convention. The 1993 DEA rule placing cathinone in the CSA's Schedule I noted that it was effectively also banning khat:[29]

Cathinone is the major psychoactive component of the plant Catha edulis (khat). The young leaves of khat are chewed for a stimulant effect. Enactment of this rule results in the placement of any material which contains cathinone into Schedule I.

Precursors

A 1971 Bulletin on Narcotics notes:[30]

Article 2, in paragraph 4 of the original text, carried over the concept in Article 3 (3) (iii) of the Single Convention, and required the application to a "precursor " – i.e. a substance "readily convertible" into a substance under control – of measures of control. In Vienna the complexity of controlling precursors of psychotropic substances was agreed to be so overwhelming that no absolute obligation to control them was provided. The new article 2 in paragraph 9 asks Parties "to use their best endeavours" to apply "such measures of supervision as may be practicable" to substances which may be used in the illicit manufacture of psychotropic substances, i.e. their precursors and possibly also substances essential in the chemistry of manufacture.

This provision was eventually judged to be inadequate, and was strengthened by the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances's precursor control regime, which established two Tables of controlled precursors. The Commission on Narcotic Drugs and International Narcotics Control Board were put in charge of adding, removing, and transferring substances between the Tables.

Analogs

Circa 1999, the Government of Spain proposed amending Schedules I and II to include isomers, esters, ethers, salts of isomers, esters and ethers, and any "substance resulting from modification of the chemical structure of a substance already in Schedule I or II and which produced pharmacological effects similar to those produced by the original substances".[31] The WHO opposed this change. The Commission on Narcotic Drugs did amend the Schedules to include stereoisomers, however, with the understanding that "specific isomers that did not have hazardous pharmacological activity and that posed no danger to society could be excluded from control, as dextromethorphan had been in the case of Schedule I of the 1961 Convention."

Penal provisions

LSD and equipment used in its manufacture are subject to seizure under Article 22.

Article 22 provides:

1. (a) Subject to its constitutional limitations, each Party shall treat as a punishable offence, when committed intentionally, any action contrary to a law or regulation adopted in pursuance of its obligations under this Convention, and shall ensure that serious offences shall be liable to adequate punishment, particularly by imprisonment or other penalty of deprivation of liberty.
1. (b) Notwithstanding the preceding sub-paragraph, when abusers of psychotropic substances have committed such offences, the Parties may provide, either as an alternative to conviction or punishment or in addition to punishment, that such abusers undergo measures of treatment, education, after-care, rehabilitation and social reintegration in conformity with paragraph 1 of article 20.

Conspiracy, attempts, preparatory acts, and financial operations related to drug offenses are also called on to be criminalized. Parties are also asked to count convictions handed down by foreign governments in determining recidivism. Article 22 also notes that extradition treaties are "desirable", although a nation retains the right to refuse to grant extradition, including "where the competent authorities consider that the offence is not sufficiently serious."

As with all articles of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, the provisions of Article 22 are only suggestions which do not override the domestic law of the member countries:

4. The provisions of this article shall be subject to the provisions of the domestic law of the Party concerned on questions of jurisdiction.
5. Nothing contained in this article shall affect the principle that the offences to which it refers shall be defined, prosecuted and punished in conformity with the domestic law of a Party.

Treatment and prevention

Article 22 allows Parties, in implementing the Convention's penal provisions, to make exceptions for drug abusers by substituting "treatment, education, after-care, rehabilitation and social reintegration" for imprisonment. This reflects a shift in focus in the war on drugs from incarceration to treatment and prevention that had already begun to take hold by 1971. Indeed, in 1972, a parallel provision allowing treatment for drug abusers was added to the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs by the Protocol Amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs.

Article 20 mandates drug treatment, education, and prevention measures and requires Parties to assist efforts to "gain an understanding of the problems of abuse of psychotropic substances and of its prevention" and to "promote such understanding among the general public if there is a risk that abuse of such substances will become widespread." To comply with these provisions, most Parties financially support organizations and agencies dedicated to these goals. The United States, for instance, established the National Institute on Drug Abuse in 1974 to comply with the research requirement and began sponsoring Drug Abuse Resistance Education in 1983 to help fulfill the educational and prevention requirements.

Recent trends

Rise in stimulant trafficking

Control of stimulants has become a major challenge for the UN. In 1997, the World Drug Report warned:[32]

Since the mid-1980s the world has faced a wave of synthetic stimulant abuse, with approximately nine times the quantity seized in 1993 than in 1978, equivalent to an average annual increase of 16 per cent. The principle synthetic drugs manufactured clandestinely are the amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) which include the widely abused amphetamine and methamphetamine, as well as the more recently popularised methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), known as ecstasy." It is estimated that throughout the world 30,000,000, people use ATS. This is 0.5 per cent of the global population and exceeds the number using heroin and probably those using cocaine.

A 1998 UN General Assembly Special Session on the World Drug Problem report noted:[33]

Between 1971 and 1995, there was a nearly fivefold increase in the number of amphetamine-type stimulants under international control. . . ecstasy and related designer drugs are under schedule one of the 1971 Convention, because they have virtually no medical use, while amphetamine and methamphetamine are under schedule 2 because they began life with medical use. But even though they are scheduled, the system is not really working for these illegally produced drugs. One of the main limitations of the control system is that the Psychotropic Convention was not designed to control illicit markets. It was designed to control and regulate legitimate pharmaceutical markets to prevent their diversion into illicit markets.

The report mentioned proposals to increase the flexibility of scheduling drugs under the Convention and to amend the drug-control treaties to make them more responsive to the current situation. Neither proposal has gained traction, however. Due to the ease of manufacturing methamphetamine, methcathinone, and certain other stimulants, control measures are focusing less on preventing drugs from crossing borders. Instead, they are centering around increasingly long prison sentences for manufacturers and traffickers as well as regulations on large purchases of precursors such as ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. The International Narcotics Control Board and Commission on Narcotic Drugs help coordinate this fight by adding additional precursors to the Tables of chemicals controlled under the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances.

In 1997, ECOSOC called on nations to help enforce international law by cooperating "with relevant international organizations, such as the International Criminal Police Organization and the World Customs Organization . . . in order to promote coordinated international action in the fight against illicit demand for and supply of amphetamine-type stimulants and their precursors." That resolution also called on governments overseeing precursor exports "to inquire with the authorities of importing States about the legitimacy of transactions of concern, and to inform the International Narcotics Control Board of the action taken, particularly when they do not receive any reply to their inquiries".[34]

Crystal meth has emerged as a commonly abused drug, from the American and European rave scenes to East Asia.

Pockets of high-intensity clandestine production and trafficking, such as rural southwest Virginia, exist in most industrialized nations. However, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime believes that East Asia (particularly Thailand) now has the most serious amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) problem in the world. A 2002 report by that agency noted:[35]

For many countries the problem of ATS is relatively new, growing quickly and unlikely to go away. The geographical spread is widening. . . Abuse is increasingly concentrated among younger populations, who generally and erroneously believe that the substances are safe and benign. The abuse of ATS is threatening to become part of mainstream culture. The less optimistic suggest that ATS is already embedded in normative young adult behavior to such an extent that it will be very difficult to change, not withstanding the issues of physical, social and economic damage.

The Office called on nations to bring more resources to bear in the demand reduction effort, improving treatment and rehabilitation processes, increasing private sector participation in eliminating drugs from the workplace, and expanding the drug information clearing house to share information more effectively.

Canadian noncompliance

In 2000, the International Narcotics Control Board chastised Canada for refusing to comply with the Convention's requirement that international transactions in controlled psychotropics be reported to the Board. INCB Secretary Herbert Schaepe said:[36]

From Canada there is just a big, black hole. We don't know what is going into the country, nor coming out. We cannot monitor the international movement of these substances, which is our mandate. The lack of controls in Canada means that they could be destined for fake companies that will divert them into the hands of traffickers. Traffickers in third countries could be getting them through Canada. Normally, Canada has a very good reputation for fulfilling its international obligations, but here it is just breaking the treaty – a treaty that it ratified a long time ago. It is very disturbing.

To a Board already worried by European experiments with harm reduction and cannabis liberalization, the quiet Canadian defiance of treaty obligations seemed to be another fissure in the foundation of global drug control.

Licit drug problems

In an unusual departure from its normally pro-industry leanings, the INCB issued a press release in 2001 warning of excessive use of licit psychotropics:

. . . the Board points to loose regulation, unreliable estimates and information regarding medical needs, aggressive marketing techniques and improper or even unethical prescription practices as the main reasons for the oversupply of such controlled substances as benzodiazepines and various amphetamine type stimulants. Easy availability leads to overconsumption of such substances, either in the form of drug abuse or by fuelling a culture of drug-taking to deal with a variety of non-medical problems. . . Insomnia, anxiety, obesity and child hyperactivity as well as various kinds of pain are listed among the most common problems to be treated by prescribing psychotropic substances. The Board is especially concerned that preference is given to quick solutions without looking at the long-term effects, as prolonged, excessive consumption of such drugs could result in dependency and other physical and mental suffering.

The Board also warned that the Internet provides "easy access to information on drug production and drug-taking," calling it "a growing source of on-line drug trafficking." The Board pointed out that some Internet suppliers sell controlled drugs without regard to the Convention's medical prescription requirements.[37]

Notes and references

Footnotes

  1. ^ "1968/1294(XLIV). Urgent control measures for LSD and similar hallucinogenic substances". United Nations Economic and Social Council. 1968-05-23. http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/Resolutions/resolution_1968-05-23_6.html. Retrieved 2009-10-10.  
  2. ^ "2433(XXIII). International control of psychotropic substances". United Nations General Assembly. 1968-12-19. http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/resolution_1968-12-19_1.html. Retrieved 2006-04-15.  
  3. ^ "1969/1401(XLVI). The application of urgent control measures to certain stimulant drugs". United Nations Economic and Social Council. 1969-06-05. http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/Resolutions/resolution_1969-06-05_4.html. Retrieved 2009-10-10.  
  4. ^ "1971/1576(L). United Nations Conference for the Adoption of a Protocol on Psychotropic Substances". United Nations Economic and Social Council. 1971-05-20. http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/Resolutions/resolution_1971-05-20_1.html. Retrieved 2009-10-10.  
  5. ^ a b "CANNABIS: OUR POSITION FOR A CANADIAN PUBLIC POLICY". Parliament of Canada. 2002. http://www.parl.gc.ca/37/1/parlbus/commbus/senate/com-e/ille-e/rep-e/repfinalvol3-e.htm. Retrieved 2006-04-15.  
  6. ^ King, Rufus. The Drug Hang Up, America's Fifty-Year Folly.
  7. ^ "List of psychotropic substances under international control" (PDF). International Narcotics Control Board. 2003. http://www.incb.org/pdf/e/list/green.pdf. Retrieved 2006-04-15.  
  8. ^ Kathalijne Maria Buitenweg (2003-10-06). "Working document on the UN conventions on drugs". http://www.chanvre-info.ch/info/en/Working-document-on-the-UN.html. Retrieved 2006-04-15.  
  9. ^ Bayer, I.; H. Ghodse (1999). "Evolution of international drug control, 1945-1995". http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/bulletin/bulletin_1999-01-01_1_page003.html. Retrieved 2006-04-15.  
  10. ^ Kathalijne Maria Buitenweg (2003-03-24). "Report Including a Proposal for a Recommendation of the European Parliament to the Council on the Reform of the Conventions on Drugs" (PDF). Committee on Citizens' Freedoms and Rights, Justice and Home Affairs, European Parliament. http://www.europarl.eu.int/omk/sipade3?PUBREF=-//EP//NONSGML+REPORT+A5-2003-0085+0+DOC+PDF+V0//EN&L=EN&LEVEL=3&NAV=S&LSTDOC=Y. Retrieved 2006-04-15.  
  11. ^ "Monthly Status of Treaty Adherence". United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 2005-01-01. http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaty_adherence.html. Retrieved 2006-04-15.  
  12. ^ a b "The Protocol on Psychotropic Substances". United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 1970-01-01. http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/bulletin/bulletin_1970-01-01_3_page002.html. Retrieved 2006-04-15.  
  13. ^ "Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and its stereochemical variants (Available from archive.org)". World Health Organization. http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://www.who.int/medicines/library/qsm/who-edm-qsm-2000-5/thc.doc. Retrieved 2006-04-15.  
  14. ^ "21 U.S.C. § 811(d)(4)". 2002-01-22. http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/pubs/csa/811.htm. Retrieved 2006-04-15.  
  15. ^ "Statement on "Date Rape" Drugs by Nicholas Reuter, M.P.H.". U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 1999-03-11. http://www.hhs.gov/asl/testify/t990311b.html. Retrieved 2006-04-15.  
  16. ^ DSSC says ephedrine should not be a controlled substance, Herb World News Online, 1998.
  17. ^ "WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence" (PDF). World Health Organization. 2003-03-17. http://www.unicri.it/min.san.bollettino/altre/915-en.pdf. Retrieved 2006-04-15.  
  18. ^ Saunders, Nicholas (1993). E for Ecstasy. ISBN 0-9501628-8-4. http://www.erowid.org/library/books_online/e_for_ecstasy/e_for_ecstasy-a1-1.shtml#R15.  
  19. ^ WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence, Thirty-second Report, Technical Report Series 903 (2001)
  20. ^ "International Drug Scheduling; Convention on Psychotropic Substances; Certain Stimulant/Hallucinogenic Drugs and Certain Nonbarbiturate Sedative Drugs". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 1994-06-20. http://paranoia.lycaeum.org/stimulants/59.FR.31639. Retrieved 2006-04-15.  
  21. ^ G. G. Nahas (1981-01-01). "A pharmacological classification of drugs of abuse". United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/data-and-analysis/bulletin/bulletin_1981-01-01_2_page002.html. Retrieved 2009-10-10.  
  22. ^ "Director's Report to the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse". U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse. 1997. http://www.nida.nih.gov/DirReports/DirRep297/DirectorReport9.html. Retrieved 2006-04-15.  
  23. ^ [1] Decision 50/2, Review of dronabinol and its stereoisomers, Commission on Narcotic Drugs (2007)
  24. ^ WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence, Thirty-second Report, Technical Report Series 903 (2001)
  25. ^ UN's INCB Psilocybin Mushroom Policy
  26. ^ "Memorandum in Opposition to Plaintiffs’ Motion for Summary Judgment in O Centro Espirita Beneficiente Uniao do Vegetal v. Reno, filed in the U.S. District Court for the District of New Mexico, January 25, 2001.". U.S. State Department. 2001. http://www.state.gov/s/l/16353.htm. Retrieved 2006-04-15.  
  27. ^ United Nations Conference for the adoption of a Protocol on Psychotropic Substances, Official Records, Vol II, Vienna, 11 Jan - 19 Feb 1971 (E/CONF.58/7/Add.1) (page 108, paragraph 27, and page 109, paragraph 52)
  28. ^ Lande, Adolf, et al.: Commentary on the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, New York 1976, E/CN.7/589, p.385
  29. ^ "21 CFR Part 1308. Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Cathinone and 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine Into Schedule I". U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. 1993-01-14. http://www.erowid.org/freedom/law/federal_register/58.FR.4316.shtml. Retrieved 2006-04-15.  
  30. ^ "The Convention on Psychotropic Substances". United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 1971-01-01. http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/psychotropics.html. Retrieved 2008-07-16.  
  31. ^ "Report on the forty-second session". United Nations Commission on Narcotic Drugs. 1999-05-03. http://www.un.org/documents/ecosoc/docs/1999/e1999-28.htm. Retrieved 2006-04-15.  
  32. ^ "World drug threat, the UN reports". United Nations International Drug Control Programme. 1997. http://www.ias.org.uk/publications/theglobe/97issue3/globe9703_p11.html. Retrieved 2006-04-15.  
  33. ^ "Amphetamine-Type Stimulants: Speeding Towards the Millennium". United Nations Department of Public Information. 1998. http://www.un.org/ga/20special/featur/amphet.htm. Retrieved 2006-04-15.  
  34. ^ "Implementation of comprehensive measures to counter the illicit manufacture, trafficking and abuse of amphetamine-type stimulants and their precursors". United Nations Economic and Social Council. 1997-07-21. http://www.un.org/documents/ecosoc/res/1997/eres1997-41.htm. Retrieved 2006-04-15.  
  35. ^ Bazant, Wayne (2002-02-04). "Amphetamine Type Stimulants Threaten East Asia". United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. http://www.unodc.un.or.th/factsheet/ATSissuesplans310102.htm. Retrieved 2006-04-15.  
  36. ^ Edwards, Steven (2000-02-23). "UN Blasts Canada for Hypocrisy on Drug Trade". The National Post. http://www.marijuananews.com/news.php3?sid=126. Retrieved 2006-04-15.  
  37. ^ "United Nations Press Release". United Nations Information Service. 2001-02-15. http://www.unhchr.ch/huricane/huricane.nsf/0/61158D4A9269068EC12569F5002BFAE4?opendocument. Retrieved 2006-04-15.  

References


Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

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Contents

PREAMBLE

The Parties,

Being concerned with the health and welfare of mankind,

Noting with concern the public health and social problems resulting from the abuse of certain psychotropic substances,

Determined to prevent and combat abuse of such substances and the illicit traffic to which it gives rise,

Considering that rigorous measures are necessary to restrict the use of such substances to legitimate purposes,

Recognizing that the use of psychotropic substances for medical and scientific purposes is indispensable and that their availability for such purposes should not be unduly restricted,

Believing that effective measures against abuse of such substances require co-ordination and universal action,

Acknowledging the competence of the United Nations in the field of control of psychotropic substances and desirous that the international organs concerned should be within the framework of that Organization,

Recognizing that an international convention is necessary to achieve these purposes,

Agree as follows:

Article 1: USE OF TERMS

Except where otherwise expressly indicated, or where the context otherwise requires, the following terms in this Convention have the meanings given below:

(a) "Council" means the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations.

(b) "Commission" means the Commission on Narcotic Drugs of the Council.

(c) "Board" means the International Narcotics Control Board provided for in the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961.

(d) "Secretary-General" means the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

(e) "Psychotropic substance" means any substance, natural or synthetic, or any natural material in Schedule I, II, Ill or IV.

(f) "Preparation" means:

(i) Any solution or mixture, in whatever physical state, containing one or more psychotropic substances, or
(ii) One or more psychotropic substances in dosage form.

(g) "Schedule I", "Schedule II", "Schedule III" and "Schedule IV" mean the correspondingly numbered lists of psychotropic substances annexed to this Convention, as altered in accordance with article 2.

(h) "Export" and "import" mean in their respective connotations the physical transfer of a psychotropic substance from one State to another State.

(i) "Manufacture" means all processes by which psychotropic substances may be obtained, and includes refining as well as the transformation of psychotropic substances into other psychotropic substances. The term also includes the making of preparations other than those made on prescription in pharmacies.

(j) "Illicit traffic" means manufacture of or trafficking in psychotropic substances contrary to the provisions of this Convention.

(k) "Region" means any part of a State which pursuant to article 28 is treated as a separate entity for the purposes of this Convention.

(l) "Premises" means buildings or parts of buildings, including the appertaining land.

Article 2: SCOPE OF CONTROL OF SUBSTANCES

1. If a Party or the World Health Organization has information relating to a substance not yet under international control which in its opinion may require the addition of that substance to any of the Schedules of this Convention, it shall notify the Secretary-General and furnish him with the information in support of that notification. The foregoing procedure shall also apply when a Party or the World Health Organization has information justifying the transfer of a substance from one Schedule to another among those Schedules, or the deletion of a substance from the Schedules.

2. The Secretary-General shall transmit such notification, and any information which he considers relevant, to the Parties, to the Commission and, when the notification is made by a Party, to the World Health Organization.

3. If the information transmitted with such a notification indicates that the substance is suitable for inclusion in Schedule I or Schedule II pursuant to paragraph 4, the Parties shall examine, in the light of all information available to them, the possibility of the provisional application to the substance of all measures of control applicable to substances in Schedule I or Schedule II, as appropriate.

4. If the World Health Organization finds:

(a) That the substance has the capacity to produce

(i)
(1) A state of dependence, and
(2) Central nervous system stimulation or depression, resulting in hallucinations or disturbances in motor function or thinking or behaviour or perception or mood,

or

(ii) Similar abuse and similar ill effects as a substance in Schedule I, II, III or IV, and

(b) That there is sufficient evidence that the substance is being or is likely to be abused so as to constitute a public health and social problem warranting the placing of the substance under international control,

the World Health Organization shall communicate to the Commission an assessment of the substance, including the extent or likelihood of abuse, the degree of seriousness of the public health and social problem and the degree of usefulness of the substance in medical therapy, together with recommendations on control measures, if any, that would be appropriate in the light of its assessment.

5. The Commission, taking into account the communication from the World Health Organization, whose assessments shall be determinative as to medical and scientific matters, and bearing in mind the economic, social, legal, administrative and other factors it may consider relevant, may add the substance to Schedule I, II, III or IV. The Commission may seek further information from the World Health Organization or from other appropriate sources.

6. If a notification under paragraph 1 relates to a substance already listed in one of the Schedules, the World Health Organization shall communicate to the Commission its new findings, any new assessment of the substance it may make in accordance with paragraph 4 and any new recommendations on control measures it may find appropriate in the fight of that assessment. The Commission, taking into account the communication from the World Health Organization as under paragraph 5 and bearing in mind the factors referred to in that paragraph, may decide to transfer the substance from one Schedule to another or to delete it from the Schedules.

7. Any decision of the Commission taken pursuant to this article shall be communicated by the Secretary-General to all States Members of the United Nations, to non-member States Parties to this Convention, to the World Health Organization and to the Board. Such decision shall become fully effective with respect to each Party 180 days after the date of such communication, except for any Party which, within that period, in respect of a decision adding a substance to a Schedule, has transmitted to the Secretary-General a written notice that, in view of exceptional circumstances, it is not in a position to give effect with respect to that substance to all of the provisions of the Convention applicable to substances in that Schedule. Such notice shall state the reasons for this exceptional action. Notwithstanding its notice, each Party shall apply, as a minimum, the control measures listed below:

(a) A Party having given such notice with respect to a previously uncontrolled substance added to Schedule 1 shall take into account, as far as possible, the special control measures enumerated in article 7 and, with respect to that substance, shall:

(i) Require licences for manufacture, trade and distribution as provided in article 8 for substances in Schedule II;

(ii) Require medical prescriptions for supply or dispensing as provided in article 9 for substances in Schedule II;

(iii) Comply with the obligations relating to export and import provided in article 12, except in respect to another Party having given such notice for the substance in question;

(iv) Comply with the obligations provided in article 13 for substances in Schedule II in regard to prohibition of and restrictions on export and import;

(v) Furnish statistical reports to the Board in accordance with paragraph 4 (a) of article 16; and

(vi) Adopt measures in accordance with article 22 for the repression of acts contrary to laws or regulations adopted pursuant to the foregoing obligations.

(b) A Party having given such notice with regard to a previously uncontrolled substance added to Schedule II shall, with respect to that substance:

(i) Require licences for manufacture, trade and distribution in accordance with article 8;

(ii) Require medical prescriptions for supply or dispensing in accordance with article 9;

(iii) Comply with the obligations relating to export and import provided in article 12, except in respect to another Party having given such notice for the substance in question;

(iv) Comply with the obligations of article 13 in regard to prohibition of and restrictions on export and import;

(v) Furnish statistical reports to the Board in accordance with paragraphs 4 (a), (c) and (d) of article 16; and

(vi) Adopt measures in accordance with article 22 for the repression of acts contrary to laws or regulations adopted pursuant to the foregoing obligations.

(c) A Party having given such notice with regard to a previously uncontrolled substance added to Schedule III shall, with respect to that substance:

(i) Require licences for manufacture, trade and distribution in accordance with article 8;

(ii) Require medical prescriptions for supply or dispensing in accordance with article 9;

(iii) Comply with the obligations relating to export provided in article 12, except in respect to another Party having given such notice for the substance in question;

(iv) Comply with the obligations of article 13 in regard to prohibition of and restrictions on export and import; and

(v) Adopt measures in accordance with article 22 for the repression of acts contrary to laws or regulations adopted pursuant to the foregoing obligations.

(d) A Party having given such notice with regard to a previously uncontrolled substance added to Schedule IV shall, with respect to that substance:

(i) Require licences for manufacture, trade and distribution in accordance with article 8;
(ii) Comply with the obligations of article 13 in regard to prohibition of and restrictions on export and import; and
(iii) Adopt measures in accordance with article 22 for the repression of acts contrary to laws or regulations adopted pursuant to the foregoing obligations.

(e) A Party having given such notice with regard to a substance transferred to a Schedule providing stricter controls and obligations shall apply as a minimum all of the provisions of this Convention applicable to the Schedule from which it was transferred.

8. (a) The decisions of the Commission taken under this article shall be subject to review by the Council upon the request of any Party filed within 180 days from receipt of notification of the decision. The request for review shall be sent to the Secretary-General together with all relevant information upon which the request for review is based.

(b) The Secretary-General shall transmit copies of the request for review and the relevant information to the Commission, to the World Health Organization and to all the Parties, inviting them to submit comments within ninety days. All comments received shall be submitted to the Council for consideration.

(c) The Council may confirm, alter or reverse the decision of the Commission. Notification of the Council's decision shall be transmitted to all States Members of the United Nations, to non-member States Parties to this Convention, to the Commission, to the World Health Organization and to the Board.

(d) During pendency of the review, the original decision of the Commission shall, subject to paragraph 7, remain in effect.

9. The Parties shall use their best endeavours to apply to substances which do not fall under this Convention, but which may be used in the illicit manufacture of psychotropic substances, such measures of supervision as may be practicable.

Article 3: SPECIAL PROVISIONS REGARDING THE CONTROL OF PREPARATIONS

1. Except as provided in the following paragraphs of this article, a preparation is subject to the same measures of control as the psychotropic substance which it contains, and, if it contains more than one such substance, to the measures applicable to the most strictly controlled of those substances.

2. If a preparation containing a psychotropic substance other than a substance in Schedule I is compounded in such a way that it presents no, or a negligible, risk of abuse and the substance cannot be recovered by readily applicable means in a quantity liable to abuse, so that the preparation does not give rise to a public health and social problem, the preparation may be exempted from certain of the measures of control provided in this Convention in accordance with paragraph 3.

3. If a Party makes a finding under the preceding paragraph regarding a preparation, it may decide to exempt the preparation, in its country or in one of its regions, from any or all of the measures of control provided in this Convention except the requirements of:

(a) article 8 (licences), as it applies to manufacture;

(b) article 11 (records), as it applies to exempt preparations;

(c) article 13 (prohibition of and restrictions on export and import);

(d) article 15 (inspection), as it applies to manufacture;

(e) article 16 (reports to be furnished by the Parties), as it applies to exempt preparations; and

(f) article 22 (penal provisions), to the extent necessary for the repression of acts contrary to laws or regulations adopted pursuant to the foregoing obligations.

A Party shall notify the Secretary-General of any such decision, of the name and composition of the exempt preparation, and of the measures of control from which it is exempted. The Secretary-General shall transmit the notification to the other Parties, to the World Health Organization and to the Board.

4. If a Party or the World Health Organization has information regarding a preparation exempted pursuant to paragraph 3 which in its opinion may require the termination, in whole or in part, of the exemption, it shall notify the Secretary-General and furnish him with the information in support of the notification. The Secretary-General shall transmit such notification, and any information which he considers relevant, to the Parties, to the Commission and, when the notification is made by a Party, to the World Health Organization. The World Health Organization shall communicate to the Commission an assessment of the preparation in relation to the matters specified in paragraph 2, together with a recommendation of the control measures, if any, from which the preparation should cease to be exempted. The Commission, taking into account the communication from the World Health Organization, whose assessment shall be determinative as to medical and scientific matters, and bearing in mind the economic, social, legal, administrative and other factors it may consider relevant, may decide to terminate the exemption of the preparation from any or all control measures. Any decision of the Commission taken pursuant to this paragraph shall be communicated by the Secretary-General to all States Members of the United Nations, to non-member States Parties to this Convention, to the World Health Organization and to the Board. All Parties shall take measures to terminate the exemption from the control measure or measures in question within 180 days of the date of the Secretary-General's communication.

Article 4: OTHER SPECIAL PROVISIONS REGARDING THE SCOPE OF CONTROL

In respect of psychotropic substances other than those in Schedule I, the Parties may permit:

(a) The carrying by international travellers of small quantities of preparations for personal use; each Party shall be entitled, however, to satisfy itself that these preparations have been lawfully obtained;

(b) The use of such substances in industry for the manufacture of non-psychotropic substances or products, subject to the application of the measures of control required by this Convention until the psychotropic substances come to be in such a condition that they will not in practice be abused or recovered;

(c) The use of such substances, subject to the application of the measures of control required by this Convention, for the capture of animals by persons specifically authorized by the competent authorities to use such substances for that purpose.

Article 5: LIMITATION OF USE TO MEDICAL AND SCIENTIFIC PURPOSES

1. Each Party shall limit the use of substances in Schedule I as provided in article 7.

2. Each Party shall, except as provided in article 4, limit by such measures as it considers appropriate the manufacture, export, import, distribution and stocks of, trade in, and use and possession of, substances in Schedules II, III and IV to medical and scientific purposes.

3. It is desirable that the Parties do not permit the possession of substances in Schedules II, Ill and IV except under legal authority.

Article 6: SPECIAL ADMINISTRATION

It is desirable that for the purpose of applying the provisions of this Convention, each Party establish and maintain a special administration, which may with advantage be the same as, or work in close co-operation with, the special administration established pursuant to the provisions of conventions for the control of narcotic drugs.

Article 7: SPECIAL PROVISIONS REGARDING SUBSTANCES IN SCHEDULE 1

In respect of substances in Schedule I, the Parties shall:

(a) Prohibit all use except for scientific and very limited medical purposes by duly authorized persons, in medical or scientific establishments which are directly under the control of their Governments or specifically approved by them;

(b) Require that manufacture, trade, distribution and possession be under a special licence or prior authorization;

(c) Provide for close supervision of the activities and acts mentioned in paragraphs (a) and (b);

(d) Restrict the amount supplied to a duly authorized person to the quantity required for his authorized purpose;

(e) Require that persons performing medical or scientific functions keep records concerning the acquisition of the substances and the details of their use, such records to be preserved for at least two years after the last use recorded therein; and

(f) Prohibit export and import except when both the exporter and importer are the competent authorities or agencies of the exporting and importing country or region, respectively, or other persons or enterprises which are specifically authorized by the competent authorities of their country or region for the purpose. The requirements of paragraph 1 of article 12 for export and import authorizations for substances in Schedule II shall also apply to substances in Schedule I.

Article 8: LICENCES

1. The Parties shall require that the manufacture of, trade (including export and import trade) in, and distribution of substances listed in Schedules II, Ill and IV be under licence or other similar control measure.

2. The Parties shall:

(a) Control all duly authorized persons and enterprises carrying on or engaged in the manufacture of, trade (including export and import trade) in, or distribution of substances referred to in paragraph 1;

(b) Control under licence or other similar control measure the establishments and premises in which such manufacture, trade or distribution may take place; and

(c) Provide that security measures be taken with regard to such establishments and premises in order to prevent theft or other diversion of stocks.

3. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 of this article relating to licensing or other similar control measures need not apply to persons duly authorized to perform and while performing therapeutic or scientific functions.

4. The Parties shall require that all persons who obtain licences in accordance with this Convention or who are otherwise authorized pursuant to paragraph 1 of this article or sub-paragraph (b) of article 7 shall be adequately qualified for the effective and faithful execution of the provisions of such laws and regulations as are enacted in pursuance of this Convention.

Article 9: PRESCRIPTIONS

1. The Parties shall require that substances in Schedules II, III and IV be supplied or dispensed for use by individuals pursuant to medical prescription only, except when individuals may lawfully obtain, use, dispense or administer such substances in the duly authorized exercise of therapeutic or scientific functions.

2. The Parties shall take measures to ensure that prescriptions for substances in Schedules II, III and IV are issued in accordance with sound medical practice and subject to such regulation, particularly as to the number of times they may be refilled and the duration of their validity, as will protect the public health and welfare.

3. Notwithstanding paragraph 1, a Party may, if in its opinion local circumstances so require and under such conditions, including record-keeping, as it may prescribe, authorize licensed pharmacists or other licensed retail distributors designated by the authorities responsible for public health in its country or part thereof to supply, at their discretion and without prescription, for use for medical purposes by individuals in exceptional cases, small quantities, within limits to be defined by the Parties, of substances in Schedules III and IV.

Article 10: WARNINGS ON PACKAGES, AND ADVERTISING

1. Each Party shall require, taking into account any relevant regulations or recommendations of the World Health Organization, such directions for use, including cautions and warnings, to be indicated on the labels where practicable and in any case on the accompanying leaflet of retail packages of psychotropic substances, as in its opinion are necessary for the safety of the user.

2. Each Party shall, with due regard to its constitutional provisions, prohibit the advertisement of such substances to the general public.

Article 11: RECORDS

1. The Parties shall require that, in respect of substances in Schedule 1, manufactures and all other persons authorized under article 7 to trade in and distribute those substances keep records, as may be determined by each Party, showing details of the quantities manufactured, the quantities held in stock, and, for each acquisition and disposal, details of the quantity, date, supplier and recipient.

2. The Parties shall require that, in respect of substances in Schedules II and III, manufacturers, wholesale distributors, exporters and importers keep records, as may be determined by each Party, showing details of the quantities manufactured and, for each acquisition and disposal, details of the quantity, date, supplier and recipient.

3. The Parties shall require that, in respect of substances in Schedule II, retail distributors, institutions for hospitalization and care and scientific institutions keep records, as may be determined by each Party, showing, for each acquisition and disposal, details of the quantity, date, supplier and recipient.

4. The Parties shall ensure, through appropriate methods and taking into account the professional and trade practices in their countries, that information regarding acquisition and disposal of substances in Schedule III by retail distributors, institutions for hospitalization and care and scientific institutions is readily available.

5. The Parties shall require that, in respect of substances in Schedule IV, manufacturers, exporters and importers keep records, as may be determined by each Party, showing the quantities manufactured, exported and imported.

6. The Parties shall require manufacturers of preparations exempted under paragraph 3 of article 3 to keep records as to the quantity of each psychotropic substance used in the manufacture of an exempt preparation, and as to the nature, total quantity and initial disposal of the exempt preparation manufactured therefrom.

7. The Parties shall ensure that the records and information referred to in this article which are required for purposes of reports under article 16 shall be preserved for at least two years.

Article 12: PROVISIONS RELATING TO INTERNATIONAL TRADE

1. (a) Every Party permitting the export or import of substances in Schedule I or II shall require a separate import or export authorization, on a form to be established by the Commission, to be obtained for each such export or import whether it consists of one or more substances.

(b) Such authorization shall state the international non-proprietary name, or, lacking such a name, the designation of the substance in the Schedule, the quantity to be exported or imported, the pharmaceutical form, the name and address of the exporter and importer, and the period within which the export or import must be effected. If the substance is exported or imported in the form of .a preparation, the name of the preparation, if any, shall additionally be furnished. The export authorization shall also state the number and date of the import authorization and the authority by whom it has been issued.

(c) Before issuing an export authorization the Parties shall require an import authorization, issued by the competent authority of the importing country or region and certifying that the importation of the substance or substances referred to therein is approved, and such an authorization shall be produced by the person or establishment applying for the export authorization.

(d) A copy of the export authorization shall accompany each consignment, and the Government issuing the export authorization shall send a copy to the Government of the importing country or region.

(e) The Government of the importing country or region, when the importation has been effected, shall return the export authorization with an endorsement certifying the amount actually imported, to the Government of the exporting country or region.

2. (a) The Parties shall require that for each export of substances in Schedule III exporters shall draw up a declaration in triplicate, on a form to be established by the Commission, containing the following information:

(i) The name and address of the exporter and importer;
(ii) The international non-proprietary name, or, failing such a name, the designation of the substance in the Schedule;
(iii) The quantity and pharmaceutical form in which the substance is exported, and, if in the form of a preparation, the name of the preparation, if any; and
(iv) The date of despatch.

(b) Exporters shall furnish the competent authorities of their country or region with two copies of the declaration. They shall attach the third copy to their consignment.

(c) A Party from whose territory a substance in Schedule III has been exported shall, as soon as possible but not later than ninety days after the date of despatch, send to the competent authorities of the importing country or region, by registered mail with return of receipt requested, one copy of the declaration received from the exporter.

(d) The Parties may require that, on receipt of, the consignment, the importer shall transmit the copy accompanying the consignment, duly endorsed stating the quantities received and the date of receipt, to the competent authorities of his country or region.

3. In respect of substances in Schedules I and II the following additional provisions shall apply:

(a) The Parties shall exercise in free ports and zones the same supervision and control as in other parts of their territory, provided, however, that they may apply more drastic measures.

(b) Exports of consignments to a post office box, or to a bank to the account of a person other than the person named in the export authorization, shall be prohibited.

(c) Exports to bonded warehouses of consignments of substances in Schedule I are prohibited. Exports of consignments of substances in Schedule II to a bonded warehouse are prohibited unless the Government of the importing country certifies on the import authorization, produced by the person or establishment applying for the export authorization, that it has approved the importation for the purpose of being placed, in a bonded warehouse. In such case the export authorization shall certify that the consignment is exported for such purpose. Each withdrawal from the bonded warehouse shall require a permit from the authorities having jurisdiction over the warehouse and, in the case of a foreign destination, shall be treaties as if it were a new export within the meaning of this Convention.

(d) Consignments entering or leaving the territory of a Party not accompanied by an export authorization shall be detained by the competent authorities.

(e) A Party shall not permit any substances consigned to another country to pass through its territory, whether or not the consignment is removed from the conveyance in which it is carried, unless a copy of the export authorization for consignment is produced to the competent authorities of such Party.

(f) The competent authorities of any country or region through which a consignment of substances is permitted to pass shall take all due measures to prevent the diversion of the consignment to a destination other than that named in the accompanying copy of the export authorization, unless the Government of the country or region through which the consignment is passing authorizes the diversion. The Government of the country or region of transit shall treat any requested diversion as if the diversion were an export from the country or region of transit to the country or region of new destination. If the diversion is authorized, the provisions of paragraph 1 (e) shall also apply between the country or region of transit and the country or region which originally exported the consignment.

(g) No consignment of substances, while in transit or whilst being stored in a bonded warehouse, may be subjected to any process which would change the nature of the substance in question. The packing may not be altered without the permission of the competent authorities.

(h) The provisions of sub-paragraphs (e) to (g) relating to the passage of substances through the territory of a Party do not apply where the consignment in question is transported by aircraft which does not land in the country or region of transit. If the aircraft lands in any such country or region, those provisions shall be applied so far as circumstances require.

(i) The provisions of this paragraph are without prejudice to the provisions of any international agreements which limit the control which may be exercised by any of the Parties over such substances in transit.

Article 13: PROHIBITION OF AND RESTRICTIONS ON EXPORT AND IMPORT

1. A Party may notify all the other Parties through the Secretary-General that it prohibits the import into its country or into one of its regions of one or more substances in Schedule II, III or IV, specified in its notification. Any such notification shall specify the name of the substance as designated in Schedule II, III or IV.

2. If a Party has been notified of a prohibition pursuant to paragraph 1, it shall take measures to ensure that none of the substances specified in the notification is exported to the country or one of the regions of the notifying Party.

3. Notwithstanding the provisions of the preceding paragraphs, a Party which has given notification pursuant to paragraph 1 may authorize by special import licence in each case the import of specified quantities of the substance in question or preparations containing such substances. The issuing authority of the importing country shall send two copies of the special import licence indicating the name and address of the importer and the exporter, to the competent authority of the exporting country or region, which may the authorize the exporter to make the shipment. One copy of the special import licence, duly endorsed by the competent authority of the exporting country or region, shall accompany the shipment.

Article 14: SPECIAL PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE CARRIAGE OF PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES IN FIRST-AID KITS OF SHIPS, AIRCRAFT OR OTHER FORMS OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT ENGAGED IN INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC

1. The international carriage by ships, aircraft or other forms of international public transport, such as international railway trains and motor coaches, of such limited quantities of substances in Schedule II, III or IV as may be needed during their journey or voyage for first-aid purposes or emergency cases shall not be considered to be export, import or passage through a country within the meaning of this Convention.

2. Appropriate safeguards shall be taken by the country of registry to prevent the improper use of the substances referred to in paragraph 1 or their diversion for illicit purposes. The Commission, in consultation with the appropriate international organizations, shall recommend such safeguards.

3. Substances carried by ships, aircraft or other forms of international public transport, such as international railway trains and motor coaches, in accordance with paragraph 1 shall be subject to the laws, regulations, permits and licences of the country of registry, without prejudice to any rights of the competent local authorities to carry out checks, inspections and other control measures on board these conveyances. The administration of such substances in the case of emergency shall not be considered a violation of the requirements of paragraph 1 of article 9.

Article 15: INSPECTION

The Parties shall maintain a system of inspection of manufacturers, exporters, importers, and wholesale and retail distributors of psychotropic substances and of medical and scientific institutions which use such substances. They shall provide for inspections, which shall be made as frequently as they consider necessary, of the premises and of stocks and records.

Article 16: REPORTS TO BE FURNISHED BY THE PARTIES

1. The Parties shall furnish to the Secretary-General such information as the Commission may request as being necessary for the performance of its functions and in particular an annual report regarding the working of the Convention in their territories including information on:

(a) Important changes in their laws and regulations concerning psychotropic substances; and

(b) Significant developments in the abuse of and the illicit traffic in psychotropic substances within their territories.

2. The Parties shall also notify the Secretary-General of the names and addresses of the governmental authorities referred to in sub-paragraph (f) of article 7, in article 12 and in paragraph 3 of article 13. Such information shall be made available to all Parties by the Secretary-General.

3. The Parties shall furnish, as soon as possible after the event, a report to the Secretary-General in respect of any case of illicit traffic in psychotropic substances or seizure from such illicit traffic which they consider important because of:

(a) New trends disclosed;

(b) The quantities involved;

(c) The light thrown on the sources from which the substances are obtained; or

(d) The methods employed by illicit traffickers.

Copies of the report shall be communicated in accordance with subparagraph (b) of article 21.

4. The Parties shall furnish to the Board annual statistical reports in accordance with forms prepared by the Board:

(a) In regard to each substance in Schedules I and II, on quantities manufactured, exported to and imported from each country or region as well as on stocks held by manufacturers;

(b) In regard to each substance in Schedules III and IV, on quantities manufactured, as well as on total quantities exported and imported;

(c) In regard to each substance in Schedules 11 and III, on quantities used in the manufacture of exempt preparations; and

(d) In regard to each substance other than a substance in Schedule I, on quantities used for industrial purposes in accordance with sub-paragraph (b) of article 4.The quantities manufactured which are referred to in sub-paragraphs (a) and (b) of this paragraph do not include the quantities of preparations manufactured.

5. A Party shall furnish the Board, on its request, with supplementary statistical information relating to future periods on the quantities of any individual substance in Schedules III and IV exported to and imported from each country or region. That Party may request that the Board treat as confidential both its request for information and the information given under this paragraph.

6. The Parties shall furnish the information referred to in paragraphs 1 and 4 in such a manner and by such dates as the Commission or the Board may request.

Article 17: FUNCTIONS OF THE COMMISSION

1. The Commission may consider all matters pertaining to the aims of this Convention and to the implementation of its provisions, and may make recommendations relating thereto.

2. The decisions of the Commission provided for in articles 2 and 3 shall be taken by a two-thirds majority of the members of the Commission.

Article 18: REPORTS OF THE BOARD

1. The Board shall prepare annual reports on its work containing an analysis of the statistical information at its disposal, and, in appropriate cases, an account of the explanations, if any, given by or required of Governments, together with any observations and recommendations which the Board desires to make. The Board may make such additional reports as it considers necessary. The reports shall be submitted to the Council through the Commission, which may make such comments as it sees fit.

2. The reports of the Board shall be communicated to the Parties and subsequently published by the Secretary-General. The Parties shall permit their unrestricted distribution.

Article 19: MEASURES BY THE BOARD TO ENSURE THE EXECUTION OF THE PROVISIONS OF THE CONVENTION

1. (a) If, on the basis of its examination of information submitted by governments to the Board or of information communicated by United Nations organs, the Board has reason to believe that the aims of this Convention are being seriously endangered by reason of the failure of a country or region to carry out the provisions of this Convention, the Board shall have the right to ask for explanations from the Government of the country or region in question. Subject to the right of the Board to call the attention of the Parties, the Council and the Commission to the matter referred to in sub-paragraph (c) below, it shall treat as confidential a request for information or an explanation by a government under this sub-paragraph.

(b) After taking action under sub-paragraph (a), the Board, if satisfied that it is necessary to do so, may call upon the Government concerned to adopt such remedial measures as shall seem under the circumstances to be necessary for the execution of the provisions of this Convention.

(c) If the Board finds that the Government concerned has failed to give satisfactory explanations when called upon to do so under sub-paragraph (a), of has failed to adopt any remedial measures which it has been called upon to take under sub-paragraph (b), it may call the attention of the Parties, the Council and the Commission to the matter.

2. The Board, when calling the attention of the Parties, the Council and the Commission to a matter in accordance with paragraph 1 (c), may, if it is satisfied that such a course is necessary, recommend to the Parties that they stop the export, import, or both, of particular psychotropic substances, from or to the country or region concerned, either for a designated period or until the Board shall be satisfied as to the situation in that country or region. The State concerned may bring the matter before the Council.

3. The Board shall have the right to publish a report on any matter dealt with under the provisions of this article, and communicate it to the Council, which shall forward it to all Parties. If the Board publishes in this report a decision taken under this article or any information relating thereto, it shall also publish therein the views of the Government concerned if the latter so requests.

4. If in any case a decision of the Board which is published under this article is not unanimous, the views of the minority shall be stated.

5. Any State shall be invited to be represented at a meeting of the Board at which a question directly interesting it is considered under this article.

6. Decisions of the Board under this article shall be taken by a two-thirds majority of the whole number of the Board.

7. The provisions of the above paragraphs shall also apply if the Board has reason to believe that the aims of this Convention are being seriously endangered as a result of a decision taken by a Party under paragraph 7 of article 2.

Article 20: MEASURES AGAINST THE ABUSE OF PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES

1. The Parties shall take all practicable measures for the prevention of abuse of psychotropic substances and for the early identification, treatment, education, after-care, rehabilitation and social reintegration of the persons involved, and shall co-ordinate their efforts to these ends.

2. The Parties shall as far as possible promote the training of personnel in the treatment, after-care, rehabilitation and social reintegration of abusers of psychotropic substances.

3. The Parties shall assist persons whose work so requires to gain an understanding of the problems of abuse of psychotropic substances and of its prevention, and shall also promote such understanding among the general public if there is a risk that abuse of such substances will become widespread.

Article 21: ACTION AGAINST THE ILLICIT TRAFFIC

Having due regard to their constitutional, legal and administrative systems, the Parties shall:

(a) Make arrangements at the national level for the co-ordination of preventive and repressive action against the illicit traffic; to this end they may usefully designate an appropriate agency responsible for such co-ordination;

(b) Assist each other in the campaign against the illicit traffic in psychotropic substances, and in particular immediately transmit, through the diplomatic channel or the competent authorities designated by the Parties for this purpose, to the other Parties directly concerned, a copy of any report addressed to the Secretary-General under article 16 in connexion with the discovery of a case of illicit traffic or a seizure;

(c) Co-operate closely with each other and with the competent international organizations of which they are members with a view to maintaining a co-ordinated campaign against the illicit traffic;

(d) Ensure that international co-operation between the appropriate agencies be conducted in an expeditious manner; and

(e) Ensure that, where legal papers are transmitted internationally for the purpose of judicial proceedings, the transmittal be effected in an expeditious manner to the bodies designated by the Parties; this requirement shall be without prejudice to the right of a Party to require that legal papers be sent to it through the diplomatic channel.

Article 22: PENAL PROVISIONS

1. (a) Subject to its constitutional limitations, each Party shall treat as a punishable offence, when committed intentionally, any action contrary to a law or regulation adopted in pursuance of its obligations under this Convention, and shall ensure that serious offences shall be liable to adequate punishment, particularly by imprisonment or other penalty of deprivation of liberty.

(b) Notwithstanding the preceding sub-paragraph, when abusers of psychotropic substances have committed such offences, the Parties may provide, either as an alternative to conviction or punishment or in addition to punishment, that such abusers undergo measures of treatment, education, after-care, rehabilitation and social reintegration in conformity with paragraph 1 of article 20.

2. Subject to the constitutional limitations of a Party, its legal system and domestic law,

(a) (i) If a series of related actions constituting offences under paragraph 1 has been committed in different countries, each of them shall be treated as a distinct offence;

(ii) Intentional participation in, conspiracy to commit and attempts to commit, any of such offences, and preparatory acts and financial operations in connexion with the offences referred to in this article, shall be punishable offences as provided in paragraph 1;

(iii) Foreign convictions for such offences shall be taken into account for the purpose of establishing recidivism; and

(iv) Serious offences heretofore referred to committed either by nationals or by foreigners shall be prosecuted by the Party in whose territory the offence was committed, or by the Party in whose territory the offender is found if extradition is not acceptable in conformity with the law of the Party to which application is made, and if such offender has not already been prosecuted and judgement given.

(b) It is desirable that the offences referred to in paragraph 1 and paragraph 2 (a) (ii) be included as extradition crimes in any extradition treaty which has been or may hereafter be concluded between any of the Parties, and, as between any of the Parties which do not make extradition conditional on the existence of a treaty or on reciprocity, be recognized as extradition crimes; provided that extradition shall be granted in conformity with the law of the Party to which application is made, and that the Party shall have the right to refuse to effect the arrest or grant the extradition in cases where the competent authorities consider that the offence is not sufficiently serious.

3. Any psychotropic substance or other substance, as well as any equipment, used in or intended for the commission of any of the offences referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2 shall be liable to seizure and confiscation.

4. The provisions of this article shall be subject to the provisions of the domestic law of the Party concerned on questions of jurisdiction.

5. Nothing contained in this article shall affect the principle that the offences to which it refers shall be defined, prosecuted and punished in conformity with the domestic law of a Party.

Article 23: APPLICATION OF STRICTER CONTROL MEASURES THAN THOSE REQUIRED BY THIS CONVENTION

A Party may adopt more strict or severe measures of control than those provided by this Convention if, in its opinion, such measures are desirable or necessary for the protection of the public health and welfare.

Article 24: EXPENSES OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANS INCURRED IN ADMINISTERING THE PROVISIONS OF THE CONVENTION

The expenses of the Commission and the Board in carrying out their respective functions under this Convention shall be borne by the United Nations in such manner as shall be decided by the General Assembly. The Parties which are not Members of the United Nations shall contribute to these expenses such amounts as the General Assembly finds equitable and assesses from time to time after consultation with the Governments of these Parties.

Article 25: PROCEDURE FOR ADMISSION, SIGNATURE, RATIFICATION AND ACCESSION

1. Members of the United Nations, States not Members of the United Nations which are members of a specialized agency of the United Nations or of the International Atomic Energy Agency or Parties to the Statute of the International Court of Justice, and any other State invited by the Council, may become Parties to this Convention:

(a) By signing it; or

(b) By ratifying it after signing it subject to ratification; or

(c) By acceding to it.

2. The Convention shall be open for signature until 1 January 1972 inclusive. Thereafter it shall be open for accession.

3. Instruments of ratification or accession shall be deposited with the Secretary-General.

Article 26: ENTRY INTO FORCE

1. The Convention shall come into force on the ninetieth day after forty of the States referred to in paragraph 1 of article 25 have signed it without reservation of ratification or have deposited their instruments of ratification or accession.

2. For any other State signing without reservation of ratification, or depositing an instrument of ratification or accession after the last signature or deposit referred to in the preceding paragraph, the Convention shall enter into force on the ninetieth day following the date of its signature or deposit of its instrument of ratification or accession.

Article 27: TERRITORIAL APPLICATION

The Convention shall apply to all non-metropolitan territories for the international relations of which any Party is responsible except where the previous consent of such a territory is required by the Constitution of the Party or of the territory concerned, or required by custom. In such a case the Party shall endeavour to secure the needed consent of the territory within the shortest period possible, and when the consent is obtained the Party shall notify the Secretary-General. The Convention shall apply to the territory or territories named in such a notification from the date of its receipt by the Secretary General. In those cases where the previous consent of the non-metropolitan territory is not required, the Party concerned shall, at the time of signature, ratification or accession, declare the non-metropolitan territory or territories to which this Convention applies.

Article 28: REGIONS FOR THE PURPOSES OF THIS CONVENTION

1. Any Party may notify the Secretary-General that, for the purposes of this Convention, its territory is divided into two or more regions, or that two or more of its regions are consolidated into a single region.

2. Two or more Parties may notify the Secretary-General that, as the result of the establishment of a customs union between them, those Parties constitute a region for the purposes of this Convention.

3. Any notification under paragraph 1 or 2 shall take effect on 1 January of the year following the year in which the notification was made.

Article 29: DENUNCIATION

1. After the expiry of two years from the date of the coming into force of this Convention any Party may, on its own behalf or on behalf of a territory for which it has international responsibility, and which has withdrawn its consent given in accordance with article 27, denounce this Convention by an instrument in writing deposited with the Secretary-General.

2. The denunciation, if received by the Secretary-General on or before the first day of July of any year, shall take effect on the first day of January of the succeeding year, and if received after the first day of July it shall take effect as if it had been received on or before the first day of July in the succeeding year.

3. The Convention shall be terminated if, as a result of denunciations made in accordance with paragraphs 1 and 2, the conditions for its coming into force as laid down in paragraph 1 of article 26 cease to exist.

Article 30: AMENDMENTS

1. Any Party may propose an amendment to this Convention. The text of any such amendment and the reasons therefore shall be communicated to the Secretary-General, who shall communicate them to the Parties and to the Council. The Council may decide either:

(a) That a conference shall be called in accordance with paragraph 4 of Article 62 of the Charter of the United Nations to consider the proposed amendment; or

(b) That the Parties shall be asked whether they accept the proposed amendment and also asked to submit to the Council any comments on the proposal.

2. If a proposed amendment circulated under paragraph 1 (b) has not been rejected by any Party within eighteen months after it has been circulated, it shall thereupon enter into force. If however a proposed amendment is rejected by any Party, the Council may decide, in the light of comments received from Parties, whether a conference shall be called to consider such amendment.

Article 31: DISPUTES

1. If there should arise between two or more Parties a dispute relating to the interpretation or application of this Convention, the said Parties shall consult together with a view to the settlement of the dispute by negotiation, investigation, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, recourse to regional bodies, judicial process or other peaceful means of their own choice.

2. Any such dispute which cannot be settled in the manner prescribed shall be referred, at the request of any one of the parties to the dispute, to the International Court of Justice for decision.

Article 32: RESERVATIONS

1. No reservation other than those made in accordance with paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 of the present article shall be permitted.

2. Any State may at the time of signature, ratification or accession make reservations in respect of the following provisions of the present Convention:

(a) Article 19, paragraphs 1 and 2;

(b) Article 27; and

(c) Article 31.

3. A State which desires to become a Party but wishes to be authorized to make reservations other than those made in accordance with paragraphs 2 and 4 may inform the Secretary-General of such intention. Unless by the end of twelve months after the date of the Secretary-General's communication of the reservation concerned, this reservation has been objected to by one third of the States that have signed without reservation of ratification, ratified or acceded to this Convention before the end of that period, it shall be deemed to be permitted, it being understood however that States which have objected to the reservation need not assume towards the reserving State any legal obligation under this Convention which is affected by the reservation.

4. A State on whose territory there are plants growing wild which contain psychotropic substances from among those in Schedule I and which are traditionally used by certain small, clearly determined groups in magical or religious rites, may, at the time of signature, ratification or accession, make reservations concerning these plants, in respect of the provisions of article 7, except for the provisions relating to international trade.

5. A State which has made reservations may at any time by notification in writing to the Secretary-General withdraw all or part of its reservations.

Article 33: NOTIFICATIONS

The Secretary-General shall notify to all the States referred to in paragraph 1 of article 25:

(a) Signatures, ratifications and accessions in accordance with article 25;

(b) The date upon which this Convention enters into force in accordance with article 26;

(c) Denunciations in accordance with article 29; and

(d) Declarations and notifications under articles 27, 28, 30 and 32.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned, duly authorized, have signed this Convention on behalf of their respective Governments.

DONE at Vienna, this twenty-first day of February one thousand nine hundred and seventy-one, in a single copy in the Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish languages, each being equally authentic. The Convention shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall transmit certified true copies thereof to all the Members of the United Nations and to the other States referred to in paragraph 1 of article 25.








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