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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bindweed family
Ipomoea imperati
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Solanales
Family: Convolvulaceae
Type genus
Convolvulus
L.
Genera

See text

Jacquemontia paniculata

The Convolvulaceae, known commonly as the bindweed or morning glory family, is a group of about 60 genera and more than 1,650 species of mostly herbaceous vines, but also trees, shrubs and herbs.

Contents

Description

They can be recognized by their funnel-shaped radially symmetrical corolla; the floral formula for the family has 5 sepals, 5 fused petals, 5 epipetalous stamens (stamens fused to the petals), and a 2 part syncarpous and superior gynoecium. The stem of these plants is usually winding, hence its Latin name (convolvere = to wind). The leaves are simple and alternate, without stipules. The fruit can be a capsule, berry, or nut, all containing only two seeds per one locule (one ovule/ovary).

The leaves and starchy tuberous roots of some species are used as foodstuffs (e.g. sweet potato and water spinach), and the seeds are exploited for their medicinal value as purgatives. Some species contain ergoline alkaloids that are likely responsible for the use of these species as ingredients in psychedelic drugs (e.g. ololiuhqui). The presence of ergolines in some species of this family is due to infection by fungi related to the ergot fungi of the genus Claviceps. A recent study of the Convolvulaceae species, Ipomoea asarifolia, and its associated fungi showed that the presence of a fungus, identified by DNA sequencing of 18s and ITS ribosomal DNA and phylogenetic analysis to be closely related to fungi in the family Clavicipitaceae, was always associated with the presence of ergoline alkaloids in the plant. The identified fungus appears to be a seed-transmitted obligate biotroph growing epiphytically on its host.[1] This finding strongly suggests that the unique presence of ergoline alkaloids in some species of the family Convolvulaceae is due to symbiosis with clavicipitaceous fungi. Moreover, another group of compounds, loline alkaloids, commonly produced by some members of the clavicipitaceous fungi (genus Neotyphodium), has been identified in a Convolvulaceae species, but the origin of the loline alkaloids in this species is unknown. [2]

Members of the family are well known as showy garden plants (e.g. morning glory) and as troublesome weeds (e.g. bindweed).

Tribes

According to the study of D.F. Austin (see Reference) the family Convolvulaceae can be classified in the following tribes:

  • Ericybeae
  • Cressea
  • Convolvuleae
  • Merremioids
  • Ipomoeae
  • Argyreiae
  • Poraneae
  • Dichondreae
  • Cuscuteae (sometimes classified as a separate family Cuscutaceae).

Genera

Tribe Aniseieae
  • Aniseia Choisy
  • Iseia O'Donell
  • Odonellia K.R.Robertson
  • Tetralocularia O'Donell[3]
Tribe Cardiochlamyeae
  • Cardiochlamys Oliv.
  • Cordisepalum Verdc.
  • Dinetus Buch.-Ham. ex Sweet
  • Poranopsis Roberty
  • Tridynamia Gagnep.[4]
Tribe Convolvuleae
Tribe Cresseae
Tribe Cuscuteae
Tribe Dichondreae
  • Calycobolus Willd. ex Schult.
  • Dichondra J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.
  • Dipteropeltis Hallier f.
  • Falkia Thunb.
  • Metaporana N.E.Br.
  • Nephrophyllum A.Rich.
  • Porana Burm.f.
  • Rapona Baill.[8]
Tribe Erycibeae
  • Ericybe Roxb.[9]
Tribe Humbertieae
Tribe Ipomoeeae
Tribe Jacquemontieae
  • Jacquemontia Choisy[12]
Tribe Maripeae
  • Dicranostyles Benth.
  • Lysiostyles Benth.
  • Maripa Aubl.[13]
Tribe Merremieae
  • Decalobanthus Ooststr.
  • Hewittia Wight & Arn.
  • Hyalocystis Hallier f.
  • Merremia Dennst. ex Endl. - Hawaiian woodrose
  • Operculina Silva Manso
  • Xenostegia D.F.Austin & Staples[14]
Not placed in tribe
  • Pentacrostigma K.Afzel.

References

  1. ^ Steiner U. et al. (2006) Molecular characterization of a seed transmitted clavicipitaceous fungus occurring on dicotyledoneous plants (Convolvulaceae). Planta 224: 533-544. PMID 16525783
  2. ^ Tofern, B, Kaloga, M, Witte, L, Hartmann, T, Eich, E (1999). "Occurrence of loline alkaloids in Argyreia mollis (Convolvulaceae)". Phytochemistry 51: 1177–1180. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(99)00121-1.  
  3. ^ "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Aniseieae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?1830. Retrieved 2009-04-13.  
  4. ^ "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Cardiochlamyeae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?1831. Retrieved 2009-04-13.  
  5. ^ "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Convolvuleae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?1832. Retrieved 2009-04-13.  
  6. ^ "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Cresseae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?1833. Retrieved 2009-04-13.  
  7. ^ "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Cuscuteae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?1834. Retrieved 2009-04-13.  
  8. ^ "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Dichondreae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?1835. Retrieved 2009-04-13.  
  9. ^ "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Erycibeae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?1836. Retrieved 2009-04-13.  
  10. ^ "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Humbertieae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?1837. Retrieved 2009-04-13.  
  11. ^ "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Ipomoeeae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?1838. Retrieved 2009-04-13.  
  12. ^ "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Jacquemontieae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?1839. Retrieved 2009-04-13.  
  13. ^ "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Maripeae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?1840. Retrieved 2009-04-13.  
  14. ^ "Genera of Convolvulaceae tribe Merremieae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/gnlist.pl?1841. Retrieved 2009-04-13.  

Further reading

  • Austin, D. F. (1973) The American Erycibeae (Convolvulaceae): Maripa, Dicranostyles, and Lysiostyles I. Systematics. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 306-412.
  • Austin, D. F. 1997. Convolvulaceae (Morning Glory Family)
  • Convolvulus plant
  • Convolvulaceae in L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz (1992 onwards). The families of flowering plants.
  • Austin, D.F. 2000. Bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis, Convolvulaceae) in North America—From medicine to menace. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 127:172-177
  • Costea, M. 2007-onwards. Digital Atlas of Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae)
  • Lyons, K.E. 2001. Element stewardship abstract for Convolvulus arvensis L. field bindweed. The Nature Conservancy. [1]
  • Calif. Dept. of Food and Agriculture. Undated. Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.). [2]
  • Univ. of Idaho Extension. 1999. Homewise: No matter what we do, our morning glory weeds come back every year. Any advice? Aug. 23. [3]
  • Hodges, L. 2003. Bindweed identification and trol options for organic production. NebFacts. Univ. of Nebraska – Lincoln Cooperative Extension. [4]
  • Univ. of California Agriculture and Natural Resources. 2003. Field Bindweed. Pest Notes. Publ. # 7462. [5]
  • Washington State Univ. Cooperative Extension. Undated. Hortsense: Weeds: Field bindweed (Wild morningglory): Convolvulus arvensis. [6]
  • Sullivan, P. 2004. Field bindweed control alternatives. ATTRA. National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service. [7]
  • Lanini, W. T. Undated. Organic weed management in vineyards. University of California, Davis Cooperative Extension. [8]
  • Cox, H.R. 1915. The eradication of bindweed or wild morning-glory. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Farmers’ Bulletin 368. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.
  • Littlefield, J.L. 2004. Bindweeds. In Biological control of invasive plants in the United States, ed. E.M. Coombs et al. Corvallis OR: Oregon State Universityy Press. Pp. 150-157.
  • New Mexico State Univ. Cooperative Extension Service. 2004. Managing Aceria malherbae gall mites for control of field bindweed. [9]
  • Cox, Caroline. 2005. Coping with field bindweed without using herbicides. Journal of Pesticide Reform 25(1): 6-7

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

CONVOLVULACEAE, a botanical natural order belonging to the series Tubiflorae of the sympetalous group of Dicotyledons. It contains about 40 genera with more than 1000 species, and is found in all parts of the world except the coldest, but is especially well developed in tropical Asia and tropical America. The most characteristic members of the order are twining plants with generally smooth heart-shaped leaves and large showy white or purple flowers, as, for instance, the greater bindweed of English hedges, Calystegia sepium, and many species of the genus Ipomaea, the largest of the order, including the "convolvulus major" of gardens, and morning glory. The creeping or trailing type is a common one, as in the English bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis), which has also a tendency to climb, and Calystegia Soldanella, the sea-bindweed, the long creeping stem of which forms a sandbinder on English seashores; a widespread and efficient tropical sand-binder is Ipomaea Pes-Caprae. One of the commonest tropical weeds, Evolvulus alsinoides, has slender, long-trailing stems with small leaves and flowers. In hot dry districts such as Arabia and north-east tropical Africa, genera have been developed with a low, much-branched, dense, shrubby habit, with small hairy leaves and very small flowers. An exceptional type in the order is represented by Humbertia, a native of Madagascar, which forms a large tree. The dodder is a genus (Cuscuta) of leafless parasites with slender thread-like twining stems. The flowers stand singly in the leaf-axils or form few or many flowered cymose inflorescences; the flowers are sometimes crowded into small heads. The bracts are usually scale-like, but sometimes foliaceous, as for instance in Calystegia, where they are large and envelop the calyx.

The parts of the flower are in fives in calyx, corolla and stamens, followed by two carpels which unite to form a superior ovary. The sepals, which are generally free, show much variation in size, shape and covering, and afford valuable characters for the distinction of genera or sub-genera. The corolla is generally funnelshaped, more rarely bell-shaped or tubular; the outer face is often marked out in longitudinal areas, five well-defined areas tapering from base to apex, and marked with longitudinal striae corresponding to the middle of the petals, and alternating with five non-striated weaker triangular areas; in the bud the latter are folded inwards, the stronger areas being exposed and showing a twist to the right. The slender filaments of the stamens vary widely, often in the same flower; the anthers are linear to ovate in shape, attached at the back to the filament, and open lengthwise. Some importance attaches to the form of the pollen grains; the two principal forms are ellipsoidal with longitudinal bands forming the Convolvulus-type, and a spherical form with a spiny surface known as the Ipomaea-type. The ovary is generally two-chambered, with two inverted ovules standing side by side at the inner angle of each chamber. The style is simple or branched, and the stigma is linear, capitate or globose in form; these variations afford means for distinguishing the different genera. The fruit is usually a capsule opening by valves; the seeds, where four are developed, are each shaped like thy quadrant of a sphere; the seed-coat is smooth, or sometimes warty or hairy; the embryo is large with generally broad, folded, notched or bilobed cotyledons surrounded by a horny endosperm. Cuscuta has a thread-like, spirally twisted embryo with no trace of cotyledons.

The large showy flowers are visited by insects for the honey which is secreted by a ring-like disk below the ovary; large Convolvulus sepium, slightly reduced.

1. Flower cut vertically. 4. Embryo taken out of seed.

2. Fruit, slightly reduced. 5. Horizontal plan of arrange 3. Seed cut lengthwise showing ment of flower.

embryo.

flowered species of Ipomaea with narrow tubes are adapted for the visits of honey-seeking birds.

The largest genus, Ipomaea, has about 400 species distributed throughout the warmer parts of the earth. Convolvulus has about tso to 200 species, mainly in temperate climates; the genus is principally developed in the Mediterranean area and western Asia. Cuscuta contains nearly too species in the warmer and temperate regions; two are native in Britain.

The tubers of Ipomaea Batatas are rich in starch and sugar, and, as the "sweet potato," form one of the most widely distributed foods in the warmer parts of the earth. Several members of the order are used medicinally for the strong purging properties of the milky juice (latex) which they contain; scammony is the dried latex from the underground stem of Convolvulus Scarnmonia, a native of the Levant, while jalap is the product of the tubercles of Exogonium Purga, a native of Mexico. Species of Ipomaea (morning glory), Convolvulus and Calystegia are cultivated as ornamental plants. Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed) is a pest in fields and gardens on account of its wide-spreading underground stem, and many of the dodders (Cuscuta) cause damage to crops.


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

Translingual

Etymology

Proper noun

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Convolvulaceae

  1. a taxonomic family, within order Solanales - many herbaceous vines
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Wikispecies has information on:

Wikispecies

See also

  • Aniseia
  • Argyreia
  • Astripomoea
  • Blinkworthia
  • Bonamia
  • Breweria
  • Calycobolus
  • Calystegia
  • Cardiochlamys
  • Cladistigma
  • Convolvulus
  • Cordisepalum
  • Cressa
  • Decalobanthus
  • Dichondra
  • Dicranostyles
  • Dinetus
  • Dipteropeltis
  • Ericybe
  • Evolvulus
  • Falckia
  • Hewittia
  • Hildebrandtia
  • Hyalocystis
  • Ipomoea
  • Iseia
  • Itzaea
  • Jacquemontia
  • Lepistemon
  • Lepistemonopsis
  • Lysiostyles
  • Maripa
  • Merremia
  • Metaporana
  • Nephrophyllum
  • Neuropeltis
  • Neuropeltopsis
  • Odonellia
  • Operculina
  • Paralepistemon
  • Pentacrostigma
  • Pharbitis
  • Polymeria
  • Porana
  • Poranopsis
  • Rapona
  • Rivea
  • Sabaudiella
  • Seddera
  • Stictocardia
  • Stylisma
  • Tetralocularia
  • Tridynamia
  • Turbina
  • Wilsonia
  • Xenostegia

Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Classification System: APG II (down to family level)

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiospermae
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Euasterids I
Ordo: Solanales
Familia: Convolvulaceae
Subfamilia: Convolvuloideae  - Humbertioideae
Genera: Aniseia - Argyreia - Astripomoea - Blinkworthia - Bonamia - Calycobolus - Calystegia - Cardiochlamys - Cladostigma - Convolvulus - Cordisepalum - Cressa - Cuscuta - Decalobanthus - Dichondra - Dicranostyles - Dipteropeltis - Erycibe - Evolvulus - Falkia - Hewittia - Hildebrandtia - Humbertia - Hyalocystis - Ipomoea - Iseia - Itzaea - Jacquemontia - Lepistemon - Lepistemonopsis - Lysiostyles - Maripa - Merremia - Metaporana - Nephrophyllum - Neuropeltis - Neuropeltopsis - Odonellia - Operculina - Paralepistemon - Pentacrostigma - Petrogenia - Polymeria - Porana - Rapona - Remirema - Rivea - Sabaudiella - Seddera - Stictocardia - Stylisma - Tetralocularia - Turbina - Wilsonia - Xenostegia

Vernacular names

Bân-lâm-gú: Soân-hoe-kho
Català: Convolvulàcia
Dansk: Snerle-familien
Deutsch: Windengewächse
Esperanto: Konvolvulacoj
Français: Convolvulacées
Lietuvių: Vijokliniai
Nederlands: Windefamilie
Nedersaksisch: Wiendefemilie
日本語: ヒルガオ科
‪Norsk (bokmål)‬: Vindelfamilien
Polski: Powojowate
Русский: Вьюнковые
Suomi: Kiertokasvit
Svenska: Vindeväxter
Türkçe: Kahkaha çiçeğigiller
中文: 旋花科
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Convolvulaceae on Wikimedia Commons.

Simple English

Bindweed family
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked) Eudicots
(unranked) Asterids
Order: Solanales
Family: Convolvulaceae
Genera

See text

The Convolvulaceae, known commonly as the bindweed or morning glory family, is a group of about 60 genera and more than 1,650 species of mostly herbaceous vines, but also trees, shrubs and herbs.








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