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Cooking with a wok in China
A cook sautees onions and green peppers on a skillet
.Cooking is the process of preparing food by applying heat.^ A textbook of food preparation discussing such basics as meal planning, recipes, appliances, equipment, cooking techniques, and nutrition.

^ Surveys food products, customs, and preparation in Korea, describing typical dishes, cooking techniques, and recipes for a variety of meals.

^ Describes food customs and preparation in China, regional dishes, and cooking techniques; includes recipes for a variety of meals.

Cooks select and combine ingredients using a wide range of tools and methods. In the process, the flavor, texture, appearance, and chemical properties of the ingredients can change. .Cooking techniques and ingredients vary widely across the world, reflecting unique environmental, economic, and cultural traditions.^ Introduces basic cooking techniques and recipes for a variety of traditional Jewish dishes.

^ Mesfin, D.J., Exotic Ethiopian cooking : society, culture, hospitality & traditions : 178 tested recipes with food composition tables .

^ Sax, R. and D. Ricketts, Cooking great meals every day : techniques, recipes and variations .

Cooks themselves also vary widely in skill and training.
.Preparing food with heat or fire is an activity unique to human beings, and some scientists believe the advent of cooking played an important role in human evolution.^ Kelly, D., Grilling & barbecuing : food and fire in regional American cooking .

^ Includes a variety of simple experiments involving food and cooking principles examining such questions as the effects of heat on different foods, the difference between baking powder and baking soda, and the role of salt.

^ A textbook of food preparation discussing such basics as meal planning, recipes, appliances, equipment, cooking techniques, and nutrition.

[1] .Most anthropologists believe that cooking fires first developed around 250,000 years ago.^ Favorite Recipes Press., 80 years of good cooking around West Virginia .

.The development of agriculture, commerce and transportation between civilizations in different regions offered cooks many new ingredients.^ Atkinson, G., The Northwest essentials cookbook : cooking with the ingredients that define a regional cuisine .

^ Explains the difference between good fire, which can be used safely for cooking and providing warmth, and bad fire, which can cause burns or destroy property.

^ Describes the many different objects found on a beach, how to preserve them for a collection, and how to use them in handicrafts and in cooking.

.New inventions and technologies, such as pottery for holding and boiling water, expanded cooking techniques.^ A textbook of food preparation discussing such basics as meal planning, recipes, appliances, equipment, cooking techniques, and nutrition.

^ A textbook of food preparation discussing such basics as meal planning, recipes, equipment, appliances, and cooking techniques.

.Some modern cooks apply advanced scientific techniques to food preparation.^ Describes the basic procedures and equipment needed in preparing and cooking simple foods in an outdoor setting.

^ Describes food customs and preparation in Mexico, regional dishes, and cooking techniques; includes recipes for a variety of meals.

^ Staebler, E. and B. Martin, Food that really schmecks; Mennonite country cooking as prepared by my Mennonite friend, Bevvy Martin, my mother and other fine cooks .

Contents

Ingredients in cooking

.Most ingredients in cooking are derived from living things. Vegetables, fruits, grains and nuts come from plants, while meat, eggs, and dairy products come from animals.^ Gelles, C., Wholesome harvest : cooking with the new four food groups : grains, beans, fruits, and vegetables .

^ Bayramian, M., Cooking around the world : chicken & fish : including vegetables, grains, salads, breads and desserts .

^ Goode, J., The world guide to cooking with fruit & vegetables .

Mushrooms and the yeast used in baking are kinds of fungi. Cooks also utilize water and minerals such as salt. .Cooks can also use wine, an alcohol-based liquid from the fermentation of juices of grapes or other fruits.^ Designed for adults to use with children, this cookbook not only teaches children how to cook various foods, but also enhances reading, comprehension, math, and other skills.

^ Payne, R.R. and D.S. Senior, Cooking with fruit : the complete guide to using fruit throughout the meal, the day, the year .

Naturally-occurring ingredients contain various amounts of molecules called proteins, carbohydrates and fats. They also contain water and minerals. Cooking involves a manipulation of the chemical properties of these molecules.

Proteins

Edible animal material, including muscle, offal, milk and egg white, contains substantial amounts of protein. Almost all vegetable matter (in particular legumes and seeds) also includes proteins, although generally in smaller amounts. These may also be a source of essential amino acids. When proteins are heated they become denatured and change texture. In many cases, this causes the structure of the material to become softer or more friable - meat becomes cooked. In some cases, proteins can form more rigid structures, such as the coagulation of albumen in egg whites. The formation of a relatively rigid but flexible matrix from egg white provides an important component of much cake cookery, and also underpins many desserts based on meringue.

Carbohydrates

.Carbohydrates include the common sugar, sucrose (table sugar), a disaccharide, and such simple sugars as glucose (from the digestion of table sugar) and fructose (from fruit), and starches from sources such as cereal flour, rice, arrowroot, potato.^ An introduction to the cooking of Norway, featuring traditional recipes such as fruit soup, Christmas bread, and rice pudding.

The interaction of heat and carbohydrate is complex.
.Long-chain sugars such as starch tend to break down into simpler sugars when cooked, while simple sugars can form syrups.^ Long, S., Low carb cooking at Sharron's place : sugar free recipes featuring steviaplus .

.If sugars are heated so that all water of crystallisation is driven off, then caramelization starts, with the sugar undergoing thermal decomposition with the formation of carbon, and other breakdown products producing caramel.^ Heller, B., K.L. Metzenberg, and J. O'Rourke, Start off in cooking crystal craft .

Similarly, the heating of sugars and proteins elicits the Maillard reaction, a basic flavor-enhancing technique.
.An emulsion of starch with fat or water can, when gently heated, provide thickening to the dish being cooked.^ Introduces the basic ingredients, utensils and equipment, and safety aspects of cooking and provides recipes for soups, main dishes, vegetables, and other foods.

^ Provides complete directions for craft projects using cooking crystals, transparent plastic pellets which melt when heated in the oven and give the appearance of stained glass.

.In European cooking, a mixture of butter and flour called a roux is used to thicken liquids to make stews or sauces.^ A dingo intent on making wombat stew receives cooking suggestions from the other animals, unaware that they are protecting their fellow creature.

^ Thompson, J.T., Hot licks : great recipes for making and cooking with hot sauces .

^ Teubner, C. and E. Witzigmann, Herbs & spices : how to make the best use of herbs and spices in your cooking .

.In Asian cooking, a similar effect is obtained from a mixture of rice or corn starch and water.^ Cost, B., Bruce Cost's Asian ingredients : buying and cooking the staple foods of China, Japan, and Southeast Asia ; foreword by Alice Waters .

^ Cost, B., M. McMillin, and Big Bowl (Firm), Big bowl : noodles and rice : fresh Asian cooking from the renowned restaurant .

These techniques rely on the properties of starches to create simpler mucilaginous saccharides during cooking, which causes the familiar thickening of sauces. This thickening will break down, however, under additional heat.

Fats

Types of fat include vegetable oils and such animal products as lard and butter. Fats can reach temperatures higher than the boiling point of water. Thus, they are often used to conduct high heat to other ingredients, such as in frying or sautéing.

Water

.Cooking often involves water which is frequently present as other liquids, both added in order to immerse the substances being cooked (typically water, stock or wine), and released from the foods themselves.^ Cost, B., Bruce Cost's Asian ingredients : buying and cooking the staple foods of China, Japan, and Southeast Asia ; foreword by Alice Waters .

^ Surveys food products, customs, and preparation in Korea, describing typical dishes, cooking techniques, and recipes for a variety of meals.

^ Tyrer, P. and Leith's School of Food and Wine., Leith's cooking for one or two .

.Liquids are so important to cooking that the name of the cooking method used may be based on how the liquid is combined with the food, as in steaming, simmering, boiling, braising and blanching.^ Discusses the everyday life, family roles, cooking methods, and common foods of pioneers who traveled west on the Oregon Trail during the nineteenth century.

^ Discusses the everyday life, cooking methods, and common foods of cowboys who moved cattle across the American West in the late nineteenth century.

^ Explains how to use metric measurement methods in the kitchen and includes recipes to demonstrate these techniques.

Heating liquid in an open container results in rapidly increased evaporation, which concentrates the remaining flavor and ingredients - this is a critical component of both stewing and sauce making.

Vitamins and minerals

Vitamins are materials required for normal metabolism but which the body cannot manufacture itself and which must therefore come from soil. .Vitamins come from a number of sources including fresh fruit and vegetables (Vitamin C), carrots, liver (Vitamin A), cereal bran, bread, liver e ( B vitamins), fish liver oil (Vitamin D) and fresh green vegetables (Vitamin K).^ Fowler, D.L., Beans, greens, and sweet Georgia peaches : the Southern way of cooking fruits and vegetables .

^ Bayramian, M., Cooking around the world : chicken & fish : including vegetables, grains, salads, breads and desserts .

Many minerals are also essential in small quantities including iron, calcium, magnesium and sulphur; and in very small quantities copper, zinc and selenium. .The micronutrients, minerals, and vitamins[2] in fruit and vegetables may be destroyed or eluted by cooking.^ Gelles, C., Wholesome harvest : cooking with the new four food groups : grains, beans, fruits, and vegetables .

^ Goode, J., The world guide to cooking with fruit & vegetables .

^ How to dry fruits and vegetables at home, and 50 good recipes for cooking with them .

Vitamin C is especially prone to oxidation during cooking and may be completely destroyed by protracted cooking. [3]

Cooking methods

.There are very many methods of cooking, most of which have been known since antiquity.^ Discusses everyday life, family roles, cooking methods, most important foods, and celebrations of people on southern plantations before the Civil War.

These include baking, roasting, sauteing stewing, frying, grilling, barbecuing, smoking, boiling, steaming, braising. A more recent innovation is microwaving. .Various methods use differing levels of heat and moisture and vary in cooking time.^ Designed for adults to use with children, this cookbook not only teaches children how to cook various foods, but also enhances reading, comprehension, math, and other skills.

^ Also includes an explanation of cooking techniques and uses of various utensils as well as riddles, jokes, and puzzles.

^ Provides complete directions for craft projects using cooking crystals, transparent plastic pellets which melt when heated in the oven and give the appearance of stained glass.

The method chosen greatly affects the end result. .Some foods are more appropriate to some methods than others.^ More than 100 recipes for antipasto, soups, vegetables, meat, fish, pasta, dessert, and other specialties.

.For a more complete list of cooking methods, see Category:Cooking techniques.^ Wright, J. and E. Treuille, Le Cordon Bleu complete cooking techniques : the indispensable reference demonstates over 700 illustrated techniques with 2,000 photos and 200 recipes .

^ Pepin, J., La methode : an illustrated guide to the fundamental techniques of cooking .

^ More than fifty recipes are presented along with lists of cooking terms, equipment, and techniques, and tips for entertaining and safety.

Food safety

Using a chopping board.
When heat is used in the preparation of food, it can kill or inactivate potentially harmful organisms including bacteria and viruses.
.The effect will depend on temperature, cooking time, and technique used.^ Presents easy recipes that use basic cooking techniques and need little adult supervision.

^ Also includes an explanation of cooking techniques and uses of various utensils as well as riddles, jokes, and puzzles.

^ Gooch, A. and Cole Group., Cooking from the column : recipes, techniques & tips from "Cole's cooking A to Z, LA times syndicate newspaper column .

The temperature range from 41°F to 135°F (5°C to 57°C) is the "food danger zone." Between these temperatures bacteria can grow rapidly. Under optimal conditions, E. coli, for example, can double in number every twenty minutes. The food may not appear any different or spoiled but can be harmful to anyone who eats it. .Meat, poultry, dairy products, and other prepared food must be kept outside of the "food danger zone" to remain safe to eat.^ Surveys food products, customs, and preparation in Korea, describing typical dishes, cooking techniques, and recipes for a variety of meals.

^ Staebler, E. and B. Martin, Food that really schmecks; Mennonite country cooking as prepared by my Mennonite friend, Bevvy Martin, my mother and other fine cooks .

^ Surveys food products, customs, and preparation in China, describing regional dishes, cooking techniques, and recipes for a variety of meals.

Refrigeration and freezing do not kill bacteria, but only slow their growth. When cooling hot food, it should not be left standing or in a blast chiller for more than 90 minutes.
Cutting boards are a potential breeding ground for bacteria, and can be quite hazardous unless safety precautions are taken. Plastic cutting boards are less porous than wood and have conventionally been assumed to be far less likely to harbor bacteria.[4] This has been debated, and some research has shown wooden boards are far better.[5] Washing and sanitizing cutting boards is highly recommended, especially after use with raw meat, poultry, or seafood. Hot water and soap followed by a rinse with an antibacterial cleaner (dilute bleach is common in a mixture of 1 tablespoon per gallon of water, as at that dilution it is considered food safe, though some professionals choose not to use this method because they believe it could taint some foods), or a trip through a dishwasher with a "sanitize" cycle, are effective methods for reducing the risk of illness due to contaminated cooking implements.[6]
.Proponents of Raw foodism argue that cooking food increases the risk of some of detrimental effects on food or health.^ Beltz, M., Cooking with natural foods II as you search for abudant health .

^ Wade, C., Health food recipes for gourmet cooking .

^ Lau, M.L., The delicious world of raw foods : a culinary guide to preparing appetizers, soups, salads, vegetables, main dishes, and desserts with little or no cooking .

They point out that the cooking of vegetables and fruit containing vitamin C both elutes the vitamin into the cooking water and degrades the vitamin through oxidation.[citation needed] Peeling vegetables can also substantially reduce the vitamin C content, especially in the case of potatoes where most vitamin C is in the skin..April 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] However, research has also suggested that a greater proportion of nutrients present in food is absorbed from cooked foods than from uncooked foods.^ Steve Nickelson, his assistant Norman Bleistift, and the Magic Moscow restaurant are transported through space to compete in an intergalactic junk food cooking contest.

^ Presents provincial style cooking from the various sections of France.

^ White, J., Jasper White's cooking from New England : more than 300 traditional and contemporary recipes .

[3]
Baking, grilling or broiling food, especially starchy foods, until a toasted crust is formed generates significant concentrations of acrylamide, a possible carcinogen.[citation needed]
.Cooking dairy products may reduce a protective effect against colon cancer.^ New York., Great cooking with dairy products .

Researchers at the University of Toronto suggest that ingesting uncooked or unpasteurized dairy products (see also Raw milk) may reduce the risk of colon cancer.[citation needed] Mice and rats fed uncooked sucrose, casein, and beef tallow had one-third to one-fifth the incidence of microadenomas as the mice and rats fed the same ingredients cooked.[7][8] This claim, however, is contentious. According to the Food and Drug Administration of the United States, health benefits claimed by raw milk advocates do not exist.[9] "The small quantities of antibodies in milk are not absorbed in the human intestinal tract," says Barbara Ingham, Ph.D., associate professor and extension food scientist at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. "There is no scientific evidence that raw milk contains an anti-arthritis factor or that it enhances resistance to other diseases."
Several studies published since 1990 indicate that cooking muscle meat creates heterocyclic amines (HCAs), which are thought to increase cancer risk in humans. .Researchers at the National Cancer Institute found that human subjects who ate beef rare or medium-rare had less than one third the risk of stomach cancer than those who ate beef medium-well or well-done.^ Research Institute for Consumer Affairs (London England) and National Fund for Research into Crippling Diseases., Cookers .

[10] While eating muscle meat raw may be the only way to avoid HCAs fully, the National Cancer Institute states that cooking meat below 212 °F (100 °C) creates "negligible amounts" of HCAs. Also, microwaving meat before cooking may reduce HCAs by 90%.[11] Nitrosamines, present in processed and cooked foods, have also been noted as being carcinogenic, being linked to colon cancer.
Research has shown that grilling or barbecuing meat and fish increases levels of carcinogenic Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). However, meat and fish only contribute a small proportion of dietary PAH intake - most intake comes from cereals, oils and fats.[12] German research in 2003 showed significant benefits in reducing breast cancer risk when large amounts of raw vegetable matter are included in the diet. The authors attribute some of this effect to heat-labile phytonutrients.[13]
Heating sugars with proteins or fats can produce Advanced glycation end products ("glycotoxins").[14] These have been linked to ageing and health conditions such as diabetes.

Science of cooking

The application of scientific knowledge to cooking and gastronomy has become known as molecular gastronomy. This is a subdiscipline of food science. Important contributions have been made by scientists, chefs and authors such as Herve This (chemist), Nicholas Kurti (physicist), Peter Barham (physicist), Harold McGee (author), Shirley Corriher (biochemist, author), Heston Blumenthal (chef), Ferran Adria (chef), Robert Wolke (chemist, author) and Pierre Gagnaire (chef).
.Chemical processes central to cooking include the Maillard reaction - a form of non-enzymatic browning involving an amino acid, a reducing sugar, and heat.^ Includes a variety of simple experiments involving food and cooking principles examining such questions as the effects of heat on different foods, the difference between baking powder and baking soda, and the role of salt.

History of cooking

There is, as yet, no clear evidence as to when cooking was invented. Richard Wrangham argues that cooking was invented as far back as 1.8 million to 2.3 million years ago. Other researchers believe that cooking was invented as late as 40,000 or 10,000 years ago. .Evidence of fire is inconclusive as wildfires started by lightning-strikes are still common in East Africa and other wild areas, and it is difficult to determine as to when fire was used for cooking, as opposed to just being used for warmth or for keeping predators away.^ Instructions for sewing such useful camping items as a backpack, duffle bag, and tent and for cooking over a camp fire or with an easily constructed reflector oven or roasting pit.

^ Designed for adults to use with children, this cookbook not only teaches children how to cook various foods, but also enhances reading, comprehension, math, and other skills.

^ Discusses equipment, clothing, packing, carrying, camping, cooking, being lost, first aid for injuries, and dealing with animals in the wild.

.Most anthropologists contend that cooking fires began in earnest barely 250,000 years ago, when ancient hearths, earth ovens, burnt animal bones, and flint appear across Europe and the middle East.^ Instructions for sewing such useful camping items as a backpack, duffle bag, and tent and for cooking over a camp fire or with an easily constructed reflector oven or roasting pit.

^ Twena, P.G., The Sephardic table : the vibrant cooking of the Mediterranean Jews : a personal collection of recipes from the Middle East, North Africa, and India .

^ Shulman, M.R., The spice of vegetarian cooking : ethnic recipes from India, China, Mexico, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, and Europe .

Back 2 million years ago, the only sign of fire is burnt earth with human remains, which most anthropologists consider coincidence rather than evidence of intentional fire.

Home-cooking vs. factory cooking

.Although cooking has traditionally been a process carried out informally at home or around a communal fire, cooking is often, and increasingly, carried out outside the home.^ Sarvis, S., Woman's day home cooking around the world .

^ Barnard, M. and B. Dojny, Sunday suppers : informal American home cooking .

.Bakeries were an early form of cooking outside the home, and bakeries in the past often offered the cooking of foods provided by their customers as an additional service.^ Articles on home economics of food and cooking.

^ Styler, C. and B. Hodge, Blue collar food : easy home cooking for hardworking people by two really nice guys .

^ Zabert, A. and International Cookbook Services., The art of cooking : preparing and presenting fine food .

.In the present day, factory food preparation is rapidly becoming the norm, with many "ready-to-eat" foods being prepared and cooked in factories.^ Boxer, A., Arabella Boxer's Book of elegant cooking and entertaining : the planning, preparation, and presentation of 350 delicious dishes .

^ Describes the basic procedures and equipment needed in preparing and cooking simple foods in an outdoor setting.

^ Describes the food products, cooking and eating customs, and festivals of Germany.

."Home-cooking" is frequently presented romantically, and associated with comfort food and the pleasures of childhood, to the point where some commercially-produced foods are presented as having been "home-cooked", regardless of their actual origin.^ Articles on home economics of food and cooking.

^ Comforts of home cooking .

^ Reader's Digest Association., Down home cooking the new, healthier way .

See also

References

  1. ^ http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2009/02/090213-human-diet-cooking.html
  2. ^ Loss of nutrients when vegetables are cooked
  3. ^ a b http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/359175.stm
  4. ^ "Cutting Boards (Plastic Versus Wood)". Food Safety, Preparation and Storage Tips. Cooperative Extension, College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, the University of Arizona. 1998. http://ag.arizona.edu/pubs/health/foodsafety/az1076.html. Retrieved 2006-06-21. 
  5. ^ "Cutting Boards - wood or plastic?". ReluctantGourmet.com. http://www.reluctantgourmet.com/cutting_board.htm. Retrieved 2006-06-21. 
  6. ^ Noah ND, Bender AE, Reaidi GB, Gilbert RJ (Jul 1980). "Food poisoning from raw red kidney beans". Br Med J 281 (6234): 236–7. PMID 7407532. 
  7. ^ Promotion of colonic microadenoma growth in mice and rats fed cooked sugar or cooked casein and fat
  8. ^ Promotion of Aberrant Crypt Foci and Cancer in Rat Colon by Thermolyzed Protein
  9. ^ "Got Milk?" by Linda Bren. FDA Consumer. Sept-Oct 2004.
  10. ^ http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/heterocyclic-amines National Cancer Institute - Heterocyclic Amines in Cooked Meats
  11. ^ http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/heterocyclic-amines
  12. ^ http://ec.europa.eu/food/fs/sc/scf/out154_en.pdf
  13. ^ Nutr Cancer. 2003;46(2):131-7
  14. ^ Koschinsky T, He CJ, Mitsuhashi T, Bucala R, Liu C, Buenting C, Heitmann K, Vlassara H (1997). "Orally absorbed reactive glycation products (glycotoxins): an environmental risk factor in diabetic nephropathy". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 94 (12): 6474–6479. doi:10.1073/pnas.94.12.6474. PMID 9177242. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/94/12/6474. 

External links


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Topic:Cooking article)

From Wikiversity

Contents

Part of the School Gastronomy.
It is recommended that The Wikimedia Cookbook be used as a major resource for this Topic.
This topic is here to provide a place to collaborate in order to create learning materials and resources related to cooking.

Learning projects

Remember, Wikiversity has adopted the "learning by doing" model for education. Lessons should center on learning activities for Wikiversity participants. We learn by doing.
Quails browning in pan.jpg
Select a descriptive name for each learning project.

Subtopics

Wikimedia

See also


Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Cookbook:Table of Contents article)

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

Wikimedia Cookbook
A collection of recipes from around the world

Featured Recipe

.
A plate of spaghetti alla carbonara
Spaghetti alla carbonara is an Italian pasta dish based on eggs, pecorino romano, guanciale, and black pepper.^ Add 1 can of cream of mushrooms soup, beaten eggs, black pepper, poultry seasoning, chicken broth, and cooked chicken pieces.

^ Take cooked noodles, spaghetti, pasta or rice as a base for your casserole.
  • #1 Cooking Recipes Healthy Cooking Cookware Home Baking Cooking Food Online 1 February 2010 7:31 UTC www.talkingcooking.com [Source type: General]

^ Quick Cooking Cereals: Small pasta like angel hair, bow or even shells can be boiled in minutes to form the base for a main dish or salad.
  • #1 Cooking Recipes Healthy Cooking Cookware Home Baking Cooking Food Online 1 February 2010 7:31 UTC www.talkingcooking.com [Source type: General]

It was created in the middle of the 20th century.

Featured Ingredient

A plate of plain spaghetti
.Pasta, or alimentary paste, is a class of foods made from an unleavened dough formed into a variety of shapes (most commonly, thin strips called "noodles").^ We’re braising pumpkin that is cut in a cylinder shape, then cooling it down and wrapping it with a brick dough, which is a thin French pastry dough.

^ Deaths and less severe reactions were linked most commonly to restaurants foods.
  • Food Additives ~ CSPI’s Food Safety 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cspinet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are more easily incorporated into foods (other than fruit juices) when they are converted to ester forms.
  • Food Additives ~ CSPI’s Food Safety 13 January 2010 23:44 UTC www.cspinet.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is a carbohydrate-rich basis for many meals.

Simple English

Cooking is a process to make food ready to eat by heating it. People can cook food with fire using wood or charcoal, with a stove that uses propane or natural gas, or with a stove that uses electricity. An oven is a part of a stove that is like a box. People also build ovens out of clay or bricks.

There are several different ways to cook food. We boil food by cooking it in water. We fry food by cooking it in hot butter or vegetable oil. We bake food by keeping it hot in an oven. We roast or grill food by holding it over a hot fire.

People often cook meat by boiling, roasting or grilling it. People bake bread. Some breads are fried.

Usually we cook the food in some kind of pot or pan. Sometimes people cook food by putting it directly into the fire, by wrapping the food in leaves before they put it into the fire, or holding it over a fire with a stick.

Before foods are cooked, we say they are raw. Some foods are good to eat raw. Other foods are not good for the body when they are raw, so they must be cooked. Some foods are good to eat either raw or cooked.


A person whose job it is to cook food may be called a cook or a chef. However, the word cooker means a machine or tool that a cook might use to cook food, such as a rice cooker.

To many people, cooking is an art. To many other people, it is a job. Cooking as an art is preparing the food so it tastes and looks really good.

Economy

There is a large economy for cooking in the world. Restaurants hire skilled cooks for large amounts of money and customers pay for expensive meals.

Other pages

  • List of kitchen equipment

Other websites

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The English Wikibooks has more about this subject:

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 26, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Chef, which are similar to those in the above article.








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