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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Plant oils
Olive oil from Oneglia.jpg
Olive oil
Vegetable fats (list)
Macerated (list)
Drying oil - Oil paint
Cooking oil
Fuel - Biodiesel
Saturated fat
Monounsaturated fat
Polyunsaturated fat
Trans fat

Cooking oil is purified fat of plant origin, which is usually liquid at room temperature (Saturated oils such as coconut and palm are more solid at room tempurature than other oils).

Some of the many different kinds of edible vegetable oils include: olive oil, palm oil, soybean oil, canola oil, pumpkin seed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, safflower oil, peanut oil, grape seed oil, sesame oil, argan oil and rice bran oil. Many other kinds of vegetable oils are also used for cooking.

The generic term "vegetable oil" when used to label a cooking oil product refers to a blend of a variety of oils often based on palm, corn, soybean or sunflower oils.

Oil can be flavored by immersing aromatic food stuffs such as fresh herbs, peppers, garlic and so forth in the oil for a period of time. However, care must be taken when storing flavored oils to prevent the growth of Clostridium botulinum (the bacteria that produces toxins that can lead to botulism).


Health and nutrition

The appropriate amount of fat as a component of daily food consumption is the topic of some controversy. Some fat is required in the diet, and fat (in the form of oil) is also essential in many types of cooking. The FDA recommends that 30% or less of calories consumed daily should be from fat.[1] Other nutritionists recommend that no more than 10% of a person's daily calories come from fat.[2] In extremely cold environments, a diet that is up to two-thirds fat is acceptable and can, in fact, be critical to survival.

While consumption of small amounts of saturated fats is essential, meta-studies conducted by several scientists find high correlation between excessive amounts of such fats and coronary heart disease.[3][4] Mayo Clinic highlighted oils that are high in saturated fats include coconut, palm oil and palm kernel oil. Those of lower amounts of saturated fats, and higher levels of unsaturated (preferably monounsaturated) fats like olive oil, peanut oil, canola oil, avocados, safflower, corn, sunflower, soy, mustard and cottonseed oils are generally healthier.[5] The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute[6] and World Heart Federation[7] have urged saturated fats be replaced with polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats. The health body lists olive and canola oils as sources of monounsaturated oils while soybean and sunflower oils are rich with polyunsaturated fat. A 2005 research in Costa Rica suggests consumption of non-hydrogenated unsaturated oils like soybean and sunflower over palm oil.[8]

The labeling of the cholesterol content of foods on the basis of their total saturated fats content is unjustified because not all saturated fats have negative effects on cholesterol.[9] Palmitic acid in palm oil, does not behave like other saturated fats, and is neutral on cholesterol levels because it is equally distributed among the three “arms” of the triglyceride molecule.[10] Studies have indicated that palm oil consumption reduces blood cholesterol in comparison with other traditional sources of saturated fats such as coconut oil, dairy and animal fats.[11]

In 2007, scientists Kenneth C. Hayes and Pramod Khosla of Brandeis University and Wayne State University indicated research focus has shifted from saturated fats to individual and total composite of fatty acids (saturates, monounsaturates, polyunsaturates) that comprise our daily fat intake. An adequate intake of both polyunsaturated and saturated fats is needed for the ideal LDL/HDL ratio in blood, as both contribute to the regulatory balance in lipoprotein metabolism.[12]

Oils high in unsaturated fats may help to lower "bad" LDL cholesterol and may also raise "good" HDL cholesterol, though these effects are still debated and under study.

Peanut, cashew and other nut-based oils may also present a hazard to persons with a nut allergy. A severe allergic reaction may cause anaphylactic shock and result in death.


Trans fats

Unlike other dietary fats, trans fats are not essential, and they do not promote good health.[13] The consumption of trans fats increases one's risk of coronary heart disease[14] by raising levels of "bad" LDL cholesterol and lowering levels of "good" HDL cholesterol.[15] Trans fats from partially hydrogenated oils are more harmful than naturally occurring oils.[16]

Several large studies[17][18][19][20] indicate a link between consumption of high amounts of trans fat and coronary heart disease, and possibly some other diseases. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and the American Heart Association (AHA) all have recommended people to limit intake of trans-fat.

Cooking with oils

Heating an oil changes its characteristics. Oils that are healthy at room temperature can become unhealthy when heated above certain temperatures. When choosing a cooking oil, it is important to match the oil's heat tolerance with the cooking method.[21]

A 2001 parallel review of 20-year dietary fat studies in the United Kingdom, the United States of America and Spain[22] concluded that polyunsaturated oils like soya, canola, sunflower and corn degrade easily to toxic compounds when heated up. Prolonged consumption of burnt oils lead to atherosclerosis, inflammatory joint disease and development of birth defects. The scientists also questioned global health authories’ recommendation that large amounts of polyunsaturated fats be incorporated into the human diet without accompanying measures to ensure the protection of these fatty acids against heat-and oxidative-degradation.

Palm oil contains more saturated fats than canola oil, corn oil, linseed oil, soybean oil, safflower oil, and sunflower oil. Therefore, palm oil can withstand extreme deep fry heat and is resistant to oxidation compared to vegetable oils of high unsaturated fats.[23] Since the turn of the century, palm oil is increasingly incorporated into the global commercial food industry because it remains stable when deepfried or baked in extreme high heat[24][25] and for its high levels of natural antioxidants.[26]

Oils that are suitable for high-temperature frying (above 230 °C/446 °F) because of their high smoke point include:

Oils suitable for medium-temperature frying (above 190 °C/374 °F) include:

Unrefined oils should not be used for frying, but are safe for simmering.

Storing and keeping oil

Whether refined or not, all oils are sensitive to heat, light and exposure to oxygen. Rancid oil has an unpleasant aroma and acrid taste, and its nutrient value is greatly diminished. To delay the development of rancid oil, a blanket of an inert gas, usually nitrogen, is applied to the vapor space in the storage container immediately after production. This is referred to as tank blanketing.

It is best to store all oils in the refrigerator or a cool, dry place. Oils may thicken, but if you let them stand at room temperature they will soon return to liquid. To prevent negative effects of heat and light, take oils out of cold storage just long enough to use them. Refined oils high in monounsaturated fats keep up to a year (olive oil will keep up to a few years), while those high in polyunsaturated fats keep about six months. Extra-virgin and virgin olive oils keep at least 9 months after opening. Other monounsaturated oils keep well up to a high eight months; unrefined polyunsaturated oils only about half as long.

In contrast, saturated oils such as coconut and palm have much longer shelf lives and can be safely stored at room temperature.[27] This is due to their lack of polyunsaturated content.[28]

Types of oils and their characteristics

Lighter, more refined oils tend to have higher smoke points. Experience using an oil is generally a sufficiently reliable guide. Although outcomes of empirical tests are sensitive to the qualities of particular samples (brand, composition, refinement, process), the data below should be helpful in comparing the properties of different oils.

Smoking oil indicates a risk of combustion, and left unchecked can also set off a fire alarm. When using any cooking oil, should it begin to smoke, heat should be reduced immediately. Generally, one should be fully prepared to extinguish a burning oil fire before heating, typically by having on hand the lid to place on the pan, or (for the worst case) having on hand the proper fire extinguisher.

Type of Oil or Fat Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Smoke point Uses
Butter 66% 30% 4% 150 °C (302 °F) Cooking, baking, condiment, sauces, flavoring
Ghee, Clarified butter 65% 32% 3% 190–250 °C (374–482 °F) Deep frying, cooking, sautéeing, condiment, flavoring
Canola oil 6% 62% 32% 242 °C (468 °F) Frying, baking, salad dressings
Coconut oil 92% 6% 2% 177 °C (351 °F) Commercial baked goods, candy and sweets, whipped toppings, nondairy coffee creamers, shortening
Rice bran oil 20% 47% 33% 254 °C (489 °F) Cooking, frying, deep frying, salads, dressings. Very clean flavoured & palatable.
Corn oil 13% 25% 62% 236 °C (457 °F) Frying, baking, salad dressings, margarine, shortening
Cottonseed oil 24% 26% 50% 216 °C (421 °F) Margarine, shortening, salad dressings, commercially fried products
Grape seed oil 12% 17% 71% 204 °C (399 °F) Cooking, salad dressings, margarine
Lard 41% 47% 2% 138–201 °C (280–394 °F)[29] Baking, frying
Margarine, hard 80% 14% 6% 150 °C (302 °F)[30] Cooking, baking, condiment
Margarine, soft 20% 47% 33% 150–160 °C (302–320 °F) Cooking, baking, condiment
Diacylglycerol (DAG) oil 3.5% 37.95% 59% 215 °C (419 °F) Frying, baking, salad oil
Olive Oil (Extra Virgin) 14% 73% 11% 190 °C (374 °F) Cooking, salad oils, margarine
Olive oil (Virgin) 14% 73% 11% 215 °C (419 °F) Cooking, salad oils, margarine
Olive Oil (Refined) 14% 73% 11% 225 °C (437 °F) Sautee, stir frying, cooking, salad oils, margarine
Olive Oil (Extra Light) 14% 73% 11% 242 °C (468 °F) Sautee, stir frying, frying, cooking, salad oils, margarine
Palm oil 52% 38% 10% 230 °C (446 °F) Cooking, flavoring, vegetable oil, shortening
Peanut oil 18% 49% 33% 231 °C (448 °F) Frying, cooking, salad oils, margarine
Safflower oil 10% 13% 77% 265 °C (509 °F) Cooking, salad dressings, margarine
Sesame oil (Unrefined) 14% 43% 43% 177 °C (351 °F) Cooking
Sesame oil (Semi-refined) 14% 43% 43% 232 °C (450 °F) Cooking, deep frying
Soybean oil 15% 24% 61% 241 °C (466 °F) Cooking, salad dressings, vegetable oil, margarine, shortening
Sunflower oil (Linoleic) 11% 20% 69% 246 °C (475 °F) Cooking, salad dressings, margarine, shortening
Sunflower oil (High Oleic)[31 ] 9% 82% 9%

Comparison to other types of food

Waste cooking oil

A bin for spent cooking oil in Austin, Texas

Proper disposal of used cooking oil is an important waste-management concern. Oil is lighter than water and tends to spread into thin and broad membranes which hinder the oxygenation of water. Because of this, a single litre of oil can contaminate as much as 1 million litres of water. Also, oil can congeal on pipes provoking blockages.[34]

Because of this, cooking oil should never be dumped on the kitchen sink or in the toilet bowl. The proper way to dispose of oil is to put it in a sealed non-recyclable container and discard it with regular garbage.[35]

Cooking oil can be recycled. It can be used to produce soap and biodiesel.[36]

Notes and References

  1. ^ "The Food Pyramid". FDA Consumer. Retrieved 2006-09-18.  
  2. ^ Dean Ornish, MD, Lifestyle Program
  3. ^ Clarke, R; Frost, C; Collins, R; Appleby, P; Peto, R (1997). "Dietary lipids and blood cholesterol: quantitative meta-analysis of metabolic ward studies". BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 314 (7074): 112–7. PMID 9006469.  
  4. ^ Mensink, RP; Zock, PL; Kester, AD; Katan, MB (2003). "Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials". The American journal of clinical nutrition 77 (5): 1146–55. PMID 12716665.  
  5. ^ Dietary fats: Know which types to choose Mayo Clinic website
  6. ^ Choose foods low in saturated fat National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), NIH Publication No. 97-4064. 1997.
  7. ^ Diet & cardiovascular disease World Heart Federation website
  8. ^ Kabagambe, Baylin, Ascherio & Campos (November 2005). "The Type of Oil Used for Cooking Is Associated with the Risk of Nonfatal Acute Myocardial Infarction in Costa Rica". Journal of Nutrition. pp. 2674–2679.  
  9. ^ Ng, TK; Hassan, K; Lim, JB; Lye, MS; Ishak, R (1991). "Nonhypercholesterolemic effects of a palm-oil diet in Malaysian volunteers". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53 (4): 1015S. PMID 2012009.  
  10. ^ A critical review of the cholesterolemic effects of palm oil Tony Ng Kock Wai, The United Nations University Press, Food and Nutrition Bulletin, Volume 15 (1993/1994), Number 2, June 1994
  11. ^ Chong, YH; Ng, TK (1991). "Effects of palm oil on cardiovascular risk". The Medical journal of Malaysia 46 (1): 41–50. PMID 1836037.  
  12. ^ Hayes, Kenneth C.; Khosla (2007). "The complex interplay of palm oil fatty acids on blood lipids". European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 109: 453. doi:10.1002/ejlt.200700005.  
  13. ^ Food and nutrition board, institute of medicine of the national academies (2005). Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients). National Academies Press. p. 423.  
  14. ^ Food and nutrition board, institute of medicine of the national academies (2005). Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients). National Academies Press. p. 504.  
  15. ^ "Trans fat: Avoid this cholesterol double whammy". Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER).. Retrieved 2007-12-10.  
  16. ^ Mozaffarian D, Katan MB, Ascherio A, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC (13 April 2006). "Trans Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease". New England Journal of Medicine 354 (15): 1601–1613. doi:10.1056/NEJMra054035. PMID 16611951.   PMID 16611951
  17. ^ W.C. Willett, M.J. Stampfer, J.E. Mason, G.A. Colditz, F.E. Speizer, B.A. Rosner, L.A. Sampson, C.H. Hennekes, Intake of trans fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease among women, Lancet 341, 581-585 (1993)
  18. ^ F.B. Hu, M.J. Stampfer,J.E. Manson, E. Rimm, G.A. Colditz, B.A. Rosner, C.H. Hennekens, W.C. Willett, Dietary Fat Intake and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Women, New England Journal of Medicine 337, 1491-1499 (1997)
  19. ^ K. Hayakawa, Y.Y. Linko, P. Linko, The role of trans fatty acids in human nutrition, Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 102, 419-425 (2000)
  20. ^ The Nurses' Health Study (NHS)
  21. ^ Orna Izakson. "Oil right: choose wisely for heart-healthy cooking - Eating Right". E: the Environmental Magazine.  
  22. ^ Health effects of oxidized heated oils MARTIN GROOTVELD, CHRISTOPHER J.L. SILWOOD, PAUL ADDIS, ANDREW CLAXSON, BARTOLOMÉ BONET SERRA and MARTA VIANA, 2001, Foodservice Research International 13(1):41-55
  23. ^ De Marco, Elena; Savarese; Parisini; Battimo; Falco; Sacchi (2007). "Frying performance of a sunflower/palm oil blend in comparison with pure palm oil". European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 109: 237. doi:10.1002/ejlt.200600192.  
  24. ^ Che Man, YB; Liu; Jamilah (1999). "Quality changes of RBD palm olein, soybean oil and their blends during deep-fat frying". Journal of Food Lipids 6 (3): 181–193. doi:10.1111/j.1745-4522.1999.tb00142.x.  
  25. ^ Matthäus, Bertrand (2007). "Use of palm oil for frying in comparison with other high-stability oils". European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 109: 400. doi:10.1002/ejlt.200600294.  
  26. ^ Sundram, K; Sambanthamurthi, R; Tan, YA (2003). "Palm fruit chemistry and nutrition". Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition 12 (3): 355–62. PMID 14506001.  
  27. ^ [1]
  28. ^ [2]
  29. ^ The smoke point of oils depends primarily on their free fatty acid content (FFA) and molecular weight. Through repeated use, as in a deep fryer, food residues or by-products of the cooking process will accumulate within the oil and lower its smoke point. The values shown in the above table must therefore be taken as approximate, and are not suitable for accurate or scientific use.
  30. ^ The smoke point of margarine varies depending on the types of oils used in its formulation, but can be generally assumed to be similar to that of butter.
  31. ^
  32. ^ a b c --> Egg, yolk, raw, fresh Retrieved on August 24, 2009
  33. ^ Feinberg School > Nutrition > Nutrition Fact Sheet: Lipids Northwestern University. Retrieved on August 24, 2009
  34. ^ "Tips to avoid water waste and to require the preservation of hydro-resources". Natureba - Educação Ambiental. Retrieved 2007-09-05.  
  35. ^ "Grease Disposal Tips to Help the City's Environment". NYC Department of Environmental Protection. Retrieved 2007-08-05.  
  36. ^ "Production of biodiesel based on waste oils and/or waste fats from biogenic origin for use as fuel" (PDF). CDM - Executive Board. Retrieved 2007-09-05.  

Other references

  • O'Brien, R.D. (1998). Fats and Oils: Formulating and Processing for Applications. Technomic Publishing Co., Inc..  
  • Potter, N.N. and J.H. Hotchkiss (1995). Food Science - Fifth Edition. Chapman & Hall. pp. 359–80, 402–7.  

See also

External links

Simple English

[[File:|thumb|right|225px|Cooking oils]]

Cooking oil is clean fat from plants or animals. It is usually a liquid.

Some of the many different kinds of vegetable oils are: olive oil, soybean oil, canola oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, safflower oil, peanut oil, grape seed oil, cashew oil, sesame oil, argan oil and rice bran oil.

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