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Nicolaus Copernicus

Born 19 February 1473(1473-02-19),
Toruń (Thorn), Royal Prussia, Kingdom of Poland
Died 24 May 1543 (aged 70),
Frombork (Frauenburg), Prince-Bishopric of Warmia, Kingdom of Poland
Fields Mathematics, astronomy, canon law, medicine, economics
Alma mater Kraków University, Bologna University, University of Padua, University of Ferrara
Known for Heliocentrism
Signature
.Nicolaus Copernicus (19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was the first astronomer to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology, which displaced the Earth from the center of the universe.^ Nicolaus Copernicus, 1473 - 1543 .
  • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nicolaus Copernicus was born in Thorn, on the river Vistula, in Poland, on 19 February 1473.
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^ Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) was born into a merchant family in the town of Toruń on the Vistula River in north-central Poland, south of the Baltic seaport of Gdańsk (Danzig) which was then the country’s largest city.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]
.Copernicus' epochal book, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres), published just before his death in 1543, is often regarded as the starting point of modern astronomy and the defining epiphany that began the scientific revolution.^ Copernicus worked on a book explaining his ideas and conclusions, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium .
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^ According to legend, Copernicus received a copy of his printed work De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) on his own deathbed in 1543.
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^ "The publication of 'On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres' in 1543 was a landmark in human thought.
  • De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium - AbeBooks 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.abebooks.com [Source type: General]

.His heliocentric model, with the Sun at the center of the universe, demonstrated that the observed motions of celestial objects can be explained without putting Earth at rest in the center of the universe.^ Near the sun is the center of the universe.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Who theorized that the earth was not the center of the universe and that it traveled around the sun?
  • Elizabethan Thought and Culture 22 September 2009 23:54 UTC staff.fcps.net [Source type: General]

^ (Heliocentrism is the theory that the Sun is at the center of the Universe and/or the Solar System.
  • Timeline of Cosmology: Summary of the History of Cosmology. Pictures Biography Quotes 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His work stimulated further scientific investigations, becoming a landmark in the history of science that is often referred to as the Copernican Revolution.^ Although Greek, Indian and Muslim savants had published heliocentric hypotheses centuries before Copernicus, his publication of a scientific theory of heliocentrism, demonstrating that the motions of celestial objects can be explained without putting the Earth at rest in the center of the universe, stimulated further scientific investigations and became a landmark in the history of modern science that is known as the Copernican Revolution.
  • De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium - AbeBooks 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.abebooks.com [Source type: General]

^ This further encouraged Copernicus to publish his Revolutions , which he had been working on since he published the Commentariolus .
  • Nicolaus Copernicus (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The second edition of a truly revolutionary work inaugurating the Scientific Revolution.
  • De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium - AbeBooks 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.abebooks.com [Source type: General]

.Among the great polymaths of the Renaissance, Copernicus was a mathematician, astronomer, physician, quadrilingual polyglot, classical scholar, translator, artist,[2] Catholic cleric, jurist, governor, military leader, diplomat and economist.^ Although he made some astronomical observations, he was immersed in church politics, and after his elderly uncle became ill in 1507, Copernicus was his attending physician.
  • Nicolaus Copernicus (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1500 Copernicus visited Rome, as all Christians were strongly encouraged to do to celebrate the great jubilee, and he stayed there for a year lecturing to scholars on mathematics and astronomy.
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^ May 24 , 1543 ) , Polish - German astronomer , mathematician and economist .
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | February 19| Pisces, Copernicus, Donner Party, Mamma Cass, Multatuli, Goddess month Bridhe, French Revolutionary Calendar 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

.Among his many responsibilities, astronomy figured as little more than an avocation – yet it was in that field that he made his mark upon the world.^ Amid his extensive responsibilities, astronomy figured as little more than an avocation — yet it was in that field that he made his mark upon the world.
  • Nicolaus Copernicus 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Basically i see this as a MMO giving players something t hey have wanted for a long time, a game where they change the world and it affect more than just the in-game.
  • Keen and Graev’s Gaming Blog » Blog Archive » Anyone else feeling uneasy about Copernicus? 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.keenandgraev.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Add my name to the list of people that are both more moral than my countries religious leaders and yet more likely to be prosecuted for unlawful behaviour.
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Life

Birthplace on St. Anne's (now Copernicus) Street, Toruń
.Nicolaus Copernicus was born on 19 February 1473 in the city of Toruń (Thorn) in Royal Prussia, part of the Kingdom of Poland.^ Nicolaus Copernicus was born in Thorn, on the river Vistula, in Poland, on 19 February 1473.
  • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Copernicus was born in the city of Toruń (Thorn) on the Vistula River, in the Royal Prussia region of the Kingdom of Poland, on February 19, 1473.
  • Nicolaus Copernicus 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Nicolaus Copernicus, 1473 - 1543 .
  • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His father was a merchant from Kraków and his mother was the daughter of a wealthy Toruń merchant.^ The son of a wealthy merchant family with strong Church connections, he entered Kraków's Jagiellonian University in 1491 and subsequently joined the priesthood.

Nicolaus was the youngest of four children. His brother Andreas (Andrew) became an Augustinian canon at Frombork (Frauenburg). .His sister Barbara, named after her mother, became a Benedictine nun and in her final years (she died after 1517) prioress of a convent in Chełmno (Culm, Kulm).^ After Herschel died in 1822, his sister Caroline Lucretia (1750-1848), who had for several years before been his assistant, carried on his work.
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.His younger sister Katharina married the businessman and Toruń city councilor Barthel Gertner and left five children, whom Copernicus looked after to the end of his life.^ Copernicus was born in the city of Toruń (Thorn) on the Vistula River, in the Royal Prussia region of the Kingdom of Poland, on February 19, 1473.
  • Nicolaus Copernicus 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[3]
Copernicus never married or had children.

Father's family

The father’s family can be traced to a village in Silesia near Nysa (Neiße). The village's name has been variously spelled Kopernik,[4] Köppernig, Köppernick, and today Koperniki. .In the 14th century, members of the family began moving to various other Silesian cities, to the Polish capital, Kraków (Cracow, 1367), and to Toruń (1400).^ He was educated at the university in Cracow or Kraków, which was for a long time the capital of the Kingdom of Poland, where he studied Latin, mathematics, astronomy, geography and philosophy.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The father, likely the son of Jan, came from the Kraków line.^ Father Dougal: And then his son came down and saved everyone and all that?
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

[5]
.Nicolaus was named after his father, who appears in records for the first time as a well-to-do Roman Catholic merchant who dealt in copper, selling it mostly in Danzig (Gdańsk).^ Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) was born into a merchant family in the town of Toruń on the Vistula River in north-central Poland, south of the Baltic seaport of Gdańsk (Danzig) which was then the country’s largest city.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the death of his father, he was sponsored by his uncle, Bishop Watzenrode, who sent him first to the University of Krakow, and then to study in Italy at the universities of Bologna, Padua and Ferrara.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His father was a merchant who had moved from Crakow in 1458.
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[6][7] .He moved from Kraków to Toruń around 1458.[8] Toruń, situated on the Vistula River, was at that time embroiled in the Thirteen Years' War (1454–66), in which the Kingdom of Poland and the Prussian Confederation, an alliance of Prussian cities, gentry and clergy, fought the Teutonic Order over control of the region.^ Copernicus was born in the city of Toruń (Thorn) on the Vistula River, in the Royal Prussia region of the Kingdom of Poland, on February 19, 1473.
  • Nicolaus Copernicus 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) was born into a merchant family in the town of Toruń on the Vistula River in north-central Poland, south of the Baltic seaport of Gdańsk (Danzig) which was then the country’s largest city.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About two decades before Copernicus's birth, a secession had led to the Thirteen Years' War and the Peace of Toruń of 1466; Prussia's western part had willingly become part of Poland under the Polish king as "Royal Prussia," while the eastern part would remain under the administration of the Catholic Teutonic Order as a Polish fief until 1525.
  • Nicolaus Copernicus 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.The father was actively engaged in the politics of the day, and supported Poland and the cities against the Teutonic Order.^ That day the political process against Geert Wilders will begin.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9] In 1454 he mediated negotiations between Poland’s Cardinal Zbigniew Oleśnicki and the Prussian cities for repayment of war loans. .In the Second Peace of Thorn (1466), the Teutonic Order formally relinquished all claims to its western provinces, which as Royal Prussia remained a region of Poland for the next 300 years.^ About two decades before Copernicus's birth, a secession had led to the Thirteen Years' War and the Peace of Toruń of 1466; Prussia's western part had willingly become part of Poland under the Polish king as "Royal Prussia," while the eastern part would remain under the administration of the Catholic Teutonic Order as a Polish fief until 1525.
  • Nicolaus Copernicus 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Copernicus was born in the city of Toruń (Thorn) on the Vistula River, in the Royal Prussia region of the Kingdom of Poland, on February 19, 1473.
  • Nicolaus Copernicus 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.The father married Barbara Watzenrode, the astronomer's mother, between 1461 and 1464. He died sometime between 1483 and 1485. Upon the father’s death, young Nicolaus’ maternal uncle, Lucas Watzenrode the Younger (1447–1512), took the boy under his protection and saw to his education and career.^ When Copernicus was ten, his father died and his uncle, Lucas Watzelode, took charge of his upbringing.
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^ After the death of his father, he was sponsored by his uncle, Bishop Watzenrode, who sent him first to the University of Krakow, and then to study in Italy at the universities of Bologna, Padua and Ferrara.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Long after Nicolaus Copernicus had died there were still leading European astronomers who questioned his ideas, sometimes on a scientific basis.
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Mother's family

Copernicus' maternal uncle, Lucas Watzenrode
Nicolaus’ mother, Barbara Watzenrode, was the daughter of Lucas Watzenrode the Elder and his wife Katherine (née Modlibóg).[10][11][12] .Not much is known about her life, but she is believed to have died when Nicolaus was a small boy.^ Apollonius was born in Perge, a town in southern Asia Minor, but few details are known about his life.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If we today overlook this dynamic principle, we utterly betray the spirit of the Reformation, even though we may talk ever so much about faith, grace and the Spirit-filled life.

^ Understand this, I have about as much in common with you because we both do not believe in gods as I have in common with you because we both don’t believe in leprechauns.
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

.The Watzenrodes, who were Roman Catholic, had come from the Świdnica region of Silesia and had settled in Toruń after 1360, becoming prominent members of the city’s patrician class.^ You are a seven-year-old child, and your cousin who lives in the city is coming for a visit.
  • Elizabethan Thought and Culture 22 September 2009 23:54 UTC staff.fcps.net [Source type: General]

^ Who were the prominent members of Shakespeare’s company and what kind of roles did they play?
  • Elizabethan Thought and Culture 22 September 2009 23:54 UTC staff.fcps.net [Source type: General]

[13] .Through the Watzenrodes' extensive family relationships by marriage, they were related to wealthy families of Toruń, Danzig and Elbląg (Elbing), and to the prominent Czapski, Działyński, Konopacki and Kościelecki noble families.^ Olfactory or tactile hallucinations may be prominent, but only if they are related to the content of the delusion.
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

[14] .The Modlibógs (literally, in Polish, "Pray to God") were a prominent Roman Catholic Polish family who had been well known in Poland's history since 1271.[12] Lucas and Katherine had three children: Lucas Watzenrode the Younger, who would become Copernicus' patron; Barbara, the astronomer's mother; and Christina, who in 1459 married the merchant and mayor of Toruń, Tiedeman von Allen.^ Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) was born into a merchant family in the town of Toruń on the Vistula River in north-central Poland, south of the Baltic seaport of Gdańsk (Danzig) which was then the country’s largest city.
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^ Polish astronomer and mathematician who, as a student, studied canon law, mathematics, and medicine at Cracow, Bologna, Rome, Padua, and Ferrara.
  • MySpace - Nicolaus Copernicus - 55 - Male - The Brain, NEW YORK - myspace.com/93670286 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Had it not been for his Austrian pupil, the astronomer Georg Joachim von Lauchen or Rheticus (1514-1574) from the University of Wittenberg, Copernicus’s masterpiece might never have been published.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Lucas Watzenrode the Elder was well-regarded in Toruń as a devout man and honest merchant, and he was active politically. He was a decided opponent of the Teutonic Knights and an ally of Polish King Casimir IV Jagiellon.[15] .In 1453 he was the delegate from Toruń at the Grudziądz (Graudenz) conference that planned to ally the cities of the Prussian Confederation with Casimir IV in their subsequent war against the Teutonic Knights.^ It was an important inland port of the Hanseatic League, and a member of the Prussian Confederation of cities.
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^ Toruń had been founded as an outpost of the Teutonic Knights, but had become independent after the 1410 Battle of Grunwald.
  • Nicolaus Copernicus 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[16] .During the Thirteen Years' War that ensued the following year, he actively supported the war effort with substantial monetary subsidies, with political activity in Toruń and Danzig, and by personally fighting in battles at Łasin (Lessen) and Marienburg (Malbork).^ The following years proved even more fruitful, as Barnard discovered 1882 III, 1884 II and six more comets during the next three years.
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^ This law is foolish, and I support your efforts, Atheist Ireland – even if I personally question your competence.
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ Manuscript maps relating to Andrew Jackson's military campaigns during the War of 1812 and postwar activities with the Creek Indians are found in the Blair Collection.
  • The History of Maps 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.1worldglobes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17] He died in 1462.
.Lucas Watzenrode the Younger, the astronomer's maternal uncle and patron, was educated at the Kraków Academy (now Jagiellonian University) and at the universities of Cologne and Bologna.^ After the death of his father, he was sponsored by his uncle, Bishop Watzenrode, who sent him first to the University of Krakow, and then to study in Italy at the universities of Bologna, Padua and Ferrara.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The son of a wealthy merchant family with strong Church connections, he entered Kraków's Jagiellonian University in 1491 and subsequently joined the priesthood.

^ Like most educated Poles of his time, he travelled abroad to continue his studies, spending time at the famous Renaissance universities of Bologna and Padua.

.He was a bitter opponent of the Teutonic Order[18][19] and its Grand Master, who once referred to Watzenrode as “the devil incarnate.”[20] In 1489 Watzenrode was elected Bishop of Warmia (Ermeland, Ermland) against the preference of King Casimir IV, who had hoped to install his own son in that seat.^ After the death of his father, he was sponsored by his uncle, Bishop Watzenrode, who sent him first to the University of Krakow, and then to study in Italy at the universities of Bologna, Padua and Ferrara.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I am in fact in the process of litigating a number of offenders who repeatedly blaspheme against my own sacred beliefs.
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ Once in a while, Schilling will mention someone like Brett, who knows how to make a game, but those references are few and far between.
  • Keen and Graev’s Gaming Blog » Blog Archive » Anyone else feeling uneasy about Copernicus? 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.keenandgraev.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a result, Watzenrode quarreled with the king until Casimir IV’s death three years later.^ Five years later Schiaparelli was appointed Director of Milan Observatory, a position which he retained until his retirement.
  • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The final version of Flamsteed's star catalogue did not appear until 1725, six years after his death.
  • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The letter was unsigned and the true author of the letter was not revealed publicly until Kepler did so 50 years later.
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | February 19| Pisces, Copernicus, Donner Party, Mamma Cass, Multatuli, Goddess month Bridhe, French Revolutionary Calendar 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

[21] Watzenrode was then able to form close relations with three successive Polish monarchs: John I Albert, Alexander Jagiellon, and Sigismund I the Old. He was a friend and key advisor to each ruler, and his influence greatly strengthened the ties between Warmia and Poland proper.[22][23] .Watzenrode came to be considered the most powerful man in Warmia, and his wealth, connections and influence allowed him to secure Copernicus’ education and career as a canon at Frombork (Frauenberg) Cathedral.^ However, in 1512 Watzelode died and Copernicus went to live in Frauenburg, becoming a canon to Frauenburg Cathedral.
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Languages

Copernicus 1541 letter to Duke Albert of Prussia, giving medical advice for George von Kunheim
.Copernicus spoke Latin, Polish, and German with equal fluency.^ He spoke Polish and German fluently in addition to Greek and Italian, but the language of learning in Europe was Latin.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He also spoke Greek and Italian.^ He spoke Polish and German fluently in addition to Greek and Italian, but the language of learning in Europe was Latin.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24][25][26][27] The vast majority of Copernicus’ surviving works are in Latin, which in his lifetime was the universal language of academia. .Latin was also the official language of the Roman Catholic Church and of Poland's royal court, and thus all of Copernicus’ correspondence with the Church and with Polish leaders was in Latin.^ Must it be abandonded to the Roman Catholic Church?
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1543 Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), a Catholic church administrator from northern Poland, announced a heliocentric astronomy that removed the earth from the center of the universe and led, ultimate- ly, to the overturning of the medieval world view.
  • DAVID C 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC www.asa3.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Concerning the Protestant response to the ideas of Copernicus, White claims that "all branches of the Protestant Church ...
  • DAVID C 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC www.asa3.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A German-language correspondence between Copernicus and Duke Albert of Prussia has survived.^ Though Prussia eventually assimilated into German culture, the native Old Prussian language and cultural traditions were still alive in Copernicus's time.
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.Some German scholars assert that German should be considered Copernicus’ native language[28] because Toruń was predominantly German-speaking,[29] because a German-language correspondence has survived to illustrate his proficiency, and because, while studying law at Bologna in 1496, he signed into the German natio (Natio Germanorum), a student organization for German-speakers of all ethnicities, kingdoms and states.^ Though Prussia eventually assimilated into German culture, the native Old Prussian language and cultural traditions were still alive in Copernicus's time.
  • Nicolaus Copernicus 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ While ancient China was not as isolated as some Chinese historians like to claim, an independent development of writing here should nevertheless be considered as a possibility.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I also believe that these hateful comments are deeply felt by some of the posters here and not just because of some law; that really is worrying.
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

[30][31][32][33][34][35]

Name

.In Copernicus’ time, people were often called after the places where they lived.^ DeValera roared for whiskey: My Father called for stout And they told the Holy Trinity it was time to sort things out.
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ It does not look for a few special people who are called the elect, for none are called the elect until they come to faith and are in Christ.

^ They don’t tell other people how to live their lives, or insist that the President (or the Queen) should be (or not be) of only one religion or none.
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

Like the Silesian village that inspired it, Copernicus’ family name has been spelled variously. .Today the world primarily knows the astronomer by the Latinized version "Nicolaus Copernicus."^ "Nicolaus Copernicus is the Latin version of the famous astronomer's name which he chose later in his life.
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^ In 1543 Nicolaus Copernicus enunciated an astronomical principle which revolutionized the study of science.

^ Long after Nicolaus Copernicus had died there were still leading European astronomers who questioned his ideas, sometimes on a scientific basis.
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In Poland he is called Mikołaj Kopernik. In Germany, the preferred version is Nikolaus Kopernikus.
.The name likely had something to do with the local Silesian copper-mining industry,[36] though some Polish scholars assert that it may have been inspired by the dill plant (in Polish, "koperek" or "kopernik") that grows wild in Silesia.^ About me: Polish name: Mikolaj Kopernik.
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[37]
.As was to be the case with William Shakespeare a century later,[38] numerous spelling variants of the name are documented for the astronomer and his relatives.^ The map was later acquired by William Faden, geographer to King George III and foremost British map publisher of the late eighteenth century.
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^ "Nicolaus Copernicus is the Latin version of the famous astronomer's name which he chose later in his life.
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^ William Parsons gives the name Crab Nebula to the remnants of the supernova of 1054 (the supernova was observed by Chinese astronomers).
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The name first appeared as a place name in Silesia in the 13th century, where it was spelled variously in Latin documents. Copernicus "was rather indifferent about orthography.[39] During his childhood, the name of his father (and thus of the future astronomer) was recorded in Toruń as Niclas Koppernigk around 1480.[40][41] At Kraków he signed his name "Nicolaus Nicolai de Torunia." [11] At Bologna in 1496, he registered in the Matricula Nobilissimi Germanorum Collegii resp. Annales Clarissimae Nacionis Germanorum of the Natio Germanica Bononiae as Dominus Nicolaus Kopperlingk de Thorn – IX grosseti.[42][43] .At Padua, Copernicus signed his name "Nicolaus Copernik", later as "Coppernicus."^ "Nicolaus Copernicus is the Latin version of the famous astronomer's name which he chose later in his life.
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[39] He signed a self-portrait, a copy of which is now at Jagiellonian University, "N Copernic."[44] The astronomer Latinized his name to Coppernicus, generally with two "p"s (in 23 of 31 documents studied),[45] but later in life he used a single "p". On the title page of De revolutionibus, Rheticus published the name as (in the genitive, or possessive, case) "Nicolai Copernici".

Education

Copernicus' uncle seems first to have sent him to the St. John's School at Toruń where he himself had been a master. .Later, according to Armitage (some scholars differ), the boy attended the Cathedral School at Włocławek, up the Vistula River from Toruń, which prepared pupils for entrance to the Kraków Academy, Watzenrode's alma mater in Poland's capital.^ Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) was born into a merchant family in the town of Toruń on the Vistula River in north-central Poland, south of the Baltic seaport of Gdańsk (Danzig) which was then the country’s largest city.
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^ Nicolaus Copernicus was born in Thorn, on the river Vistula, in Poland, on 19 February 1473.
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^ He was educated at the university in Cracow or Kraków, which was for a long time the capital of the Kingdom of Poland, where he studied Latin, mathematics, astronomy, geography and philosophy.
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[46]
.In the winter semester of 1491–92 Copernicus, as "Nicolaus Nicolai de Thuronia," matriculated together with his brother Andrew at the Kraków Academy (now Jagiellonian University).^ Ironically, it was made in 1543, the same year that Nicolaus Copernicus published his heliocentric, or sun-centered, theory of the universe.
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^ In De revolutionibus Copernicus states several reasons why it is logical that the sun would be at the centre of the universe:- At the middle of all things lies the sun.
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^ In 1491 Copernicus entered the University of Crakow, renowned for its flourishing schools of mathematics and astronomy.
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.Copernicus began his studies in the Department of Arts (from the fall of 1491, presumably until the summer or fall of 1495) in the heyday of the Kraków astronomical-mathematical school, acquiring the foundations for his subsequent mathematical achievements.^ In 1543 Nicolaus Copernicus enunciated an astronomical principle which revolutionized the study of science.

^ In 1491 Copernicus entered the University of Crakow, renowned for its flourishing schools of mathematics and astronomy.
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^ He was educated at the university in Cracow or Kraków, which was for a long time the capital of the Kingdom of Poland, where he studied Latin, mathematics, astronomy, geography and philosophy.
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.According to a later but credible tradition (Jan Brożek), Copernicus was a pupil of Albert Brudzewski, who by then (from 1491) was a professor of Aristotelian philosophy but taught astronomy privately outside the university; Copernicus became familiar with Brożek's widely-read commentary to Georg von Peuerbach's Theoricæ novæ planetarum and almost certainly attended the lectures of Bernard of Biskupie and Wojciech Krypa of Szamotuły and probably other astronomical lectures by Jan of Głogów, Michael of Wrocław, Wojciech of Pniewy and Marcin Bylica of Olkusz.^ "So who was this man whom Linnaeus is believed to have favoured both as a son-in-law and later, his successor as Professor of Theoretical and Practical Medicine in Uppsala?
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^ Had it not been for his Austrian pupil, the astronomer Georg Joachim von Lauchen or Rheticus (1514-1574) from the University of Wittenberg, Copernicus’s masterpiece might never have been published.
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^ Flamsteed's annual income was only 100 and by 1683 he had to supplement this by taking private pupils in astronomy and mathematics.
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[47]
.Copernicus' Kraków studies gave him a thorough grounding in the mathematical-astronomical knowledge taught at the university (arithmetic, geometry, geometric optics, cosmography, theoretical and computational astronomy), a good knowledge of the philosophical and natural-science writings of Aristotle (De coelo, Metaphysics) and Averroes (which later would play an important role in shaping his theory), stimulated his interest in learning, and made him conversant with humanistic culture.^ In 1543 Nicolaus Copernicus enunciated an astronomical principle which revolutionized the study of science.

^ He studied languages and the humanities at Uppsala University where the Professor of Botany was the celebrated Carolus Linnaeus ( 1707 - ' 78 ), who was soon impressed by young Solander's ability and accordingly persuaded his father to let him study natural history.
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^ After the death of his father, he was sponsored by his uncle, Bishop Watzenrode, who sent him first to the University of Krakow, and then to study in Italy at the universities of Bologna, Padua and Ferrara.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

.Copernicus broadened the knowledge that he took from the university lecture halls with independent reading of books that he acquired during his Kraków years (Euclid, Haly Abenragel, the Alfonsine Tables, Johannes Regiomontanus' Tabulae directionum); to this period, probably, also date his earliest scientific notes, now preserved partly at Uppsala University.^ While a student in Krakw, Copernicus purchased a copy of the Latin translation of Euclid 's Elements published in Venice in 1482, a copy of the second edition of the Alfonsine Tables (which gives planetary theory and eclipses) printed in Venice in 1492, and Regiomontanus 's Tables of Directions (a work on spherical astronomy) published in Augsburg in 1490.
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^ It must be noted that the foreword by Andreas Osiander was not authorized Copernicus, and that Osiander, who oversaw the book’s printing, included it without the author’s knowledge and without identifying Osiander as its author.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
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^ It took Copernicus some 36 years to fully develop a new theory to replace the Ptolemaic system.
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[48] .At Kraków Copernicus began collecting a large library on astronomy; it would later be carried off as war booty by the Swedes during the Deluge and is now at the Uppsala University Library.^ Iceland broke off diplomatic relations with Britain during the ' Cod Wars ' a dispute over fishing areas.
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^ It was for this reason that Kepler was later to say that Copernicus would have done better if he had interpreted nature, rather than Ptolemy.” .
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.Copernicus' four years at Kraków played an important role in the development of his critical faculties and initiated his analysis of the logical contradictions in the two "official" systems of astronomy—Aristotle's theory of homocentric spheres, and Ptolemy's mechanism of eccentrics and epicycles--the surmounting and discarding of which constituted the first step toward the creation of Copernicus' own doctrine of the structure of the universe.^ Eudoxus' theory is known as the homocentric spheres of Eudoxus .
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^ According to legend, Copernicus received a copy of his printed work De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) on his own deathbed in 1543.
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^ Aristotle – men create gods after their own image, not only with regard to their form, but with regard to their mode of life.
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[48]
.Without taking a degree, probably in the fall of 1495, Copernicus left Kraków for the court of his uncle Watzenrode, who in 1489 had been elevated to Prince-Bishop of Warmia and soon (after November 1495) sought to place his nephew in a Warmia canonry vacated by the 26 August 1495 death of its previous tenant.^ After the death of his father, he was sponsored by his uncle, Bishop Watzenrode, who sent him first to the University of Krakow, and then to study in Italy at the universities of Bologna, Padua and Ferrara.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1503 he took his doctoral degree in canon law and in 1505 he went to stay at Heilsburg as companion and physician to his uncle, Watzelode, who was still bishop of Ermland.
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.For unclear reasons—probably due to opposition from part of the chapter, who appealed to Rome--Copernicus' installation was delayed, inclining Watzenrode to send both his nephews to study law in Italy, seemingly with a view to furthering their ecclesiastic careers and thereby also strengthening his own influence in the Warmia chapter.^ "So who was this man whom Linnaeus is believed to have favoured both as a son-in-law and later, his successor as Professor of Theoretical and Practical Medicine in Uppsala?
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^ After the death of his father, he was sponsored by his uncle, Bishop Watzenrode, who sent him first to the University of Krakow, and then to study in Italy at the universities of Bologna, Padua and Ferrara.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Eudoxus of Cnidus, who had studied with followers of Pythagoras in Italy and in Athens under Plato at his Academy, created the first serious geometrical model of planetary motion.
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[48]
Leaving Warmia in mid-1496—possibly with the retinue of the chapter's chancellor, Jerzy Pranghe, who was going to Italy—in the fall (October?) of that year .Copernicus arrived in Bologna and a few months later (after 6 January 1497) signed himself into the register of the Bologna University of Jurists' "German nation," which also included Polish youths from Silesia, Prussia and Pomerania as well as students of other nationalities.^ On the other hand, that which is brought into existence by nature is well-ordered and preserved in its best state.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Theories of the universe first proposed by ancient Greek or Roman philosophers were accepted well into the 16th century.
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^ Copernicus continued his education in Renaissance Italy between 1496 and 1503, studying Canon Law at the University of Bologna as well as medicine and astronomy at Padua, and finally took a degree at the University of Ferrara before returning to his native land.
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[48]
It was only on 20 October 1497 that Copernicus, by proxy, formally succeeded to the Warmia canonry, which had been granted to him two years earlier. .To this, by a document dated 10 January 1503 at Padua, he would add a sinecure at the Collegiate Church of the Holy Cross in Wrocław (Breslau), Silesia, Bohemia.^ Comment by High Priest Rowan Van Embden of the Holy Church of Lion Lampooners — January 3, 2010 @ 11:22 pm .
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^ Comment by High Priest Rowan Van Embden of the Holy Church of Lion Lampooners — January 3, 2010 @ 11:27 pm .
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

Despite having received a papal indult on 29 November 1508 to receive further benefices, through his ecclesiastic career Copernicus not only did not acquire further prebends and higher stations (prelacies) at the chapter, but in 1538 he relinquished the Wrocław sinecure. .It is uncertain whether he was ordained a priest; he may only have taken minor orders, which sufficed for assuming a chapter canonry.^ Following Ptolemy ( Syntaxis , XIII, 4), I have chosen this point in order that it may be clear whether the inclination of the orbit produces any variation in the longitude of Venus or Mercury.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

[48]
.During his three-year stay at Bologna, between fall 1496 and spring 1501, Copernicus seems to have devoted himself less keenly to studying canon law (he received his doctorate in law only after seven years, following a second return to Italy in 1503) than to studying the humanities--probably attending lectures by Filippo Beroaldo, Antonio Urceo, called Codro, Giovanni Garzoni and Alessandro Achillini--and to studying astronomy.^ In 1496 he finished his course at Crakow and moved to Italy to study canon law and medicine.
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^ After the death of his father, he was sponsored by his uncle, Bishop Watzenrode, who sent him first to the University of Krakow, and then to study in Italy at the universities of Bologna, Padua and Ferrara.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Copernicus continued his education in Renaissance Italy between 1496 and 1503, studying Canon Law at the University of Bologna as well as medicine and astronomy at Padua, and finally took a degree at the University of Ferrara before returning to his native land.
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.He met the famous astronomer Domenico Maria Novara da Ferrara and became his disciple and assistant.^ In 1601 Brahe and Kepler met with Emperor Rudolph II, and Kepler became acknowledged as Brahe's assistant.
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.Copernicus was developing new ideas inspired by reading the "Epitome of the Almagest" (Epitome in Almagestum Ptolemei) by George von Peuerbach and Johannes Regiomontanus (Venice, 1496).^ It took Copernicus some 36 years to fully develop a new theory to replace the Ptolemaic system.
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^ Had it not been for his Austrian pupil, the astronomer Georg Joachim von Lauchen or Rheticus (1514-1574) from the University of Wittenberg, Copernicus’s masterpiece might never have been published.
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^ One result was a Latin Epitome of the Almagest, produced by Peurbach and Regiomontanus – essentially a commentary that improved on all previous commentaries on Ptolemy’s Almagest and ‘provided Copernicus with a crucial conceptual stepping stone to the emergence of the heliocentric theory.’” .
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.He verified its observations about certain peculiarities in Ptolemy's theory of the Moon's motion, by conducting on 9 March 1497 at Bologna a memorable observation of Aldebaran, the brightest star in the Taurus constellation, whose results reinforced his doubts as to the geocentric system.^ For the next several years Copernicus made observations of the positions of the planets and stars, and used them to develop his theories of astronomy.
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^ Babylonian astronomers collected a large amount of data about the positions and motions of the planets and Moon.
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^ He finally evolved a theory whereby the Sun and background stars were fixed, the planets including the Earth orbited the Sun, and the Moon orbited the Earth.
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.Copernicus the humanist sought confirmation for his growing doubts through close reading of Greek and Latin authors (Pythagoras, Aristarchos of Samos, Cleomedes, Cicero, Pliny, Plutarch, Philolaus, Heraclides, Ecphantos, Plato), gathering, especially while at Padua, fragmentary historic information about ancient astronomical, cosmological and calendar systems.^ For answers to other questions about the information reflected in this database, read the police department's frequently asked questions.
  • Chicago Crime Database -- chicagotribune.com 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC files.chicagotribune.com [Source type: General]

^ Through very careful observation, Babylonian astronomers constructed accurate calendars, based on two systems: an eight year cycle and a 19 year cycle.
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^ He appears to have accepted quite early that the Copernican system was true, but through his work he was to discredit some ideas that Copernicus himself had maintained from the ancient Greeks, above all the concept that the planets move in perfect circles.
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[49]
.Copernicus spent the jubilee year 1500 in Rome, where he arrived with his brother Andrew that spring, doubtless to perform an apprenticeship at the Papal Curia.^ The few years from 1505 at Heilsburg were very difficult, as Watzelode was a very firm administrator and Copernicus had many administrative duties to perform.
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^ In 1500 Copernicus visited Rome, as all Christians were strongly encouraged to do to celebrate the great jubilee, and he stayed there for a year lecturing to scholars on mathematics and astronomy.
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.Here, too, however, he continued his astronomical work begun at Bologna, observing, for example, a lunar eclipse on the night of 5–6 November 1500. According to a later account by Rheticus, Copernicus also—probably privately, rather than at the Roman Sapienza--as a "Professor Mathematum" (professor of astronomy) delivered, "to numerous...^ While in Rome he observed an eclipse of the Moon which took place on 6 November 1500 ...
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^ Had it not been for his Austrian pupil, the astronomer Georg Joachim von Lauchen or Rheticus (1514-1574) from the University of Wittenberg, Copernicus’s masterpiece might never have been published.
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^ However, this divine rather than human science, which investigates the loftiest subjects, is not free from perplexities.
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  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

students and... leading masters of the science," public lectures devoted probably to a critique of the mathematical solutions of contemporary astronomy.[50]
On his return journey doubtless stopping briefly at Bologna, in mid-1501 Copernicus arrived back in Warmia. .After on 28 July receiving from the chapter a two-year extension of leave in order to study medicine, in late summer or in the fall he returned again to Italy, probably accompanied by his brother Andrew and by Canon B. Sculteti.^ Copernicus continued his education in Renaissance Italy between 1496 and 1503, studying Canon Law at the University of Bologna as well as medicine and astronomy at Padua, and finally took a degree at the University of Ferrara before returning to his native land.
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^ In 1496 he finished his course at Crakow and moved to Italy to study canon law and medicine.
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^ As a member of the Jesuits he taught in many of the schools of the Order up to 1848 when due to religious persecution then prevalent on the Continent he was forced to leave Italy.
  • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This time he studied at the University of Padua, famous as a seat of medical learning, and—except for a brief visit to Ferrara in May-June 1503 to pass examinations for, and receive, his doctorate in canon law—he remained at Padua from fall 1501 to summer 1503.[50]
.Copernicus studied medicine probably under the direction of leading Padua professors—Bartolomeo da Montagnana, Girolamo Fracastoro, Gabriele Zerbi, Alessandro Benedetti—and read medical treatises that he acquired at this time, by Valescus de Taranta, Jan Mesue, Hugo Senensis, Jan Ketham, Arnold de Villa Nova, and Michele Savonarola, which would form the embryo of his later medical library.^ Copernicus continued his education in Renaissance Italy between 1496 and 1503, studying Canon Law at the University of Bologna as well as medicine and astronomy at Padua, and finally took a degree at the University of Ferrara before returning to his native land.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was for this reason that Kepler was later to say that Copernicus would have done better if he had interpreted nature, rather than Ptolemy.” .
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[51]
.One of the subjects that Copernicus must have studied was astrology, since it was considered an important part of a medical education.^ Accordingly, since nothing prevents the earth from moving, I suggest that we should now consider also whether several motions suit it, so that it can be regarded as one of the planets.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Copernicus was one of the first to adopt a purely scientific approach to the subject.
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^ If the public arena is not to be restricted to the most powerful only, then people who go public must expect responses, even withering ones, as part of the deal.
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

[52] .However, unlike most other prominent Renaissance astronomers, he appears never to have practiced or expressed any interest in astrology.^ The pioneer scientists only dabbled in astronomical spectroscopy, this not being their prime interest, and they left it to others to discover the importance of this new astronomical tool.
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^ The instrument with which Herschel discovered Uranus aroused much interest among other astronomers when it was set up at Greenwich.
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^ However, there are other parallels that are unlikely to be accidental.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[53]
As at Bologna, Copernicus did not limit himself to his official studies. .It was probably the Padua years that saw the beginning of his Hellenistic interests.^ Euclid lived in the early Hellenistic period and was probably born a few years before Archimedes of Syracuse (ca.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He familiarized himself with Greek language and culture with the aid of Theodorus Gaza's grammar (1495) and J.B. Chrestonius' dictionary (1499), expanding his studies of antiquity, begun at Bologna, to the writings of Bessarion, J. Valla and others.^ His ideas are mentioned in several preserved works such as Archimedes’s Sand Reckoner, which Copernicus was probably familiar with, and in the writings of the influential Greek historian Plutarch (ca.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There also seems to be evidence that it was during his Padua stay that there finally crystallized the idea of basing a new system of the world on the movement of the Earth.^ Astronomers realised that Copernicus had solved the major problem of the movement of the planets, and there was a resurgence in observing in order to test the new heliocentric theory.
  • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were many conflicting ideas in Greek philosophy about the interpretation of planetary motions and with earlier models, the diurnal motion of the Earth and its orbit around the Sun were unknown.
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^ There will always be room for a new circus in ‘Flaccid World’.
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

[50]
.As the time approached for Copernicus to return home, in spring 1503 he journeyed to Ferrara where, on 31 May 1503, having passed the obligatory examinations, he was granted the degree of doctor of canon law.^ Copernicus continued his education in Renaissance Italy between 1496 and 1503, studying Canon Law at the University of Bologna as well as medicine and astronomy at Padua, and finally took a degree at the University of Ferrara before returning to his native land.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1503 he took his doctoral degree in canon law and in 1505 he went to stay at Heilsburg as companion and physician to his uncle, Watzelode, who was still bishop of Ermland.
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^ On leaving university, Newton returned to his home village of Woolsthorpe in 1665 and started work on the laws governing the motion of objects.
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No doubt it was soon after (at latest, in fall 1503) that he left Italy for good to return to Warmia.[51]

Work

Astronomer Copernicus: Conversation with God, by Matejko
.Having completed all his studies in Italy, 30-year-old Copernicus returned to Warmia, where he would live out the remaining 40 years of his life.^ Ernestine Rose – It is an interesting and demonstrable fact, that all children are atheists and were religion not inculcated into their minds, they would remain so .
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ These indicate that he went to Alexandria as a youth to study with successors of Euclid and probably remained there for most of his life, studying, teaching, and writing.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the first few years Lockyer observed the planets, singling out Mars for special study.
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.The Prince-Bishopric of Warmia enjoyed substantial autonomy, with its own diet, army, monetary unit (the same as in the other parts of Royal Prussia) and treasury.^ Thomas Pain – Each of those churches accuse the other of unbelief; and of my own part, I disbelieve them all.
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ For, things that sink of their own weight, being predominantly earthy, undoubtedly retain the same nature as the whole of which they are parts.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

[54]
.From 1503 to 1510, or perhaps till his uncle's death (29 March 1512), Copernicus was his personal secretary and physician and resided in the Bishop's castle at Lidzbark Warmiński (Heilsberg).^ After the death of his father, he was sponsored by his uncle, Bishop Watzenrode, who sent him first to the University of Krakow, and then to study in Italy at the universities of Bologna, Padua and Ferrara.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1503 he took his doctoral degree in canon law and in 1505 he went to stay at Heilsburg as companion and physician to his uncle, Watzelode, who was still bishop of Ermland.
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.It is there that he began work on his heliocentric theory.^ Astronomers realised that Copernicus had solved the major problem of the movement of the planets, and there was a resurgence in observing in order to test the new heliocentric theory.
  • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nevertheless, there is no doubt that the heliocentric theory triggered a mental revolution, first in Europe and eventually throughout the world.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In his official capacity, he took part in nearly all his uncle's political, ecclesiastic and administrative-economic duties.^ Indeed, in his case, he is qualified to comment on the matter in an official capacity because he is an expert in all the relevant areas.
  • Dembski interviewed over Design of Life | Uncommon Descent 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC www.uncommondescent.com [Source type: Original source]

From the beginning of 1504, Copernicus accompanied Watzenrode to sessions of the Royal Prussian diet held at Malbork and Elbląg and, write Dobrzycki and Hajdukiewicz, "participated... in all the more important events in the complex diplomatic game that that ambitious politician and statesman played in defense of the particular interests of Prussia and Warmia, between hostility to the [Teutonic] Order and loyalty to the [Polish] Crown." .In 1504–12 Copernicus made numerous journeys as part of his uncle's retinue—in 1504, to Toruń and Gdańsk (Danzig), to a session of the Royal Prussian Council in the presence of Poland's King Alexander Jagiellon; to sessions of the Prussian diet at Malbork (1506), Elbląg (1507) and Sztum (1512); and he may have attended a Poznań session (1510) and the coronation of Poland's King Sigismund I the Old in Kraków (1507).^ Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) was born into a merchant family in the town of Toruń on the Vistula River in north-central Poland, south of the Baltic seaport of Gdańsk (Danzig) which was then the country’s largest city.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Watzenrode's itinerary suggests that in spring 1509 Copernicus may have attended the Kraków sejm.[55]
.It was probably on the latter occasion, in Kraków, that Copernicus submitted for printing at Jan Haller's press his translation, from Greek to Latin, of a collection, by the 7th-century Byzantine historian Theophylact Simocatta, of 85 brief poems called Epistles, or letters, supposed to have passed between various characters in a Greek story.^ This, then, is a copy of the letter, which I translate from Greek as follows.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The rediscovery of the writings of the ancient Greeks and the introduction of the printing press were necessary conditions for the developments that took place, but not sufficient ones.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The translation of Greek and Latin Classical works, dictionaries and texts culminated in printed editions at the turn of the sixteenth century.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They are of three kinds—"moral," offering advice on how people should live; "pastoral," giving little pictures of shepherd life; and "amorous," comprising love poems.^ How should they die?
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ I you don’t believe me, just watch how I slander and smear the ID people.” Not only are these people doing a disservice to the public, they are doing bad science.
  • Dembski interviewed over Design of Life | Uncommon Descent 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC www.uncommondescent.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Little wonder that many people are perplexed and confused – and rightly so – with ideas such as God makes us sick and kills, and at the same time He loves us, and that we should pray to God for healing on the one hand but how can that make sense if He made us sick in the first place.
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

.They are arranged to follow one another in a regular rotation of subjects.^ The two fishes are often depicted tied together with a cord, to make sure they do not lose one another.
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | February 19| Pisces, Copernicus, Donner Party, Mamma Cass, Multatuli, Goddess month Bridhe, French Revolutionary Calendar 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

^ But I have one question, when one religion disputes the claims of another and tells them they are [...
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ If we assume its daily rotation, another and no less important question follows concerning the earth’s position.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

.Copernicus had translated the Greek verses into Latin prose, and he now published his version as Theophilacti scolastici Simocati epistolae morales, rurales et amatoriae interpretatione latina, which he dedicated to his uncle in gratitude for all the benefits he had received from him.^ Bearslayer A free translation from the unrhymed Latvian into English heroic verse (English) (as Translator) Crosby, Ernest Howard, 1856-1907 .
  • Browse By Author: C - Project Gutenberg 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I apologize to the tourist industry of Ireland and the local businesses that would have benefited from my spending, which will likely all go to your neighbor England now.
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ The translation of Greek and Latin Classical works, dictionaries and texts culminated in printed editions at the turn of the sixteenth century.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

With this translation, Copernicus declared himself on the side of the humanists in the struggle over the question whether Greek literature should be revived.[56] .Copernicus' first poetic work was a Greek epigram, composed probably during a visit to Kraków, for Johannes Dantiscus' epithalamium for Barbara Zapolya's 1512 wedding to King Zygmunt I the Old.^ His ideas are mentioned in several preserved works such as Archimedes’s Sand Reckoner, which Copernicus was probably familiar with, and in the writings of the influential Greek historian Plutarch (ca.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[57]
.Some time before 1514, Copernicus wrote an initial outline of his heliocentric theory known only from later transcripts, by the title (perhaps given to it by a copyist), Nicolai Copernici de hypothesibus motuum coelestium a se constitutis commentariolus—commonly referred to as the Commentariolus.^ According to legend, Copernicus received a copy of his printed work De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) on his own deathbed in 1543.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Astronomers realised that Copernicus had solved the major problem of the movement of the planets, and there was a resurgence in observing in order to test the new heliocentric theory.
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^ Copernicus worked on a book explaining his ideas and conclusions, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium .
  • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was a succinct theoretical description of the world's heliocentric mechanism, without mathematical apparatus, and differed in some important details of geometric construction from De revolutionibus; but it was already based on the same assumptions regarding Earth's triple motions.^ Dembski’s case, he’s approaching science from an extremely assumption based point of view, and the interview pretty much hammers home the point that Dembski is approaching science with a conclusion already in mind.
  • Dembski interviewed over Design of Life | Uncommon Descent 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC www.uncommondescent.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All these phenomena proceed from the same cause, which is in the earth’s motion.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the same way, the motion of the earth can unquestionably produce the impression that The entire universe is rotating.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Commentariolus, which Copernicus consciously saw as merely a first sketch for his planned book, was not intended for printed distribution.^ (The foregoing letter, the true nature of which was not suspected by Copernicus, ended Book I as originally planned.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the first book I set forth the entire distribution of the spheres together with the motions which I attribute to the earth, so that this book contains, as it were, the general structure of the universe.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It must be noted that the foreword by Andreas Osiander was not authorized Copernicus, and that Osiander, who oversaw the book’s printing, included it without the author’s knowledge and without identifying Osiander as its author.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

.He made only a very few manuscript copies available to his closest acquaintances, including, it seems, several Kraków astronomers with whom he collaborated in 1515–30 in observing eclipses.^ He received only a mediocre education, following which he became interested in photography, and for a few years made it his profession.
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^ Several earlier astronomers had discovered nebulous objects so Messier observed these too, noting their positions accurately.
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^ Seleucus of Seleucia, a Hellenistic astronomer from Mesopotamia in the second century BC, was one of very few ancient scholars who supported Aristarchus’s heliocentric theory.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tycho Brahe would include a fragment from the Commentariolus in his own treatise, Astronomiae instauratae progymnasmata, published in Prague in 1602, based on a manuscript that he had received from the Bohemian physician and astronomer Tadeáš Hájek, a friend of Rheticus.^ His last book, published in 1627, The Rudolphine Tables (named after Kepler's patron, Emperor Rudolf II), gave the positions of the Sun, planets and Moon based on his work and that of Tycho Brahe.
  • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Intellectually, Rudolf’s Prague was home to the Czech founder of meridian astronomy, Tadeas Hajek of Hajek, the German mathematician and astronomer Johannes Kepler and the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe, while in medicine Jan Jessenius pioneered dissection at Prague University.” .
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He began to construct his own astronomical instruments, and by 1670 received attention through the publication of several papers on astronomical topics.
  • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Commentariolus would appear complete in print for the first time only in 1878.[55]
Copernicus' tower at Frombork, where he lived and worked; rebuilt recently
.In 1510 or 1512 Copernicus moved to Frombork, a town to the northwest at the Vistula Lagoon on the Baltic Sea coast.^ Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) was born into a merchant family in the town of Toruń on the Vistula River in north-central Poland, south of the Baltic seaport of Gdańsk (Danzig) which was then the country’s largest city.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There, in April 1512, he participated in the election of Fabian of Lossainen as Prince-Bishop of Warmia. .It was only in early June 1512 that the chapter gave Copernicus an "external curia"—a house outside the defensive walls of the cathedral mount.^ However, in 1512 Watzelode died and Copernicus went to live in Frauenburg, becoming a canon to Frauenburg Cathedral.
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^ Copernicus stayed at Frauenburg for about 30 years, living all this time in a few rooms in one of the turrets in the wall that surrounded the cathedral.
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In 1514 he purchased the northwestern tower within the walls of the Frombork stronghold. .He would maintain both these residences to the end of his life, despite the devastation of the chapter's buildings by a raid against Frombork carried out by the Teutonic Order in January 1520, during which Copernicus' astronomical instruments were probably destroyed.^ The first words Egyptian Foreign Minister Ahmed Maher told Prime Minister Ariel Sharon during his visit to Israel last week was that the natural gas deal with Egypt would be carried out, no matter what.
  • Palestine/Israel News and Information Links Jan 4-6 2003 22 September 2009 23:54 UTC www.williambowles.info [Source type: News]

^ Astronomers realised that Copernicus had solved the major problem of the movement of the planets, and there was a resurgence in observing in order to test the new heliocentric theory.
  • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Freedom of speech should prevail, probably both believers and no believers would agree.
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

.Copernicus conducted astronomical observations in 1513–16 presumably from his external curia; and in 1522–43, from an unidentified "small tower" (turricula), using primitive instruments modeled on ancient ones—the quadrant, triquetrum, armillary sphere.^ From observations at this opposition and subsequent ones, Schiapparelli inadvertently instigated one of the biggest astronomical hoaxes of all time.
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^ For the next several years Copernicus made observations of the positions of the planets and stars, and used them to develop his theories of astronomy.
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^ Not being able to afford a telescope, Herschel made one, a Newtonian reflector, and in 1774 he began serious astronomical observations.
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.At Frombork Copernicus conducted over half of his more than 60 registered astronomical observations.^ To Copernicus, his model was better than that of Ptolemy because it was more elegant.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Astronomer Royal at the time was Nevil Maskelyne who, after observing the object for some time concluded that it was behaving more like a planet than a comet.
  • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Meanwhile, inhabitants charged the occupation forces of robbing more than 60 olive trees that were uprooted by those forces in the village.
  • Palestine/Israel News and Information Links Jan 4-6 2003 22 September 2009 23:54 UTC www.williambowles.info [Source type: News]

[55]
.Having settled permanently at Frombork, where he would reside to the end of his life, with interruptions in 1516-19 and 1520–21, Copernicus found himself at the Warmia chapter's economic and administrative center, which was also one of Warmia's two chief centers of political life.^ The Design of Life and the Edge of Evolution provide a powerful one-two punch.
  • Dembski interviewed over Design of Life | Uncommon Descent 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC www.uncommondescent.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Why on earth would I want to end my life?
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ Copernicus himself would no doubt have been shocked by this realization, but he started the process which led to it.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the difficult, politically complex situation of Warmia, threatened externally by the Teutonic Order's aggressions (attacks by Teutonic bands; the Polish-Teutonic War of 1519-21; Albrecht's plans to annex Warmia), internally subject to strong separatist pressures (the selection of the prince-bishops of Warmia; currency reform), he, together with part of the chapter, represented a program of strict cooperation with the Polish Crown and demonstrated in all his public activities (the defense of his country against the Order's plans of conquest; proposals to unify its monetary system with the Polish Crown's; support for Poland's interests in the Warmia dominion's ecclesiastic administration) that he was consciously a citizen of the Polish-Lithuanian Republic.^ On his return home in 1497 he became administrator for the northern bishopric of Warmia, developing a wide field of interests, working as a doctor, lawyer, architect and soldier (he supervised the defence of nearby Olsztyn against the Teutonic Knights) – the archetypal Renaissance man.

^ Aristarchus along with Heraclides proposed a heliocentric system with all the planets orbiting the Sun in circular orbits.
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^ Ernestine Rose – It is an interesting and demonstrable fact, that all children are atheists and were religion not inculcated into their minds, they would remain so .
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

.Soon after the death of uncle Bishop Watzenrode, he participated in the signing of the Second Treaty of Piotrków Trybunalski (7 December 1512), governing the appointment of the Bishop of Warmia, declaring, despite opposition from part of the chapter, for loyal cooperation with the Polish Crown.^ After the death of his father, he was sponsored by his uncle, Bishop Watzenrode, who sent him first to the University of Krakow, and then to study in Italy at the universities of Bologna, Padua and Ferrara.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

[55]
.That same year (before 8 November 1512) Copernicus assumed responsibility, as magister pistoriae, for administering the chapter's economic enterprises (he would hold this office again in 1530), having already since 1511 fulfilled the duties of chancellor and visitor of the chapter's estates.^ Galileo also establishes that falling weights would all be accelerated to the same degree if there were no air resistance to hold the larger ones back.
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[55]
.His administrative and economic dutes did not distract Copernicus, in 1512-15, from intensive observational activity.^ Copernicus did carry out occasional planetary observations, but his system initially had little quantitative advantage over the Ptolemaic one.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The results of his observations of Mars and Saturn in this period, and especially a series of four observations of the Sun made in 1515, led to discovery of the variability of Earth's eccentric and of the movement of the solar apogee in relation to the fixed stars, which in 1515-19 prompted his first revisions of certain assumptions of his system.^ Barnard's third discovery of 1892 has remained in relative obscurity: during the 1892-93 period he noted craters and mountains on Mars.
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^ With improved instruments and careful observations, he made a new star catalog with unprecedented accuracy for its time and even corrected some errors in Ptolemy’s calculations.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From Saturn, the highest of the planets, to the sphere of the fixed stars there is an additional gap of the largest size.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

.Some of the observations that he made in this period may have had a connection with a proposed reform of the Julian calendar made in the first half of 1513 at the request of the Bishop of Fossombrone, Paul of Middelburg.^ With improved instruments and careful observations, he made a new star catalog with unprecedented accuracy for its time and even corrected some errors in Ptolemy’s calculations.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Their contacts in this matter in the period of the Fifth Lateran Council were later memorialized in a complimentary mention in Copernicus' dedicatory epistle in De revolutionibus orbium coelestium and in a treatise by Paul of Middelburg, Secundum compendium correctionis Calendarii (1516), which mentions Copernicus among the learned men who had sent the Council proposals for the calendar's emendation.^ Copernicus worked on a book explaining his ideas and conclusions, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium .
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^ By 29 August De revolutionibus orbium coelestium was ready for the printer.
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | February 19| Pisces, Copernicus, Donner Party, Mamma Cass, Multatuli, Goddess month Bridhe, French Revolutionary Calendar 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

^ According to legend, Copernicus received a copy of his printed work De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) on his own deathbed in 1543.
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[58]
Olsztyn Castle
During 1516–21, Copernicus resided at Olsztyn Castle as economic administrator of Warmia, including Olsztyn (Allenstein) and Pieniężno (Mehlsack). While there, he wrote a manuscript, Locationes mansorum desertorum (Locations of Deserted Fiefs), with a view to populating those fiefs with industrious farmers and so bolstering the economy of Warmia. When Olsztyn was besieged by the Teutonic Knights during the Polish–Teutonic War (1519–21), Copernicus directed the defense of Olsztyn and Warmia by Royal Polish forces. He also represented the Polish side in the ensuing peace negotiations.[59]
Copernicus worked for years with the Royal Prussian diet, and with Duke Albert of Prussia (against whom Copernicus had defended Warmia in the Polish-Teutonic War), and advised King Sigismund, on monetary reform. .He participated in discussions in the East Prussian diet about coinage reform in the Prussian countries; a question that concerned the diet was who had the right to mint coin.^ There are a number of objectors on here who have questioned why we need the right to offend believers – you are completely missing the point.
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ Secularist judges have arrogated to themselvws the right to define science and set limits concerning where and when these matters may be discussed.
  • Dembski interviewed over Design of Life | Uncommon Descent 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC www.uncommondescent.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For those who are concerned about the language being used in these comments, I thought I’d share my take on it.
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

.Political developments in Prussia culminated in the 1525 establishment of the Duchy of Prussia as a Protestant state in vassalage to Poland.^ When the founder of the Christian Broadcasting Network culminated his give-no-ground speech to the elite of Israel’s political and military establishment with the ringing declaration, “Be strong!
  • Palestine/Israel News and Information Links Jan 4-6 2003 22 September 2009 23:54 UTC www.williambowles.info [Source type: News]

In 1526 Copernicus wrote a study on the value of money, Monetae cudendae ratio. .In it he formulated an early iteration of the theory, now called Gresham's Law, that "bad" (debased) coinage drives "good" (un-debased) coinage out of circulation—70 years before Thomas Gresham.^ Remember this is serious stuff …..this is now THE LAW in the Republic of Ireland and we who reside there have on obligation to obey it.I agree it is bad law and there are tests to show that.
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ I was born in Dublin, now live near Belfast and I never even heard of this law before today!
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ Euclid lived in the early Hellenistic period and was probably born a few years before Archimedes of Syracuse (ca.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He also formulated a version of quantity theory of money. Copernicus' recommendations on monetary reform were widely read by leaders of both Prussia and Poland in their attempts to stabilize currency.[60][61]
.In 1533, Johann Widmanstetter, secretary to Pope Clement VII, explained Copernicus' heliocentric system to the Pope and two cardinals.^ His new system was actually first presented in the Vatican gardens in 1533 before Pope Clement VII who approved, and urged Copernicus to publish it around this time.
  • Dembski interviewed over Design of Life | Uncommon Descent 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC www.uncommondescent.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Brahe was not convinced by Copernicus' heliocentric model of the Solar System, and with his numerous measurements of the positions of the planets, he hoped to prove Copernicus wrong.
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The Pope was so pleased that he gave Widmanstetter a valuable gift.[62]
In 1535 Bernard Wapowski wrote a letter to a gentleman in Vienna, urging him to publish an enclosed almanac, which he claimed had been written by Copernicus. This is the first and only mention of a Copernicus almanac in the historical records. .The "almanac" was likely Copernicus' tables of planetary positions.^ Copernicus, on noticing the inaccuracies of the Alfonsine Tables, began to formulate a new theory of the position of the Sun, Moon and planets.
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.Wapowski's letter mentions Copernicus' theory about the motions of the earth.^ Copernicus's cosmology placed a motionless sun not at the centre of the universe, but close to the centre, and also involved giving several distinct motions to the Earth.
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | February 19| Pisces, Copernicus, Donner Party, Mamma Cass, Multatuli, Goddess month Bridhe, French Revolutionary Calendar 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

^ Heraclides of Pontus, and Ecphantus the Pythagorean make the earth move, not in a progressive motion, but like a wheel in a rotation from west to east about its own center.
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^ There were many conflicting ideas in Greek philosophy about the interpretation of planetary motions and with earlier models, the diurnal motion of the Earth and its orbit around the Sun were unknown.
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Nothing came of Wapowski's request, because he died a couple of weeks later.[62]
Following the death of Prince-Bishop of Warmia Mauritius Ferber (1 July 1537), Copernicus participated in the election of his successor, Johannes Dantiscus (20 September 1537). .Copernicus was one of four candidates for the post, written in at the initiative of Tiedemann Giese; but his candidacy was actually pro forma, since Dantiscus had earlier been named coadjutor bishop to Ferber.^ Copernicus did carry out occasional planetary observations, but his system initially had little quantitative advantage over the Ptolemaic one.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Next to him was a man who loves me dearly, Tiedemann Giese, bishop of Chelmno, a close student of sacred letters as well as of all good literature.
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[63]
Copernicus with medicinal plant
.At first Copernicus maintained friendly relations with the new Prince-Bishop, assisting him medically in spring 1538 and accompanying him that summer on an inspection tour of Chapter holdings.^ After the death of his father, he was sponsored by his uncle, Bishop Watzenrode, who sent him first to the University of Krakow, and then to study in Italy at the universities of Bologna, Padua and Ferrara.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
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But that autumn, their friendship was strained by suspicions over Copernicus' housekeeper, Anna Schilling, whom Dantiscus removed from Frombork in 1539.[63]
In his younger days, Copernicus the physician had treated his uncle, brother and other chapter members. .In later years he was called upon to attend the elderly bishops who in turn occupied the see of Warmia—Mauritius Ferber and Johannes Dantiscus—and, in 1539, his old friend Tiedemann Giese, Bishop of Chełmno (Kulm).^ Well, 20 years later we can see the “horrors” of fundamentalism.
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ He published the third law ten years later in a publication called Harmonices Mundi .
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^ Next to him was a man who loves me dearly, Tiedemann Giese, bishop of Chelmno, a close student of sacred letters as well as of all good literature.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

In treating such important patients, he sometimes sought consultations from other physicians, including the physician to Duke Albert and, by letter, the Polish Royal Physician.[64]
.In the spring of 1541, Duke Albert summoned Copernicus to Königsberg to attend the Duke's counselor, George von Kunheim, who had fallen seriously ill, and for whom the Prussian doctors seemed unable to do anything.^ Had it not been for his Austrian pupil, the astronomer Georg Joachim von Lauchen or Rheticus (1514-1574) from the University of Wittenberg, Copernicus’s masterpiece might never have been published.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Copernicus went willingly; he had met von Kunheim during negotiations over reform of the coinage. .And Copernicus had come to feel that Albert himself was not such a bad person; the two had many intellectual interests in common.^ His interest in optics had developed to such a degree that he could support himself financially by making mirrors and selling them to local amateur astronomers.
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The Chapter readily gave Copernicus permission to go, as it wished to remain on good terms with the Duke, despite his Lutheran faith. In about a month the patient recovered, and Copernicus returned to Frombork. For a time, he continued to receive reports on von Kunheim's condition, and to send him medical advice by letter.[65]
.Throughout this period of his life, Copernicus continued making astronomical observations and calculations, but only as his other responsibilities permitted and never in a professional capacity.^ Only a life lived for others is a life worthwhile.
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ Atheism is the only thing that makes sense and anybody who doesn’t see that is deluded.” That kind of fundamentalism is just as ignorant and ugly as any other kind of fundamentalism.
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ Had it not been for his Austrian pupil, the astronomer Georg Joachim von Lauchen or Rheticus (1514-1574) from the University of Wittenberg, Copernicus’s masterpiece might never have been published.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1551, eight years after Copernicus' death, astronomer Erasmus Reinhold published, under Duke Albert's sponsorship, the Prussian Tables, a set of astronomical tables based on Copernicus' work.^ His last book, published in 1627, The Rudolphine Tables (named after Kepler's patron, Emperor Rudolf II), gave the positions of the Sun, planets and Moon based on his work and that of Tycho Brahe.
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^ Had it not been for his Austrian pupil, the astronomer Georg Joachim von Lauchen or Rheticus (1514-1574) from the University of Wittenberg, Copernicus’s masterpiece might never have been published.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Through very careful observation, Babylonian astronomers constructed accurate calendars, based on two systems: an eight year cycle and a 19 year cycle.
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Astronomers and astrologers quickly adopted it in place of its predecessors.[66]

Heliocentrism

.Some time before 1514 Copernicus made available to friends his "Commentariolus" ("Little Commentary"), a forty-page manuscript describing his ideas about the heliocentric hypothesis.^ How about some ideas instead ?
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ Before 1514 he had written a small manuscript usually called the Commentariolus (“Little Commentary”), outlining some of his revolutionary heliocentric ideas, but this text was hand written and exclusively distributed to a few personal friends.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our longtime friend and frequent contributor Copernicus saw AVATAR and wanted to share some thoughts about the film's science.
  • UPDATED: Copernicus Grades Cameron On The Science of AVATAR!! -- Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[67] It contained seven basic assumptions. Thereafter he continued gathering data for a more detailed work.
About 1532 Copernicus had basically completed his work on the manuscript of De revolutionibus orbium coelestium; but despite urging by his closest friends, he resisted openly publishing his views, not wishing—as he confessed—to risk the scorn "to which he would expose himself on account of the novelty and incomprehensibility of his theses."[63]
In 1533, Johann Albrecht Widmannstetter delivered a series of lectures in Rome outlining Copernicus' theory. Pope Clement VII and several Catholic cardinals heard the lectures and were interested in the theory. On 1 November 1536, Nikolaus Cardinal von Schönberg, Archbishop of Capua, wrote to Copernicus from Rome:
.
Some years ago word reached me concerning your proficiency, of which everybody constantly spoke.^ Some years ago word reached me concerning your proficiency, of which everybody constantly spoke.
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  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After wandering blindfolded for several years in the desert you reach down, pick up a grain of sand, take off your blindfold, and find it has a tiny ‘X’.
  • Dembski interviewed over Design of Life | Uncommon Descent 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC www.uncommondescent.com [Source type: Original source]

.At that time I began to have a very high regard for you...^ At that time I began to have a very high regard for you, and also to congratulate our contemporaries among whom you enjoyed such great prestige.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
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.For I had learned that you had not merely mastered the discoveries of the ancient astronomers uncommonly well but had also formulated a new cosmology.^ For I had learned that you had not merely mastered the discoveries of the ancient astronomers uncommonly well but had also formulated a new cosmology.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
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^ The development of the telescope in the late sixteenth century opened a vast potential for new astronomical discoveries, and subsequent inventions extended this enormously.
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^ Diligent reader, in this work, which has just been created and published, you have the motions of the fixed stars and planets, as these motions have been reconstituted on the basis of ancient as well as recent observations, and have moreover been embellished by new and marvelous hypotheses.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

.In it you maintain that the earth moves; that the sun occupies the lowest, and thus the central, place in the universe...^ The earth will be a better place without you.
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ In it you maintain that the earth moves; that the sun occupies the lowest, and thus the central, place in the universe; that the eighth heaven remain perpetually motionless and fixed; and that, together with the elements included in its sphere, the moon, situated between the heavens of Mars and Venus, revolves around the sun in the period of a year.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Lastly, it will be realized that the sun occupies the middle of the universe.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
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.Therefore with the utmost earnestness I entreat you, most learned sir, unless I inconvenience you, to communicate this discovery of yours to scholars, and at the earliest possible moment to send me your writings on the sphere of the universe together with the tables and whatever else you have that is relevant to this subject ...^ Therefore with the utmost earnestness I entreat you, most learned sir, unless I inconvenience you, to communicate this discovery of yours to scholars, and at the earliest possible moment to send me your writings on the sphere of the universe together with the tables and whatever else you have that is relevant to this subject.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the first book I set forth the entire distribution of the spheres together with the motions which I attribute to the earth, so that this book contains, as it were, the general structure of the universe.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You now have the methodology to justify your belief in whatever divine or non-divine designer you can imagine.
  • Dembski interviewed over Design of Life | Uncommon Descent 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC www.uncommondescent.com [Source type: Original source]

[68]
.By then Copernicus' work was nearing its definitive form, and rumors about his theory had reached educated people all over Europe.^ By about 1529, Copernicus finalised the manuscript, but realising that the work would create a storm he did not publish it.
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^ In 1539 Georg Joachim, known as Rheticus, a young professor from Wittenburg, went to Frauenburg to find out more about Copernicus' new theory.
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.Despite urgings from many quarters, Copernicus delayed publication of his book, perhaps from fear of criticism—a fear delicately expressed in the subsequent dedication of his masterpiece to Pope Paul III.^ That Nicholas Copernicus delayed until near death to publish De revolutionibus has been taken as a sign that he was well aware of the possible furor his work might incite; certainly his preface to Pope Paul III anticipates many of the objections it raised.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
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^ TO HIS HOLINESS, POPE PAUL III, .
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Scholars disagree on whether Copernicus' concern was limited to possible astronomical and philosophical objections, or whether he was also concerned about religious objections.[69]

The book

De revolutionibus, 1543. Click on image to read book.
.Copernicus was still working on De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (even if not convinced that he wanted to publish it) when in 1539 Georg Joachim Rheticus, a Wittenberg mathematician, arrived in Frombork.^ Copernicus worked on a book explaining his ideas and conclusions, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium .
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^ According to legend, Copernicus received a copy of his printed work De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) on his own deathbed in 1543.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1514, Copernicus privately circulated an outline of his thesis on planetary motion, but actual publication of De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) containing his mathematical proofs did not occur until 1543, after a supporter named Rheticus had impatiently taken it upon himself to publish a brief description of the Copernican system ( Narratio prima ) in 1541.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
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Philipp Melanchthon, a close theological ally of Martin Luther, had arranged for Rheticus to visit several astronomers and study with them.
.Rheticus became Copernicus' pupil, staying with him for two years and writing a book, Narratio prima (First Account), outlining the essence of Copernicus' theory.^ It took Copernicus some 36 years to fully develop a new theory to replace the Ptolemaic system.
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^ Had it not been for his Austrian pupil, the astronomer Georg Joachim von Lauchen or Rheticus (1514-1574) from the University of Wittenberg, Copernicus’s masterpiece might never have been published.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the next several years Copernicus made observations of the positions of the planets and stars, and used them to develop his theories of astronomy.
  • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1542 Rheticus published a treatise on trigonometry by Copernicus (later included in the second book of De revolutionibus).^ According to legend, Copernicus received a copy of his printed work De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) on his own deathbed in 1543.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Had it not been for his Austrian pupil, the astronomer Georg Joachim von Lauchen or Rheticus (1514-1574) from the University of Wittenberg, Copernicus’s masterpiece might never have been published.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Copernicus worked on a book explaining his ideas and conclusions, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium .
  • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Under strong pressure from Rheticus, and having seen the favorable first general reception of his work, Copernicus finally agreed to give De revolutionibus to his close friend, Tiedemann Giese, bishop of Chełmno (Kulm), to be delivered to Rheticus for printing by Johannes Petreius at Nuremberg (Nürnberg).^ It received such a good reception that Copernicus agreed to publish De Revolutionibus .
  • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to legend, Copernicus received a copy of his printed work De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) on his own deathbed in 1543.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Copernicus worked on a book explaining his ideas and conclusions, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium .
  • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While Rheticus initially supervised the printing, he had to leave Nuremberg before it was completed, and he handed over the task of supervising the rest of the printing to a Lutheran theologian, Andreas Osiander.^ Through the efforts of Halley, Newton's complete works were published as a book in July 1687 after much haggling with Hooke before it appeared in print.
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^ It must be noted that the foreword by Andreas Osiander was not authorized Copernicus, and that Osiander, who oversaw the book’s printing, included it without the author’s knowledge and without identifying Osiander as its author.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

[70]
.Osiander added an unauthorised and unsigned preface, defending the work against those who might be offended by the novel hypotheses.^ Blasphemy is an idea thought up by those who cannot defend their ideas against better ideas; it is a tool for maintaining political power through religious means.
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ That did not invalidate their scientific theories (despite the shrill opposition today against those who hold similar beliefs.
  • Dembski interviewed over Design of Life | Uncommon Descent 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC www.uncommondescent.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Is it hate speech against those who had never read Mein Kampf, and were not aware of every evil aspect of Nazism?
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

.He explained that astronomers may find different causes for observed motions, and choose whatever is easier to grasp.^ Every observed change of place is caused by a motion of either the observed object or the observer or, of course, by an unequal displacement of each.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The cause may be either that their circles have poles different (from the earth’s) or that the earth is not at the center of the circles on which they revolve.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Since he cannot in any way attain to the true causes, he will adopt whatever suppositions enable the motions to be computed correctly from the principles of geometry for the future as well as for the past.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

.As long as a hypothesis allows reliable computation, it does not have to match what a philosopher might seek as the truth.^ I am aware that a philosopher’s ideas are not subject to the judgement of ordinary persons, because it is his endeavor to seek the truth in all things, to the extent permitted to human reason by God.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The philosopher will perhaps rather seek the semblance of the truth.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

Death

.Copernicus died in Frauenburg (Frombork) on 24 May 1543. Legend has it that the first printed copy of De revolutionibus was placed in his hands on the very day that he died, allowing him to take farewell of his life's work.^ Copernicus worked on a book explaining his ideas and conclusions, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium .
  • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, in 1512 Watzelode died and Copernicus went to live in Frauenburg, becoming a canon to Frauenburg Cathedral.
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^ This deleted material, which was not printed in the first four editions of the Revolutions (1543, 1566, 1617, 1854), but was incorporated in those published after the recovery of Copernicus’ autograph (1873, 1949, 1972), reads as follows).
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

.He is reputed to have awoken from a stroke-induced coma, looked at his book, and then died peacefully.^ The completed publication reached Nicolaus on 22 May 1543 as he lay in a coma, apparently suffering from a stroke, just hours before he died.
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Copernicus was reportedly buried in Frombork Cathedral, where archeologists for over two centuries searched in vain for his remains. Efforts to locate the remains in 1802, 1909, 1939 and 2004 had come to nought. In August 2005, however, a team led by Jerzy Gąssowski, head of an archaeology and anthropology institute in Pułtusk, after scanning beneath the cathedral floor, discovered what they believed to be Copernicus' remains.[71]
.The find came after a year of searching, and the discovery was announced only after further research, on November 3, 2008. Gąssowski said he was "almost 100 percent sure it is Copernicus."^ About seven-and-a-half years after he started his research, Huggins presented a paper on his findings to the British Association.
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[citation needed] Forensic expert Capt. Dariusz Zajdel of the Polish Police Central Forensic Laboratory used the skull to reconstruct a face that closely resembled the features—including a broken nose and a scar above the left eye—on a Copernicus self-portrait..January 2010" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] The expert also determined that the skull belonged to a man who had died around age 70—Copernicus' age at the time of his death.^ His new system was actually first presented in the Vatican gardens in 1533 before Pope Clement VII who approved, and urged Copernicus to publish it around this time.
  • Dembski interviewed over Design of Life | Uncommon Descent 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC www.uncommondescent.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It had been widely adopted at the time of Aristotle and was never forgotten during the Middle Ages by those in western (but not eastern) Eurasia who knew his writings.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Long after Nicolaus Copernicus had died there were still leading European astronomers who questioned his ideas, sometimes on a scientific basis.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[71]
.The grave was in poor condition, and not all the remains of the skeleton were found; missing, among other things, was the lower jaw.^ The first thing that would need to happen to get rid of the published insults would be to burn all the religious handbooks because they all insult each other.
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ To Michael McGuire and all the other wimps whining about the harsh comments here: you are all terribly missing the point.
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ Then in the remaining books I correlate the motions of the other planets and of all the spheres with the movement of the earth so that I may thereby determine to what extent the motions and appearances of the other planets and spheres can be saved if they are correlated with the earth’s motions.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

[72] The DNA from the bones found in the grave matched hair samples taken from a book owned by Copernicus which was kept at the library of the University of Uppsala in Sweden.[73][74]

Copernican system

Predecessors

Philolaus (c. .480–385 BCE), a Greek philosopher of the Pythagorean school, described an astronomical system in which the Earth, Moon, Sun, planets, and stars all revolved about a central fire.^ Each philosopher had his own idea on the motions of the planets, Moon and stars.
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^ Aristarchus along with Heraclides proposed a heliocentric system with all the planets orbiting the Sun in circular orbits.
  • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First, as the closest star system to the sun (4.37 light years), it may well be the first star we travel to.
  • UPDATED: Copernicus Grades Cameron On The Science of AVATAR!! -- Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[75] .Heraclides Ponticus (387–312 BCE) proposed that the Earth rotates on its axis.^ The Earth rotates once a day on its axis.
  • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heraclides of Pontus, a younger contemporary of Plato in the fourth century BC, suggested that the Earth rotates on its axis once in twenty-four hours.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heraclides of Pontus, and Ecphantus the Pythagorean make the earth move, not in a progressive motion, but like a wheel in a rotation from west to east about its own center.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

[76] According to Archimedes, Aristarchus of Samos (310–230 BCE) wrote of heliocentric hypotheses in a book that does not survive.[77] Plutarch wrote that Aristarchus was accused of impiety for "putting the Earth in motion".[78]
.In a manuscript of De revolutionibus, Copernicus wrote, "It is likely that ...^ Copernicus worked on a book explaining his ideas and conclusions, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium .
  • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to legend, Copernicus received a copy of his printed work De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) on his own deathbed in 1543.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It received such a good reception that Copernicus agreed to publish De Revolutionibus .
  • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Philolaus perceived the mobility of the earth, which also some say was the opinion of Aristarchus of Samos", but later struck out the passage and omitted it from the published book.^ While I would call myself an atheist I really do dispair at some of the obsene rants on this site, it says more about the publishers than what they write.
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

[79]

Ptolemy

.The prevailing theory in Europe during Copernicus' lifetime was the one that the Greek astronomer Ptolemy published in his Almagest circa 150 CE. Ptolemy's system drew on previous Greek theories in which the Earth was the stationary center of the universe.^ The best Muslim scholars could be capable observational astronomers and a few made minor adjustments to Ptolemaic theory, but none of them ever made a huge conceptual breakthrough comparable to that provided by Copernicus when he put the Sun, not the Earth, at the center of our Solar System.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One result was a Latin Epitome of the Almagest, produced by Peurbach and Regiomontanus – essentially a commentary that improved on all previous commentaries on Ptolemy’s Almagest and ‘provided Copernicus with a crucial conceptual stepping stone to the emergence of the heliocentric theory.’” .
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Astronomers realised that Copernicus had solved the major problem of the movement of the planets, and there was a resurgence in observing in order to test the new heliocentric theory.
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.Stars were embedded in a large outer sphere which rotated rapidly, approximately daily, while each of the planets, the Sun, and the Moon were embedded in their own, smaller spheres.^ Each philosopher had his own idea on the motions of the planets, Moon and stars.
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^ B.C.), which contains a good deal of practical lore about the Sun, Moon, and stars, makes no mention of the planets.” .
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In order to explain the irregular motions of the planets he proposed the use of more spheres, all of which rotated in a regular manner around a common centre.
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.Ptolemy's system employed devices, including epicycles, deferents and equants, to account for observations that the paths of these bodies differed from simple, circular orbits centered on the Earth.^ Copernicus assumed that all the orbits were circular, and in order to make the theory fit observations accurately, he had to introduce a system of deferents and epicycles, similar to those used in the Ptolemaic system.
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^ Aristarchus along with Heraclides proposed a heliocentric system with all the planets orbiting the Sun in circular orbits.
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^ These early observations of Uranus helped in calculating the planet's orbit accurately.
  • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Copernicus

Mid-16th-century portrait [80]
.Copernicus' major theory was published in De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres), in the year of his death, 1543, though he had formulated the theory several decades earlier.^ Copernicus formulated several hypotheses: .
  • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Copernicus worked on a book explaining his ideas and conclusions, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium .
  • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to legend, Copernicus received a copy of his printed work De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) on his own deathbed in 1543.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Copernicus' "Commentariolus" summarized his heliocentric theory.^ Astronomers realised that Copernicus had solved the major problem of the movement of the planets, and there was a resurgence in observing in order to test the new heliocentric theory.
  • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It listed the "assumptions" upon which the theory was based as follows:[81]
.1. There is no one center of all the celestial circles or spheres.^ Moreover, there is no difference between the earth’s centers of gravity and magnitude.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They have no role in it, and should be consigned to the extinction dustbin that has been the one true end for all the branches of humanity which Nature dictated should come and go.
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ God loves everyone Like a mother loves her son No strings at all Unconditional Never one to judge Would never hold a grudge ‘Bout what’s been done God loves everyone .
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]


.2. The center of the earth is not the center of the universe, but only of gravity and of the lunar sphere.^ In the first book I set forth the entire distribution of the spheres together with the motions which I attribute to the earth, so that this book contains, as it were, the general structure of the universe.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, there is no difference between the earth’s centers of gravity and magnitude.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This should be admitted, I believe, in preference to perplexing the mind with an almost infinite multitude of spheres, as must be done by those who kept the earth in the middle of the universe.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]


.3. All the spheres revolve about the sun as their mid-point, and therefore the sun is the center of the universe.^ Near the sun is the center of the universe.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hence, if they were not checked at its surface, they would collide at its center, since a straight line perpendicular to a horizontal plane at its point of tangency with a sphere leads to the (sphere’s) center.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It may have been this realization that led him to suggest that the Sun was the center of the universe.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


.4. The ratio of the earth's distance from the sun to the height of the firmament (outermost celestial sphere containing the stars) is so much smaller than the ratio of the earth's radius to its distance from the sun that the distance from the earth to the sun is imperceptible in comparison with the height of the firmament.^ But the size of the universe is so great that the distance earth-sun is imperceptible in relation to the sphere of the fixed stars.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This is alluded to in the film, and creatures do grow larger and survive falls from greater heights than you could on Earth.
  • UPDATED: Copernicus Grades Cameron On The Science of AVATAR!! -- Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the first book I set forth the entire distribution of the spheres together with the motions which I attribute to the earth, so that this book contains, as it were, the general structure of the universe.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]


.5. Whatever motion appears in the firmament arises not from any motion of the firmament, but from the earth's motion.^ He may deem this to be the reason why their motions appear nonuniform, as conforming to a center other than the center of the earth.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore, if any motion is ascribed to the earth, in all things outside it the same motion will appear, but in the opposite direction, as though they were moving past it.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A different explanation of why this appears to be so will be adduced in my discussion of the earth’s motion (I, 11).
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

.The earth together with its circumjacent elements performs a complete rotation on its fixed poles in a daily motion, while the firmament and highest heaven abide unchanged.^ In the first book I set forth the entire distribution of the spheres together with the motions which I attribute to the earth, so that this book contains, as it were, the general structure of the universe.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For a traveler going from any place toward the north, that pole of the daily rotation gradually climbs higher, while the opposite pole drops down an equal amount.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It Will occasion no surprise if, in addition to the daily rotation, some other motion is assigned to the earth.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]


.6. What appear to us as motions of the sun arise not from its motion but from the motion of the earth and our sphere, with which we revolve about the sun like any other planet.^ Retrograde motion of a planet in its orbit is due to the motion of the Earth around the Sun.
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^ For they do not encircle the earth, like the other planets, but "have opposite circles".
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, simulations show that at least at Earth-like distances, stable planets can form in that system.
  • UPDATED: Copernicus Grades Cameron On The Science of AVATAR!! -- Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The earth has, then, more than one motion.^ George Bernard Shaw – The fact that a believer is happier than a skeptic is no more to the point than the fact that a drunken man is happier than a sober one.
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ Although incorrect, the epicyclic system could represent the motions of the planets and Moon to within an error of less than one arcmin.
  • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The simplest forms of life ever found on earth are exceedingly far more complicated jigsaw puzzles than any of the puzzles man has ever made.
  • Dembski interviewed over Design of Life | Uncommon Descent 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC www.uncommondescent.com [Source type: Original source]


.7. The apparent retrograde and direct motion of the planets arises not from their motion but from the earth's.^ Retrograde motion of a planet in its orbit is due to the motion of the Earth around the Sun.
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^ This is indicated by the planets, apparent nonuniform motion and their varying distances from the earth.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
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^ However, if you grant that the heavens have no part in this motion but that the earth rotates from west to east, upon earnest consideration you will find that this is the actual situation concerning the apparent rising and setting of the sun, moon, stars and planets.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

.The motion of the earth alone, therefore, suffices to explain so many apparent inequalities in the heavens.^ But meanwhile they introduced a good many ideas which apparently contradict the first principles of uniform motion.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
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^ Therefore, if any motion is ascribed to the earth, in all things outside it the same motion will appear, but in the opposite direction, as though they were moving past it.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This is indicated by the planets, apparent nonuniform motion and their varying distances from the earth.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

De revolutionibus itself was divided into six parts, called "books":
  1. General vision of the heliocentric theory, and a summarized exposition of his idea of the World
  2. Mainly theoretical, presents the principles of spherical astronomy and a list of stars (as a basis for the arguments developed in the subsequent books)
  3. Mainly dedicated to the apparent motions of the Sun and to related phenomena
  4. Description of the Moon and its orbital motions
  5. Concrete exposition of the new system
  6. Concrete exposition of the new system

Successors

.Georg Joachim Rheticus could have been Copernicus' successor, but did not rise to the occasion.^ Had it not been for his Austrian pupil, the astronomer Georg Joachim von Lauchen or Rheticus (1514-1574) from the University of Wittenberg, Copernicus’s masterpiece might never have been published.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Copernicus did carry out occasional planetary observations, but his system initially had little quantitative advantage over the Ptolemaic one.
  • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1539 Georg Joachim, known as Rheticus, a young professor from Wittenburg, went to Frauenburg to find out more about Copernicus' new theory.
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[62] Erasmus Reinhold could have been his successor, but died prematurely.[62] .The first of the great successors was Tycho Brahe,[62] followed by his erstwhile co-worker, Johannes Kepler.^ In about 1594 Kepler began writing to fellow astronomer Tycho Brahe.
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[62]

Copernicanism

See also: Catholic Church and science
Copernicus, astronomer
.At original publication, Copernicus' epoch-making book caused only mild controversy, and provoked no fierce sermons about contradicting Holy Scripture.^ B.C.), which contains a good deal of practical lore about the Sun, Moon, and stars, makes no mention of the planets.” .
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^ He also realised what trouble publication could cause and to defuse any potential difficulties inserted a preface at the beginning of the publication (without Copernicus knowing) to the effect that the theories were merely hypothetical.
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^ Therefore, when you start making prejudiced comments about what atheists are like you are 1) Not criticizing as an insider, as there is no inside.
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

.It was only three years later, in 1546, that a Dominican, Giovanni Maria Tolosani, denounced the theory in an appendix to a work defending the absolute truth of Scripture.^ The work was published by the Church authorities in Nuremberg in the year of Copernicus' death in 1543; it was later banned by the papacy.

^ He became famous in ancient times first for his work on astronomy, but later for his mathematical work, most of which is known today only by titles and summaries in works of later authors.
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[82] .He also noted that the Master of the Sacred Palace (i.e., the Catholic Church's chief censor), Bartolomeo Spina, a friend and fellow Dominican, had planned to condemn De revolutionibus but had been prevented from doing so by his illness and death.^ At first, De Revolutionibus caused little excitement, but later, when its full implications were appreciated, the Church, as predicted, gave a strong and prolonged hostile reaction.
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[83]
.Arthur Koestler, in his popular book The Sleepwalkers, asserted that Copernicus' book had not been widely read on its first publication.^ This deleted material, which was not printed in the first four editions of the Revolutions , but was included in those published after the recovery of Copernicus’ autograph, reads as follows).
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After publication of his first catalogue, Struve wrote two books on double and multiple stars, published in 1837 and 1852.
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[84] .This claim was trenchantly criticised by Edward Rosen,[85] and has been decisively disproved by Owen Gingerich, who examined every surviving copy of the first two editions and found copious marginal notes by their owners throughout many of them.^ Who has not made many hundreds of comments that were blasphemous to some religion throughout their lives?
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ Messier actually started to look for the comet nearly two years before its expected reappearance: he found the comet on 21 January 1759, but was not the first to sight it.
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^ Throughout his life Bode wrote many books on astronomy, the first being published in 1766 when he was aged only 19.
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Gingerich published his conclusions in 2004 in The Book Nobody Read.[86]
.It has been much debated why it was not until six decades after Spina and Tolosani's attacks on Copernicus's work that the Catholic Church took any official action against it.^ The work was published by the Church authorities in Nuremberg in the year of Copernicus' death in 1543; it was later banned by the papacy.

^ Will it be (a) the bankers or, (b) those in the Catholic Church and those in civil authority why covered up the crimes being committed by priests or (c) one of the above comments.
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ So on Monday are we going to see the Islamic church and its Koran indicted on charges of blasphemy against the Catholic /Christian church?
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

.Proposed reasons have included the personality of Galileo Galilei and the availability of evidence such as telescope observations.^ However a reasonable person would find academic value in such an argument.
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ It was Galileo's telescopic observations of Venus which finally confirmed the heliocentric nature of the Solar System, and later Newton provided the theoretical underpinning of Kepler's laws.
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In March 1616, in connection with the Galileo affair, the Roman Catholic Church's Congregation of the Index issued a decree suspending De revolutionibus until it could be "corrected," on the grounds that the supposedly Pythagorean doctrine[87] that the Earth moves and the Sun does not was "false and altogether opposed to Holy Scripture."[88] The same decree also prohibited any work that defended the mobility of the Earth or the immobility of the Sun, or that attempted to reconcile these assertions with Scripture.
.On the orders of Pope Paul V, Cardinal Robert Bellarmine gave Galileo prior notice that the decree was about to be issued, and warned him that he could not "hold or defend" the Copernican doctrine.^ On 26 February 1616, Cardinal Bellarmino, representative of Pope Paul V, admonished Galileo against further support for the Copernican view.
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[89] The corrections to De revolutionibus, which omitted or altered nine sentences, were issued four years later, in 1620.[90]
.In 1633 Galileo Galilei was convicted of grave suspicion of heresy for "following the position of Copernicus, which is contrary to the true sense and authority of Holy Scripture,"[91] and was placed under house arrest for the rest of his life.^ After expressing the first idea, Galileo was tried in front of a religious court and placed under house arrest.
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ Galileo was found “vehemently suspect of heresy,” namely of having held the opinions that the Sun lies motionless at the centre of the universe, that the Earth is not at its centre and moves, and that one may hold and defend an opinion as probable after it has been declared contrary to Holy Scripture.
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1633, the ecclesiastical authorities under Pope Urban tried Galileo for his beliefs and he was forced to speak aloud on his knees an abjuration of his beliefs in front of an Ecclesiastical Tribunal.
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.The Catholic Church's 1758 Index of Prohibited Books omitted the general prohibition of works defending heliocentrism,[92] but retained the specific prohibitions of the original uncensored versions of De revolutionibus and Galileo's Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems.^ Copernicus worked on a book explaining his ideas and conclusions, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium .
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^ At first, De Revolutionibus caused little excitement, but later, when its full implications were appreciated, the Church, as predicted, gave a strong and prolonged hostile reaction.
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^ I assume the Blasphemy Law was pushed by the world’s largest criminal organization dedicated principally to pederasty, namely the Roman Catholic Church.
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

Those prohibitions were finally dropped from the 1835 Index.[93]

Nationality

"The nationality of Copernicus has been disputed among modern scholars almost as violently as the territory he lived in has been, down the ages."
Says historian John David North comparing the nationality discourse to the war that led to the cession of Royal Prussia to the Polish king roughly a decade before Copernicus' birth.[94] .North describes Copernicus as "a subject to the Polish king, drawing heavily on German culture," but also points out the strong influences of Italy and the Roman Catholic Church.^ Must it be abandonded to the Roman Catholic Church?
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

^ The visit was conducted at the initiative of B’Tselem, and I must point out that the two people from B’Tselem who accompanied us throughout the visit did not try to influence us in any way.
  • Palestine/Israel News and Information Links Jan 4-6 2003 22 September 2009 23:54 UTC www.williambowles.info [Source type: News]

^ It amazes me that while we are in the middle of finding out just how insidious the Catholic Church really is, Ireland is also passing this nonsense.
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

[94] Historian Michael Burleigh describes the nationality debate as a "customary tustle" and "totally insignificant battle" between German and Polish scholars during the interwar period.[95] Astronomer Konrad Rudnicki describes the discourse as a "fierce scholarly quarrel in the times of nationalism", and says Copernicus was an inhabitant of a German-speaking territory belonging to Poland and of mixed German-Polish extraction.[29] According to Czesław Miłosz, the discourse is an "absurd" projection of a modern understanding of nationality on Renaissance people, who identified with their home territories.[96] .Historian Norman Davies similarly says that Copernicus, as was common for his era, was "largely indifferent" to nationality and a local patriot considering himself "Prussian".[97] Miłosz and Davies say that despite his German-speaking background, his working language was Latin.^ Languages with more than 50 books: Chinese Dutch English Esperanto Finnish French German Italian Latin Portuguese Spanish Swedish Tagalog .
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[96][97] Davies further says that though his contacts were primarily with German-speaking Prussians, there is evidence that Copernicus also knew Polish.[97] .According to Davies, it was in the period of nationalism that "great efforts were made to prove and exaggerate the `Polishness`" of Copernicus, Curie, Chopin, Conrad and others to generate a sense of national pride.^ The astronomical data compiled by the early Chinese astronomers is of great value as no other records exist from around this period.
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[98] Davies concludes:
."Taking everything into consideration, there is good reason to regard him both as a German and as a Pole, yet in the sense that modern nationalists understand it, he was neither."^ The H-R diagram, in both its original and modern forms, has greatly assisted astronomers to understand the evolution of stars.
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^ And I’ve stressed throughout my writings that there are alternative philosophical frameworks for making sense of ID. None of these considerations undercuts the scientific core of ID. .
  • Dembski interviewed over Design of Life | Uncommon Descent 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC www.uncommondescent.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For both the Assyrians and the Babylonians, the basis of predicting eclipses was understanding the reasons for the interval between successive eclipses.
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[97]
Encyclopædia Britannica,[99] Encyclopedia Americana,[100] The Columbia Encyclopedia,[101] The Oxford World Encyclopedia,[102] and the Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia[103] identify Copernicus as Polish, the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy states: "Thus the child of a German family was a subject of the Polish crown."[104]

Copernicium

On July 14, 2009, the discoverers, from the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany, of chemical element 112 (temporarily named ununbium) proposed to the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry that its permanent name be "copernicium" (symbol Cn). "After we had named elements after our city and our state, we wanted to make a statement with a name that was known to everyone," said Hofmann. "We didn't want to select someone who was a German. We were looking world-wide." [105] On the 537th anniversary of his birthday the official naming was released to the public.[106]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Copernicus was not, however, the first to propose some form of heliocentric system. A Greek mathematician and astronomer, Aristarchus of Samos, had already done so as early as the third century BCE. Nevertheless, there is little evidence that he ever developed his ideas beyond a very basic outline (Dreyer, 1953, pp. 135–48; Linton, 2004, p. 39).
  2. ^ A self-portrait helped confirm the identity of his cranium when it was discovered at Frombork Cathedral in 2008. Kraków's Jagiellonian University has a 17th-century copy of Copernicus' 16th-century self-portrait. [1] "Copernicus," Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed., 2005, vol. 16, p. 760.
  3. ^ Jerzy Dobrzycki and Leszek Hajdukiewicz, "Kopernik, Mikołaj", Polski słownik biograficzny, vol. XIV, 1969, p. 4.
  4. ^ "The name of the village, not unlike that of the astronomer's family, has been variously spelled. A large German atlas of Silesia, published by Wieland in Nuremberg in 1731, spells it Kopernik." Stephen Mizwa, Nicolaus Copernicus, 1543-1943, Kessinger Publishing, 1943, p. 36. ([2])
  5. ^ Jerzy Dobrzycki and Leszek Hajdukiewicz, "Kopernik, Mikołaj", Polski słownik biograficzny, vol. XIV, 1969, p. 3.
  6. ^ Barbara Bieńkowska, The Scientific World of Copernicus, Springer, 1973 [3]
  7. ^ Eugeniusz Rybka for Polska Akademia Nauk (the Polish Academy of Sciences), The Review of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Nicolaus Copernicus' Relationship with Cracow, Ossolineum, 1973, p. 23. [4]
  8. ^ Josh Sakolsky, Copernicus and Modern Astronomy, Rosen Publishing Group, 2005, p. 8. [5]
  9. ^ Marian Biskup, Regesta Copernicana (calendar of Copernicus' papers), Ossolineum, 1973, p. 16. [6]
  10. ^ "The mother of Barbara and Lucas was a Modlibog." Alexandre Koyre: Astronomical Revolution, Copernicus - Kepler - Borelli. Cornell University Press, 1973, ISBN 0-486-27095-5, p. 78. ([7])
  11. ^ a b Adrian Krzyzanowski and John Sniadecki: Copernicus and His Native Land, "The Foreign and Colonial Quarterly Review". Smith, Elder & Co., 1844, p. 367. ([8])
  12. ^ a b Stephen Mizwa: Nicolaus Copernicus, 1543-1943. Kessinger Publishing, 1943, p. 38.
  13. ^ Czesław Miłosz, The History of Polish Literature, University of California Press, 1983, p. 38. [9]
  14. ^ Dobrzycki and Hajdukiewicz, Polski słownik biograficzny, vol. XIV, 1969, p. 4.
  15. ^ The Head Office of State Archives, Poland, "Copernicus' Biography", accessed 5/22/09, [10]
  16. ^ Jerzy Dobrzycki and Leszek Hajdukiewicz, "Kopernik, Mikołaj", Polski słownik biograficzny, vol. XIV, 1969, p. 4.
  17. ^ Jeremi Wasiutyński, The Solar Mystery: An Inquiry Into the Temporal and the Eternal Background of the Rise of Modern Civilization, Solum Forlag, 2003, p. 29. [11]
  18. ^ "In 1512, Bishop Watzenrode died suddenly after attending King Sigismund's wedding feast in Kraków. Rumors abounded that the bishop had been poisoned by agents of his long-time foe, the Teutonic Knights." Alan Hirshfeld: Parallax: The race to Measure the Cosmos. W.H. Freemand and Company, 2001, ISBN 0-7167-3711-6, p. 38. ([12])
  19. ^ "The Watzelrodes - or Watzenrodes - in spite of their rather Germanic name seemed to have been good Poles (enemies of the Teutonic Order). Alexandre Koyre: Astronomical Revolution, Copernicus - Kepler - Borelli. Cornell University Press, 1973, ISBN 0-486-27095-5, p. 38 ([13])
  20. ^ "[Watzenrode] was also firm, and the Teutonic Knights, who remained a constant menace, did not like him at all; the Grand Master of the order once described him as 'the devil incarnate'. [Watzenrode] was the trusted friend and advisor of three kings in succession: John Albert, Alexander (not to be confused with the poisoning pope), and Sigismund; and his influence greatly strengthened the ties between Warmia and Poland proper." Patrick Moore: The Great Astronomical Revolution: 1534-1687 and the Space Age Epilogue. Albion Publishing, 1994, ISBN 1-898563-18-7, pp. 52, 62 ([14]).
  21. ^ Wojciech Iwanczak: WATZENRODE, Lucas. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Bd. 13, Herzberg 1998, ISBN 3-88309-072-7, Sp. 389-393. (German)
  22. ^ "Lucas was on more friendly terms with his successors, Johann Albert (Jan Olbracht) (from 1492 to 1501), and later Alexander (Aleksander) (from 1501 to 1506), and Sigismund (Zygmunt) I (from 1506)." Pierre Gassendi & Olivier Thill: The Life of Copernicus (1473-1543): The Man Who Did Not Change the World. Xulon Press, 2002, ISBN 1-59160-193-2, p. 22. ([15])
  23. ^ "[Watzenrode] was also firm, and the Teutonic Knights, who remained a constant menace, did not like him at all; the Grand Master of the order once described him as 'the devil incarnate'. [Watzenrode] was the trusted friend and advisor of three kings in succession: John Albert, Alexander (not to be confused with the poisoning pope), and Sigismund; and his influence greatly strengthened the ties between Warmia and Poland proper." Patrick Moore: The Great Astronomical Revolution: 1534-1687 and the Space Age Epilogue. Albion Publishing, 1994, ISBN 1-898563-18-7, pp. 52, 62. ([16])
  24. ^ "He spoke German, Polish and Latin with equal fluency as well as Italian." Daniel Stone: The Polish-Lithuanian State, 1386-1795. University of Washington Press, 2001, ISBN 0-295-98093-1, p. 101. ([17])
  25. ^ "He spoke Polish, Latin and Greek." Barbara Somerville: Nicolaus Copernicus: Father of Modern Astronomy. Compass Point Books, 2005, ISBN 0-7565-0812-6, p. 10. ([18]).
  26. ^ "He was a linguist with a command of Polish, German and Latin, and he possessed also a knowledge of Greek rare at that period in northeastern Europe and probably had some acquaintance with Italian and Hebrew." Angus Armitage: Copernicus and Modern Astronomy. Dover Publications, 2004 (originally 1957), ISBN 0-486-43907-0, p. 62.
  27. ^ He used Latin and German, knew enough Greek to translate the 7th-century Byzantine poet Theophylact Simocatta's verses into Latin prose (Armitage, The World of Copernicus, pp. 75–77), and "there is ample evidence that he knew the Polish language" (Norman Davies, God's Playground, vol. II, p. 26). During his several years' studies in Italy, Copernicus presumably would also have learned some Italian. Professor Stefan Melkowski of Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń likewise asserts that Copernicus spoke both Polish and German. ([19] "O historii i o współczesności" ("About History and Contemporaneity"), May 2003.])
  28. ^ "Deutsch war für Kopernikus Muttersprache und Alltagssprache, wenn auch der schriftliche Umgang fast ausschließlich auf Lateinisch erfolgte." Martin Carrier: Nikolaus Kopernikus. Beck'sche Reihe, C. H. Beck, 2001, ISBN 3-406-47577-9, 9783406475771, p. 192. (online)
  29. ^ a b Rudnicki, Konrad (November-December 2006). "The Genuine Copernican Cosmological Principle". Southern Cross Review: note 2. http://southerncrossreview.org/50/rudnicki1.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-21. 
  30. ^ "Although great importance has frequently been ascribed to this fact, it does not by any means imply that Copernicus ever considered himself to be a German. The 'nationes' of a medieval university had nothing in common with nations in the modern sense of the word. Students who were natives of Prussia and Silesia were automatically described as belonging to the Natio Germanorum. Furthmore, at Bologna, this was the 'privileged' nation; consequently, Copernicus had very good reason for inscribing himself on its register." Alexandre Koyre: Astronomical Revolution, Copernicus - Kepler - Borelli. Cornell University Press, 1973, ISBN 0-486-27095-5, p. 21. ([20])
  31. ^ "It is important to recognize, however, that the medievel Latin concept of natio, or "nation," referred to the community of feudal lords both in Germany and elsewhere, not to "the people" in the nineteenth-century democratic or nationalistic sense of the word." Lonnie Johnson: Central Europe: Enemies, Neighbors, Friends. Oxford University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-19-510071-9, p. 23. ([21])
  32. ^ Arthur Koestler, The Sleepwalkers, 1968, p. 129.
  33. ^ Pierre Gassendi, Oliver Thill, The Life of Copernicus (1473-1543), 2002, p. 37.
  34. ^ Nicolaus Copernicus et al., Nicolaus Copernicus Gesamtausgabe. Documenta Copernicana I.: Briefe, Texte und Übersetzungen, 1996, p. 39.
  35. ^ Rosen (1995, p. 127).
  36. ^ Melkowski, Stefan (May 2003). "O historii i o współczesności (On History and the Present Day)" (in Polish). http://glos.uni.torun.pl/2003/05/historia/. Retrieved 2007-04-22. 
  37. ^ "Kopernik, Koperek, Kopr and Koprnik in Polish—also similarly in other Slavonic languages—means simply dill such as is used in dill pickling. Be it as it may, although the present writer is more inclined towards the occupational interpretation, it is interesting to note ..." Stephen Mizwa, Nicolaus Copernicus, 1543–1943, Kessinger Publishing, 1943, p. 37.
  38. ^ Armitage, p. 51.
  39. ^ a b Gingerich (2004), p. 143.
  40. ^ Nicolaus Copernicus Gesamtausgabe: Urkunden, Akten und Nachrichten: Texte und Übersetzungen, p. 23 ff. ISBN 3-05-003009-7.
  41. ^ Marian Biskup, Regesta Copernicana (Calendar of Copernicus' Papers), Ossolineum, 1973, page 32.
  42. ^ Biskup (1973), pp. 38, 82.
  43. ^ Carlo Malagola, Della vita e delle opere di Antonio Urceo detto Codro: studi e ricerche, 1878, pp. 562–65.
  44. ^ "Copernicus, Nicolaus". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/136591/Nicolaus-Copernicus. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  45. ^ Maximilian Curtze, Ueber die Orthographie des Namens Coppernicus, 1879, [22].
  46. ^ Angus Armitage, The World of Copernicus, p. 55.
  47. ^ Jerzy Dobrzycki and Leszek Hajdukiewicz, "Kopernik, Mikołaj", Polski słownik biograficzny, pp. 4-5.
  48. ^ a b c d e Jerzy Dobrzycki and Leszek Hajdukiewicz, "Kopernik, Mikołaj", Polski słownik biograficzny, p. 5.
  49. ^ Jerzy Dobrzycki and Leszek Hajdukiewicz, "Kopernik, Mikołaj", Polski słownik biograficzny, pp. 5-6.
  50. ^ a b c Jerzy Dobrzycki and Leszek Hajdukiewicz, "Kopernik, Mikołaj", Polski słownik biograficzny, p. 6.
  51. ^ a b Jerzy Dobrzycki and Leszek Hajdukiewicz, "Kopernik, Mikołaj", Polski słownik biograficzny, p. 6.
  52. ^ Rabin (2005).
  53. ^ Gingerich (2004, pp. 187–89, 201); Koyré (1973, p. 94); Kuhn (1957, p. 93); Rosen (2004, p. 123); Rabin (2005). Robbins (1964, p.x), however, includes Copernicus among a list of Renaissance astronomers who "either practiced astrology themselves or countenanced its practice."
  54. ^ Sedlar (1994).
  55. ^ a b c d e Jerzy Dobrzycki and Leszek Hajdukiewicz, "Kopernik, Mikołaj", Polski słownik biograficzny, p. 7.
  56. ^ Angus Armitage, The World of Copernicus, pp. 75–77.
  57. ^ Jerzy Dobrzycki and Leszek Hajdukiewicz, "Kopernik, Mikołaj", Polski słownik biograficzny, p. 7.
  58. ^ Jerzy Dobrzycki and Leszek Hajdukiewicz, "Kopernik, Mikołaj", Polski słownik biograficzny, pp. 7-8.
  59. ^ Repcheck (2007), p. 66.
  60. ^ Copernicus, Nicolaus, Minor Works (Edward Rosen, translator), Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992, pp. 176–215.
  61. ^ Oliver Volckart, "Early Beginnings of the Quantity Theory of Money and Their Context in Polish and Prussian Monetary Policies, c. 1520–1550", The Economic History Review, New Series 50 (August 1997) 3, pp. 430–49.
  62. ^ a b c d e f Repcheck, Jack (2007). Copernicus' Secret. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. pp. 79, 78, 184, 186. ISBN 978-0-7432-8951-1. 
  63. ^ a b c Jerzy Dobrzycki and Leszek Hajdukiewicz, "Kopernik, Mikołaj", Polski słownik biograficzny, vol. XIV, 1969, p. 11.
  64. ^ Angus Armitage, The World of Copernicus, pp. 97–98.
  65. ^ Angus Armitage, The World of Copernicus, p. 98.
  66. ^ Kuhn, 1957, pp. 187–88.
  67. ^ A reference to the "Commentariolus" is contained in a library catalogue, dated May 1st, 1514, of a 16th-century historian, Matthew of Miechow, so it must have begun circulating before that date (Koyré, 1973, p.85; Gingerich, 2004, p.32). Thoren (1990, p.99) gives the length of the manuscript as 40 pages.
  68. ^ Schönberg, Nicholas, Letter to Nicolaus Copernicus, translated by Edward Rosen.
  69. ^ Koyré (1973, pp. 27, 90) and Rosen (1995, pp. 64,184) take the view that Copernicus was indeed concerned about possible objections from theologians, while Lindberg and Numbers (1986) argue against it. Koestler (1963) also denies it. Indirect evidence that Copernicus was concerned about objections from theologians comes from a letter written to him by Andreas Osiander in 1541, in which Osiander advises Copernicus to adopt a proposal by which he says "you will be able to appease the Peripatetics and theologians whose opposition you fear." (Koyré, 1973, pp. 35, 90)
  70. ^ Dreyer (1953, p.319).
  71. ^ a b Easton, Adam (21 November 2008). "Polish tests 'confirm Copernicus'". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/7740908.stm. Retrieved 18 January 2010. 
  72. ^ Bowcott, Owen (21 November 2008). "16th-century skeleton identified as astronomer Copernicus" The Guardian. Retrieved 18 January 2010.
  73. ^ Bogdanowicz, W. (2009). "Genetic identification of putative remains of the famous astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus". PNAS 106: 12279–12282. doi:10.1073/pnas.0901848106. .
  74. ^ Gingerich, O. (2009). "The Copernicus grave mystery". PNAS 106: 12215–12216. doi:10.1073/pnas.0907491106. .
  75. ^ Dreyer (1953, pp. 40–52); Linton (2004, p. 20).
  76. ^ Dreyer (1953, pp. 123–35); Linton (2004, p. 24).
  77. ^ Archimedes refers to Aristarchus's book in The Sand Reckoner. Heath's (1913, p.302) translation of the relevant passage reads: "You ['you' being King Gelon] are aware that 'universe' is the name given by most astronomers to the sphere the center of which is the center of the Earth, while its radius is equal to the straight line between the center of the Sun and the center of the Earth. This is the common account as you have heard from astronomers. But Aristarchus has brought out a book consisting of certain hypotheses, wherein it appears, as a consequence of the assumptions made, that the universe is many times greater than the 'universe' just mentioned. His hypotheses are that the fixed stars and the Sun remain unmoved, that the Earth revolves about the Sun on the circumference of a circle, the Sun lying in the middle of the orbit, and that the sphere of the fixed stars, situated about the same center as the Sun, is so great that the circle in which he supposes the Earth to revolve bears such a proportion to the distance of the fixed stars as the center of the sphere bears to its surface." The bracketed insertion is in Heath's translation.
  78. ^ Tassoul, Jean-Louis & Monique (2004). Concise History of Solar and Stellar Physics. Princeton University. http://press.princeton.edu/chapters/s7785.html. 
  79. ^ Dreyer (1953, pp. 314–15).
  80. ^ Photograph of a portrait of Copernicus by an unknown painter. The original was looted—possibly destroyed—by the Germans in World War II. Jan Świeczyński, Katalog skradzionych i zaginionych dóbr kultury (Catalog of Stolen and Missing Cultural Property), Warsaw, Ośrodek Informacyjno-Koordynacyjny Ochrony Obiektów Muzealnych (Center of Information and Coordination for the Safeguarding of Museum Objects), 1988.
  81. ^ Rosen (2004, pp. 58–59).
  82. ^ Rosen (1995, pp.151–59)
  83. ^ Rosen (1995, p.158)
  84. ^ Koestler (1959, p.191)
  85. ^ Rosen (1995, pp.187–192), originally published in 1967 in Saggi su Galileo Galilei . Rosen is particularly scathing about this and other statements in The Sleepwalkers which he criticises as inaccurate.
  86. ^ Gingerich (2004), DeMarco (2004) [23]
  87. ^ In fact, in the Pythagorean cosmological system the Sun was not motionless.
  88. ^ Decree of the General Congregation of the Index, March 5, 1616, translated from the Latin by Finocchiaro (1989, pp.148-149). An on-line copy of Finocchiaro's translation has been made available by Gagné (2005).
  89. ^ Fantoli (2005, pp.118–19); Finocchiaro (1989, pp.148, 153). On-line copies of Finocchiaro's translations of the relevant documents, Inquisition Minutes of 25 February, 1616 and Cardinal Bellarmine's certificate of 26 May, 1616, have been made available by Gagné (2005). This notice of the decree would not have prevented Galileo from discussing heliocentrism solely as a mathematical hypothesis, but a stronger formal injunction (Finocchiaro, 1989, p.147-148) not to teach it "in any way whatever, either orally or in writing", allegedly issued to him by the Commissary of the Holy Office, Father Michelangelo Segizzi, would certainly have done so (Fantoli, 2005, pp.119–20, 137). There has been much controversy over whether the copy of this injunction in the Vatican archives is authentic; if so, whether it was ever issued; and if so, whether it was legally valid (Fantoli, 2005, pp.120–43).
  90. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia.
  91. ^ From the Inquisition's sentence of June 22, 1633 (de Santillana, 1976, pp.306-10; Finocchiaro 1989, pp. 287-91)
  92. ^ Heilbron (2005, p. 307); Coyne (2005, p. 347).
  93. ^ McMullin (2005, p. 6); Coyne (2005, pp. 346-47).
  94. ^ a b North, John David (2008). Cosmos. An illustrated history of astronomy and cosmology. University of Chicago Press. p. 305. ISBN 0226594416. 
  95. ^ Burleigh, Michael (1988). Germany turns eastwards. A study of Ostforschung in the Third Reich. CUP Archive. pp. 60, 133, 280. ISBN 0521351200. 
  96. ^ a b Miłosz, Czesław (1983). The history of Polish literature (2 ed.). University of California Press. p. 37. ISBN 0520044770. 
  97. ^ a b c d Davies, Norman (2005). God's playground. A History of Poland in Two Volumes. II. Oxford University Press. p. 20. ISBN 0199253404. 
  98. ^ Davies, Norman (2005). God's playground. A History of Poland in Two Volumes. II. Oxford University Press. p. 19. ISBN 0199253404. 
  99. ^ "Copernicus, Nicolaus". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9105759. Retrieved 2007-09-21. 
  100. ^ "Copernicus, Nicolaus", Encyclopedia Americana, 1986, vol. 7, pp. 755–56.
  101. ^ "Nicholas Copernicus", The Columbia Encyclopedia, sixth edition, 2008. Encyclopedia.com. 18 July 2009.
  102. ^ "Copernicus, Nicolaus", The Oxford World Encyclopedia, Oxford University Press, 1998.
  103. ^ "Nicolaus Copernicus, Polish astronomer". Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Microsoft. 2007. http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761571204. Retrieved 2007-09-21. 
  104. ^ "Nicolaus Copernicus". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/copernicus/#1. Retrieved 2007-04-22. 
  105. ^ July 14, 2009 - Element 112 shall be named “copernicium”, http://www.popsci.com/
  106. ^ Renner, Terrence (2010-02-20). "Element 112 is Named Copernicium". International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. http://www.iupac.org/web/nt/2010-02-20_112_Copernicium. Retrieved 2010-02-20. 

References

Further reading

  • Danielson, Dennis Richard (2006). .The First Copernican: Georg Joachim Rheticus and the Rise of the Copernican Revolution.^ In 1539 Georg Joachim, known as Rheticus, a young professor from Wittenburg, went to Frauenburg to find out more about Copernicus' new theory.
    • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    New York: Walker & Company. ISBN 0-8027-1530-3.
     
  • Prowe, Leopold (1884) (in German). Nicolaus Coppernicus. Berlin: Weidmannsche Verlagsbuchhandlung. .http://books.google.com/books?id=to0DAAAAYAAJ. 
  • Nicolaus Copernicus Gesamtausgabe (Nicolaus Copernicus Complete Edition; in German and Latin; 9 volumes, 1974–2004), various editors, Berlin, Akademie Verlag.^ Song lyrics quoted from http://www.mchawking.com/includes/lyrics/creationists_lyrics.php (buy the CD at the same site or google for the track) .
    • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Languages with more than 50 books: Chinese Dutch English Esperanto Finnish French German Italian Latin Portuguese Spanish Swedish Tagalog .
    • Browse By Author: C - Project Gutenberg 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    .A large collection of writings by and about Copernicus.
  • Nicolaus Copernicus Gesamtausgabe: Biographies and Portraits of Copernicus from 16th to 18th century, Biographia Copernicana, 2004, ISBN 3-05-003848-9 [24] [25]
  • Schmauch, Hans: Copernicus, Nicolaus.^ Babylonian astronomers collected a large amount of data about the positions and motions of the planets and Moon.
    • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ At the end of the 15th and beginning of the 16th centuries, there was a great quest for knowledge about the accuracy of the works of the Greek philosophers.
    • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    In: Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB). Band 3, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1957, S. 348–355. (German)
  • Bruhns, Christian: Copernicus, Nicolaus. In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Band 4, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1876, S. 461–469. (German)

External links

Primary Sources
General
About De Revolutionibus
Legacy
.
  • (Italian) Copernicus in Bologna — in Italian
  • Chasing Copernicus: The Book Nobody Read — Was One of the Greatest Scientific Works Really Ignored?^ As Halley could not get persuade the Royal Society to finance the publication of Newton's work he financed the printing of the most famous scientific book of all time, Newton's Principia , himself.
    • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Copernicus worked on a book explaining his ideas and conclusions, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium .
    • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Copernicus is a quite a scientist himself, so this is a very fascinating read & we really appreciate his taking the time to put this piece together for us.
    • UPDATED: Copernicus Grades Cameron On The Science of AVATAR!! -- Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    All Things Considered. NPR
  • Copernicus and his Revolutions — A detailed critique of the rhetoric of De Revolutionibus
  • Article which discusses Copernicus's debt to the Arabic tradition

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Nicolaus Copernicus article)

From Wikiquote

.
I am not so enamored of my own opinions that I disregard what others may think of them.
^ "For I am not so enamored of my own opinions that I disregard what others may think of them.
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^ Copernicus : "For I am not so enamored of my own opinions that I disregard what others may think of them.

^ I can readily imagine, Holy Father, that as soon as some people hear that in this volume, which I have written about the revolutions of the spheres of the universe, I ascribe certain motions to the terrestrial globe, they will shout that I must be immediately repudiated together with this belief For I am not so enamored of my own opinions that I disregard what others may think of them.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

... Yet I hold that completely erroneous views should be shunned.
.Nicolaus Copernicus (19 February 147324 May 1543) was an early modern astronomer and mathematician; proponent of the heliocentric cosmic model.^ He was born February 19, 1473.
  • Copernicus | Universe Today 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nicolaus Copernicus was born in Thorn, on the river Vistula, in Poland, on 19 February 1473.
  • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The inscription on it says "Nicolaus Copernicus was born here on 19 February 1473.
  • Visit Toruń - Nicolaus Copernicus 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC test.visittorun.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His book, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium [On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres], is often regarded as the starting point of modern astronomy and the defining epiphany that began the Scientific Revolution.^ Copernicus wrote his main work, " De revolutionibus orbium coelestium " (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres), in Frombork in 1515-1530.
  • Visit Toruń - Nicolaus Copernicus 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC test.visittorun.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Copernicus worked on a book explaining his ideas and conclusions, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium .
  • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It came to mark the starting point of modern astronomy and, in turn, of modern science.

Contents

Sourced

.
Surely all this must be a pleasing and acceptable mode of worship to the Most High, to whom ignorance cannot be more grateful than knowledge.
  • If perchance there should be foolish speakers who, together with those ignorant of all mathematics, will take it upon themselves to decide concerning these things, and because of some place in the Scriptures wickedly distorted to their purpose, should dare to assail this my work, they are of no importance to me, to such an extent do I despise their judgment as rash. For it is not unknown that Lactantius, the writer celebrated in other ways but very little in mathematics, spoke somewhat childishly of the shape of the earth when he derided those who declared the earth had the shape of a ball.^ The earth has, then, more than one motion.
    • Copernicus, Nicolaus - OPT Telescopes 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.optcorp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Who will change all those diapers?
    • MySpace - Nicolaus Copernicus - 55 - Male - The Brain, NEW YORK - myspace.com/93670286 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If all of these crappy religions are so strong and their believers so believing there should be no way that they could be offended.
    • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

    .So it ought not to surprise students if such should laugh at us also.^ With such moderate abilities as I possess, it is truly surprising that thus I should have influenced to a considerable extent the beliefs of scientific men on some important points".
    • MySpace - Nicolaus Copernicus - 55 - Male - The Brain, NEW YORK - myspace.com/93670286 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Mathematics is written for mathematicians to whom these our labors, if I am not mistaken, will appear to contribute something even to the ecclesiastical state the headship of which your Holiness now occupies.^ Star (55) Mathematics is written for mathematicians.
    • Nicolaus Copernicus Quotes - Dictionary of Science Quotations and Scientist Quotes 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ During the proofreading process, Andreas Osiander ( a mathematician and Lutheran pastor ( modified Copernicus's preface, supposedly after obtaining his permission to do so, by anonymo usly stating, "For these hypotheses need not be true or even probable.
    • http://www.math.rutgers.edu/courses/436/Honors02/kepler.html 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.math.rutgers.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ But the fact that none of these phenomena appears in the fixed stars shows their immense elevation, which makes even the circle of their annual motion, or apparent motion, vanish from our eyes.
    • Nicolaus Copernicus Quotes - Dictionary of Science Quotations and Scientist Quotes 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: Original source]

    (Author's preface to .de revolutionibus)
    • Translation as quoted in The Gradual Acceptance of the Copernican Theory of the Universe (1917) by Dorothy Stimson, p.^ His theory gained acceptance among mathematically inclined astronomers, but the removal of the earth from the center of the universe was too radical for most people.

      ^ Mikołaj Kopernik 19 February 1473, Toruń 24 May 1543, Frombork Heliocentric theory (Copernican Revolution) De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium Astronomy, Mathematics, Canon Law, Medicine, Economics .
      • Visit Toruń - Nicolaus Copernicus 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC test.visittorun.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ The Copernican system can be summarized in seven propositions, as Copernicus himself collected them in a Compendium of De revolutionibus that was found and published in 1878.
      • Nicolaus Copernicus 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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      .115
  • Finally we shall place the Sun himself at the center of the Universe. All this is suggested by the systematic procession of events and the harmony of the whole Universe, if only we face the facts, as they say, "with both eyes open."^ It may have been this realization that led him to suggest that the Sun was the center of the universe.
    • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "Finally we shall place the Sun himself at the center of the Universe.
    • MySpace - Nicolaus Copernicus - 55 - Male - The Brain, NEW YORK - myspace.com/93670286 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ All this is suggested by the systematic procession of events and the harmony of the whole Universe, if only we face the facts, as they say, 'with both eyes open" This site was created by my friend ALIAS…Mark .
    • MySpace - Nicolaus Copernicus - 55 - Male - The Brain, NEW YORK - myspace.com/93670286 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • As quoted in The Copernican Revolution : Planetary Astronomy in the Development of Western Thought (1957) by Thomas S. Kuhn
  • To know the mighty works of God, to comprehend His wisdom and majesty and power; to appreciate, in degree, the wonderful workings of His laws, surely all this must be a pleasing and acceptable mode of worship to the Most High, to whom ignorance cannot be more grateful than knowledge.
    • As quoted in Poland : The Knight Among Nations (1907) by Louis E. Van Norman, p.^ I want to know all Gods thoughts; all the rest are just details.
      • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

      ^ What you all must know is that this law cannot be enforced in a court as it is unconstitutional.
      • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Imagination is more important than knowledge.
      • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

      290; also in The Language of God (2006) by Francis Collins, pp. 230-31.

De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (1543 )

.
The sun is not inappropriately called by some people the lantern of the universe, its mind by others, and its ruler by still others.
^ For, the sun is not inappropriately called by some people the lantern of the universe, its mind by others, and its ruler by still others.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
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^ Hence the sun is not inappropriately called by some the lamp of the universe, by others its mind, and by others its ruler.
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | February 19| Pisces, Copernicus, Donner Party, Mamma Cass, Multatuli, Goddess month Bridhe, French Revolutionary Calendar 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

^ Educated people believed that: the sun was the center of the universe.
  • Elizabethan Thought and Culture 22 September 2009 23:54 UTC staff.fcps.net [Source type: General]

.The Thrice Greatest labels it a visible god, and Sophocles' Electra, the all-seeing.^ (Hermes) the Thrice Greatest labels it a visible god, and Sophocles’ Electra, the all-seeing.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Trismegistus called him the visible God, Sophocles' Electra, the watcher over all things.
  • Nicolaus Copernicus Quotes - Dictionary of Science Quotations and Scientist Quotes 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Thrice Greatest labels it a visible god, and Sophocles' Electra, the all-seeing.
  • WikiSlice 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus indeed, as though seated on a royal throne, the sun governs the family of planets revolving around it.
  • For I am not so enamored of my own opinions that I disregard what others may think of them.^ Thus indeed the Sun as if seated on a royal throne governs his household of Stars as they circle around him.
    • Nicolaus Copernicus Quotes - Dictionary of Science Quotations and Scientist Quotes 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Thus indeed, as though seated on a royal throne, the sun governs the family of planets revolving around it.
    • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Copernicus : "For I am not so enamored of my own opinions that I disregard what others may think of them.

    .I am aware that a philosopher's ideas are not subject to the judgment of ordinary persons, because it is his endeavor to seek the truth in all things, to the extent permitted to human reason by God.^ But a philosopher's ideas are not subject to the judgement of ordinary persons, because he endeavours to seek the truth in all things, to the extent permitted to human reason by God.
    • Nicolaus Copernicus - The Revolutions of the Celestial Orbs - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I am aware that a philosopher's ideas are not subject to the judgment of ordinary persons, because it is his endeavor to seek the truth in all things, to the extent permitted to human reason by God.
    • Nicolaus Copernicus 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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    ^ I am aware that a philosopher’s ideas are not subject to the judgement of ordinary persons, because it is his endeavor to seek the truth in all things, to the extent permitted to human reason by God.
    • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Yet I hold that completely erroneous views should be shunned.
    Those who know that the consensus of many centuries has sanctioned the conception that the earth remains at rest in the middle of the heaven as its center would, I reflected, regard it as an insane pronouncement if I made the opposite assertion that the earth moves.^ Some think that the earth remains at rest.
    • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
    • copernicus 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.humanistictexts.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Those who know that the consensus of many centuries has sanctioned the conception that the earth remains at rest in the middle of the heaven as its center would, I reflected, regard it as an insane pronouncement if I made the opposite assertion that the earth moves.
    • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Those who know that the consensus of many centuries has sanctioned the conception that the earth remains at rest in the middle of the heaven as its center would, I reflected, regard it as an insane pronouncement if I made the opposite assertion that the earth moves."
    • WikiSlice 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • Preface.
  • For when a ship is floating calmly along, the sailors see its motion mirrored in everything outside, while on the other hand they suppose that they are stationary, together with everything on board.^ For when a ship is floating calmly along, the sailors suppose that they are stationary.
    • Nicolaus Copernicus - The Revolutions of the Celestial Orbs - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "For when a ship is floating calmly along, the sailors see its motion mirrored in everything outside, while on the other hand they suppose that they are stationary, together with everything on board.
    • Nicolaus Copernicus 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • WikiSlice 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ For when a ship is floating calmly along, the sailors see its motion mirrored in everything outside, while on the other hand they suppose that they are stationary, together with everything on board.
    • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
    • copernicus 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.humanistictexts.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

    .In the same way, the motion of the earth can unquestionably produce the impression that the entire universe is rotating.^ In the same way, the motion of the earth can unquestionably produce the impression that The entire universe is rotating.
    • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In the same way, the motion of the earth can unquestionably produce the impression that the entire universe is rotating."
    • WikiSlice 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In the same way, the motion of the earth can unquestionably produce the impression that the entire universe is rotating.
    • copernicus 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.humanistictexts.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Nicolaus Copernicus 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Nicolaus Copernicus - The Revolutions of the Celestial Orbs - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

    • Book 1, Ch. .8
  • Hence I feel no shame in asserting that this whole region engirdled by the moon, and the center of the earth, traverse this grand circle amid the rest of the planets in an annual revolution around the sun.^ "Hence I feel no shame in asserting that this whole region engirdled by the moon, and the center of the earth, traverse this grand circle amid the rest of the planets in an annual revolution around the sun.
    • WikiSlice 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Who theorized that the earth was not the center of the universe and that it traveled around the sun?
    • Elizabethan Thought and Culture 22 September 2009 23:54 UTC staff.fcps.net [Source type: General]

    ^ The geocentric model places the Earth at the center of the universe with the Sun , Moon , stars , and planets circling it.
    • Copernicus | Universe Today 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.universetoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Near the sun is the center of the universe.^ Near its center let the sun be E .
    • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Near the sun is the center of the universe.
    • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
    • copernicus 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.humanistictexts.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
    • WikiSlice 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The center of the universe is near the Sun.
    • WikiSlice 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Moreover, since the sun remains stationary, whatever appears as a motion of the sun is really due rather to the motion of the earth.^ Moreover, since the sun remains stationary, whatever appears as a motion of the sun is really due rather to the motion of the earth.
    • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
    • copernicus 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.humanistictexts.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Nicolaus Copernicus - The Revolutions of the Celestial Orbs - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Moreover, since the sun remains stationary, whatever appears as a motion of the sun is really due rather to the motion of the earth."
    • WikiSlice 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Retrograde motion of a planet in its orbit is due to the motion of the Earth around the Sun.
    • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    • Book 1, Ch. .10
  • At rest, however, in the middle of everything is the sun. For, in this most beautiful temple, who would place this lamp in another or better position than that from which it can light up the whole thing at the same time?^ The most beautiful thing we can experience is the mysterious.
    • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

    ^ At rest, however, in the middle of everything is the sun.
    • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
    • copernicus 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.humanistictexts.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Nicolaus Copernicus - The Revolutions of the Celestial Orbs - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ As the location of this luminary in the cosmos, that most beautiful temple, would there be any other place or any better place than the centre, from which it can light up everything at the same time?
    • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | February 19| Pisces, Copernicus, Donner Party, Mamma Cass, Multatuli, Goddess month Bridhe, French Revolutionary Calendar 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

    .For, the sun is not inappropriately called by some people the lantern of the universe, its mind by others, and its ruler by still others.^ For, the sun is not inappropriately called by some people the lantern of the universe, its mind by others, and its ruler by still others.
    • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
    • WikiSlice 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Hence the sun is not inappropriately called by some the lamp of the universe, by others its mind, and by others its ruler.
    • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | February 19| Pisces, Copernicus, Donner Party, Mamma Cass, Multatuli, Goddess month Bridhe, French Revolutionary Calendar 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Aptly indeed is he named by some the lantern of the universe, by others the mind, by others the ruler.
    • Nicolaus Copernicus Quotes - Dictionary of Science Quotations and Scientist Quotes 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The Thrice Greatest labels it a visible god, and Sophocles' Electra, the all-seeing.^ (Hermes) the Thrice Greatest labels it a visible god, and Sophocles’ Electra, the all-seeing.
    • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Trismegistus called him the visible God, Sophocles' Electra, the watcher over all things.
    • Nicolaus Copernicus Quotes - Dictionary of Science Quotations and Scientist Quotes 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.todayinsci.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Thrice Greatest labels it a visible god, and Sophocles' Electra, the all-seeing.
    • WikiSlice 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Thus indeed, as though seated on a royal throne, the sun governs the family of planets revolving around it.
    • Book 1, Ch.^ Thus indeed, as though upon a royal throne, the sun governs the family of planets revolving around it.
      • Nicolaus Copernicus - The Revolutions of the Celestial Orbs - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Thus indeed, as though seated on a royal throne, the sun governs the family of planets revolving around it.
      • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Thus indeed, as though seated on a royal throne, the sun governs the family of planets revolving around it."
      • WikiSlice 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      10

Quotes about Copernicus

.
Of all discoveries and opinions, none may have exerted a greater effect on the human spirit than the doctrine of Copernicus. ~ Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
  • Of all discoveries and opinions, none may have exerted a greater effect on the human spirit than the doctrine of Copernicus. The world had scarcely become known as round and complete in itself when it was asked to waive the tremendous privilege of being the center of the universe.^ The world had scarcely become known as round and complete in itself when it was asked to waive the tremendous privilege of being the centre of the universe.

    ^ Goethe : "Of all discoveries and opinions, none may have exerted a greater effect on the human spirit than the doctrine of Copernicus.

    ^ The world had scarcely become known as round and complete in itself when it was asked to waive the tremendous privilege of being the center of the universe.
    • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | February 19| Pisces, Copernicus, Donner Party, Mamma Cass, Multatuli, Goddess month Bridhe, French Revolutionary Calendar 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]
    • WikiSlice 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Never, perhaps, was a greater demand made on mankind — for by this admission so many things vanished in mist and smoke!^ Never, perhaps, was a greater demand made on mankind — for by this admission so many things vanished in mist and smoke!
    • Nicolaus Copernicus 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • WikiSlice 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Never, perhaps, was a greater demand made on mankind for by this admission so many things vanished in mist and smoke!
    • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | February 19| Pisces, Copernicus, Donner Party, Mamma Cass, Multatuli, Goddess month Bridhe, French Revolutionary Calendar 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

    .What became of our Eden, our world of innocence, piety and poetry; the testimony of the senses; the conviction of a poetic — religious faith?^ What became of our Eden, our world of innocence, piety and poetry; the testimony of the senses; the conviction of a poetic — religious faith?
    • Nicolaus Copernicus 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • WikiSlice 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ What became of our Eden, our world of innocence, piety and poetry; the testimony of the senses; the conviction of a poetic religious faith?
    • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | February 19| Pisces, Copernicus, Donner Party, Mamma Cass, Multatuli, Goddess month Bridhe, French Revolutionary Calendar 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Natural faith (not to be confused with religious faith) is still a crucial part of our lives.
    • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

    .No wonder his contemporaries did not wish to let all this go and offered every possible resistance to a doctrine which in its converts authorized and demanded a freedom of view and greatness of thought so far unknown, indeed not even dreamed of.^ No wonder his contemporaries did not wish to let all this go and offered every possible resistance to a doctrine which in its converts authorized and demanded a freedom of view and greatness of thought so far unknown, indeed not even dreamed of."
    • Nicolaus Copernicus 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • WikiSlice 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ No wonder his contemporaries did not wish to let all this go and offered every possible resistance to a doctrine which in its converts authorized and demanded a freedom of view and greatness of thought so far unknown, indeed not even dreamed of.
    • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | February 19| Pisces, Copernicus, Donner Party, Mamma Cass, Multatuli, Goddess month Bridhe, French Revolutionary Calendar 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

    ^ He was no ordinary astronomer, inasmuch as Plato did not delay going to Italy for the sake of visiting him, as Plato 's biographers report.
    • Nicolaus Copernicus - The Revolutions of the Celestial Orbs - 'Squashed Philosophers' Abridged Edition 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • It gave me pleasure to contemplate the right of the Polish nobleman to upset with his simple veto the determinations of a [parliamentary] session; and the Pole Copernicus seemed to have made of this right against the determinations and presentations of other people, the greatest and worthiest use.^ Nietzsche : "I was pleased to think of the right of the Polish nobleman to upset with its simple veto the resolution of a (parliament) meeting; and the Pole Copernikus seemed to have made from this right against the resolution and all appearances of other people the largest and worthiest use."

    ^ "It gave me pleasure to contemplate the right of the Polish nobleman to upset with his simple veto the determinations of a [parliamentary] session; and the Pole Copernicus seemed to have made of this right against the determinations and presentations of other people, the greatest and worthiest use."
    • WikiSlice 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Johannes Rau (at that time President of Germany) addresses the Polish people in 1999: "Poles and Germans have a common history of great scientists: Today we no longer perceive Copernicus, Hevelius, Schopenhauer, and Fahrenheit as the property of one nation but as representatives of one transnational culture."

    .
  • The nationality question has been a subject of various writings; an honoring controversy over the claim to the founder of our current world view is conducted between Poles and Germans, but as already mentioned nothing certain can be determined concerning the nationality of Copernicus' parents; the father seems to have been of Slavic birth, the mother German; he was born in a city whose municipal authorities and educated inhabitants were Germans, but which at the time of his birth was under Polish rule; he studied at the Polish capital, Krakau, then in Italy, and lived out his days as a canon in Frauenburg; he wrote Latin and German.^ Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie : ADB, published between 1875 and 1912, Seite 465 "The nationality question was a subject of different writings; an honouring controversy over the claim to the founder of our current world view is led between Poles and Germans, but it is already mentioned that over the nationality of parents of the Copernicus nothing sure could be determined; the father seems to be of Slavic birth, the mother to be a German; he was born in a city, whose municipal authorities and educated inhabitants were Germans, which however at present of his birth was under Polish rule; he studied in Krakau in the Polish capital, then in Italy and lived to his end in Frauenburg as a capitular; he wrote Latin and German.

    ^ "The nationality question has been a subject of various writings; an honoring controversy over the claim to the founder of our current world view is conducted between Poles and Germans, but as already mentioned nothing certain can be determined concerning the nationality of Copernicus' parents; the father seems to have been of Slavic birth, the mother German; he was born in a city whose municipal authorities and educated inhabitants were Germans, but which at the time of his birth was under Polish rule; he studied at the Polish capital, Kraków, then in Italy, and lived out his days as a canon in Frauenburg; he wrote Latin and German.
    • WikiSlice 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A German or a Pole: here is the question that is central to the dispute between the Polish and German scientists.
    • Visit Toruń - Nicolaus Copernicus 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC test.visittorun.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .In science, he is a man who belongs to no single nation, whose labors and strivings belong to the whole world, and in C. we do not honor the Pole nor the German, but the man of free spirit, the great astronomer, the father of the new astronomy, the originator of the true Weltanschauung (world view).^ Zeus is true colours his view of science.
    • Dembski interviewed over Design of Life | Uncommon Descent 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC www.uncommondescent.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In science, he is a man who belongs to no single nation, whose labors and strivings belong to the whole world, and we do not honor the Pole nor the German in Copernicus, but the man of free spirit, the great astronomer, the father of the new astronomy, the author of the true world view."
    • WikiSlice 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In the science he is a man, who does not belong to a nation, his working, his striving belongs to the whole world, and we do not honour the Pole, not the German, in Copernicus but the man of free spirit, the great astronomer, the father of the new astronomy, the author of the true world view."

    .
    • Translation of the entry on Nicolaus Copernicus in the German Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (1875), p.^ Nicolaus Copernicus biography and lifeline.
      • Nicolaus Copernicus 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie : ADB, published between 1875 and 1912, Seite 465 .
      • WikiSlice 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Whatever his descent, Nicolaus Copernicus had an excellent command of German and Latin.
      • Visit Toruń - Nicolaus Copernicus 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC test.visittorun.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .465
  • Germans and Poles have bitterly disputed the question of Copernicus's ethnic origin, each national group claiming the distinguished astronomer for its own.^ Historical background to the question of Copernicus' nationality .

    ^ "Poles and Germans have a common history of great scientists: Today we no longer perceive Copernicus, Hevelius, Schopenhauer and Fahrenheit as the property of one nation but as representatives of one transnational culture."
    • WikiSlice 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In the science he is a man, who does not belong to a nation, his working, his striving belongs to the whole world, and we do not honour the Pole, not the German, in Copernicus but the man of free spirit, the great astronomer, the father of the new astronomy, the author of the true world view."

    Where does the truth lie in this controversy? .Politically, Copernicus was a subject of the king of Poland; he remained loyal to the Roman Catholic church ; and he wrote chiefly in Latin, but a few of his private letters were composed in German.^ Must it be abandonded to the Roman Catholic Church?
    • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He was above all a loyal subject to the King of Poland and a native of Toruń.
    • Visit Toruń - Nicolaus Copernicus 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC test.visittorun.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In 1543 Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), a Catholic church administrator from northern Poland, announced a heliocentric astronomy that removed the earth from the center of the universe and led, ultimate- ly, to the overturning of the medieval world view.
    • DAVID C 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC www.asa3.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
  • I thought that this auction with other nations for geniuses and heroes, for merits and cultural achievement, was really quite awkward from the point of view of propaganda tactics because with our half-French Chopin and not quite native Copernicus, we cannot compete with the Italians, French, Germans, English, or Russians.^ In 1972 the Polish Academy of Sciences under the direction of J. Dobrzycki published critical editions of the Complete Works of Copernicus in six languages: Latin, English, French, German, Polish, and Russian.
    • Nicolaus Copernicus (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Though Prussia eventually assimilated into German culture, the native Old Prussian language and cultural traditions were still alive in Copernicus's time.
    • Nicolaus Copernicus 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ But when reality offends, there is no hope for your point of view.
    • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

    Therefore, it is exactly this approach that condemns us to inferiority. .
  • Poles and Germans have a common history of great scientists: Today we no longer perceive Copernicus, Hevelius, Schopenhauer and Fahrenheit as the property of one nation but as representatives of one transnational culture.^ "Poles and Germans have a common history of great scientists: Today we no longer perceive Copernicus, Hevelius, Schopenhauer and Fahrenheit as the property of one nation but as representatives of one transnational culture."
    • WikiSlice 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Johannes Rau (at that time President of Germany) addresses the Polish people in 1999: "Poles and Germans have a common history of great scientists: Today we no longer perceive Copernicus, Hevelius, Schopenhauer, and Fahrenheit as the property of one nation but as representatives of one transnational culture."

    ^ Copernicus was one of the great polymaths of the Renaissance .

  • On the five-hundred-thirtieth anniversary of the birth, and the four-hundred-sixtieth anniversary of the death, of Mikołaj Kopernik, the Senate of the Polish Republic expresses its highest esteem and praise for this exceptional Pole, one of the greatest scientists in world history. .Mikołaj Kopernik, world-famous astronomer and author of the landmark work, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, "stopped the Sun and moved the Earth."^ Copernicus worked on a book explaining his ideas and conclusions, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium .
    • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Publication of De revolutionibus orbium coelestium .

    ^ Mikołaj Kopernik, world-famous astronomer and author of the landmark work, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium , "stopped the Sun and moved the Earth."
    • WikiSlice 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .He distinguished himself for Poland as an exceptional mathematician, economist, lawyer, physician and priest, as well as defender of Olsztyn Castle during the Polish-Teutonic war.^ He distinguished himself for the country as exceptional mathematician, economist, lawyer, doctor and priest, as well as defender of the Olsztyn Castle during Polish-Teutonic war.

    ^ He distinguished himself for Poland as an exceptional mathematician, economist, lawyer, physician and priest, as well as defender of Olsztyn Castle during the Polish-Teutonic war.
    • WikiSlice 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In 1516-1519 and in mid-1521 he administered Olsztyn chapter property and in 1520-1521 defended Olsztyn castle in the war against the Teutonic Order .
    • Visit Toruń - Nicolaus Copernicus 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC test.visittorun.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .May the memory of his achievements endure and be a source of inspiration to future generations.^ May the memory of his achievements endure and be a source of inspiration to future generations."
    • WikiSlice 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ May the memory of his achievements endure and be a source of inspiration for future generations."

    .
  • The division of the seamless garment of Christendom into separate nations or sovereign states, which today we accept as a matter of course, was then only beginning.^ Declaration of the Polish Senate issued on 12th of June 2003.

    ^ Thirty years later, on June 12, 2003, the Polish Senate declared him an "exceptional Pole."
    • WikiSlice 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Declaration of the Polish Senate, June 12, 2003 : .
    • WikiSlice 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC dev.laptop.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .And the idea that people belong to all sorts of different races, with boasts of racial "purity" or "superiority", is something that has come up practically within the memories of people still alive.^ Although I’m a Baptist myself and brought up within the Christian ethos, I believe the only religions that comes close to scientific discovery are Hinduism/Sikhism.
    • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

    ^ All of you should look within the heart for your own answers, some people just don’t have this dimensional makeup and lack the added insight.
    • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Did you come up with this all by yourself or did your precious little pope come up with it?
    • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

    .Hence if the astronomer had been asked concerning his race and nation, he might have replied that he was a loyal son of the Church[1], but otherwise would scarcely have understood the questions.^ The educators of early America understood that the moral climate of its schools, colleges and universities would shape its future generations, and could ultimately decide the course of the nation.

    ^ What exactly would you folks have him do when someone asks for a straight answer to a straight question?
    • Dembski interviewed over Design of Life | Uncommon Descent 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC www.uncommondescent.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Even for us today it is not an easy question to answer.^ Imagine there’s no Heaven It’s easy if you try No hell below us Above us only sky Imagine all the people Living for today .
    • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If you can’t even come up with a simple answer to the most fundamental question to our existence, and that being “what occurred before the big bang”, you expect us believers to be awed by your pathetic “high intellect”.
    • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

    Torun was founded by Germans; its leading citizens, like those of Cracow, were mostly Germans. .Hence the astronomer may well have been of German extraction.^ May 24 , 1543 ) , Polish - German astronomer , mathematician and economist .
    • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | February 19| Pisces, Copernicus, Donner Party, Mamma Cass, Multatuli, Goddess month Bridhe, French Revolutionary Calendar 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

    [2] .The possible connection of the family on both sides with Silesia does not prove much either way for its population was a mixed one.^ In the centuries that followed, Western astronomers proved that the Sun was just one of countless stars and that the Milky Way is just one among countless billions of galaxies in the known universe.
    • A History of Mathematical Astronomy - Part 2 | The Brussels Journal 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.brusselsjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Criminalizing Criticism of Islam…..Geert Wilders Trial… « Centurean2’s Weblog 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC centurean2.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ From either standpoint, both sides of the fence could be called delusional, on one side the mere denial of god’s works in progress and the fact that something that can’t be tested simply must not exist.
    • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

    .On the other hand, the ancestors, especially on the father's side, must have lived for so many generations under allegiance to the King of Poland as to be, for all practical purposes, Poles.^ On the other hand, these days, many people are too easily “offended”.
    • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Our task must be to free ourselves by widening our circle of compassion to embrace all living creatures and the whole of nature and its beauty.
    • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Greed, on the other hand, generates mayhem, murder, temple-robbery, poisoning, and other offspring of that sort.
    • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

    .And Copernicus followed the family tradition in siding with the Poles against the Germans in times of crisis.^ Though Prussia eventually assimilated into German culture, the native Old Prussian language and cultural traditions were still alive in Copernicus's time.
    • Nicolaus Copernicus 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The public has another piece of work from Copernicus and his musical family this time directed by the master, Pierce Turner.
    • COPERNICUS on MySpace Music - Free Streaming MP3s, Pictures & Music Downloads 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It blasphemes against pagan and idolatrous religious numerous times, even demanding in the name of Allah the genocide of the followers of any such religions.
    • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

    In any case, it was Poland, and Cracow above all, that first nourished the youthful genius of Copernicus. .And since his death it is chiefly the Poles who have gloried[3] in their share in him, and have cherished the renown his achievements have brought to their heroic and ill-starred nation.^ After the death of his father, he was sponsored by his uncle, Bishop Watzenrode, who sent him first to the University of Krakow, and then to study in Italy at the universities of Bologna, Padua and Ferrara.
    • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Earth's pole has caused changes in the positions of the stars since then)."
    • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | February 19| Pisces, Copernicus, Donner Party, Mamma Cass, Multatuli, Goddess month Bridhe, French Revolutionary Calendar 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Yet shall we say that God, who created man for the praise of His glory and gave to him the awesome gift of individuality, is thus defeated by the unreasonable choice of man?

    • Angus Armitage, British Copernican scholar, in "Sun, Stand Thou Still: The Life and Work of Copernicus, the Astronomer" of 1947. The title of later editions was shorted to "The World of Copernicus".

Misattributed

.
  • Therefore alongside the ancient hypotheses, which are no more probable, let us permit these new hypotheses also to become known, especially since they are admirable as well as simple and bring with them a huge treasure of very skillful observations.^ Therefore alongside the ancient hypotheses, which are no more probable, let us permit these new hypotheses also to become known, especially since they are admirable as well as simple and bring with them a huge treasure of very skillful observations.
    • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ My father took me to see a well known homeopath and two weeks later I was free of the pain and the weakness and have been ever since.
    • The memory of water a reality? | Science Blog 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.scienceblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ These NASA sites for youth offers new information daily as well as interesting space facts and live NASA TV on board the current flight mission!
    • Astronomy and Space 22 September 2009 23:54 UTC www.ba.k12.ok.us [Source type: General]

    .So far as hypotheses are concerned, let no one expect anything certain from astronomy, which cannot furnish it, lest he accept as the truth ideas conceived for another purpose, and depart from this study a greater fool than when he entered it.^ The truth is the truth even if no one believes it.
    • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

    ^ So far as hypotheses are concerned, let no one expect anything certain from astronomy, which cannot furnish it, lest he accept as the truth ideas conceived for another purpose, and depart from this study a greater fool than when he entered it.
    • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Let no one untrained in geometry enter here.
    • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

    • Part of an unsigned foreword to Copernicus' De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, actually written by Andreas Osiander.
Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.COPERNICUS (or [[Koppernigk), Nicolaus]] (1473-1543), Polish astronomer, was born on the 19th of February 1473, at Thorn in Prussian Poland, where his father, a native of Cracow, had settled as a wholesale trader.^ Nicolaus Copernicus University, Poland, gives students non-stop Internet freedom with Meru WLAN .
  • Meru Networks | Press Releases 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.merunetworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1923, on Nicolaus Copernicus 450th birth anniversary, a Polish commemorative plaque was unveiled there.
  • Visit Toruń - Nicolaus Copernicus 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC test.visittorun.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Graduated from Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Poland (1969), then earned a Ph.D. degree in physics there in 1975.
  • Net of Children Projects 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC webnews.textalk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His mother, Barbara Watzelrode, belonged to a family of high mercantile and civic standing.^ His mother, Barbara Watzelrode, came from an old patrician Torun family.
  • Nicolaus Copernicus, his Theory and Times - Polish Culture 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC culture.polishsite.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His mother, Barbara Watzelrode, belonged to a family of high mercantile and civic standing.

^ (Anatoly T. Fomenko in History: Fiction or Science: Chronology 3, 2007) Copernicus' mother, Barbara Watzenrode, was from prosperous local family.
  • Nicolaus Copernicus 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.kirjasto.sci.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the death of his father in 1483, Nicolaus was virtually adopted by his uncle Lucas Watzelrode, later (in 1489) bishop of Ermeland.^ After his father's death (1483), his uncle Lucas Watzenrode, who was a canon in the Wloclawek Chapter and later the bishop of Warmia, became guardian to young Nicolaus.
  • NCU - Patron 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.umk.pl [Source type: Academic]

^ After the death of his father in 1483, Nicolaus was virtually adopted by his uncle Lucas Watzelrode, later (in 1489) bishop of Ermeland .

^ The education of Nicolaus, whose father died early, was undertaken by his uncle Lukas Watzelrode, subsequently (1489) bishop of Ermeland.
  • Talk:1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Copernicus, Nicolaus - Wikisource 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Placed at the university of Cracow in 1491, he devoted himself, during three years, to mathematical science under Albert Brudzewski (1445-1497), and incidentally acquired some skill in painting.^ Placed at the university of Cracow in 1491, he devoted himself, during three years, to mathematical science under Albert Brudzewski (1445-1497), and incidentally acquired some skill in painting .

^ After a course of instruction at the school in Thorn, ha entered the university of Cracow in 1491, and during four years studied mathematical science under Albert Brudzewski, devoting his spare time to painting.
  • Talk:1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Copernicus, Nicolaus - Wikisource 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1491 Copernicus enrolled in the University of Cracow.
  • Nicolaus Copernicus (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the age of twenty-three he repaired to Bologna, and there varied his studies of canon law by attending the astronomical lectures of Domenico Maria Novara (1454-1504).^ Copernicus begins Law studies at Bologna.
  • Nicolaus Copernicus Museum in Frombork 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.frombork.art.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In January 1497 Copernicus began to study canon law at the University of Bologna while living in the home of a mathematics professor, Domenico Maria de Novara (1454-1504).
  • Copernicus, Nicolaus - Cosmeo 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.cosmeo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the age of twenty-three he repaired to Bologna , and there varied his studies of canon law by attending the astronomical lectures of Domenico Maria Novara (1454-1504).

.At Rome, in the Jubilee year 1500, he himself lectured with applause; but having been nominated in 1497 canon of the cathedral of Frauenburg, he recrossed the Alps in 1501 with the purpose of obtaining further leave of absence for the completion of his academic career.^ In 1500 he delivered several lectures in Rome.
  • NCU - Patron 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.umk.pl [Source type: Academic]

^ At Rome , in the Jubilee year 1500, he himself lectured with applause ; but having been nominated in 1497 canon of the cathedral of Frauenburg , he recrossed the Alps in 1501 with the purpose of obtaining further leave of absence for the completion of his academic career.

^ In 1500 he started lecturing on astronomy at Rome.
  • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Late in the same year, accordingly, he entered the medical school of Padua, where he remained until 1505, having taken meanwhile a doctor's degree in canon law at Ferrara on the 31st of May 1503. After his return to his native country he resided at the episcopal palace of Heilsberg as his uncle's physician until the latter's death on the 29th of March 1512. He then retired to Frauenburg, and vigorously attended to his capitular duties.^ Except for a short interruption in 1503, when he was granted the degree of doctor of canon law by the University of Ferrara, he spent almost four years in Padua.
  • ��������� ������/ ������� �������� ���������/ Nicolaus Copernicus/ Mikolaj/ Nikolaj Kopernik Biography 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.homeenglish.ru [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the death of his uncle in 1512, Copernicus returned to his duties as canon, and also to his astronomical studies.
  • Nicolaus Copernicus - Father of Modern Astronomy - Astronomy 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.bellaonline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Late in the same year, accordingly, he entered the medical school of Padua , where he remained until 1505, having taken meanwhile a doctor's degree in canon law at Ferrara on the 31st of May 1503.

.He never took orders, but acted continually as the representative of the chapter under harassing conditions, administrative and political; he was besides commissary of the diocese of Ermeland; his medical skill, always at the service of the poor, was frequently in demand by the rich; and he laid a scheme for the reform of the currency before the Diet of Graudenz in 1522. Yet he found time, amid these multifarious occupations, to elaborate an entirely new system of astronomy, by the adoption of which man's outlook on the universe was fundamentally changed.^ He never took orders, but acted continually as the representative of the chapter under harassing conditions, administrative and political; he was besides commissary of the diocese of Ermeland ; his medical skill, always at the service of the poor, was frequently in demand by the rich; and he laid a scheme for the reform of the currency before the Diet of Graudenz in 1522.

^ Yet he found time, amid these multifarious occupations, to elaborate an entirely new system of astronomy , by the adoption of which man's outlook on the universe was fundamentally changed.

^ He was occupied instead with administrative and political affairs and with providing medical assistance to local citizens.

.The main lines of his great work were laid down at Heilsberg; at Frauenburg, from 1513, he sought, with scanty instrumental means, to test by observation the truth of the views it embodied (see Astronomy: History). His dissatisfaction with Ptolemaic doctrines was of early date; and he returned from Italy, where so-called Pythagorean opinions were then freely discussed, in strong and irrevocable possession of the heliocentric theory.^ In this work he laid down the principles of his new heliocentric astronomy.
  • COPERNICUS, Nicolaus 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Yahoo! Kids Space - Articles 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC kids.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Copernicus, Nicolaus - Cosmeo 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.cosmeo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ptolemaic theory was not seriously questioned until the great work of .
  • Copernicus, Revolution Of Astronomy 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His dissatisfaction with Ptolemaic doctrines was of early date; and he returned from Italy , where so-called Pythagorean opinions were then freely discussed, in strong and irrevocable possession of the heliocentric theory.

.The epoch-making treatise in which it was set forth, virtually finished in 1530, began to be known through the circulation in manuscript of a Commentariolus, or brief popular account of its purport written by Copernicus in that year.^ In 1518 he began his seminal work, On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres , which was finished by 1530 although not published until 1543, just before his death.
  • Rebuilding the Universe - Copernicus Galileo Kepler and Newton 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.scienceandyou.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Copernicus discovered the earth makes a complete rotation every 24 hours to make a day and makes a complete orbit around the sun every 365 days to make a year.
  • IMA Hero: Galileo Galilei HT 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.imahero.com [Source type: General]

^ Later, he composed a short manuscript on astronomy known as the Commentariolus ("Little Commentary") and wrote a treatise on money.
  • KnowledgeNews :: Copernicus Cashes In 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC knowledgenews.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Johann Albrecht Widmanstadt lectured upon it in Rome; Clement VII.^ Lectures on the principles expounded in the Commentariolus were given in Rome in 1533 before Pope Clement VII, who approved, and a formal request to publish was made to Copernicus in 1536.
  • Copernicus 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC abyss.uoregon.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ��������� ������/ ������� �������� ���������/ Nicolaus Copernicus/ Mikolaj/ Nikolaj Kopernik Biography 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.homeenglish.ru [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Painting by Jan Matejko In 1533, Johann Albrecht Widmannstetter delivered a series of lectures in Rome, outlining Copernicus' theory.

^ The theories of Copernicus were the subject of series of lectures by Johann Albrecht Widmannstetter in 1533.
  • Important Facts About Nicolaus Copernicus and his theory of the Heliocentric model of the Solar System and the motion of the planets. 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.brighthub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

approved, and .Cardinal Schonberg transmitted to the author a formal demand for full publication.^ Cardinal Schonberg transmitted to the author a formal demand for full publication.

^ A formal request to publish was made by Nicholas Schonberg, Cardinal of Capua .
  • When the Earth Moved: Copernicus and his Heliocentric System of the Universe 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC info-poland.buffalo.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pope Clement II approved of the ideas expressed and transmitted a request via the Polish Cardinal that the ideas be published in full.

.But his assent to this was only extracted from him in 1540 by the importunities of his friends, especially of his enthusiastic disciple George Joachim Rheticus (1514-1576), who printed, in the Narratio prima (Danzig, 1540), a preliminary account of the Copernican theory, and simultaneously sent to the press at Nuremberg his master's complete exposition of it in the treatise entitled De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (1543).^ Rheticus and the Narratio prima .
  • Nicolaus Copernicus (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Georg Johann RHETICUS (1514-1574).
  • COPERNICUS, Nicolaus (1473-1543). De revolutionibus orbium coelestium. - Georg Johann RHETICUS (1514-1574). De libris revolutionum Nicolai Copernici Narratio prima. Basel: Heinrich Petri, 1566. | Books & Manuscripts Auction | Books & Manuscripts, Germany | Christie's 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.christies.com [Source type: General]

^ The Narratio prima was printed in 1540 in Gdansk (then Danzig); thus, it was the first printed description of the Copernican thesis.
  • Nicolaus Copernicus (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC plato.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But the first printed copy reached Frauenburg barely in time to be laid on the writer's death-bed.^ Nicolaus Copernicus died on May 24, 1543 and legend has it that he saw the first copy on his death bed, and on the day he died, but this is considered unlikely because he had been unconscious for some days before he died.

^ Copernicus received the printed copy of his work in six books, only a few hours before his death on May 24, 1543.
  • Nicolaus Copernicus Biography - life, family, death, history, young, book, information, born, time, year 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.notablebiographies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Concerns about his time’s mentality Delayed publication of his master piece On the day of death in 1543 Recieved the copy of the epiphany .
  • Week 36 - The remains of Nicolaus Copernicus 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.oneweeklygun.com [Source type: General]

.Copernicus was seized with apoplexy and paralysis towards the close of 1542, and died on the 24th of May 1543, happily unconscious that the fine Epistle, in which he had dedicated his life's work to Paul III., was marred of its effect by an anonymous preface, slipt in by Andreas Osiander (1498-1552), with a view to disarming prejudice by insisting upon the purely hypothetical character of the reasonings it introduced.^ He died May 23, 1543.
  • Nicolaus Copernicus@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Nicolaus Copernicus@Everything2.com 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Towards the close of 1542 he was seized with apoplexy and paralysis and on May 24, 1543 an advanced copy of his future book was presented to him.

^ Copernicus died a year later, in 1543.
  • www.mrnussbaum.com - Nicolaus Copernicus 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.mrnussbaum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The trigonometrical section of the book had been issued as a separate treatise (Wittenberg, 1542) under the care of Rheticus.^ Rheticus' book has also been translated into English, with an introduction by G. Hooykaas, under the title G.J. Rheticus' Treatise on Holy Scripture and the Motion of the Earth (North Holland Publishing Company, 1984).
  • Copernicus' Astronomy and Scientific Argument in the Renaissance 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC www.humanistsofutah.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of necessity, the book contains many sections devoted to new results in trigonometry together with previously published trigonometric results; most of Copernicus' mathematical contributions are in this field.
  • Geometry.Net - Scientists: Copernicus Nicolaus 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC www5.geometry.net [Source type: Academic]

^ A treatise on trigonometry, with tables of sines, entitled Da Lateribus et Angulis Triangulorum, Wittenberg, 1542, 4to ; 3.
  • Talk:1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Copernicus, Nicolaus - Wikisource 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The only work published by Copernicus on his own initiative was a Latin version of the Greek Epistles of Theophylact (Cracow, 1509).^ The work was published in Cracow in 1509 and dedicated to his uncle.
  • Nicolaus Copernicus (Polish astronomer) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Nicolas Copernicus Biography - Biography.com 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.biography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He only published his work at the end of his life.
  • The Discovery of the Solar System--lesson plan #17 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www-spof.gsfc.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The work, printed in Cracow in 1509, demonstrated Copernicus's interest in the arts.
  • Nicolaus Copernicus Biography - life, family, death, history, young, book, information, born, time, year 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.notablebiographies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His treatise De monetae cudendae ratione, 1526 (first printed in 1816), written by order of King Sigismund I., is an exposition of the principles on which it was proposed to reform the currency of the Prussian provinces of Poland.^ His treatise De monetae cudendae ratione, 1526 (first printed in 1816), written by order of King Sigismund I ., is an exposition of the principles on which it was proposed to reform the currency of the Prussian provinces of Poland .

^ He also published for his uncle in 1509 a Latin translation of Greek verses of Theophylactus, a Byzantine poet of the 7th century AD, and from 1519 to 1528 prepared an exposition of the principles of currency reform for certain Polish provinces; the latter was not published in Warsaw, however, until 1816.
  • Copernicus 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC abyss.uoregon.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ��������� ������/ ������� �������� ���������/ Nicolaus Copernicus/ Mikolaj/ Nikolaj Kopernik Biography 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.homeenglish.ru [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He found time to command the defense of the province from an attack by the Teutonic Knights, and he issued a treatise on monetary reform which normalized the system of weights and measures.
  • NICOLAUS COPERNICUS (This Rock: January 1991) 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.catholic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It advocates unity of the monetary system throughout the entire state, with strict integrity in the quality of the coin, and the charge of a seigniorage sufficient to cover the expenses of mintage.^ It advocates unity of the monetary system throughout the entire state, with strict integrity in the quality of the coin , and the charge of a seigniorage sufficient to cover the expenses of mintage.

Authorities

- .Rheticus was the only contemporary biographer of Copernicus, and his narrative perished irretrievably.^ Rheticus was the only contemporary biographer of Copernicus, and his narrative perished irretrievably.

^ It is beginning with the biographical notes by Georg Joachim Rheticus (1514-1576), the only one disciple of Nicolaus Copernicus.
  • 2nd ICESHS 2006: Online Book of Abstracts - Symposium R-4 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC www.2iceshs.cyfronet.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before the publication, Copernicus' student, his only student, Georg Joachim Rheticus (1514-1574), wrote the Narratio prima (1540), describing the principles of the new cosmology.
  • Nicolaus Copernicus 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.kirjasto.sci.fi [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gassendi's jejune Life (Paris, 1654) is thus the earliest extant of any note.^ Gassendi's jejune Life (Paris, 1654) is thus the earliest extant of any note.

.It was supplemented, during the 19th century, by the various publications of J. Sniadecki (Warsaw, 1803-1818); of J. H. W. Westphal, J. Czynski, M. Curtze, H. A. Wolynski, F. Hipler, and others, but their efforts were overshadowed by Dr Leopold Prowe's exhaustive Nicolaus Coppernicus (Berlin, 1883-1884), embodying the outcome of researches indefatigably prosecuted for over thirty years.^ The reform that gave the Western world its modern calendar followed the publication of De Revolutionbus by only thirty-nine years.
  • When the Earth Moved: Copernicus and his Heliocentric System of the Universe 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC info-poland.buffalo.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As is well known, during the first half-century after the publication of Copernicus' De revolutionibus , his ideas met with little acclaim.
  • 2nd ICESHS 2006: Online Book of Abstracts - Symposium R-4 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC www.2iceshs.cyfronet.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other events during the 16th Century helped establish Copernicus’ theory as valid.
  • Nicolaus Copernicus: Forerunner of the Scientific Revolution 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC weuropeanhistory.suite101.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first volume (in two parts) is a detailed biography of the great astronomer; the second includes some of his minor writings and correspondence, family records, and historical documents of local interest.^ Rheticus became Copernicus's pupil, staying with him for two years and writing a book, Narratio prima (First Account), outlining the essence of Copernicus's theory.
  • Copernicus, Nicolaus - OPT Telescopes 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.optcorp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A review of the life and work of the great Polish astronomer, the history behind the writing of the book and its later fates, and an introduction to the Copernican model of the universe.

^ The astronomical data compiled by the early Chinese astronomers is of great value as no other records exist from around this period.
  • OASI - Famous Astronomers 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.ast.cam.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The effects of his Italian sojourn upon the nascent ideas of Copernicus may be profitably studied in Domenico Berti's Copernico e le vicende del sistema Copernicano in Italia (Roma, 1876), and in G. V. Schiaparelli's I Precursori del Copernico nell' antichitd (Milano, 1873).^ Nearly twenty years later, after an Italian astronomer gave a lecture outlining Copernicus' ideas, he was ready to deliver an official book about his theory.
  • www.mrnussbaum.com - Nicolaus Copernicus 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.mrnussbaum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nicolaus undertook Greek studies and astronomy (Copernicus's further research in the latter discipline must have been inspired by his contacts with an Italian astronomer Domenico Maria de Novara).
  • NCU - Patron 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.umk.pl [Source type: Academic]

^ While continuing his law studies in the city of Bologna, Copernicus became fascinated in astronomy after meeting the famous astronomer Domenico Maria Novara.
  • www.mrnussbaum.com - Nicolaus Copernicus 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.mrnussbaum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A centenary edition of De revolutionibus orbium coelestium was issued at Thorn in 1873, and a German translation by C. L. Menzzer in 1879. (A. M. C.) Copiapo, a city of northern Chile, capital of the province of Atacama, about 35 m.^ Sourced 1.1 De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (1543 ) 2 Quotes about Copernicus 3 Misattributed .
  • Nicolaus Copernicus - Wikiquote 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ De revolutionibus orbium coelestium.
  • Oregon State University /All Locations 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC oasis.orst.edu [Source type: General]
  • COPERNICUS, Nicolaus (1473-1543). De revolutionibus orbium coelestium. - Georg Johann RHETICUS (1514-1574). De libris revolutionum Nicolai Copernici Narratio prima. Basel: Heinrich Petri, 1566. | Books & Manuscripts Auction | Books & Manuscripts, Germany | Christie's 15 January 2010 13:47 UTC www.christies.com [Source type: General]

^ De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (1543 ) .
  • Nicolaus Copernicus - Wikiquote 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

from the coast on the Copiapo river, in lat. 27° 36' S., long. 70 23' W. Pop. (1895) 93 01. The Caldera & Copiapo railway (built 1848-1851 and one of the first in South America) extends beyond Copiapo to the Chanarcillo mines (50 m.) and other mining districts. Copiapo stands 1300 ft. above sea-level and has a mean temperature of about 67° in summer and 51° in winter. Its port, Caldera, 50 m. distant by rail, is situated on a well-sheltered bay with good shipping facilities about 6 m. N. of the mouth of the Copiapo river. .Copiapo is perhaps the best built and most attractive of the desert region cities.^ The universe was "built for us by the Best and Most Orderly Workman of all."

.The river brings down from the mountains enough water to supply the town and irrigate a considerable area in its vicinity.^ I. To the Sources of the Missouri, Thence Across the Rocky Mountains and Down the River Columbia to the Pacific Ocean.
  • Browse By Author: C - Project Gutenberg 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Beyond the small fertile valley in which it stands is the barren desert, on which rain rarely falls and which has no economic value apart from its minerals (especially saline compounds). .Copiapo was founded in 1742 by Jose de Manso (afterwards Conde de Superunda, viceroy of Peru) and took its name from the Copayapu Indians who occupied that region.^ To these regions, moreover, should be added the islands discovered in our time under the rulers of Spain and Portugal, and especially America, named after the ship’s captain who found it.
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Nicholas Copernicus | Calendars 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.webexhibits.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To these regions, moreover, should be added the islands discovered in our time under the rulers of Spain and Portugal, and especially America, named after the ship's captain who found it .
  • http://webexhibits 11 September 2009 8:56 UTC www.luc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Miguel De Unamuno – The skeptic does not mean him who doubts, but him who investigates or researches, as opposed to him who asserts and thinks that he has found .
  • Atheist Ireland Publishes 25 Blasphemous Quotes | blasphemy.ie 10 February 2010 13:44 UTC blasphemy.ie [Source type: Original source]

It was primarily a military station and transport post on the road to Peru, but after the discovery of the rich silver deposits near Chanarcillo by Juan Godoy in 1832 it became an important mining centre. It has a good mining school and reduction works, and is the supply station for an extensive mining district. .For many years the Famatina mines of Argentina received supplies from this point by way of the ComeCaballo pass.^ On his way to the Diet of Worms, Luther passed through Erfurt and was urged to preach in this city where he spent those agonizing years in the convent cell.



Wiktionary

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Proper noun

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Copernicus
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Copernicus
  1. A surname.

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