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©

Punctuation

apostrophe ( ' )
brackets ( [ ], ( ), { }, ⟨ ⟩ )
colon ( : )
comma ( , )
dashes ( , , , )
ellipses ( , ... )
exclamation mark ( ! )
full stop/period ( . )
guillemets ( « » )
hyphen ( -, )
question mark ( ? )
quotation marks ( ‘ ’, “ ” )
semicolon ( ; )
slash/stroke ( / )
solidus ( )
Word dividers
spaces ( ) () () ( ) () () ()
interpunct ( · )
General typography
ampersand ( & )
at sign ( @ )
asterisk ( * )
backslash ( \ )
bullet ( )
caret ( ^ )
copyright symbol ( © )
currency generic: ( ¤ )
specific: ฿, ¢, $, , ƒ, , , , £, , ¥, , , , , , ,
daggers ( , )
degree ( ° )
ditto mark ( )
inverted exclamation mark ( ¡ )
inverted question mark ( ¿ )
number sign/pound/hash ( # )
numero sign ( )
ordinal indicator (º, ª)
percent (etc.) ( %, ‰, )
pilcrow ( )
prime ( )
registered trademark ( ® )
section sign ( § )
service mark ( )
sound recording copyright symbol ( )
tilde ( ~ )
trademark ( )
underscore/understrike ( _ )
vertical/broken bar, pipe ( |, ¦ )
Uncommon typography
asterism ( )
falsum ( )
index/fist ( )
therefore sign ( )
because sign ( )
interrobang ( )
irony mark/percontation point ( ؟ )
lozenge ( )
reference mark ( )
tie ( )

the copyright symbol

The copyright symbol, designated by © (a circled "C"), is the symbol used to provide notice of copyright in works other than sound recordings (which are indicated with the symbol). The use of the symbol is described in United States copyright law,[1] and, internationally, by the Universal Copyright Convention.[2] The C stands for copyright.

In the United States, the copyright notice consists of

  1. the © symbol, or the word "Copyright" or abbreviation "Copr.";
  2. the year of first publication of the copyrighted work; and
  3. an identification of the owner of the copyright, either by name, abbreviation, or other designation by which it is generally known.[1]

The notice was once required in order to receive copyright protection in the United States, but in countries respecting the Berne convention this is no longer the case. See Copyright notices.

Because the © symbol has long been unavailable on typewriters and ASCII-based computer systems, it has been common to approximate this symbol with the characters (c), however this approximation has no standing in law.[3][4]

The character is mapped in Unicode under position U+00A9.[5] On Windows systems, it may be entered by means of Alt codes, by holding the Alt key while typing the numbers 0169 on the numeric keypad. On Macintosh systems, it may be entered with G. The HTML entity is ©, and it can also be referenced as © or ©.

The character CIRCLED LATIN SMALL LETTER C (, mapped in Unicode at position U+24D2[6]) is sometimes used as a substitute copyright symbol where the actual copyright symbol is not available in the character set; for example, in some Korean code pages.

Related symbols

  • The sound recording copyright symbol is the symbol (the capital letter P enclosed by a circle), and is used to designate copyright in a sound recording.
  • The copyleft symbol, a backwards C in a circle, is a logo associated with the copyleft form of licensing; it has no legal meaning.[7]
  • The registered trademark symbol is the symbol ® (the capital letter R enclosed by a circle), and is used in some jurisdictions to designate a trademark that has been registered in an official office of record (such as the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office in the United States).

See also

References

  1. ^ a b 17 U.S.C. § 401
  2. ^ Universal Copyright Convention, Article III, § 1 (Paris text, July 24, 1971)
  3. ^ Brad Templeton's copyright myths page http://www.templetons.com/brad/copymyths.html
  4. ^ Usenet Copyright Law FAQ (2/6) http://www.faqs.org/faqs/law/copyright/faq/part2/
  5. ^ http://www.unicode.org/charts/PDF/U0080.pdf
  6. ^ http://www.unicode.org/charts/PDF/U2460.pdf
  7. ^ Hall, G. Brent (2008). Open Source Approaches in Spatial Data Handling. Springer. p. 29. ISBN 354074830X.  Additional ISBN 9783540748304. See Open Source Approaches in Spatial Data Handling at Google Books, page 29.
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