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Cor Caroli (α CVn / α Canum Venaticorum / Alpha Canum Venaticorum, originally known by the more elaborate Cor Caroli Regis Martyris) is the brightest star in the northern constellation Canes Venatici. The name Cor Caroli means Charles' heart, and was named by Sir Charles Scarborough in honour of Charles I[1][2], who was executed in the aftermath of the English Civil War, and otherwise associated to Charles II of England, his son, who was restored to the throne after the interregnum following his father's death.[3]

Cor Caroli is a binary star with a combined apparent magnitude of 2.81. The two stars are 19.6 arcseconds apart in the sky and are easily resolved in small telescopes. The system lies approximately 110 light years from Earth. The brighter of the two stars is designated α² Canum Venaticorum, the fainter α¹ Canum Venaticorum.[4]

Cor Caroli marks the northern vertex of the Diamond of Virgo asterism.

α² Canum Venaticorum

α² Canum Venaticorum
Observation data
Epoch J2000.0      Equinox J2000.0 (ICRS)
Constellation Canes Venatici
Right ascension 12h 56m 01.6674s[5]
Declination +38° 19′ 06.167″[5]
Apparent magnitude (V) 2.84 to 2.98[6]
Characteristics
Spectral type A0pSiEuHg[7]
U-B color index −0.32[7]
B-V color index −0.12[7]
V-R color index 0.0[5]
R-I color index −0.06[7]
Variable type ACV[6]
Astrometry
Radial velocity (Rv) −3.3 ± 2[5] km/s
Proper motion (μ) RA: −233.43[5] mas/yr
Dec.: 54.98[5] mas/yr
Parallax (π) 29.60 ± 1.04[5] mas
Distance 110 ± 4 ly
(34 ± 1 pc)
Absolute magnitude (MV) 0.3[8]
Details
Radius 4.10[9] R
Rotational velocity (v sin i) 29[7] km/s
Other designations
α Canum Venaticorum A, α CVn A, Alpha Canum Venaticorum A, Alpha CVn A, α2 CVn, Alpha2 Canum Venaticorum, Alpha2 CVn, 12 Canum Venaticorum A, 12 CVn A, ADS 8706 A, BD+39 2580A, CCDM J12560+3819A, FK5 485, GC 17557, HD 112413, HIP 63125, HR 4915, IDS 12514+3851 A, LTT 13717, NLTT 32338, PPM 76815, SAO 63257.[5][7]
Database references
SIMBAD data

α² Canum Venaticorum has spectral type A0, and has an apparent visual magnitude which varies between 2.84 and 2.98, with a period of 5.47 days.[6][5] It is a chemically peculiar star with a strong magnetic field, about 5,000 times as strong as the Earth's, and is also classified as an Ap/Bp star.[10] Its atmosphere has overabundances of some elements, such as silicon, mercury, and europium. This is thought to be due to some elements sinking down into the star under the force of gravity while others are elevated by radiation pressure.[10][4] This star is the prototype of a class of variable stars, the so-called α² Canum Venaticorum stars. The strong magnetic field of these stars is believed to produce starspots of enormous extent. Due to these starspots the brightness of α² Canum Venaticorum stars varies considerably during their rotation.

α¹ Canum Venaticorum

α1 Canum Venaticorum
Observation data
Epoch J2000.0      Equinox J2000.0 (ICRS)
Constellation Canes Venatici
Right ascension 12h 56m 00.4522s[11]
Declination +38° 18′ 53.685″[11]
Apparent magnitude (V) 5.60[11]
Characteristics
Spectral type F0V[11]
U-B color index −0.03[12]
B-V color index +0.34[12]
V-R color index 0.3[11]
R-I color index +0.23[12]
Astrometry
Radial velocity (Rv) −3.1 ± 2[11] km/s
Proper motion (μ) RA: −203.89[11] mas/yr
Dec.: 88.34[11] mas/yr
Parallax (π) 29.60 ± 1.04[13] mas
Distance 110 ± 4 ly
(34 ± 1 pc)
Absolute magnitude (MV) 4[14]
Details
Radius 1.29[15] R
Rotational velocity (v sin i) 8[12] km/s
Other designations
α1 CVn, Alpha1 Canum Venaticorum, Alpha1 CVn, α Canum Venaticorum B, α CVn B, Alpha Canum Venaticorum B, Alpha CVn B, 12 Canum Venaticorum B, 12 CVn B, ADS 8706 B, BD+39 2580B, BD+39 2580, CCDM J12560+3819B, GC 17556, HD 112412, HIP 63121, HR 4914, IDS 12514+3851 B, LTT 13718, NLTT 32336, PPM 76814, SAO 63256.[11][12]
Database references
SIMBAD data

α1 Canum Venaticorum is a F-type main sequence star in the constellation of Canes Venatici. It is considerably fainter than its companion and has an apparent visual magnitude of approximately 5.60.[11]

References

  1. ^ space.com: Spacewatch Friday: In Search of Star Cities, By Joe Rao
  2. ^ Ian Ridpath: "Star Tales", Canes Venatici
  3. ^ According to R. H. Allen (Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning), the star was named by Halley for Charles II "at the suggestion of the court physician Sir Charles Scarborough, who said it had shone with special brilliance on the eve of the king's return to London, May 29, 1660". According to Deborah J. Warner (The Sky Explored: Celestial Cartography 1500-1800), it was originally named "Cor Caroli Regis Martyris" ("The Heart of King Charles the Martyr") for Charles I. According to Robert Burnham, Jr. (Burnham's Celestial Handbook, Volume 1), "the attribution of the name to Halley appears in a report published by J. E. Bode at Berlin in 1801, but seems to have no other verification".
  4. ^ a b Cor Caroli, Stars, Jim Kaler. Accessed on line September 15, 2008.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i V* alf02 CVn -- Variable Star of alpha2 CVn type, database entry, SIMBAD. Accessed on line November 2, 2009.
  6. ^ a b c alf 2 CVn, database entry, The combined table of GCVS Vols I-III and NL 67-78 with improved coordinates, General Catalogue of Variable Stars, Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow, Russia. Accessed on line November 2, 2009.
  7. ^ a b c d e f HR 4915, database entry, The Bright Star Catalogue, 5th Revised Ed. (Preliminary Version), D. Hoffleit and W. H. Warren, Jr., CDS ID V/50. Accessed on line November 2, 2009.
  8. ^ From apparent magnitude and parallax.
  9. ^ HD 112413, database entry, Catalog of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS), 3rd edition, L. E. Pasinetti-Fracassini, L. Pastori, S. Covino, and A. Pozzi, CDS ID II/224. Accessed on line November 2, 2009.
  10. ^ a b "Cor Caroli", p. 49, The hundred greatest stars, James B. Kaler, Springer, 2002, ISBN 0387954368.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j LTT 13718 -- High proper-motion Star, database entry, SIMBAD. Accessed on line November 2, 2009.
  12. ^ a b c d e HR 4914, database entry, The Bright Star Catalogue, 5th Revised Ed. (Preliminary Version), D. Hoffleit and W. H. Warren, Jr., CDS ID V/50. Accessed on line November 2, 2009.
  13. ^ NLTT 32336, database entry, New HIP-based parallaxes for 424 faint stars, A. Gould and J. Chanamé, CDS ID J/ApJS/150/455. Accessed on line November 2, 2009. Also see New Hipparcos-based Parallaxes for 424 Faint Stars, Andrew Gould and Julio Chanamé, The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 150, #2 (February 2004), pp. 455–464, doi:10.1086/381147, Bibcode2004ApJS..150..455G.
  14. ^ From apparent magnitude and parallax.
  15. ^ HD 112412, database entry, Catalog of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS), 3rd edition, L. E. Pasinetti-Fracassini, L. Pastori, S. Covino, and A. Pozzi, CDS ID II/224. Accessed on line November 2, 2009.
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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Wikipedia

Etymology

From the Latin Cor Caroli, "Charles' heart"

Proper noun

Singular
Cor Caroli

Plural
-

Cor Caroli

  1. (astronomy) The brightest star in the constellation Canes Venatici; Alpha (α) Canum Venaticorum (2.90m).

Translations

See also


Latin

Etymology

Named by an English physician Sir Charles Scarborough in honor of the executed English King Charles I. Shortened Cor Caroli Regis Martyris, "the Heart of the Martyr King Charles" for a constellation. Later, connected with his son, Charles II by a German astronomer Bode for the brightest star in the consellation Canes Venatici, Alpha (α) Canum Venaticorum.

Proper noun

Cor Caroli

  1. (astronomy) An obsolete constellation within Canes Venatici.

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