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Coretta Scott King

Speaking in Nigeria in 2003, age 75.
Born April 27, 1927(1927-04-27)
Heiberger, Alabama, U.S.[1]
Died January 30, 2006 (aged 78)
Playas de Rosarito, Mexico
Occupation Civil rights, women's rights, human rights, equal rights activist, author
Spouse(s) Martin Luther King, Jr.
Children Yolanda King (deceased)
Martin Luther King III
Dexter Scott King
Bernice King

Coretta Scott King (April 27, 1927 – January 30, 2006) was an American author, activist, and civil rights leader. The widow of Martin Luther King, Jr., Coretta Scott King helped lead the African-American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s.

Mrs. King's most prominent role may have been in the years after her husband's 1968 assassination when she took on the leadership of the struggle for racial equality herself and became active in the Women's Movement.

Contents

Childhood and education

Coretta Scott King was the second of three children born to Obadiah "Obie" Scott (1899-1998) and Bernice McMurray Scott (1904-1996) in Perry County, Alabama. She had an older sister named Edythe, born in 1925, and a younger brother named Obadiah Leonard, born in 1930. The Scotts owned a farm, which had been in the family since the American Civil War, but were not particularly wealthy. During the Great Depression the Scott children picked cotton to help earn money.[1] Obie was the first black in their neighborhood to own a truck. He had a barber shop in their home. He also owned a lumber mill, which was burned down by white neighbors.

Though uneducated themselves, King's parents intended for all of their children to be educated. King quoted her mother as having said, "My children are going to college, even if it means I only have but one dress to put on."[2] The Scott children attended a one room elementary school 5 miles (8 km) from their home and were later bussed to Lincoln Normal School, a high school in Marion, Alabama, 9 mi (14 km) from their home. The bus was driven by Bernice Scott, who bussed all the local black teenagers to the Marion high school, as it was the closest black high school.[1]

King graduated valedictorian of Lincoln Normal School in 1945 and enrolled at Antioch College in Yellow Springs, Ohio. Edythe Scott already attended Antioch as part of the Antioch Program for Interracial Education, which recruited non-white students and gave them full scholarships in an attempt to diversify the historically white campus. King said of her first college:

Antioch had envisioned itself as a laboratory in democracy, but had no black students. (Edythe) became the first African American to attend Antioch on a completely integrated basis, and was joined by two other black female students in the fall of 1943. Pioneering is never easy, and all of us who followed my sister at Antioch owe her a great debt of gratitude.[2]

Coretta studied music with Walter Anderson, the first non-white chair of an academic department in a historically white college. King also became politically active, due largely to her experience of racial discrimination by the local school board. She became active in the nascent civil rights movement; she joined the Antioch chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and the college's Race Relations and Civil Liberties Committees. The board denied her request to perform her second year of required practice teaching at Yellow Springs public schools, for her teaching certificate King appealed to the Antioch College administration, which was unwilling or unable to change the situation in the local school system and instead employed her at the college's associated laboratory school for a second year.

King transferred out of Antioch when she won a scholarship to the New England Conservatory of Music in Boston, where she met Martin Luther King, Jr.[3] In her early life King was as well known as a singer as she was as a civil rights activist, and often incorporated music into her civil rights work. In 1964, the Time profile of Martin Luther King, Jr., when he was chosen as Time's "Man of the Year", referred to her as "a talented young soprano."[4]

Family life

Dr. and Mrs. King in 1964.

Coretta Scott and Martin Luther King, Jr., were married on June 18, 1953, on the lawn of her mothers' house; the ceremony was performed by King's father, Martin Luther King, Sr.. After completing her degree in voice and violin at the New England Conservatory, she moved with her husband to Montgomery, Alabama in September 1954.

The Kings had four children:

All four children later followed in their parents' footsteps as civil rights activists.

Civil rights movement

Congressman J. J. Pickle of Texas hands King a promotional "squeaky pickle" at a campaign rally in Austin, Texas, 1976.

Coretta Scott King played an extremely important role in the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s. Martin wrote of her that, "I am indebted to my wife Coretta, without whose love, sacrifices, and loyalty neither life nor work would bring fulfillment. She has given me words of consolation when I needed them and a well-ordered home where Christian love is a reality." However, Martin and Coretta did conflict over her public role in the movement. Martin wanted Coretta to focus on raising their four children, while Coretta wanted to take a more public leadership role.

Coretta Scott King took part in the Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1955 and took an active role in advocating for civil rights legislation. Most prominently, perhaps, she worked hard to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

Not long after her husband's death, Coretta approached the African American entertainer and activist Josephine Baker to take her husband's place as leader of The Civil Rights Movement. After many days of thinking it over Baker declined, stating that her twelve adopted children (known as the "rainbow tribe") were " ... too young to lose their mother."[5]

Coretta Scott King decided to take the helm of the movement herself after her husband's assassination in 1968.

King broadened her focus to include women's rights, LGBT rights, economic issues, world peace, and various other causes. As early as December 1968, she called for women to "unite and form a solid block of women power to fight the three great evils of racism, poverty and war," during a Solidarity Day speech.[6]

As leader of the movement, Scott King founded the Martin Luther King, Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change in Atlanta. She served as the center's president and CEO from its inception until she passed the reins of leadership to son Dexter Scott King.

She published her memoirs, My Life with Martin Luther King, Jr., in 1969.

Coretta Scott King was also under surveillance by the Federal Bureau of Investigation from 1968 until 1972. Her husband's activities had been monitored during his lifetime. Documents obtained by a Houston, Texas television station show that the FBI worried that King would "tie the anti-Vietnam movement to the civil rights movement."[7] A spokesman for the King family said that they were aware of the surveillance, but had not realized how extensive it was.

Later life

Coretta Scott King, along with Rosalynn Carter, Andrew Young, Jimmy Carter, and other civil rights leaders during a visit to Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta, January 14, 1979.

After her husband was assassinated on April 4, 1968, she began attending a commemorative service at Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta to mark her husband's birth every January 15 and fought for years to make it a national holiday. Murray M. Silver, an Atlanta attorney, made the appeal at the services on January 14, 1979. Coretta Scott King later confirmed that it was the "...best, most productive appeal ever..." King was finally successful in this in 1986, when Martin Luther King, Jr. Day was made a federal holiday.

Coretta Scott King attended the state funeral of Lyndon B. Johnson, in 1973, as a very close friend of the former president, himself a contributor to civil rights.

When President Ronald Reagan signed legislation establishing Martin Luther King Day, she was at the event.

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Opposition to apartheid

During the 1980s, King reaffirmed her long-standing opposition to apartheid, participating in a series of sit-in protests in Washington, D.C. that prompted nationwide demonstrations against South African racial policies.

In 1986, she traveled to South Africa and met with Winnie Mandela, while Mandela's husband Nelson Mandela was still a political prisoner on Robben Island. She declined invitations from Pik Botha and moderate Zulu chief Mangosuthu Buthelezi.[8] Upon her return to the United States, she urged Reagan to approve economic sanctions against South Africa.

Peace and other political positions

A long-time advocate for world peace, in 1957, King was one of the founders of The Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy (now called Peace Action).

King was vocal in her opposition to capital punishment and the 2003 invasion of Iraq, thus drawing criticism from conservative groups. She was also an advocate of feminism, LGBT rights and HIV/AIDS prevention.

LGBT equality

King with President George W. Bush.

On April 1, 1998 at the Palmer House Hilton in Chicago, King called on the civil rights community to join in the struggle against homophobia and anti-gay bias. "Homophobia is like racism and anti-Semitism and other forms of bigotry in that it seeks to dehumanize a large group of people, to deny their humanity, their dignity and personhood", King stated. "This sets the stage for further repression and violence that spread all too easily to victimize the next minority group."

In a speech in November 2003 at the opening session of the 13th annual Creating Change Conference, organized by the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, King made her now famous appeal linking the Civil Rights Movement to the LGBT agenda: "I still hear people say that I should not be talking about the rights of lesbian and gay people. ... But I hasten to remind them that Martin Luther King Jr. said, 'Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.' I appeal to everyone who believes in Martin Luther King Jr.’s dream, to make room at the table of brotherhood and sisterhood for lesbian and gay people."

King's support of LGBT rights was strongly criticized by some black pastors. She called her critics "misinformed" and said that Martin Luther King's message to the world was one of equality and inclusion.

In 2003, she invited the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force to take part in observances of the 40th anniversary of the March on Washington and Martin Luther King's I Have a Dream speech. It was the first time that an LGBT rights group had been invited to a major event of the African American community.

On March 23, 2004, she told an audience at Richard Stockton College in Pomona, New Jersey, that same-sex marriage is a civil rights issue. King denounced a proposed amendment advanced by President George W. Bush to the United States Constitution that would ban equal marriage rights for same-sex couples. In her speech King also criticized a group of black pastors in her home state of Georgia for backing a bill to amend that state's constitution to block gay and lesbian couples from marrying. King is quoted as saying "Gay and lesbian people have families, and their families should have legal protection, whether by marriage or civil union. A constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriages is a form of gay bashing and it would do nothing at all to protect traditional marriage."

The King Center

Established in 1968 by Coretta Scott King, The King Center is the official memorial dedicated to the advancement of the legacy and ideas of Martin Luther King, Jr., leader of a nonviolent movement for justice, equality and peace. She handed the reins as CEO and president of the King Center down to her son, Dexter Scott King, who still runs the center today.[9]

Final days

Coretta Scott King's temporary gravesite in Atlanta, Georgia.

By the end of her 78th year, King began experiencing health problems. Her husband's former secretary, Dora McDonald, assisted her part time in this period.[10] Hospitalized in April 2005, a month after speaking in Selma at the 40th anniversary of the Selma Voting Rights Movement,she was diagnosed with a heart condition and was discharged on her 78th and final birthday. Later, King suffered several small strokes. On August 16 2005, she was hospitalized after suffering a stroke and a mild heart attack. Initially, she was unable to speak or move her right side. She was released from Piedmont Hospital in Atlanta on September 22, 2005, after regaining some of her speech and continued physiotherapy at home. Due to continuing health problems, King cancelled a number of speaking and traveling engagements throughout the remainder of 2005. On January 14, 2006, King made her last public appearance in Atlanta at a dinner honoring her husband's memory.

Death

King died in the late evening of January 30, 2006[11] at a rehabilitation center in Rosarito Beach, Mexico, where she was undergoing holistic therapy for her stroke and advanced stage ovarian cancer. The main cause of King's death, however, is believed to be respiratory failure due to complications from ovarian cancer.[12] The clinic at which she died was called the Hospital Santa Monica, but was licensed as Clinica Santo Tomas. Newspaper reports indicated that it was not legally licensed to "perform surgery, take X-rays, perform laboratory work or run an internal pharmacy, all of which it was doing." It was also founded, owned, and operated by San Diego resident, and highly controversial alternative medicine figure, Kurt Donsbach.[13][14] Days after Mrs. King's death, the Baja California, Mexico state medical commissioner, Dr. Francisco Vera, shut down the clinic.[15]

Funeral

Over 14,000 people gathered for King's eight-hour funeral at the New Birth Missionary Baptist Church in Lithonia, Georgia on February 7, 2006 where daughter Bernice King, who is an elder at the church, eulogized her mother. The megachurch, whose sanctuary seats 10,000, was better able to handle the expected massive crowds than Ebenezer Baptist Church, of which King was a member since the early 1960s and which was the site of Martin Luther King, Jr.'s funeral in 1968.

U.S. Presidents George W. Bush, George H.W. Bush, Bill Clinton, Jimmy Carter, and their wives attended, excepting the Ford family, which was absent due to illness, and Barbara Bush, who had a previous engagement. Numerous other prominent political and civil rights leaders, including then-U.S. senator Barack Obama,[16] attended the televised service.

King was interred in a temporary mausoleum on the grounds of the King Center until a permanent place next to her husband's remains could be built.[17] She had expressed to family members and others that she wanted her remains to lie next to her husband's at the King Center. On November 20, 2006 the new mausoleum containing both the bodies of Dr. and Mrs King was unveiled in front of friends and family. It is the third resting place of Martin Luther King. Coretta Scott King died on son Dexter's birthday.

Funeral oration

President Jimmy Carter and Rev. Joseph Lowery provided funeral orations. With President George W. Bush seated a few feet away, Rev. Lowery, referencing King's vocal opposition to the Vietnam War, noted the failure to find weapons of mass destruction in Iraq. President Carter, referencing King's lifelong struggle for civil rights, noted that her family had been the target of secret government wiretapping. Their somewhat controversial comments were met with thunderous applause and standing ovations.

Recognition and tributes

King was the recipient of various honors and tributes both before and after her death. She received honorary degrees from many institutions, including Princeton University, Duke University, and Bates College. She was honored by both of her alma maters in 2004, receiving a Horace Mann Award from Antioch College[2] and an Outstanding Alumni Award from the New England Conservatory of Music.[18]

In 1970, the American Library Association began awarding a medal named for Coretta Scott King to outstanding African American writers and illustrators of children's literature.[19]

Many individuals and organizations paid tribute to King following her death, including U.S. President George W. Bush,[20] the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force,[21] the Human Rights Campaign,[22] the National Black Justice Coalition,[23] her alma mater Antioch College.[24]

In 2004, Coretta Scott King was awarded the prestigious Gandhi Peace Prize by the Government of India.

In 2007, The Coretta Scott King Young Women's Leadership Academy (CSKYWLA) was opened in Atlanta, Georgia. At its inception, the school served girls in grade 6 with plans for expansion to grade 12 by 2014. CSKYWLA is a public school in the Atlanta Public Schools system. Among the staff and students, the acronym for the school's name, CSKYWLA (pronounced "see-skee-WAH-lah"), has been coined as a protologism to which this definition has given - "to be empowered by scholarship, non-violence, and social change." The school is currently under the leadership of Melody Morgan (Principal) and April Patton (Dean of Academics).

Congressional resolutions

Upon the news of her death, moments of reflection, remembrance, and mourning began around the world. In the United States Senate, Majority Leader Bill Frist presented Senate Resolution 362 on behalf of all U.S. Senators, with the afternoon hours filled with respectful tributes throughout the U.S. Capitol.

On January 31, 2006 following a moment of silence in memoriam to the death of King, the United States House of Representatives presented House Resolution 655 in honor of King's legacy. In an unusual action, the resolution included a grace period of five days in which further comments could be added to it.

References

  1. ^ a b c "Coretta Scott King". Women's History. Gale Virtual Reference Library. http://www.galegroup.com/free_resources/whm/bio/king_c_s.htm.  
  2. ^ a b c King, Coretta Scott (Fall 2004). "Address, Antioch Reunion 2004". The Antiochian. http://www.antioch-college.edu/Antiochian/archive/Antiochian_2004fall/reunion/king/index.html. Retrieved 2007-09-10.  
  3. ^ "Coretta Scott King Dies at 78". ABC News. January 31, 2006. http://www.abcnews.go.com/US/print?id=1560208. Retrieved 2007-09-10.  
  4. ^ "Never Again Where He Was". Time Magazine. January 3, 1964. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,940759-1,00.html. Retrieved 2007-09-10.  
  5. ^ Josephine Baker and Joe Bouillon, Josephine. Harper & Row Publishers, New York, 1977
  6. ^ Pappas, Heather. "Coretta Scott King". Nuclear Age Peace Foundation. http://www.wagingpeace.org/menu/programs/youth-outreach/peace-heroes/king-coretta.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-10.  
  7. ^ "FBI spied on Coretta Scott King, files show". The Los Angeles Times. August 31, 2007. http://www.latimes.com/news/la-na-king31aug31,1,1018428.story?ctrack=1&cset=true. Retrieved 2007-09-11.  
  8. ^ "Coretta Scott King". The Daily Telegraph. January 31, 2006. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=&xml=/news/2006/02/01/db0101.xml. Retrieved 2007-09-10.  
  9. ^ "Welcome". The King Center. n/a. http://www.thekingcenter.org/tkc/index.asp. Retrieved 2007-09-10.  
  10. ^ Dewan, Shaila. "Dora E. McDonald, 81, Secretary to Martin Luther King in '60s," New York Times. January 15, 2007.
  11. ^ "Coretta Scott King dead at 78". The Associated Press. January 31, 2006. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/11110291/. Retrieved 2007-09-11.  
  12. ^ "King had Paralysis and Cancer". The Associated Press. January 31, 2006. http://www.11alive.com/news/news_article.aspx?storyid=75455. Retrieved 2007-09-11.  
  13. ^ "Clinic, founder operate outside norm". The Atlanta-Journal Constitution. February 1, 2006.  
  14. ^ Barrett, Stephen (last revised September 10, 2007). "The Shady Activities of Kurt Donbach". Quackwatch. http://www.quackwatch.org/01QuackeryRelatedTopics/donsbach.html. Retrieved 2007-09-11.  
  15. ^ McKinley, James C. (February 4, 2006). "Mexico Closes Alternative Care Clinic Where Mrs. King Died". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/02/04/international/americas/04mexico.html?ex=1189656000&en=39df23f0fc555dd8&ei=5070. Retrieved 2007-09-11.  
  16. ^ How He Did It
  17. ^ King Memorials Into the Night
  18. ^ "Alumni Profile: Coretta Scott King '54, '71 hon. D.M.". New England Conservatory of Music. n/a. http://www.newenglandconservatory.edu/alumni/alumni_profiles/profiles/king.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-10.  
  19. ^ "The Coretta Scott King Book Awards for Authors and Illustrators". American Library Association. n/a. http://www.ala.org/ala/emiert/corettascottkingbookaward/abouttheawarda/cskabout.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-10.  
  20. ^ Bush, George W. (January 31, 2006). "State of the Union". The White House. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/stateoftheunion/2006/. Retrieved 2007-09-10.  
  21. ^ "Task Force mourns death of Coretta Scott King". National Gay and Lesbian Task Force. January 31, 2006. http://www.thetaskforce.org/press/releases/pr917_013106. Retrieved 2007-09-10.  
  22. ^ "Coretta Scott King Leaves Behind Legacy of the Everlasting Pursuit of Justice". Human Rights Campaign. January 31, 2006. http://www.hrc.org/issues/1614.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-10.  
  23. ^ "Leader Passes Quietly into the Night: Coretta Scott King Dies at 78". National Black Justice Coalition. January 31, 2006. http://www.nbjcoalition.org/news/coretta-scott-king-retires.html. Retrieved 2007-09-10.  
  24. ^ ""We have lost a great American and a great Antiochian....": Coretta Scott King’s death mourned by the Antioch Community". Antioch College. January 31, 2006. http://www.antioch-college.edu/news/releases/index.php?id=114. Retrieved 2007-09-10.  

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

I'm more determined than ever that my husband's dream will become a reality.

Coretta Scott King (27 April 192731 January 2006) was a civil rights activist, author, and wife of Martin Luther King, Jr.

Sourced

There is a spirit and a need and a man at the beginning of every great human advance. Every one of these must be right for that particular moment of history, or nothing happens.
Because his task was not finished, I felt that I must re-dedicate myself to the completion of his work.
The greatness of a community is most accurately measured by the compassionate actions of its members, ... a heart of grace and a soul generated by love
  • There is a spirit and a need and a man at the beginning of every great human advance. Every one of these must be right for that particular moment of history, or nothing happens.
    • My Life with Martin Luther King Jr. (1969) Ch. 6
  • Because his task was not finished, I felt that I must re-dedicate myself to the completion of his work.
    • My Life with Martin Luther King Jr. (1969)
  • Mama and Daddy King represent the best in manhood and womanhood, the best in a marriage, the kind of people we are trying to become.
    • On the parents of her husband. Christian Science Monitor (2 July 1974)
  • I support the Employment Non-Discrimination Act of 1994 because I believe that freedom and justice cannot be parceled out in pieces to suit political convenience. My husband, Martin Luther King, Jr. said, "Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere." On another occasion he said, "I have worked too long and hard against segregated public accommodations to end up segregating my moral concern. Justice is indivisible." Like Martin, I don't believe you can stand for freedom for one group of people and deny it to others.
    So I see this bill as a step forward for freedom and human rights in our country and a logical extension of the Bill of Rights and the civil rights reforms of the 1950s and '60's.
    The great promise of American democracy is that no group of people will be forced to suffer discrimination and injustice. I believe that this legislation will provide protection to a large group of working people, who have suffered persecution and discrimination for many years. To this endeavor, I pledge my wholehearted support.
    • Press Conference on the Employment Non-Discrimination Act of 1994, Washington D.C. (23 June 1994)
  • I still hear people say that I should not be talking about the rights of lesbian and gay people and I should stick to the issue of racial justice. But I hasten to remind them that Martin Luther King Jr. said, 'Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.' I appeal to everyone who believes in Martin Luther King Jr.'s dream to make room at the table of brother- and sisterhood for lesbian and gay people.
    • Reuters (31 March 1998)
  • Homophobia is like racism and anti-Semitism and other forms of bigotry in that it seeks to dehumanize a large group of people, to deny their humanity, their dignity and personhood. This sets the stage for further repression and violence that spread all too easily to victimize the next minority group.
    • Chicago Defender (1 April 1998)
  • I've always felt that homophobic attitudes and policies were unjust and unworthy of a free society and must be opposed by all Americans who believe in democracy.
    • Chicago Sun Times (1 April 1998)
  • For many years now, I have been an outspoken supporter of civil and human rights for gay and lesbian people. Gays and lesbians stood up for civil rights in Montgomery, Selma, in Albany, Ga. and St. Augustine, Fla., and many other campaigns of the Civil Rights Movement. Many of these courageous men and women were fighting for my freedom at a time when they could find few voices for their own, and I salute their contributions
    • Chicago Tribune (1 April 1998)
  • The greatness of a community is most accurately measured by the compassionate actions of its members ... a heart of grace and a soul generated by love.
    • Address at Georgia State University (15 February 2000)
  • We have a lot more work to do in our common struggle against bigotry and discrimination. I say "common struggle" because I believe very strongly that all forms of bigotry and discrimination are equally wrong and should be opposed by right-thinking Americans everywhere. Freedom from discrimination based on sexual orientation is surely a fundamental human right in any great democracy, as much as freedom from racial, religious, gender, or ethnic discrimination.
    • "Creating Change" conference of the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, Atlanta, Georgia (9 November 2000)
  • We have to launch a national campaign against homophobia in the black community
    • Reuters (8 June 2001)
  • Hate is too great a burden to bear. It injures the hater more than it injures the hated.
    • As quoted in Understanding Cultural Diversity in Today's Complex World‎ (2006) by Leo Parvis, p. 54
  • I'm more determined than ever that my husband's dream will become a reality.

Unsourced

  • I believe all Americans who believe in freedom, tolerance and human rights have a responsibility to oppose bigotry and prejudice based on sexual orientation.
  • I'm fulfilled in what I do... I never thought that a lot of money or fine clothes — the finer things of life — would make you happy. My concept of happiness is to be filled in a spiritual sense.
  • If American women would increase their voting turnout by ten percent, I think we would see an end to all of the budget cuts in programs benefiting women and children.
  • Segregation was wrong when it was forced by white people, and I believe it is still wrong when it is requested by black people.
  • Struggle is a never ending process. Freedom is never really won you earn it and win it in every generation.
  • The more visible signs of protest are gone, but I think there is a realization that the tactics of the late sixties are not sufficient to meet the challenges of the seventies.
  • Women, if the soul of the nation is to be saved, I believe that you must become its soul.

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