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Cork
Corcaigh
From top, left to right: City Hall at night, Shandon Steeple, the English Market, City Gaol, Blackrock Castle, Lewis Glucksman Gallery, Main Quadrangle in UCC.

Flag

Coat of arms
Nickname(s): The Rebel City, Leeside, The Real Capital
Motto: Statio Bene Fida Carinis  (Latin)
"A safe harbour for ships"[1]
Cork is located in Ireland
Cork
Coordinates: 51°53′50″N 8°28′12″W / 51.89722°N 8.47°W / 51.89722; -8.47
Country Ireland
Province Munster
County Cork
Founded 6th century A.D.
City rights 1185 A.D.
Government
 - Lord Mayor Dara Murphy
Area
 - City 37.3 km2 (14.4 sq mi)
Population (2006)
 - City 119,143
 Density 3,194.18/km2 (8,272.9/sq mi)
 Urban 190,384
 Metro 380,000
 - Demonym Corkonian, Leesider
Time zone WET (UTC0)
 - Summer (DST) IST (UTC+1)
Area code(s) 021
Car plates C
Website www.corkcity.ie

Cork (Irish: Corcaigh, pronounced [ˈkˠorkˠɪɟ]—from corcach meaning "swamp") is the second largest city in the Republic of Ireland and the island of Ireland's third most populous city. It is the principal city and administrative centre of County Cork[2] and the largest city in the province of Munster. Cork has a population of 119,143, while the addition of the suburban areas contained in the county brings the total to 190,384.[3] Metropolitan Cork has a population of approximately 274,000, while the Greater Cork area is about 380,000.[4]

Cork has a reputation for rebelliousness dating back to the town's support of the English Pretender Perkin Warbeck in 1491 following the Wars of the Roses. As a result, County Cork has earned the nickname of "the Rebel County", while Corkonians often refer to the city as the "real capital of Ireland", and themselves as the "Rebels".

The city is built on the River Lee which divides into two channels at the western end of the city. The city centre is located on the island created by the channels. At the eastern end of the city centre they converge; and the Lee flows around Lough Mahon to Cork Harbour, one of the world's largest natural harbours.[5][6] The city is a major Irish seaport; there are quays and docks along the banks of the Lee on the city's east side.

Contents

History

Cork was originally a monastic settlement founded by Saint Finbarr in the 6th century.[7] Cork achieved an urban character at some point between 915 and 922 when Norseman (Viking) settlers founded a trading port.[8] It has been proposed that, like Dublin, Cork was an important trading centre in the global Scandinavian trade network.

The city was once fully walled, and some wall sections and gates remain today.[15] For much of the Middle Ages, Cork city was an outpost of Old English culture in the midst of a predominantly hostile Gaelic countryside and cut off from the English government in the Pale around Dublin. Neighbouring Gaelic and Hiberno-Norman lords extorted "Black Rent" from the citizens in order to keep them from attacking the city. The main overlords of south western Ireland were the Fitzgerald Earl of Desmond dynasty, with the lordships of the MacCarthy and Barry families abutting directly onto Cork city. The Cork municipal government was dominated by about 12–15 merchant families, whose wealth came from overseas trade with continental Europe – in particular the export of wool and hides and the import of salt, iron and wine. Of these families, only the Ronayne family were of Gaelic Irish origin. The medieval population of Cork was about 2000 people. It suffered a severe blow in 1349 when almost half the townspeople died of bubonic plague when the Black Death arrived in the town. In 1491 Cork played a part in the English Wars of the Roses when Perkin Warbeck a pretender to the English throne, landed in the city and tried to recruit support for a plot to overthrow Henry VII of England. The mayor of Cork and several important citizens went with Warbeck to England but when the rebellion collapsed they were all captured and executed. Cork's nickname of the 'rebel city' originates in these events.

A description of Cork written in 1577 speaks of the city as, "the fourth city of Ireland" that is, "so encumbered with evil neighbours, the Irish outlaws, that they are fayne to watch their gates hourly ... they trust not the country adjoining [and only marry within the town] so that the whole city is linked to each other in affinity"

Patrick Street c. 1890–1900

The city's charter was granted by King John in 1185. The title of Mayor of Cork was established by royal charter in 1318, and the title was changed to Lord Mayor in 1900 following the Knighthood of the incumbent Mayor by Queen Victoria on her visit to the City.[16]

In the War of Independence, the centre of Cork was gutted by fires started by the British Black and Tans,[17] and the city saw fierce fighting between Irish guerrillas and UK forces. During the Irish Civil War, Cork was for a time held by anti-Treaty forces, until it was retaken by the pro-Treaty National Army in an attack from the sea.

Local administration and politics

Local administration of the area within Cork's city boundary is the responsibility of Cork City Council. While local government in Ireland has limited powers in comparison with other countries[18] the council has responsibility for planning, roads, sanitation,libraries, street lighting, parks and a number of other important functions. Cork City Council has 31 elected members representing six electoral wards. The party make-up of the council is Fine Gael 8 members, the Labour Party 7 members, Fianna Fáil 6 members, Sinn Féin 4 members, Socialist Party 1 member, Workers Party 1 member, Independents 4 members.[19]

Climate

The climate of Cork, like the rest of Ireland, is mild and changeable with abundant rainfall and a lack of temperature extremes. Cork lies in Plant Hardiness zone 10. Met Éireann maintain a climatological weather station at Cork Airport,[20] a few kilometres south of the city – it should be noted that as the airport is at an altitude of 151 m (500 ft); temperatures can often differ by a few degrees between the airport and the city itself. There are also smaller synoptic weather stations at University College Cork, Clover Hill [20] and Fota Island.[citation needed]

Temperatures below 0 °C or above 30 °C are rare, though not unheard of. Cork Airport records an average of 1194.4 mm of precipitation annually, most of which is rain – hail, sleet and snow are rare.[21] The airport records an average of 8 days of hail and 16 days of snow or sleet a year; though it only records lying snow for 6 days of the year. The low altitude of the city, and moderating influences of the harbour, mean that lying snow very rarely occurs in the city itself. There are 151 "rainy" days a year (over 1 mm of rainfall), of which there are 75 days with "heavy rain" (over 5 mm).[21]

Cork is also a generally foggy city, with an average of 100 days of fog a year – most common during mornings at times of high pressure or else during winter. Despite this, however, Cork is also one of Ireland's sunniest cities, with an average of 3.8 hours of sunshine every day and only having 69 days where there is no "recordable sunshine", mostly during and around winter.[21]

Climate data for Cork Airport 1961–1990
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 12.6
(55)
13.5
(56)
15.5
(60)
20.5
(69)
23.6
(74)
25.7
(78)
28.7
(84)
27.5
(82)
24.7
(76)
19.0
(66)
15.9
(61)
13.6
(56)
28.7
(84)
Average high °C (°F) 7.6
(46)
7.5
(46)
9.3
(49)
11.3
(52)
13.8
(57)
16.6
(62)
18.5
(65)
18.2
(65)
16.0
(61)
13.1
(56)
9.9
(50)
8.5
(47)
12.5
(55)
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.1
(41)
5.0
(41)
6.2
(43)
7.7
(46)
10.2
(50)
12.9
(55)
14.8
(59)
14.5
(58)
12.7
(55)
10.3
(51)
7.2
(45)
6.1
(43)
9.4
(49)
Average low °C (°F) 2.6
(37)
2.5
(37)
3.1
(38)
4.2
(40)
6.5
(44)
9.2
(49)
11.1
(52)
10.9
(52)
9.4
(49)
7.5
(46)
4.5
(40)
3.7
(39)
6.3
(43)
Record low °C (°F) -8.5
(17)
-8.6
(17)
-6.1
(21)
-2.4
(28)
-0.9
(30)
2.4
(36)
4.8
(41)
4.9
(41)
2.3
(36)
-0.4
(31)
-3.3
(26)
-5.9
(21)
-8.6
(17)
Precipitation mm (inches) 138.3
(5.44)
115.6
(4.55)
98.7
(3.89)
67.7
(2.67)
83.4
(3.28)
68.8
(2.71)
66.4
(2.61)
88.7
(3.49)
96.4
(3.8)
125.4
(4.94)
111.1
(4.37)
133.8
(5.27)
1,194.4
(47.02)
Sunshine hours 52.70 63.84 108.81 156.30 180.60 171.90 167.40 159.34 123.90 86.80 64.80 48.36 1,387
% Humidity 90 90 88 83 81 81 83 86 88 91 90 90 87
Avg. precipitation days 20 17 18 14 16 15 14 16 16 19 19 20 204
Source: Met Éireann {{{accessdate}}}

Culture

Music, theatre, dance, film and poetry all play a prominent role in Cork city life. The Cork School of Music and the Crawford College of Art and Design provide a constant throughput of new blood, as do the active theatre components of many courses at University College Cork (UCC). Highlights include: Corcadorca Theatre Company, of which Cillian Murphy was a troupe member[22] prior to Hollywood fame; Cork Film Festival,[23] a major supporter of the art of the short film;[citation needed] The Institute for Choreography and Dance, a national contemporary dance resource; the Triskel Arts Centre; Cork Jazz Festival; the Cork Academy of Dramatic Art (CADA).

The Glucksman Gallery at UCC

The Everyman Palace Theatre and the Granary Theatre both play host to large amounts of dramatic plays throughout the year. Cork is home to the RTÉ Vanbrugh String Quartet, and to many musical acts, including John Spillane, The Frank And Walters, Sultans Of Ping, Simple Kid and the late Rory Gallagher. Singer songwriter Cathal Coughlan and Sean O'Hagan of The High Llamas also both hail from Cork. The opera singers Cara O'Sullivan, Mary Hegarty, Brendan Collins, and Sam McElroy are also Cork born. The short story writers Frank O'Connor and Sean O'Faoláin hailed from Cork. Contemporary writers of national and international status include Thomas McCarthy, Gerry Murphy (poet), and novelist and poet William Wall. There is a thriving literary community centring on The Munster Literature Centre and the Triskel Arts Centre.

The English Market, Cork

Cork has been gaining cultural diversity for many years as a result of immigration, from Western Europe (particularly France and Spain) in the mid to late nineties, and more recently from Eastern European countries such as Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Slovakia, Hungary etc. and in small amount from various African and Asian nations.[citation needed] This is reflected in the recent growth of multi-cultural restaurants and shops, including specialist shops for East-European or Middle-Eastern food, Chinese and Thai restaurants, French patisseries, Indian buffets, and Middle Eastern kebab houses. Cork saw significant Jewish immigration from Lithuania and Russia in the late 19th century. Jewish citizens such as Gerald Goldberg (several times Lord Mayor), David Marcus (novelist) and Louis Marcus (documentary maker) played important roles in 20th century Cork. Today, the Jewish community is relatively small in population, although the city still has a Jewish quarter and local synagogue.[24] Cork also features various Christian churches, as well as a mosque. Some Catholic masses around the city are said in Polish, Filipino, Lithuanian, Romanian and other languages,[25] in addition to the traditional Latin and local Irish[citation needed] and English languages.

Recent additions to the arts infrastructure include modern additions to Cork Opera House and the Crawford Municipal Art Gallery. The new Lewis Glucksman Gallery opened in the Autumn of 2004 at UCC, was nominated for the prestigious Stirling Prize in the United Kingdom, and the building of a new 60 million School of Music was completed in September 2007. Construction of the 50 million Brookfield UCC Medical School complex was completed in 2005.[citation needed]

Cork was the European Capital of Culture for 2005, and in 2009 was included in the Lonely Planet's top 10 "Best in Travel 2010". The guide described Cork as being "at the top of its game: sophisticated, vibrant and diverse".[26]

There is a rivalry between Cork and Dublin, similar to the rivalry between London and Manchester, or Madrid and Barcelona. Corkonians generally view themselves as different to the rest of Ireland, and refer to themselves as "The Rebels"; the county is known as the Rebel County. This distinctly Corkonian view has in recent years manifested itself in humorous references to the region as The People's Republic of Cork. Citizens of the Real Capital can be seen adorning themselves with t-shirts and other items which celebrate The People's Republic of Cork, printed in various languages, including English, Irish, Polish, Spanish and Italian. The Cork bicolour is flown at public and civic buildings, including the main courthouse, bus station, railway station and major department stores; it is flown along with the Irish tricolour, or alone.[citation needed]

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Food

The city has many local traditions in food. Traditional Cork foods include crubeens, tripe and drisheen.

Accent and dialect

The Cork accent has a tone which sets it apart from neighbouring counties. Patterns of tone and intonation often rise and fall, with the overall tone tending to be more high-pitched than the standard Irish accent

English spoken in Cork has a large number of dialect words that are peculiar to the city and environs. Unlike standard Hiberno-English, some of these words originate from the Irish language, but others through other languages Cork's inhabitants encountered at home and abroad.

Cork Irish, a variety of Munster Irish,[citation needed] is spoken in the city and its surrounding region.[27] Peadar Ua Laoghaire, regarded as one of the founders of modern literature in Irish, promoted Cork Irish as what he saw as the best Irish for propagation among the Irish people.[citation needed]

Media

Broadcast

The city's FM radio band features RTÉ Radio 1, RTÉ 2fm, RTÉ lyric fm, RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta, Today FM, 4FM and Newstalk. There are also local stations such as Cork's Red FM, Cork's 96FM, 103FM County Sound, CUH FM, Cork Campus Radio and Christian radio station Life FM.[28] Cork has also been home to pirate radio stations, most notably South Coast Radio and ERI in the 1980s. Today some small inconsistent pirates prevail but because of a recent clampdown by Ireland's communications regulator, Comreg, a number of higher profile pirate stations were closed during 2005–2006. A number of neighbouring counties radio stations can be heard in parts of Cork City including Radio Kerry and WLR FM.

RTÉ Cork has television and radio studios, and production facilities at its centre in Father Matthew Street in the city centre.

Print

Cork is home to one of Ireland's main national newspapers, the Irish Examiner (formerly the Cork Examiner). The Examiner's headquarters are situated on Lapp's Quay in the city centre, and were originally located on Academy Street. It also prints the Evening Echo, which for decades has been connected to the Echo Boys, who were poor and often homeless children who sold the newspaper. Today, the shouts of the vendors selling the Echo can still be heard in various parts of the city centre. The biggest free newspaper and one of the biggest in the country is the Cork Independent which was formerly known as Inside Cork.[citation needed]

Places of interest

The Angel of the Resurrection, St. Finbarre's Cathedral

Cork features architecturally notable buildings originating from the Medieval to Modern periods.[29] The only notable remnant of the Medieval era is the Red Abbey.

There are two cathedrals in the city; St Mary's Cathedral and St Finbarre's Cathedral. St Mary's Cathedral, quite often referred to as the North Cathedral is the Roman Catholic cathedral of the city and was built in 1808. St Finbarre's Cathedral serves the Protestant faith and is the more famous of the two. It is built on the foundations of an earlier cathedral. Work began in 1862 and ended in 1879 under the direction of architect William Burges.

St. Patrick's Street, the main street of the city which was remodelled in the mid 2000s, is known for the architecture of the buildings along its pedestrian-friendly route and is the main shopping thoroughfare. The reason for its curved shape is that it originally was a channel of the River Lee that was built over on arches.[30] The adjacent Grand Parade is a tree-lined avenue, home to offices, shops and financial institutions. The old financial centre is the South Mall, with several banks whose interior derive from the 19th century, such as the Allied Irish Bank's which was once an exchange.

Cork City Hall reflecting off the River Lee. The Elysian Tower, Ireland's tallest building, can be seen in the background.

Many of the city's buildings are in the Georgian style, although there are a number of examples of modern landmark structures, such as County Hall tower, which was, at one time the tallest building in the Republic of Ireland[31] until being superseded by another Cork City building: The Elysian. Across the river from County Hall is Ireland's longest building; built in Victorian times, Our Lady's Psychiatric Hospital has now been renovated and converted into a residential housing complex called Atkins Hall, after its architect William Atkins.

Cork's most famous building is the church tower of Shandon, which dominates the North side of the city. It is widely regarded as the symbol of the city. The North and East sides are faced in red sandstone, and the West and South sides are clad in the predominant stone of the region, white limestone. At the top sits a weather vane in the shape of an eleven-foot salmon.[32]

City Hall, another notable building of limestone, replaced the previous one which was destroyed by the Black and Tans during the War of Independence in an event known as the "Burning of Cork".[17] The cost of this new building was provided by the UK Government in the 1930s as a gesture of reconciliation.[33]

Other notable places include Elizabeth Fort, the Cork Opera House, and Fitzgerald's Park to the west of the city. Other popular tourist attractions include the grounds of University College Cork, through which the River Lee flows, and the English Market. This covered market traces its origins back to 1610, and the present building dates from 1786.[34]

Up until April 2009, there were also two large commercial breweries in the city. The Beamish and Crawford on South Main Street closed in April 2009 and transferred production to the Murphy's brewery in Lady's Well. This brewery also produces Heineken for the Irish market. There is also the Franciscan Well brewery, serving the local market with a variety of lagers, ales and stouts. In May 2008 it was awarded as the "Best Microbrewery in Ireland" by Food and Wine Magazine.

Economy

Retail

The retail trade in Cork city is developing quickly with a mix of both modern, state of the art shopping centres and family owned local shops. Department stores cater for all budgets, with expensive boutiques for one end of the market and high street stores also available. Shopping centres can be found in many of Cork's suburbs, including Blackpool, Ballincollig, Douglas, Ballyvolane, Wilton and Mahon. Others are available in the city centre, with plans and excavation work on-going for the development of three more large malls (The Cornmarket Centre on Cornmarket Street); The Opera Lane proposal off St. Patrick's Street/Academy Street and the Grand Parade scheme planned for the site of the former Capitol Cineplex, the first multiplex outside of Dublin in Ireland), expanding the capacity of the city centre, to rival that of the suburbs. Cork's main shopping street is St. Patrick's Street and is the most expensive street in the country per sq. metre after Dublin's Grafton Street. Other shopping areas in the city centre include Oliver Plunkett St. and Grand Parade. Cork is also home to some of the country's leading department stores with the foundations of shops such as Dunnes Stores and the former Roches Stores being laid in the city. Almost 9 km outside the city centre[citation needed] is Mahon Point Shopping Centre, which is the largest shopping center in Munster.[citation needed]

Industry and commerce

Murphys Stout, 1919 advert for the famous Cork brewery

Cork City is at the heart of industry in the south of Ireland. Its main area of industry is pharmaceuticals, with Pfizer Inc. and Swiss company Novartis being big employers in the region. The most famous product of the Cork pharmaceutical industry is Viagra. Cork is also the European headquarters of Apple Inc. where their high end computers are manufactured and their European call centre, R&D and AppleCare is hosted.[35] In total, they currently employ over 1,800 staff. EMC Corporation is another large IT employer with over 1,600 staff in their 52,000 sq metre (560,000 sq ft) engineering, manufacturing, and technical services facility.[citation needed]

It is also home to the Heineken Brewery which also brews Murphy's Irish Stout and the nearby Beamish and Crawford brewery (recently taken over by Heineken) which have been in the city for generations. And for many years, Cork was the home to Ford Motor Company, which manufactured cars in the docklands area before the plant was closed. Henry Ford's grandfather was from West Cork, which was one of the main reason for opening up the manufacturing facility in Cork.[36] But technology has replaced the old manufacturing businesses of the 1970s and 1980s, with people now working in the many I.T. centres of the city.

Cork's deep harbour allows ships of any size to enter, bringing trade and easy import/export of products. Cork Airport also allows easy access to continental Europe and Kent Station in the city centre provides good rail links for domestic trade. More recently Amazon.com, the online retailer, has set up in Cork Airport Business Park.[citation needed]

In 2008, developers announced a 1bn euro plan to create an Atlantic Quarter in Cork's docklands area to rival that of the International Financial Services Centre in Dublin making it one of the biggest and most ambitious plans undertaken in the history of the state.[37]

Cork County Hall

Utilities

The headquarters of Bord Gáis Éireann, the Irish Gas Board, are on Gasworks Road, Cork.[38]

Twinned cities

Cork City Corporation began its first twin city programme with Coventry in 1969. Since then, Cork has developed links with several other cities in the areas of culture, education, tourism, science and economics:[39]

Twinning with Shanghai has led to controversy, as the Green Party called on Cork's local, national and European elected representatives to withdraw the city's twinning with Shanghai due to reports of human rights violations in China.[40] Since then, parties from both Cork and Shanghai have visited their counterparts on trade related missions. Cork later got a twinning with Kaliningrad, in Russia.[41]

Transportation

Air

Cork Airport is one of Ireland's main airports and it is a gateway to the south of Ireland. It is situated on the south side of Cork City in an area known as Ballygarvan. eight scheduled airlines fly to over 40 destinations with over 60 flights a day.

Bus

Public bus services within the city are provided by the national bus operator Bus Éireann. City routes are numbered from 1 through to 19 and connect the city centre to the principal suburbs, colleges, shopping centres and places of interest. Two of these bus routes provide orbital services across the Northern and Southern districts of the city respectively.

Buses to the outer suburbs, such as Ballincollig, Glanmire and Carrigaline are provided from the city's bus terminal at Parnell Place in the city centre. Suburban services also include shuttles to Cork Airport, and a park and ride facility in the south suburbs.

Long distance buses depart from the bus terminal in Parnell Place to destinations throughout Ireland. Hourly services run to Killarney/Tralee, Waterford, Athlone and Shannon Airport/Limerick/Galway and there are six services daily to Dublin. There is also a daily Eurolines bus service that connects Cork to Victoria Coach Station in London via South Wales and Bristol.

Ferry

The Cross River Ferry, from Rushbrooke to Passage West, links the R624 to R610. This service is useful when trying to avoid traffic congestion in Jack Lynch tunnel and Dunkettle area. The Port of Cork is situated at Ringaskiddy, 16 km SE via the N28. There are Direct services to France and the United Kingdom. A new Water Taxi is under-development.

Road

The Cork area has seen improvements in road infrastructure in recent years, especially with regards to National Primary roads. The Cork South Link road (a dual carriageway), built in the early 1980s, linking the Kinsale road roundabout with the city centre was the first of many improvements.

St. Patrick's Bridge

Shortly afterwards, the first sections of the South Ring Road (dual carriageway) were opened. Work continued through the 1990s on extending the N25 South Ring Road with the opening of the Jack Lynch Tunnel under the River Lee being the most significant addition. The Kinsale Road flyover opened in August 2006 to remove a major bottleneck for traffic heading to the Airport or Killarney. Also in the 1990s work progressed on the Cork to Midleton dual carriageway and the M8 Glanmire bypass motorway. Other projects completed at this time include the N20 Blackpool bypass and the N20 Cork to Mallow road projects. The M8 Glanmire to Watergrasshill dual carriageway bypass was opened in 2002. The N22 Ballincollig dual carriageway bypass, which links to the Western end of the Cork Southern Ring road was opened in 2003. City Centre road improvements include the Patrick St. project which reconstructed the street with a pedestrian focus.

The M8 Rathcormac to Fermoy tolled motorway bypass (17.5 kilometres) opened in October 2006.

Rail

Railway and tramway heritage

Planned Cork Suburban Railway

Cork was one of the most rail oriented cities in Ireland, featuring eight stations at various times. The main route, still much the same today, is from Dublin. Originally terminating on the city's outskirts at Blackpool, the route now reaches the city centre terminus of Kent Station via Glanmire tunnel. Now a through station, the line through Kent connects the town of Cóbh east of the city. This also connected to the seaside town of Youghal, until the 1980s.[citation needed]

Other rail routes terminating or traversing Cork city were the Cork, Blackrock and Passage Railway, a line to Macroom, the Cork and Muskerry Light Railway to Blarney, Coachford and Donoughmore, as well as the Cork, Bandon and South Coast Railway connecting Bantry, Skibbereen, Clonakilty and many other West Cork towns. West Cork trains terminated at Albert Quay, across the river from Kent Station (though an on-street rail 'system' connected the two for rolling stock and cargo movement). All that remains of the once-extensive public transport system is the line to Dublin and that to Cobh.

Within the city there have been two tram networks in operation. A proposal to develop a horse-drawn tram (linking the city's railway termini) was made by American George Francis Train in the 1860s, and implemented in 1872 by the Cork Tramway Company. However, the company ceased trading in 1875 after Cork Corporation refused permission to extend the line.

In December 1898, an electric tram system began operating on the Blackpool–Douglas, Summerhill – Sunday's Well and Tivoli–Blackrock routes. The gauge of the tramway was (90.2 cm) (2 ft 11½ in), and designed to be the same as the Cork and Muskerry Light Railway. Increased usage of cars and buses in the 1920s led to a reduction in the use of trams, which discontinued operations permanently on 30 September 1931. Place names today still tell of the routes, such as Tramway Terrace in Douglas.

Current routes

National

Cork's Kent Station is the main train station in the city. From here, services run to destinations all over Ireland – often via Dublin or Limerick Junction. The main line from Cork to Dublin, Ireland's busiest rail line,[citation needed] has hourly departures and a number of connecting services. InterCity services are also available to Kerry, with direct services to Killarney and Tralee, or indirectly via Mallow.

There are plans to start a service between Cork and Galway in 2010, along the western corridor.[42]

Suburban

The Cork Suburban Rail system also departs from Kent Station and provides connections to parts of Metropolitan Cork, including Little Island, Mallow, Midleton, Fota and Cobh. In November 2005, as part of the Transport 21 initiative, the government announced the planned reopening of the Glounthaune to Midleton line, with new stations announced for Carrigtohill, Kilbarry, Monard and Blarney; it reopened on 30 July 2009.[43] It is planned that the proposed station at Carrigtwohill West will be open by early 2010.{{fact} West Cork Rail is a planned railway line which would connect Cork City to West Cork.[citation needed]

Education

Quadrangle at UCC

Cork is an important educational centre in Ireland. University College Cork (UCC), a constituent university of the National University of Ireland, offers a wide variety of courses in Arts, Commerce, Engineering, Law, Medicine and Science. The university was named "Irish University of the Year" in 2003–2004[44] and 2005–2006 by The Sunday Times. Cork Institute of Technology (CIT) was named Irish "Institute of Technology of the Year" in 2006–2007 and offers a variety of third level courses in Mathematics, Computing and IT, Business, Humanities and Engineering (Mechanical, Electronic, Electrical, and Chemical). The National Maritime College of Ireland also located in Cork and is the only college in Ireland in which Nautical Studies and Marine Engineering can be undertaken. CIT also incorporates the Cork School of Music and Crawford College of Art and Design as constituent schools. The Cork College of Commerce is the largest post-Leaving Certificate College in Ireland and is also the biggest provider of Vocational Preparation and Training courses in the country. Other 3rd level institutions include Griffith College Cork, a private institution, which has been offering courses since 1884 and various other colleges. There is also a very large community of students from abroad, especially countries where Cork has twinned cities. The largest group of foreign students comes from China, Shanghai in particular.[citation needed]

Sport

See also: List of Cork people – Sports

Rugby, gaelic football, hurling and association football are popular sporting pastimes for Corkonians.

Gaelic games

Hurling is the most popular spectator sport in the city, and has a strong identity with city and county – with Cork winning 30 All-Ireland Championships and leading the table of Camogie Championship wins. Gaelic football is also popular, and Cork has won 6 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship titles. There are many Gaelic Athletic Association clubs in Cork City, including St. Finbarr's, Glen Rovers, Na Piarsaigh, Erins Own and Nemo Rangers. The main public venues are Páirc Uí Chaoimh and Páirc Uí Rinn (named after Christy Ring).

Association football

Cork City F.C. were the largest association football team in Cork, and have seen much success in recent years. In 2005, they won the League of Ireland and the FAI Cup in 2007, with their latest success in the Setanta Sports Cup in 2008. Association football is also played by amateur and school clubs across the city, as well as in "five-a-side" style leagues.

In 2010, the club's holding company were wound up by the courts due to issues with unpaid debts. The club were replaced in the League of Ireland by Cork City FORAS Co-op

Rugby

Rugby is played at various levels, from school to senior league level. There are two first division clubs in Cork city. Cork Constitution (three-time All Ireland League Champions) play their home games in Ballintemple and Dolphin R.F.C. play at home in Musgrave Park. Other notable rugby clubs in the city include, Highfield, Sunday's Well and UCC. At schools level, Christian Brothers College and Presentation Brothers College are two of the country's better known rugby nurseries.

Munster Rugby plays half of its home matches in the Celtic League at Musgrave Park in Turners Cross. In the past Heineken Cup matches have also been played at Musgrave Park but now, due to capacity issues these are now played at Thomond Park in Limerick. In May 2006 and again in May 2008 Munster became the Heineken Cup Champions, with many players hailing from Cork city and county.

Water sports

There are a variety of watersports in Cork, including rowing and sailing. There are five rowing clubs training on the river Lee. Naomhóga Chorcaí is a rowing club whose members row traditional naomhóga on the Lee in occasional competitions. The Ocean to City race, held in 2005 and again in 2007, saw teams and boats from many local and visiting clubs race for 24 km (15 mi) from Crosshaven to Cork city centre. The decision to move the National Rowing Center to Inniscarra has boosted numbers involved in the sport. Cork's maritime sailing heritage is maintained through its sailing clubs. The Royal Cork Yacht Club located in Crosshaven (outside the city) is the world's oldest yacht club, and Cork Week is a notable sailing event.

Other sports

There are Cork clubs active nationally in basketball (Neptune and UCC Demons) and golf, pitch and putt, hockey, tennis and athletics clubs in the Cork area. Cricket has long been played in the city. The main teams are Cork County CC, situated next to the Mardyke, and Harlequins CC, located next to Cork airport. The city is also the home of road bowling, which is played in the north-side and south-west suburbs. Boxing and Martial arts, such as Karate, Muay Thai and Taekwondo, also command a high level of practise within the city. Cork Racing races in the Irish Formula Ford Championship.

See also

Further reading

  • Merchants, Mystics and Philanthropists – 350 Years of Cork Quakers Richard S. Harrison Published by Cork Monthly Meeting, Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) 2006

References

  1. ^ Cork City Council > Cork's Cultural Heritage
  2. ^ County Hall (Cork County Council)
  3. ^ Census 2006PDF (4.22 MiB), Government of Ireland
  4. ^ Cork County Council population report
  5. ^ RTÉ Television – The Harbour
  6. ^ Coastal & Marine Resources Centre – Cork Harbour Marine Life Research Project Report
  7. ^ Ó Riain, Pádraig (1994). Beatha Bharra (Saint Finbarr of Cork: the Complete Life). Irish Texts Society. ISBN 1870166574. 
  8. ^ Moody, TW; Martin, FX; Byrne, FJ; Cosgrove, A; Ó Cróinín, D (1976). A New History of Ireland. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198217374. 
  9. ^ For 1653 and 1659 figures from Civil Survey Census of those years, Paper of Mr Hardinge to Royal Irish Academy March 14 1865.
  10. ^ Census for post 1821 figures.
  11. ^ http://www.histpop.org
  12. ^ http://www.nisranew.nisra.gov.uk/census
  13. ^ Lee, JJ (1981). "On the accuracy of the Pre-famine Irish censuses". in Goldstrom, J. M.; Clarkson, L. A.. Irish Population, Economy, and Society: Essays in Honour of the Late K. H. Connell. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press. 
  14. ^ Mokyr, Joel; O Grada, Cormac (November), "New Developments in Irish Population History, 1700–1850", The Economic History Review Volume 37 (Issue 4): 473–488, doi:10.1111/j.1468-0289.1984.tb00344.x, http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/120035880/abstract 
  15. ^ Cork City Council website – History – Walls of Cork
  16. ^ Cork City Council – List of charters issued to Cork city
  17. ^ a b Cork City Library – History of Cork – The Burning of Cork
  18. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Local_government_in_the_Republic_of_Ireland
  19. ^ http://www.cork.ie/citycouncil/electedmembers/
  20. ^ a b Met Éireann – Annual Report 2003
  21. ^ a b c Met Éireann – The Irish Weather Service – 30 Year Averages – Cork Airport
  22. ^ IMDB.com – Cillian Murphy – Other works
  23. ^ Cork Film Festival Website
  24. ^ – Information about the Jewish community in Cork
  25. ^ – Mass Times for Polish Community in Diocese of Cork and Ross
  26. ^ "Cork enters 'Lonely Planet' guide as top 10 place to visit". Irish Times. http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/ireland/2009/1103/1224257963102.html. Retrieved 2010-02-09. 
  27. ^ http://corkirish.com/wordpress/
  28. ^ Cork Campus Radio
  29. ^ ENFO Publication (Department of the Environment Heritage and Local Government) Medieval Cork
  30. ^ Cork City Library – History of Cork – St Patrick's Street – Historic Outline
  31. ^ Cork County Council – About the "County Hall"
  32. ^ Church of St. Anne Shandon
  33. ^ http://www.citymayors.com/cityhalls/cork-cityhall.html
  34. ^ Discover Ireland – Cork – The English Market
  35. ^ "Apple locations". http://www.apple.com/jobs/us/pro/inside/locations.html. 
  36. ^ Nyhan, Miriam (2007). Are You Still Below?: The Ford Marina Plant, Cork, 1917–84. Collins Press. ISBN 1905172494. 
  37. ^ Ralph Riegel (7 March 2008). "IFSC to get €10bn rival in Cork". The Irish Independent. http://www.independent.ie/national-news/ifsc-to-get-euro1bn-rival-in-cork-1308901.html. Retrieved 2008-03-28. 
  38. ^ Bord Gáis. "About Bord Gáis". http://www.bge.ie/corporate/index.jsp?&pID=93&nID=94. Retrieved 2007-05-27. 
  39. ^ Cork City Council – International Relations
  40. ^ Green Councillor calls for Cork's twinning with Shanghai to be scrapped – greenviews.eu
  41. ^ Ирландия и Россия обсудили возможности сотрудничества в ОЭЗ
  42. ^ IrishRail.ie – Projects – Western Rail Corridor
  43. ^ RTÉ News: Service begins on Cork-Midleton line
  44. ^ University College Cork is "University of the Year", UCC Press Release, September 14, 2003

External links

Coordinates: 51°53′50″N 8°28′12″W / 51.897222°N 8.47°W / 51.897222; -8.47


Cork may refer to:

CORK may also be:

See also


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Cork article)

From Wikitravel

St. Finbarr's Cathedral
St. Finbarr's Cathedral

Cork (Irish: Corcaigh) is situated on the banks of the River Lee in the south of the country. With a city population of 119,418 in 2006 (190,384 including suburbs) [1] it is the second largest city in the Republic of Ireland, and the third largest in all of Ireland.

Understand

Orientation

Cork is the anglicised version of the Irish word Corcaigh, which means marsh. The city centre was originally built on marshland and boats were able to navigate into the channels which separated the many islands. Many of the wider streets, such as St Patrick's Street, the South Mall and the Grand Parade, are actually built on former river channels. St Patrick's Street is Cork's commercial hub, and is known colloquially as either "Patrick Street" or "Panna".

The center of the city forms an arrow-shaped island between the North and South channels of the River Lee. There are upwards of thirty bridges over the two channels. This, combined with the one-way traffic system, can make the centre a little bit confusing for first-time visitors. The River Lee flows from West to East, and outside of the centre, hills rise steeply to the Northside, while the Southside is flatter. St. Anne's Church watches over Shandon, just to the North of the river. The University is about 2km to the west of the centre.

The Train Station is about 1 km to the East of the centre. Shops are generally concentrated around St. Patrick's Street, Oliver Plunkett Street, Paul Street and North Main Street. Bars and Restaurants can be found everywhere, but especially around MacCurtain Street, Washington Street and Oliver Plunkett Street. Financial businesses are centred on the area around the South Mall and the Administrative heart of the city is on Anglesea Street.

History

The patron Saint of Cork, Saint Finbar (c.550-c.620) founded a monastery on the south bank of the River Lee approximately 1,400 years ago. A settlement grew up around this monastery and was added to (and ransacked) by Viking invaders during the ninth and tenth centuries. The town grew and the English Norman King Henry II, who had been requested by Pope Adrian IV (the only English Pope) to collect papal dues not paid, gave Cork city status in 1185.

Cork slowly grew during the late middle ages, developing into a crowded, walled city, centered around North and South Main Streets. The city enjoyed a golden age of sorts during the seventeenth century providing butter to ships which plied the North Atlantic. During this period the city expanded and many Italianate residences were built on the hills to the North in Sunday's Well and Montenotte.

After a sluggish start following independence, the city grew substantially during the latter half of the twentieth century. Currently, as a result of the Celtic Tiger phenomenon, development is having a profound effect on all aspects of the city, including its appearance, mostly for the better. From a small merchant town, Cork has grown into a cosmopolitan and vibrant city that, within the Republic of Ireland, is second only to Dublin in size and importance.

Statio Bene Fide Carinis' – "A safe Harbour for ships" is the motto of the city that is found on the coat of arms.

In recent years Cork has developed a slightly separatist mentality [2] when compared to other parts of Ireland. This is most evident in colloquial speech (Cork Slang) [3] and references to Ireland's capital, Dublin. This is, however, mostly tongue-in-cheek humour.

Get in

By boat

Car ferry services depart from Ringaskiddy (15km SE of the city) to Roscoff and Swansea. Ferries sail to/from Ringaskiddy through Cork Harbour (the second largest natural harbour in the world; Sydney harbour being the largest) and past Cobh - the last port of call for the Titanic. From April to October there is a weekly ferry service to Roscoff in France with Brittany Ferries [4]. The Cork-Swansea ferry service was suspended in 2007 for lack of a suitable vessel. The Cork-Swansea ferry service will be reinstated in 2010 with the new operator Fastnet Line [5] resuming the service in March.

Aer Lingus
Aer Lingus

Cork Airport [6] (IATA: ORK) is the 3rd largest airport in the Republic of Ireland after Dublin Airport and Shannon Airport. The airport is located 8km south of the city centre, connected by the N27 Kinsale Road. The destinations focus on Great Britain and Western Europe, with connections to Dublin and Belfast also available.

Among the main scheduled passenger operators out of Cork Airport [7] are Aer Arann [8], Aer Lingus [9], Air Southwest [10], BMI Baby [11], Jet2 [12], Ryanair [13], and Wizz Air [14]. Destinations include [15]:

There is a taxi rank located outside the arrivals entrance. Taxis to the city centre cost around €20 and can carry up to 4 passengers (or up to 8 if you request a van-style taxi). Fares for longer journeys are reasonably priced and negotiable.

Bus Éireann [16] route 226 [17] links the airport with the city centre. Route 249 [18] stops at the airport on its route between Cork and Kinsale.

SkyLink [19] operate the Cork Airport Express shuttle service every 30 minutes (recognisable by their bright yellow buses). There are two routes to the city centre: Route 1 via MacCurtain St and Route 2 via Western Road / Washington St.

Shannon Airport [20] (IATA: SNN) may be useful for some travellers. There are direct flights to Shannon from the United States and different selection of European cities. Shannon is connected to Cork in 2 hours 25 minutes by Bus Éireann [21] and SkyLink [22] bus services.

By train

The train service in Ireland is operated by Irish Rail [23] (Irish: Iarnród Éireann) which provides rail services from Cork to Dublin (16 trains per day), Cobh (22), Tralee (3 direct, 6 with one change) and Mallow. All other towns and cities are accessible through connecting trains.

Cork's main station is Kent Station, located on the Lower Glanmire Road, a 10-minute walk east of St Patrick's Street.

Trains in Ireland can be expensive by comparison by other modes of transport. For example, a single (one-way) adult ticket from Dublin to Cork typically costs €36 if booked online [24], though a certain number of services offer a €20 single fare if booked online. Be aware that adult single tickets bought at the station cost €66 [25], almost the same price as a return journey. By booking online on the Dublin train you will be automatically allocated a reserved seat; you can also select which seat you would like manually.

Kent Station, Cork
Kent Station, Cork

The Irish Rail network is undergoing a significant upgrading in terms of both infrastructure and rolling stock.

Four routes operate from Kent Station, Cork:

1. Intercity route to Dublin Heuston, serving: Mallow, Charleville, Limerick Junction, Thurles, Templemore, Ballybrophy, Portlaoise, Portarlington, Kildare, Dublin Heuston.

2. Intercity route to Tralee, serving: Mallow, Banteer, Millstreet, Rathmore, Killarney, Farranfore, Tralee

3. Commuter route to Cobh, serving: Little Island, Glounthane, Fota, Carrigaloe, Rushbrooke, Cobh.

4. Commuter route to Mallow, serving: Mallow.

By bus

The main nationwide bus carrier in Ireland is Bus Éireann [26] who run services from Dublin to Cork every two hours, on even hours from 8AM until 6PM. Similar express direct bus services exist to Waterford (hourly), Killarney, and Limerick, Shannon Airport and Galway (hourly).

Aircoach [27] also run services to and from Dublin every two hours, on odd hours from 7AM until 7PM. A connecting bus goes to Dublin Airport.

City Link [28] operate services on the Limerick-Shannon Airport-Galway route.

By car

The main inter-city road network in Ireland has received a lot of investment in recent years, though sections of poor road still exist, even on the road between the largest cities.

The M7 and M8 which connect Cork to Dublin is mostly motorway with 2 lanes in each direction. Approximate journey time is 3 hours 15 minutes in good conditions.

The N20 to Limerick is mostly single carriageway with one lane in each direction; there are short sections of dual-carriageway (2 lanes in each direction) around Cork and Limerick. Approximate journey time is 1 hour 45 minutes.

The main arteries into Cork are mostly wide and in good condition, but outside of these the streets can be very narrow and steep; drivers who are unfamiliar with this style of close-knit street layout may find these conditions extremely challenging.

Car rental

Car rental services in Cork mainly operate out of Cork Airport. The close proximity of Cork Airport to Cork City means that this is not as inconvenient as it might appear, particularly when the excellent bus and taxi services are included. Below are the car rental companies listed on the Cork Airport [29] Website as having locations at Cork Airport:

  • Car Hire Cork Airport [30] CarHire.ie office located at the main car rental desk at Cork airport.
  • Avis
  • Budget Car Rental [31]
  • Hertz [32]
  • Irish Car Rentals
  • Alamo / National
  • Dan Dooley Car Rentals
  • Enterprise Rent-a-Car
  • Europcar
  • Thrifty Car Rental Cork [33]
Cork City's main thoroughfare, Patrick Street
Cork City's main thoroughfare, Patrick Street

Walk

Cork has a small city centre. A visitor will most likely be staying, eating, drinking and touring in the city centre. Taxis are plentiful (except for late Friday and Saturday nights, when demand exceeds supply). There is a bus service to the residential suburbs. Most buses leave from the main street, Patrick's Street or the nearby bus station at Parnell Place.

A guided bus tour departs from near the junction of Grand Parade and South Mall at regular intervals and provides an interesting tour of the main highlights of Cork for those who do not have a lot of time on their hands.

Taxi

There are numerous Taxi ranks located throughout cork city, fares are calculated on a meter and all taxis are the same price. Fares are also negotiable for longer out of town trips. Most drivers also offer fixed priced guided tours. (See taxi regulator: [34])

Taxis appear as normal cars except with a yellow bar above it with their license number and 'TAXI' or the Irish equivalent 'TACSAÍ' written on it. If the light's on, the taxi is free, but some taximen forget to turn on and off their light, so check to see if anyone's in the cab.

St. Fin Barre's cathedral and the river Lee, Cork City
St. Fin Barre's cathedral and the river Lee, Cork City
  • Cork Vision Centre. This is in a former church in North Main Street. It has a large scale model of the city which should help your understanding. Free admission.
  • Elizabeth Fort. Offers a good view over the city. However, it is not easily seen from the city. From Southgate Bridge, go up Barrack Street and turn right. The Elizabeth Fort Market Festival takes place on Sundays inside the historic fort walls and features Irish-made crafts, gourmet food, and entertainment. [35] There is a police station within the fort.
  • St Finbarr's Cathedral. This is just a few minutes away from the Elizabeth fort and much easier to find. A fine 19th century Gothic building. Visible from the back is a golden angel high upon a tower.
  • Shandon Church. The tower and bells are symbols of the city, and overlook it from the north. Visitors are allowed to ring the bells. This church is situated in a conservation area.
  • Lewis Gluckman Gallery, . This piece of modern architecture is situated within the grounds of University College Cork. Within is state of the art technology to protect and display major exhibitions of international art, along with facilities for workshops, film screenings, lectures and art classes. A café is situated on the ground floor.
  • Cork City Gaol. Slightly outside the city centre, this attraction is very much worth the visit. It can be reached by using the city sightseeing bus, by taxi or by a 30 minute walk. There is a small admission fee, but is worth every penny. The Gaol also provides fine views of the west of the city, including the University.
  • Cork Historic Walking Tours [36] offer the visitor the opportunity to understand the City's history, from its foundation by St. Finbarre right up to the 20th Century. The tour brings the visitor to the site of the ancient monastery of Cork, through the areas of Viking settlement, the medieval streets of the Norman walled city and along the waterways of the expanding 18th and 19th century city. The tour explains the history of the city in an informative and relaxed way.
  • University College Cork. Take a stroll through the College which is open to the public and take in the variety of architecture here, From the newly constructed extension of the Boole Library to the newly repointed limestone Honan Chapel which is popular for graduate weddings.
University College Cork
University College Cork
  • Páirc Ui Chaoimh This 50,000 capacity stadium is in Ballintemple and is home of Cork GAA. It is open on matchdays and Monday and Wednesday for tours.

Do

Festivals

Cork has a thriving cultural scene that was acknowledged internationally when it was named the European Capital of Culture for 2005. Several festivals are held annually in the city giving the visitor an opportunity to experience a wide range of music, theatre and film.

  • Midsummer Festival [37]. A month long festival featuring theatre, music, art, poetry and much more, throughout the city. Mid June - Mid July.
  • Film Festival [38]. Established more than 50 years ago, the festival features an impressive selection of Irish and international films. Beginning of October.
  • Jazz Festival [39]. One of the largest jazz festivals in Europe that consistently attracts top acts from around the world. Last weekend in October.
  • Elizabeth Fort Market Festival [40]. Celebrating Cork Heritage at the Elizabeth Fort every Sunday, featuring Irish-made crafts, gourmet food, and entertainment all day long. Located on Barrack Street.
  • Watch a Gaelic Game During the Munster Championship in the summer, a number of games are played in Páirc Uí Caoimh, while smaller games are played all throughout the year. See the GAA [41] for more information.
  • League of Ireland Football Watch a Cork City FC [42] soccer match during the FAI League of Ireland [43] season from March to November. Turner's Cross Stadium is located 1.5km south of the city centre. Home matches take place on Friday nights at 7:45PM. Tickets cost: €15 (adult), €8 (under-18 & OAP), €5 (under-12), free (under-5).
  • Sail Cork, East Ferry Marina (3 mi east of Cobh), +353 21 4811237, [44]. Teaches dinghy and cruiser sailing, powerboating and navigation. Courses are run all year round and are available for juniors and adults.  edit

Rugby: Musgrave Park the auxillary stadium for the 2 Times European Champions Munster. Munster are currently considered one of the best teams in Europe. Munster play some of their non-Heineken Cup Fixtures here. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Munster_Rugby

The Unofficial Cork City Pub Crawl
The Unofficial Cork City Pub Crawl

If you're in Cork City on a Friday night and you want to go out and enjoy the city's pub culture then a great way to do it is by going on The Unofficial Cork City Pub Crawl[45]. It's a free pub crawl organised by local energetic youths, with the aim of creating a buzz or a bit of craic amongst the tourists of Cork City.They run it every Friday, starting at 8PM outside the GPO on Oliver Plunkett St. and take the group to at least 6 pubs, all of which are different and interesting. There are drink deals, free food and free entry into a club at the end of the night. The group is a good blend of locals and backpackers and people can come and go as they please but it gets bigger and bigger as the night goes on. It's a great way to meet and mingle with locals and tourists, see the city, sample the local beers and have a fun time.

  • Uncle Pete's Pizzeria, 31 Pope's Quay, 021-4555888. 24/7. A pizza delivery place in Cork City, which places an emphasis on gourmet pizzas such as The Margherita (crushed tomato sauce with slices of buffalo mozzarella, fresh basil and sprinkled with parmesan), the West Cork pizza (clonakily black and white pudding with saute potatoes, Irish sausage, cherry tomatoes and mozzarella), or the Diavolo (Italian sausage, salami, sweet pepperbelle chillis and caramelised onion in a spicy tomato sauce with slices of buffalo mozzarella). Uncle Pete's also does pasta, salads, baguettes and calzone.Possibly the most delicious pizza that was ever made for delivery, the business will bring whatever appeals all over the city centre and the North Side. Most astoundingly, Uncle Pete's prices are very similar to Cork's other pizza places such as Four Star and Dominioes. from €3.50 for garlic bread to €15 for a 16 inch 'big cheese' to €23 for a 16 inch diavolo..  edit
  • Captain Americas Cookhouse and Bar, 4-5 South Main Street. A very popular restaurant with young,friendly and fun staff. Take a walk around the restaurant and look at the collection of music and celeb memorabilia.  edit
  • Bana Thai Maylor Street (Behind Brown Thomas). Mediocre Thai food, really relaxed atmosphere.
  • Liberty Grill Washington Street. This American-style cafe offers excellent food, especially their burgers.
  • Nash 19 19 Princes Street, off Oliver Plunkett Street.
  • Cork English Market, Grand Parade, South Mall (enter via Grand Parade or Princes Street), [46]. 9AM - 5:30PM. This is an old covered market in the centre of the city with an abundance of excellent food to suit all tastes and a pleasant cafe, often with live piano music. It also includes an excellent cafe: "The Farmgate". Free.  edit
English Market
English Market
  • The Bodega, Coal Quay. This is actually a cafe/bar set in a very large old industrial space. Very beautifully refurbished. As a place for a drink in the evening it has become less appealing over the years. However they do a very nice brunch menu on a Saturdays and Sundays. Priced from 8-12 euros. Also very nice lunch menu. The crowd is a very diverse mix of young people, professionals and families.
  • Café Paradiso, 16 Lancaster Quay, Tel: +353 21 4277939. Fantastic vegetarian restaurant, one that even the most hardened meat eaters flock to. At the upper end of the budget but worth it for the gourmet vegetarian delights. The Bridgestone Vegetarian Guide says "…I now firmly believe that Cork's Café Paradiso is the only vegetarian restaurant – maybe in the whole of Europe – where the actual enjoyment of the food is paramount."
  • Scoozis, Off Winthrop Street. One of the most popular restaurants in Cork, always busy for lunch and dinner. Booking is advisable, but people also often just turn up and queue. Staff are young and friendly, menu is varied, cheap and full of very tasty food. Perfect for big parties, small groups of friends and even a romantic meal for two.
  • Clanceys A traditional Irish pub restaurant, That offers average food with an Irish atmosphere.
  • The Ivory Tower, Oliver Plunkett St. This restaurant is a Cork institution. Very eclectic and eccentric food. A five course set meal at €55 a head. Cheap it is not. However an intimate and unusual small room with very friendly staff and award winning food. The famous dish from here is Sword fish with banana ketchup. For the less adventurous there is a good selection of high quality quite game-y food. A great wine list.
  • Fenns Quay, No. 5 Fenns Quay, parallel to Washington St. Quite a modern looking restaurant, a step down price wise from the ivory tower. Contemporary and half decent quality and continental cuisine in a nicely renovated old house. Expect to pay about €35-€40 a head.
  • Luigi Malones, Emmet Place. Famous for the teenagers usually snogging out front, Luigi Malones sits across for Cork Opera House.
  • Jacobs on the Mall, South Mall. Award-winning restaurant with incredibly delicious gourmet food. Expensive but worth it, it's easily one of Cork's finest restaurants.
  • Quay CoOp, 24 Sullivans Quay, Cork (Just over the river across the footbridge from the Grand Parade), 021 4317026, [47]. 9AM-9PM. The Quay Co-op Restaurant is renowned by diners in Cork and beyond for the quality and variety of its menu and the ambience of its brightly decorated dining rooms. The restaurant is vegetarian and also provides an extensive range of vegan, yeast-free, sugar-free, gluten-free and dairy-free dishes from around the world. c.10Euro. (51.895523,-8.4748578) edit
  • Elizabeth Fort Market Festival, Elizabeth Fort, Barrack Street, Cork (Barrack Street, Cork City), 086 0667030, [48]. 11PM. The Elizabeth Fort Market features gourmet food on Sundays including french crepes, halal bbq, sushi, vegetarian cuisine, cupcakes, coffees, refreshments and more. FREE.  edit
  • Ruen Thai, 71 Patrick's Street (Above Boots on Patrick's Street). Very good Thai Restuarant, plenty of seating inside. Relaxed atmosphere. Prices mid-range.  edit
  • Ambassador Chinese Restuarant, 3 Cooks Street, Cork (Next to Specsavers). Chinese food "par excellence". If you are only used to cheap takeaways then you are in for a pleasant surprise. Traditional Western Chinese food but done very well. Try the aromatic duck. Prices are moderate to high.  edit
  • Panda Mama Restaurant, 14 Parnell Place (Between the Bus Station and city hall). The place is worth visiting for the decor alone; traditional chinese wood and marble. Menu shows innovation for a chinese restuarant outside Dublin. Food is good. Prices are Moderate.  edit

Drink

Barrack Street is known in Cork for its amount and variety of bars. The Barrack St. Challenge challenge is to drink one pint in each bar starting in Nancy Spain's and still be able to walk by the time you reach the Brewery. Cork is also well known for its live music scene.

Outside of An Bróg
Outside of An Bróg
  • An Bróg, Oliver Plunkett St. off Grand Parade. Diverse patrons and music make this a favourite among all groups. A late bar open until 2AM. Expect to queue during the student year.
  • An Spailpín Fánach Irish for 'the migrant labourer' has traditional Irish music most nights, is a traditional Irish pub and has a great atmosphere after 9PM. Located on South Main Street, across the road from the Brewery.
  • The Bierhaus, Popes Quay (at Shandon footbridge), Tel: +353 21 4551648, [49]. Claims the best selection of beers in Cork, with over 50 on offer and new beers on tap monthly.
  • Costigans, Washington St. Great atmosphere at weekends, Always a good place to start when doing a pub crawl of the lively Washington St.
  • Franciscan Well, On the riverside north of the Gate Cinema. Has a large beer garden. Brews its own range of beers and has a fine section of foreign bottled beers. This pub organises beer festivals twice yearly.
  • Freak Scene, The Qube / The Works Oliver Plunkett Street, [50]. Great Student night every Wednesday. Upstairs has alternative and indie, downstairs disco and soul and is the gay section of freakscene. Running for 12 years, it has outlasted all competitors in a fickle Cork scene. Casual Dress, in fact wear whatever you want.
  • Gateway Bar, next to Elizabeth Fort & the Elizabeth Fort Sunday Market, and is the oldest pub in Cork. It was established in 1698 and the Dukes of Wellington and Marlborough were among its patrons. It is possibly the oldest pub in Ireland. That title is being claimed by a few pubs in the country. The Brazen Head in Dublin was a pub before The Gateway, but didn't hold a continuous license. The Gateway is now called An Realt Dearg (Red Star) and just outside the gates of the Elizabeth Fort.
  • The hi-b, Oliver Plunkett St. off Grand Parade. (Upstairs). This pub is owned by the grumpiest man in cork. It is a tiny room up old creaking stairs. It has a nice mixture of old guys and a young crowd very friendly and welcoming to newcomers despite its intimidating aesthetic. On a Wednesday evening an ole fella plays jazz piano and takes requests. This place is not for everyone, but if you like the kind of intimate place where a stranger sits to tell you his life story then the hi b is great. Be warned, the owner does not tolerate mobile phones in his bar (among numerous other things). Like a stranger sat at my table once told me "you are no-one in Cork until you have been kicked out the hi-b"
  • Loafers, 26, Douglas Street, [51]. A cosy pub just south of the city centre, Loafers is Ireland’s oldest gay venue. Its laidback, friendly atmosphere attracts a diverse clientele, and it’s generally more popular with women than the other gay venues.  edit
  • Long Valley, Winthrop St. Busy pub with constant turnover of clientele. Sandwiches are not to be missed! Classical and jazz music in the background. A bit expensive, but not overly so given its city center location.
  • MvM - Movies vs Music, Everyman Palace, McCurtain St. This is the place to be on a Saturday night. Playing all the hits from 60s,70s,80s,90s and modern day. They also have a comfy couch cinema showing the best in cult movie titles, such as 'Batman the TV movie', 'Whitnail and I', 'Planet of the Apes', to mention but a few. If that's not enough they have playstation, connect 4, draughts and electro buzz in their games room or chill out with a lovely cocktail! The latest club in Cork. 11:45PM-2:30AM. Check it out, you'll love it!
  • Mutton Lane Inn, Mutton Lane. off Patricks St (first turn after Burger King). This is owned by the same people that run Sin é and it shows. Dark and very comfortable with candle lit tables and trad sessions every Monday night. Get in early this place gets packed. Nice selection of beers both foreign and local.
  • Savoy Theatre. St Patrick's Street, [52]. Home to "Bang" student night on Tuesdays and Thursdays during the college year, "Goldsounds" on Friday Nights and Rapture every Saturday Night Savoy is a must for under 20s visiting and at €10 for entry its very reasonable. Opens at 11PM.
  • Sin é, Coburg St. Dark, small and welcoming. Good for traditional music. One of Cork's more atmospheric pubs.
  • Tom Barry's Another traditional Irish bar, on Barrack St.
  • The Oval Bar, South Main Street (Behind the Peace Park). Best Music policy in Cork, if you perfer alternative, electronica or a little bit of rock. Pints are great too. Punters are relaxed. For genuine drinkers only.  edit
  • Boardwalk Bar & Grill, Lapps Quay (Across from the City Hall), 353(0) 21 4279990, [53]. M-Fr 5-7pm/Saturday 5-6pm. An 8,000 square foot Bar and Grill with rich wood and leather panelling tinged with traditional liscaner stone.  edit

Sleep

Budget

There are a handful of hostels in the city:

  • The Bru Hostel [54] tel: +353 21 4559667, 57 MacCurtain Street. The Bru Hostel is a nice new hostel with an attached bar. Live music and a lively pub most nights. Prices start at €12 and include breakfast, wi fi internet, bike and luggage storage.
  • Kinlay House is on the north side of the city, in an increasingly international area of the city. It can be found underneath Shandon, tel: +353 21 4508966. Rates start at €13. A free breakfast and include a free light breakfast! Kinlay House is an environmentally friendly hostel, so you can stay here guilt free!!
  • Sheila's Budget Accommodation Centre [55], 4 Belgrave Place, Wellington Road, tel: +353 21 4505562. Rooms start from €13, and includes free wi fi internet.
  • Corks International Youth Hostel, 1 & 2 Redclyffe, Western Road, tel: +353 21 4543289. Member of the Hostelling International chain - discounts for members. Rooms start at €15.
  • Blarney Camping Ground is in Blarney, around 10 minutes from Cork by car, and is a godsend when all the hostels are booked out for the night. Price start around €10 per night for a large family tent site, complete with shower, laundry, kitchen and TV room.
  • Jury's Inn. Tel: +353 21 4943000. This is a 3 star hotel. Rooms from about €90. On Andersen Quay, close to the bus station. Each of the 133 rooms is equipped with high speed internet and satellite TV. There is also a bar and restaurant on site. Please do not mistaken this hotel for the more lavish and superior Jurys Cork Hotel of [56]The Doyle Collection.
  • Metropole Hotel. Tel: +353 21 4643700. This is also part of a group, Gresham Hotels. Rooms from about €110. This hotel is on MacCurtain Street, on the north side of the city centre. The hotel is comprised of 112 rooms, each equipped with complimentary wi fi internet access, room service, and laundry service.
  • Imperial Hotel Cork [57]. Tel: +353 21 4274040. This hotel, on South Mall right in the city centre, can have decent weekend deals, but is edging towards the more expensive end. Each room includes room service and nightly turndown service.

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  • Hayfield Manor. Perrott Avenue, College Road. Tel: + 353 21 4845900. [58] Possibly Corks grandest hotel. Hidden away at the top of a cul-de-sac on Perrot Avenue, off College Road, this 5 star hotel is an expensive and luxurious hotel. Backpackers normally work here, rather than spend the night. The Hayfield Manor has a variety of rooms to best suit your needs.
  • Kingsley House Hotel. Victoria Cross, Tel: +353 21 4800555. Slightly outside of town, near Cork County Hall, (third tallest building in Ireland), on Carraigrohane Straight this hotel is new and currently being expanded. Has a reputation of being a lovely, top-end hotel.
  • The Clarion Hotel. Lapps Quay, Tel: +353 21 4224900. Brand new, boasting a nice riverside promenade, this hotel is proving very popular. Easily accessible, within close walking distance of the city centre. Each room is equipped with air conditioning, power showers, and Egyptian cotton sheets.

Stay safe

Cork is a safer city than Dublin. During the night caution should be taken, as in any situation involving large numbers of people and alcohol. Like in Britain, late night street fights are much more common in Ireland than in Western Europe and Asia. This is due to a combination of 3 factors.

  1. In Ireland, the pubs are at the centre of the dating game. As with all games there are winners and losers. Losers tend to be frustrated.
  2. At 2.30AM all nightclubs have to close due to Irish law. This results in a late night "rush-hour."
  3. The effect of alcohol on people's inhibitions.

Local people can usually spot a troublemaker quickly, but if you are from "out of town" it's better to play it safe. When people come out from the pubs and clubs, stay away from any over-exuberant people, the majority of these are just having a good time but there is a minority who may look to start a fight. If they call to you, ignore them and move away from them quickly: if you're not there you can’t be hit.

As in most cities, if your safety feels compromised, approach any of the many police or doormen in the city centre, who will provide assistance.

  • Blarney Castle, Blarney. This is a famous and picturesque castle nestled within the comfortable settings of Blarney village. Known for its beautiful gardens and historic value, this sight attracts visitors throughout the year. Prices of admission vary but generally remain under €10, with discounts available for students. Grounds close at 5PM daily (excluding winter).
Cobh, Ireland
Cobh, Ireland

Barryscourt Castle. On the way to Cobh, just before Fota. Historic restored Norman Castle and seat of the famous Barry Family. Guided tours available. There is a nice cafe adjacent and a heritage orchard with an example of every type of Irish Apple Tree.

  • Cobh, Formerly known as Queenstown. This was the port for Cork in the age of the great ocean liners, and still sees the occasional cruise ship. It can be reached by a suburban train - timetable [59]. Cobh also boasts an interesting heritage centre. Check opening hours before traveling. More information and images of Cobh [60]
  • Fota Wildlife Park and Arboretum [61], set on an island in Cork harbour and reached by road or the Cobh suburban train.
  • Midleton Home of the Jameson Distillery.
  • Cahir, Co. Tipperary. Has Cahir Castle
  • Cape Clear Island off county Cork, officially designated Gealtacht or Irish-speaking area.
  • West Cork Beautiful rolling hills and green countryside, the Ireland from the postcards. Many picturesque towns to stop and eat or sleep, like Clonakilty, Skibereen and Bandon.

Kinsale: Pretty seaside town 30 mintues South of Cork by Car. Famous for its food festival and restuarants especially seafood. Good pubs too. Charles Fort is nearby and it is an excellant example of 17th Centuary Star shaped fort: guided tours available.

  • Killarney, Co. Kerry. Home of the Killarney Lakes, Killarney Castle and Killarney Wildlife Park, another great spot to enjoy the countryside and small-town life in Ireland.
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Simple English

Cork is a city in County Cork in the Republic of Ireland. It is the second largest city in the Republic of Ireland and the third largest city on the island of Ireland. People from Cork are called Corkonians. It was founded by Saint Finbarr in the sixth century. 274,000 people live in Cork city and the surrounding urban areas. The River Lee runs through Cork city.

Famous things in Cork City include Saint Finbarrs cathedral, Shandon cathedral, Blackrock castle, Fota wildlife park, Fota house and gardens, and University College Cork. Many famous sports people come from Cork including Roy Keane, Dennis Irwin and Christy Ring. Olympic medal winner Sonia O'Sullivan comes from the town of Cobh just outside Cork city in County Cork.

Twin cities

File:Flag of the People' China, Shanghai

 United Kingdom, Coventry

 France, Rennes

 Germany, Cologne

 United States of America, San Francisco

 United Kingdom, Swansea

Europe

 EU Capital of Culture in 2005.

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