Corporate social responsibility: Wikis

  

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.Corporate social responsibility (CSR), also known as corporate responsibility, corporate citizenship, responsible business, sustainable responsible business (SRB), or corporate social performance,[1] is a form of corporate self-regulation integrated into a business model.^ The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits.

^ Toward improving corporate social performance.

^ It is only with CSR that businesses become socially responsible.
  • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ideally, CSR policy would function as a built-in, self-regulating mechanism whereby business would monitor and ensure its adherence to law, ethical standards, and international norms.^ What normative standards would they use?
  • The Tuck MBA - Corporate Social Responsibility - Syllabus 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC oracle-www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I would like to know more about the CSR. Standards, indices, awards, etc .

^ CSR may appear to be an uncontroversial extension of the companys role in societyafter all, few businesses would want to be known as socially irresponsible.
  • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Business would embrace responsibility for the impact of their activities on the environment, consumers, employees, communities, stakeholders and all other members of the public sphere.^ Business responsibility to consumer/customers Business' responsibility to the consumer/customer - what is the breadth of the responsibility to this important stakeholder.
  • The Tuck MBA - Corporate Social Responsibility - Syllabus 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC oracle-www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What are the limits of a business' responsibility to the public?
  • The Tuck MBA - Corporate Social Responsibility - Syllabus 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC oracle-www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With regard to the legitimate use of corporate resources for CSR, is there a distinction between activities targeting those impacted directly and intimately by the corporation's activities (employees, consumers, local communities, etc) and activities serving a broader, less connected, need (quality of schools and neighborhoods, urban blight, etc.
  • The Tuck MBA - Corporate Social Responsibility - Syllabus 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC oracle-www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Furthermore, business would proactively promote the public interest by encouraging community growth and development, and voluntarily eliminating practices that harm the public sphere, regardless of legality.^ His arguments can inspire practitioners to see a proactive rather than reactive role for public relations in matters of the societal acceptance of businesses and their practices.

^ In the course of that research, I ran across a blog post by Geoffrey Manne on the Community Interest Company, which is a relatively new form of business organization in the UK. .
  • ProfessorBainbridge.com: Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.professorbainbridge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During that time there were a number of separate phases of work, ranging from analyzing the sustainability issues for each business, to developing action plans, to communication and reporting.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Essentially, CSR is the deliberate inclusion of public interest into corporate decision-making, and the honoring of a triple bottom line: People, Planet, Profit.^ Is profit making the primary goal of the business corporation?
  • The Tuck MBA - Corporate Social Responsibility - Syllabus 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC oracle-www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore, CSR does not indicate how a fair allocation of resources can be achieved among the so-called triple bottom line.
  • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because CSR says that managers are accountable to all of these, however, managers, in fact, will be accountable to none, and could justify just about any decision on the basis that it benefits at least one aspect of the triple bottom line.
  • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The practice of CSR is subject to much debate and criticism.^ The practice of CSR is subject to much debate and criticism.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility | Social Education 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.forumjuizes.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Criticism: The practice of CSR is subject to much debate and criticism.
  • forceforgood Issues - Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.forceforgood.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over the last decade, the question of the relationship between organisations and society has been subject to much debate, often of a critical nature.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility (MA) 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.londonmet.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Proponents argue that there is a strong business case for CSR, in that corporations benefit in multiple ways by operating with a perspective broader and longer than their own immediate, short-term profits.^ Such business practice is termed corporate social responsibility (CSR).
  • Corporate Social Responsibility Seen as Smart Business Move 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.america.gov [Source type: News]

^ The business benefits of corporate social responsibility .
  • Corporate social responsibility | Business Link 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.businesslink.gov.uk [Source type: General]

^ Is there a role for business other than to make profit?
  • Big Picture TV › Video › What’s wrong with Corporate Social Responsibility? 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.bigpicture.tv [Source type: General]
  • Big Picture TV › Tags › Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.bigpicture.tv [Source type: General]

.Critics argue that CSR distracts from the fundamental economic role of businesses; others argue that it is nothing more than superficial window-dressing; others yet argue that it is an attempt to pre-empt the role of governments as a watchdog over powerful multinational corporations.^ The CSR debate attempts to define what that role is.
  • The Tuck MBA - Corporate Social Responsibility - Syllabus 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC oracle-www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Notice that this is an argument for board-centric forms of corporate governance, such as director primacy , which seek to constrain shareholder power.
  • ProfessorBainbridge.com: Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.professorbainbridge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As I argue in Accountability and Responsibility in Corporate Governance , publicly held firms (both corporate and uncorporate) may be more socially responsible than closely held, contrary to arguments some have made.
  • Ideoblog: Corporate social responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC busmovie.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Corporate Social Responsibility has been redefined throughout the years.^ New directions in corporate social responsibility.

^ Corporate social responsibility: Whether or how?

^ Corporate social responsibility.

.However, it essentially is titled to aid to an organization's mission as well as a guide to what the company stands for and will uphold to its consumers.^ Sustainability reporting within the company is essential to gaining the trust of suppliers and consumers.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of course, in many jurisdictions laws and regulations impose many obligations on companies not only with respect to shareholders, but also for environmental protection as well as laws protecting consumers and employees.
  • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Selling Out The author warns that selling a company or organization should not mean selling out as social missions will prove to contribute to long term success.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility : Center for Social Innovation (CSI) 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC csi.gsb.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Corporate Social Responsibility : Center for Social Innovation (CSI) 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC csi.gsb.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Development Business ethics is one of the forms of applied ethics that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that can arise in a business environment.^ Sustainable Development Mindset – Based on a concept promoted in the early 1990s, the object for business is to “do more with less” and “constrain all growth” for the benefit of the environment.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CSR redefines the very purpose of business so that, in addition to the traditional business purpose of maximizing the long-term interest of the shareholders (in the context of abiding by laws and ethical principles), businesses also have obligations to the environment and to stakeholder interests.
  • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A paper produced by the Business Roundtable Institute of Corporate Ethics (ICE) examines how best to unite business, ethics and the environment as demands for environmental stewardship are increasing.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the increasingly conscience-focused marketplaces of the 21st century, the demand for more ethical business processes and actions (known as ethicism) is increasing.^ The role of business in society has also become a more prominent issue because of the process of economic globalization in general and the perception of the power of multinational corporations in particular.
  • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It will close with a discussion of what leadership demands in the global market of the 21st century.
  • The Tuck MBA - Corporate Social Responsibility - Syllabus 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC oracle-www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A paper produced by the Business Roundtable Institute of Corporate Ethics (ICE) examines how best to unite business, ethics and the environment as demands for environmental stewardship are increasing.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Simultaneously, pressure is applied on industry to improve business ethics through new public initiatives and laws (e.g.^ Either directly or through showing how discrete CSR activities improve the effectiveness of the business economic system as a whole.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility—The Customer's Friend? | CustomerThink 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.customerthink.com [Source type: General]

^ In the face of fierce public criticism the censorship plan may be downgraded to a voluntary industry initiative.
  • RConversation: Corporate Responsibility 15 September 2009 7:13 UTC rconversation.blogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Deceptive advertising was identified as the "biggest ethics-related misconduct," with a majority of interviewees advocating consumer protection laws to assist legitimate businesses.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

higher UK road tax for higher-emission vehicles).
.Business ethics can be both a normative and a descriptive discipline.^ Both disciplines recognize that to do so makes good business sense” (p.

^ For more information on our commitment to business ethics, please see our Business Conduct Governance Policy (link and description below).
  • Celestica - Corporate Responsibility: Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.celestica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CSR and Business Ethics are actually not interchangeable concepts - although both are important.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a corporate practice and a career specialization, the field is primarily normative.^ Perhaps special B Corp statutory provisions could address this, but they'll run smack into corporate law norms in gap areas, as have special close corporation provisions.
  • Ideoblog: Corporate social responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC busmovie.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The issue of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) – once a special field for business ethicists – is today on the agendas of businesses, ministries and international organisations.
  • GTZ. Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gtz.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On this page: Sean Harvey explains the Corporate Social Responsibility field as a values-based career option.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Career - Job-Hunt.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.job-hunt.org [Source type: News]

In academia, descriptive approaches are also taken. .The range and quantity of business ethical issues reflects the degree to which business is perceived to be at odds with non-economic social values.^ Are businesses responsible for social issues 1 agenda.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The central argument for CSR is, in addition to ethical considerations, the "business argument" – raising corporate economic performance levels through socially and ecologically sustainable corporate policy.
  • GTZ. Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gtz.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This uses Business in the Community's environment and corporate responsibility indices to assess the extent to which environmental and social issues are integrated into an organisations strategy, practices and performance.
  • HEFCE : About us : Corporate social responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.hefce.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Historically, interest in business ethics accelerated dramatically during the 1980s and 1990s, both within major corporations and within academia.^ Corporate social responsibility and business ethics .
  • Social Responsibility- A Definite Aspect of Corporate Image 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC university-essays.tripod.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is an organization’s obligation to consider the interests of their customers, employees, shareholders, communities, and the ecology and to consider the social and environmental consequences of their business activities.
  • Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility | MyStrategicPlan 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC mystrategicplan.com [Source type: General]

^ As part of our due diligence into the businesses that we become major shareholders in, we incorporate a review of the corporate, environmental, social and ethical stance of those businesses.
  • Silverfleet Capital | Corporate social responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.silverfleetcapital.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, today most major corporate websites lay emphasis on commitment to promoting non-economic social values under a variety of headings (e.g.^ Today, we discuss corporate social responsibility .
  • Search Results on America.gov : corporate social responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC search.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Making the most of corporate social responsibility .
  • Valuing social responsibility programs - McKinsey Quarterly - Corporate Finance - Valuation 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.mckinseyquarterly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Search for “"Corporate social responsibility"” - Technorati 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC technorati.com [Source type: General]

^ Values and challenges of corporate social responsibility .
  • Social Responsibility- A Definite Aspect of Corporate Image 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC university-essays.tripod.com [Source type: Academic]

ethics codes, social responsibility charters). .In some cases, corporations have re-branded their core values in the light of business ethical considerations (e.g.^ It's not that there aren't any written down, in fact, corporate giant Enron has an admirable 'mission statement' that has 'Respect, Integrity, Communication and Excellence' as its core values.
  • Encounter - 15 November 2009 - Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Corporate Social responsibility and Enhancing Brand Value .
  • Corporate Social Responsibility | Business Blog 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC ayushveda.com [Source type: News]

^ This week we're delving into the corporate world and finding out what efforts are being made to inject ethical behaviours into business culture.
  • Encounter - 15 November 2009 - Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

BP's "beyond petroleum" environmental tilt).
.The term CSR came in to common use in the early 1970s, after many multinational corporations formed, although it was seldom abbreviated.^ And so, over the past 15 years, CSR has become a more and more familiar term, although, as discussed above, it can be defined in different ways.
  • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, especially in the years since the early 1990s, the call for what is termed corporate social responsibility (CSR) [1] has gained significant momentum in many countries.
  • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the large MNCs are often used to provide examples of the impact of business on society, it is impossible to limit the discussion to MNCs in particular or corporations in general.
  • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The term stakeholder, meaning those on whom an organization's activities have an impact, was used to describe corporate owners beyond shareholders as a result of an influential book by R Freeman in 1984.[2]
.ISO 26000 is the recognized international standard for CSR (currently a Draft International Standard).^ I define CSR using the draft ISO 26000 standard to mean "actions of an organization to take responsibility for the impacts of its activities on society and the environment, where these actions: are consistent with the interests of society and sustainable development; are based on ethical behaviour, compliance with applicable law and intergovernmental instruments; and are integrated into the ongoing activities of an organization.
  • ProfessorBainbridge.com: Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.professorbainbridge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Of course, the current description of 26000 is that of 'social responsibility guidelines' as opposed to a de facto management system standard.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The International Standards Organisation has just completed a summit meeting in Korea on the future development of the proposed Corporate Social Responsibility standard ISO 26000.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Public sector organizations (the United Nations for example) adhere to the Triple Bottom Line (TBL).^ Is this an example of an externality which the public sector has to address?
  • The Tuck MBA - Corporate Social Responsibility - Syllabus 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC oracle-www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore, CSR does not indicate how a fair allocation of resources can be achieved among the so-called triple bottom line.
  • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And they have enlisted none other than national governments and international organizations, including the United Nations, which endorse public "naming and shaming" campaigns in order to "smoke out" (expose and extinguish) corporations' heretical practices.
  • ProfessorBainbridge.com: Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.professorbainbridge.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is widely accepted that CSR adheres to similar principles but with no formal act of legislation.^ In addition to the law, it is also generally accepted that the social responsibility of business also extends to acting in accordance with general ethical principles.
  • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The UN has developed the Principles for Responsible Investment as guidelines for investing entities.^ The group, which formed in 2005 to develop in 2005 to set Principles for Responsible Investment (PRI) include investors based in the US, Europe, Australia and emerging markets.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Approaches

.Some commentators have identified a difference between the Continental European and the Anglo-Saxon approaches to CSR.[3] And even within Europe the discussion about CSR is very heterogeneous.^ Lan and I have been very busy at the end of the semester, but here are some comments for those who have posted.

^ After reviewing some of the comments, especially about standards and indices and awards, an excellent web site you can review is the Reputation Institute, http://www.reputationinstitute.com/ .

^ And so, over the past 15 years, CSR has become a more and more familiar term, although, as discussed above, it can be defined in different ways.
  • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]
.An approach for CSR that is becoming more widely accepted is community-based development projects, such as the Shell Foundation's involvement in the Flower Valley, South Africa.^ The RBM Partnership comprises all malaria-endemic countries, bilateral and multilateral development partners, the private sector, nongovernmental organizations, community-based organizations, foundations, and research and academic institutions involved in malaria control.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Back to top Public relations is ideally positioned to help organizations make communities more fully functioning because of its close interdependency with CSR. CSR is the means by which an organization is good first as a foundation for being an effective communicator.

^ Not only has mining become more capital intensive; the skills needed to do the available jobs may not be readily available in subsistence economies or remote communities.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Here they have set up an Early Learning Centre to help educate the community's children, as well as develop new skills for the adults.^ It needs support in development and education as well.

^ The CSR Strategy will help ensure that Canadian companies, the local communities where they operate and host governments all share in the benefits from mining, oil and gas development.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.international.gc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (CHAC) is dedicated to teaching and supporting children, teens, and adults with disabilities to reach their fullest and most independent potential in life through education, occupational training, employment, supported living, community acceptance, quality of life experiences and happiness.
  • Sarasota Embraces Corporate Social Resposibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.sarasotafl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Marks and Spencer is also active in this community through the building of a trade network with the community - guaranteeing regular fair trade purchases. .Often alternative approaches to this is the establishment of education facilities for adults, as well as HIV/AIDS education programmes.^ In 1953 we established the Fireman's Fund Foundation , an independent charitable organization, to support human needs as well as educational, cultural and community activities.
  • Fireman's Fund : Corporate & Social Responsibility : About Fireman's Fund 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.firemansfund.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Educate community on essential hygiene and sanitation practises and generate awareness on health issues – specially focussing on Immunization, RCH, HIV/AIDS. .
  • Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.hindustancopper.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Workplace: HIV/AIDS prevention with employees, truckers and transporters Support to National Issues: Support to NGOs for Universalizing Primary Education and arresting school dropouts .
  • Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC biltcsr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The majority of these CSR projects are established in Africa.^ These are the three major development phases I see in German business with regards to CSR. But this is only my point of view and judgement of course.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility | FabianPattberg.com 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.fabianpattberg.com [Source type: General]

JIDF For You, is an attempt to promote these activities in India. .A more common approach of CSR is through the giving of aid to local organizations and impoverished communities in developing countries.^ Giving back to the local community .
  • Cripps Harries Hall LLP | Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.crippslaw.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is through this link that we have developed a keen interest in Milton Keynes as a city, the communities it serves and the development of the people who live there.
  • EMW Picton Howell: Corporate Social Responsibility Policy 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.emwph.com [Source type: News]

^ It respects cultural differences and finds the business opportunities in building the skills of employees, the community and the government" from Ghana, through to "CSR is about business giving back to society" from the Phillipines.
  • Definitions of Corporate social responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.mallenbaker.net [Source type: News]

.Some organizations do not like this approach as it does not help build on the skills of the local people, whereas community-based development generally leads to more sustainable development.^ An approach for CSR is becoming more widely accepted that is community-based development projects.
  • forceforgood Issues - Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.forceforgood.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, JCI officers indicated that CSR projects can help members develop leadership skills, advance business success and prosperity in their communities, and gain public recognition.
  • JCI Programs - Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.jci.cc [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Through ongoing engagement and dialogue, we work to understand the concerns and needs of our communities, and we seek to respond by addressing local challenges in ways that build stronger communities and support the sustainability of our business.
  • Corporate Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Procurement of Fair Trade tea and coffee has been adopted by various businesses: KPMG CSR manager commented, "Fairtrade fits very strongly into our commitment to our communities."[5]
.Another approach that is garnering increasing corporate responsibility interest is called Creating Shared Value, or CSV. The shared value model is based on the idea that corporate success and social welfare are interdependent.^ Corporate social responsibility.

^ What corporate social responsibility activities are valued by the market?

^ Corporate social responsibility: A critical approach.

.A business needs a healthy, educated workforce, sustainable resources and adept government to compete effectively.^ Acknowledge business as a crucial partner to government, NGOs and donors in the fight against AIDS, and work together to find the best ways to optimize available resources.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If any of these conditions is not met, the social responsibility of business is effectively made impossible by the social irresponsibility of government.
  • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A choice to focus in this area may be part of a company's approach to corporate responsibility , but to be sustainable it needs to be run as any other part of a profitable business.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For society to thrive, profitable and competitive businesses must be developed and supported to create income, wealth, tax revenues, and opportunities for philanthropy.^ Which has a greater effect and can one really cancel out a life of greed – because to achieve the level of profits we are talking about, greed is a must - by a subsequent commitment to philanthropy?
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Businesses are expected to be involved in community affairs, formerly the exclusive responsibility of government, reasoned Chrisman and Carroll (1984) in their efforts to reconcile profits, business goals, and society.

^ The fact that it sources goods from many developing countries may be a factor that creates jobs and wealth in those countries.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.CSV received global attention in the Harvard Business Review article Strategy & Society: The Link between Competitive Advantage and Corporate Social Responsibility [1] by Michael E. Porter, a leading authority on competitive strategy and head of the Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness at Harvard Business School; and Mark R. Kramer, Senior Fellow at the Kennedy School at Harvard University and co-founder of FSG Social Impact Advisors.^ Corporate social responsibility.

^ Corporate social responsibility: A critical approach.

^ The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits.

.The article provides insights and relevant examples of companies that have developed deep linkages between their business strategies and corporate social responsibility.^ New directions in corporate social responsibility.

^ Corporate social responsibility: Whether or how?

^ Corporate social responsibility.

.Many approaches to CSR pit businesses against society, emphasizing the costs and limitations of compliance with externally imposed social and environmental standards.^ If you look at the social and environmental indicators of GRI, many of them are based on the external, societal codes that business is expected to comply with.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vogel begins by using the term virtue to describe voluntary CSR initiatives undertaken by companies, business associations or private bodies to further environmental or social ends.
  • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In what ways can a business potentially benefit by engaging in social or environmental initiatives?
  • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.CSV acknowledges trade-offs between short-term profitability and social or environmental goals, but focuses more on the opportunities for competitive advantage from building a social value proposition into corporate strategy.^ An empirical investigation of the relationship between corporate social responsibility and profitability.

^ The competitive advantage of corporate philanthropy.

^ Rochlin, Witter, Monagahn, and Murray (2005) discovered that “by building a business strategy that aligns social, environmental, and economic performance with long-term business value, corporate responsibility becomes part of core business and is tied to long-term value creation for both business and society” (p.

Social accounting, auditing, and reporting

.Taking responsibility for its impact on society means in the first instance that a company accounts for its actions.^ I define CSR using the draft ISO 26000 standard to mean "actions of an organization to take responsibility for the impacts of its activities on society and the environment, where these actions: are consistent with the interests of society and sustainable development; are based on ethical behaviour, compliance with applicable law and intergovernmental instruments; and are integrated into the ongoing activities of an organization.
  • ProfessorBainbridge.com: Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.professorbainbridge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We believe investee companies that take account of environmental, social and governance issues are more likely to offer these returns.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the latter case, we have seen the first instance of a tobacco company seeking serious engagement.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Social accounting, a concept describing the communication of social and environmental effects of a company's economic actions to particular interest groups within society and to society at large, is thus an important element of CSR.[6]
A number of reporting guidelines or standards have been developed to serve as frameworks for social accounting, auditing and reporting:
.
.The FTSE Group publishes the FTSE4Good Index, an evaluation of CSR performance of companies.^ Beliveau, Cottrill, and O’Neill (1994) found that the CSR-profit relationship is not linear, but varied by industry and by different company performance indicators which responded differently to CSR measures.

^ But mostly this was a group of leading companies for whom the agenda was rapidly rising, but who had not yet produced a full CSR report .
  • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beliveau, Cottrill, and O’Neill (1994) found that the CSR-profit relationship is not linear and varies by industry as well as by different company performance indicators.

.In some nations legal requirements for social accounting, auditing and reporting exist (e.g.^ For instance, the South African's JSE has now required companies to report on social and environmental performance as a condition of listing.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The EU White Paper certainly pulled back from any of the intrusive activity that some featured, and attempts in the UK to introduce requirements for CSR reporting have been fruitless so far.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

in the .French bilan social), though agreement on meaningful measurements of social and environmental performance is difficult.^ Performance of CSR activities is more difficult to measure.
  • The Tuck MBA - Corporate Social Responsibility - Syllabus 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC oracle-www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For instance, the South African's JSE has now required companies to report on social and environmental performance as a condition of listing.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solid measurement would include number of complaints, and prosecutions, as well as standard measures such as environmental performance (yes, still relevant here!
  • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many companies now produce externally audited annual reports that cover Sustainable Development and CSR issues ("Triple Bottom Line Reports"), but the reports vary widely in format, style, and evaluation methodology (even within the same industry).^ Good performance is a bottom-line issue.

^ For instance, some companies claim in their reports that the economic part of the triple bottom line is where they show the creation of shareholder value, but this does not really stand up within the concept of sustainable development.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore, CSR does not indicate how a fair allocation of resources can be achieved among the so-called triple bottom line.
  • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Critics dismiss these reports as lip service, citing examples such as Enron's yearly "Corporate Responsibility Annual Report" and tobacco corporations' social reports.^ Corporate social responsibility.

^ Corporate social responsibility: A critical approach.

^ Consumer reactions to corporate social responsibility.

Potential business benefits

.The scale and nature of the benefits of CSR for an organization can vary depending on the nature of the enterprise, and are difficult to quantify, though there is a large body of literature exhorting business to adopt measures beyond financial ones (e.g., Deming's Fourteen Points, balanced scorecards).^ Beliveau, Cottrill, and O’Neill (1994) found that the CSR-profit relationship is not linear, but varied by industry and by different company performance indicators which responded differently to CSR measures.

^ Issue monitoring which can help organizations understand the alignment of interests, points of misalignment, as well as power resources and challenges by various stakeholders.

^ Various performance measures respond differently to CSR measures.

.Orlitzky, Schmidt, and Rynes[7] found a correlation between social/environmental performance and financial performance.^ This study found a positive correlation between business reputation and financial performance.

^ Measure social performance: Smith (2003) suggested developing appropriate metrics, essentially benchmarks for measuring social and environmental performance and goal setting.

^ This prediction centred of the heart of the business case for CSR. People ask the question whether you can draw a correlation between socially responsible business practice and economic performance or share price.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, businesses may not be looking at short-run financial returns when developing their CSR strategy.^ This may gain them kudos in the short run.
  • The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits, by Milton Friedman 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.colorado.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Looking for business solutions on CSR reporting .
  • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Corporate social responsibility (CSR) integrates into business strategies the issues of the workplace, community, and market place into one.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Career - Job-Hunt.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.job-hunt.org [Source type: News]

.The definition of CSR used within an organization can vary from the strict "stakeholder impacts" definition used by many CSR advocates and will often include charitable efforts and volunteering.^ The organization asserts that, among other things, CSR policies include adoption of operating policies that exceed compliance with social and environmental laws.
  • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This entry treats CSR as a major function to which public relations can add value in the planning and execution of such organizational efforts.

^ Awareness creation: Rewards and measures are key in creating an organizational culture that is sensitive to CSR. Many articles report that key stakeholders are less aware of CSR performance than the sponsoring organization should prefer.

.CSR may be based within the human resources, business development or public relations departments of an organisation,[8] or may be given a separate unit reporting to the CEO or in some cases directly to the board.^ Although CSR and public relations are not identical they must be interdependent to be effective: Being the good organization as prerequisite for being a good communicator.

^ His arguments can inspire practitioners to see a proactive rather than reactive role for public relations in matters of the societal acceptance of businesses and their practices.

^ Furthermore, recent well-publicized corporate scandals involving some very large companies have highlighted the issue of business conduct in society.
  • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some companies may implement CSR-type values without a clearly defined team or programme.^ The CBI defines corporate social responsibility (CSR) as the acknowledgement by companies that they should be accountable for the impact of their activities on society and/or the environment.
  • EMW Picton Howell: Corporate Social Responsibility Policy 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.emwph.com [Source type: News]

^ While CSR efforts often "offer good PR," which companies of course like, "in some cases businesses may be able to capitalize on well-intentioned efforts, say by signing the U.N. Global Compact [ see below ], without necessarily having to actually change their behavior."
  • Corporate Social Responsibility - SourceWatch 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.sourcewatch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CSR seals of quality, ISO standards, rankings, and indices such as the Dow Jones Sustainability Indexes make it virtually impossible for companies to be in the market without credibly demonstrating or communicating their ethics in some fashion.
  • Interbrand | Corporate social responsibility: Brand leadership or greenwashing? | Dr. Thomas Deigendesch 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.interbrand.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The business case for CSR within a company will likely rest on one or more of these arguments:

Human resources

.A CSR programme can be an aid to recruitment and retention,[9] particularly within the competitive graduate student market.^ One of the last bastions of resistance to CSR programmes within corporates often seems to be the HR department.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Potential recruits often ask about a firm's CSR policy during an interview, and having a comprehensive policy can give an advantage.^ Sustainable Development International (U.K.) "Sustainable Development International provides unique publishing services for business to raise awareness about CSR in practice to influence effective sustainable development policy."
  • Links: Organizations Promoting Corporate Ethical, Social & Environmental Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.investingforthesoul.com [Source type: News]

^ CSR is linked to business goals, but there is debate about the genuineness of CSR. Studies have shown the improvement in recruiting, retention, brand differentiation, risk management among firms using CSR. Could CSR be leveraged to improve public health and health care?
  • Corporate Social Responsibility - Business Exchange 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC bx.businessweek.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Corporate Social Responsibility - Business Exchange 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC cdn.businessweek.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The drinks firm Diageo does go into laudable detail about tax policy.
  • Corporate social responsibility | Business | The Guardian 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.CSR can also help improve the perception of a company among its staff, particularly when staff can become involved through payroll giving, fundraising activities or community volunteering.^ Such considerations demand that CSR is more than strategic philanthropy or community relations, such as efforts to sponsor little league teams and engage in goodwill fundraising.

^ To support this organization, donate, volunteer or help fundraising efforts.
  • Naples, Marco Island and the Everglades - Paradise Coast Corporate Social Responsibility - Visit Naples, Marco Island & Everglades 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.paradisecoast.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If executed fully and communicated appropriately, it will help companies avoid being viewed as competitors with community water users.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.See also Corporate Social Entrepreneurship, whereby CSR can also be driven by employees' personal values, in addition to the more obvious economic and governmental drivers.^ Customers are more positive when they see CSR as being values driven and strategic.

^ (For more on that point, see my paper on corporate social responsibility ).
  • ProfessorBainbridge.com: Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.professorbainbridge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Corporate Social Responsibility: More than mere Lip Service!
  • Corporate Social Responsibility | Business Blog 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC ayushveda.com [Source type: News]

Risk management

.Managing risk is a central part of many corporate strategies.^ The first part of the essay examines aspects of the current corporate governance and economic environment that are putting management and labor under pressure.
  • ProfessorBainbridge.com: Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.professorbainbridge.com [Source type: Original source]

.Reputations that take decades to build up can be ruined in hours through incidents such as corruption scandals or environmental accidents.^ A code of conduct : explicitly giving direction on avoiding situations contrary to the company's values - such as those involving the taking of bribes or other forms of corruption.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A strong reputation in environmental and social responsibility can help a company build this trust.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You may have to take a longer term strategy and build up your skills and experience in relevant areas first.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility and Ethical Careers 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.careers.ed.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These can also draw unwanted attention from regulators, courts, governments and media. .Building a genuine culture of 'doing the right thing' within a corporation can offset these risks.^ Building the culture of doing right thing.
  • forceforgood Issues - Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.forceforgood.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Corporate social responsibility is about more than just trying to do the right thing.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.spansion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It’s about doing the right thing as a corporate citizen in today’s global marketplace while successfully meeting business goals and objectives.
  • BURGER KING® – Corporate Responsibility 15 September 2009 7:13 UTC www.bk.com [Source type: General]

[10]

Brand differentiation

.In crowded marketplaces, companies strive for a unique selling proposition that can separate them from the competition in the minds of consumers.^ Standards have been raised.” Companies that define themselves based on their own unique values are creating a competitive advantage that is profit-making.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.CSR can play a role in building customer loyalty based on distinctive ethical values.^ As far as the Dialogue, Consensus Building and a reordering of Ethical Values constitute the three pillars that will emerge from the concept of CSR that will set the direction for the actions of the organization socially responsible business.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) - a knol by Fernando Legrand 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Goyder sees a key distinction between what he describes as 'compliance CSR' or a more fundamental process that he calls 'conviction or values-led CSR'.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Do you want to know how to build loyalty and devotion in your customers and employees?
  • How to Find Growth through Corporate Social Responsibility | PR Friend for Internet Marketing 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.prfriend.com [Source type: General]

[11] .Several major brands, such as The Co-operative Group, The Body Shop and American Apparel[12] are built on ethical values.^ This entry treats CSR as a major function to which public relations can add value in the planning and execution of such organizational efforts.

.Business service organizations can benefit too from building a reputation for integrity and best practice.^ Efficient and rational business practices could in fact harm the society that franchised the organizations to operate.

^ Integrate these standards into product, service, and organizational reputation messages.

^ Businesses encourage creativity in many areas, including management, marketing, and product development, which results in better organizations as well as products and services.
  • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

License to operate

Corporations are keen to avoid interference in their business through taxation or regulations. .By taking substantive voluntary steps, they can persuade governments and the wider public that they are taking issues such as health and safety, diversity, or the environment seriously as good corporate citizens with respect to labour standards and impacts on the environment.^ What did they miss about the performance standards needed to run organizations that earned the faith of the general public and served society.

^ This course examines the responsibilities of business corporations and corporate executives to shareholders and other constituencies as they are manifested in the day to day issues faced by senior managements.
  • The Tuck MBA - Corporate Social Responsibility - Syllabus 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC oracle-www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Public expenditure issues: The government paid 40 million RMB for the rights to this software for a year.
  • RConversation: Corporate Responsibility 15 September 2009 7:13 UTC rconversation.blogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Criticisms and concerns

.Critics of CSR as well as proponents debate a number of concerns related to it.^ Another problem in the CSR debate is that CSR proponents tend to downplay the importance of the existing legal obligations which control company conduct as well as the observance of important ethical principles by companies.
  • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Back to top When discussing CSR, some prefer corporate responsibility (CR) to avoid the assumption that it is limited to “social” concerns (strategic philanthropy and community relations).

.These include CSR's relationship to the fundamental purpose and nature of business and questionable motives for engaging in CSR, including concerns about insincerity and hypocrisy.^ Fundamentally CSR is about relationships.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CSR not only ignores the ways in which business already plays a responsible role in society but also threatens to undermine good company governance, redefine the fundamental nature of the company, increase government regulation and place government powers in the hands of business.
  • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These authors feature a marketing perspective championing CSR as a means for making a business more attractive to customers.

CSR and the nature of business

.Milton Friedman and others have argued that a corporation's purpose is to maximize returns to its shareholders, and that since (in their view), only people can have social responsibilities, corporations are only responsible to their shareholders and not to society as a whole.^ New directions in corporate social responsibility.

^ Corporate social responsibility: Whether or how?

^ Corporate social responsibility.

.Although they accept that corporations should obey the laws of the countries within which they work, they assert that corporations have no other obligation to society.^ Strine does not expressly address the question of whether these policies should be implemented through the vehicle of corporate law.
  • ProfessorBainbridge.com: Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.professorbainbridge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But aside from mandated environmental and labor reporting to government regulatory agencies, corporate “sustainability” reporting should remain within the purview and at the discretion of individual companies (as they exercise their responsibility for honest and full communication with shareholders).
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But there is no other aspect of management where you would expect such a link to be automatic, regardless of the quality of your work.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some people perceive CSR as incongruent with the very nature and purpose of business, and indeed a hindrance to free trade.^ Lan and I have been very busy at the end of the semester, but here are some comments for those who have posted.

^ Furthermore, recent well-publicized corporate scandals involving some very large companies have highlighted the issue of business conduct in society.
  • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The weighing of the nature of CSR and its constructive/destructive impact on business practices can through reflective management achieve a balance of interests: Philanthropic, ethical, legal, and economic.

.Those who assert that CSR is incongruent with capitalism and are in favor of neoliberalism argue that improvements in health, longevity and/or infant mortality have been created by economic growth attributed to free enterprise.^ Accordingly, he directs our attention to the prospects of creating "a corporate governance structure that better fosters [the corporation's stakeholders'] mutual interest in sustainable economic growth."
  • ProfessorBainbridge.com: Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.professorbainbridge.com [Source type: Original source]

[13]
.Critics of this argument perceive neoliberalism as opposed to the well-being of society and a hindrance to human freedom.^ Kotler and Lee go on to define community well-being to include human conditions as well as environmental issues.
  • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By this analysis, “social capital is an important determinant of human well-being, along with the traditional factors of production and natural capital” (p.

.They claim that the type of capitalism practiced in many developing countries is a form of economic and cultural imperialism, noting that these countries usually have fewer labor protections, and thus their citizens are at a higher risk of exploitation by multinational corporations.^ In a number of countries this reduction in state control over the economy took the form of a shift in economic systems, rejecting the centrally-planned economy (often imposed by a communist regime) in favor of some type of a more market-oriented economy.
  • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The role of business in society has also become a more prominent issue because of the process of economic globalization in general and the perception of the power of multinational corporations in particular.
  • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although local working conditions may vary depending on the culture and practice of the country concerned, do the core values still apply in how the company responds to these?
  • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14]
.A wide variety of individuals and organizations operate in between these poles.^ These were typically individuals, owning a small number of shares in a corporation, who would take advantage of the opportunity provided by state and federal laws to propose a wide variety of changes in the way their corporation was organized.
  • The Tuck MBA - Corporate Social Responsibility - Syllabus 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC oracle-www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, wealthy individuals said the leading objective for their largest gifts to charitable organizations last year was "general operating support" (56.7%).
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Stop TB Partnership is a multinational group of governments, organizations, and individuals and operates at the World Health Organization.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, the REALeadership Alliance asserts that the business of leadership (be it corporate or otherwise) is to change the world for the better.^ The class will explore these contrasting views in an effort to identify what are the characteristics of a real business leader; what are the challenges facing these leaders; and what are the barriers to leadership in today's business corporation.
  • The Tuck MBA - Corporate Social Responsibility - Syllabus 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC oracle-www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Indeed, the only changes in corporate law that will have a substantial effect on such issues are changes that make the world worse, not better.
  • ProfessorBainbridge.com: Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.professorbainbridge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the large MNCs are often used to provide examples of the impact of business on society, it is impossible to limit the discussion to MNCs in particular or corporations in general.
  • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] .Many religious and cultural traditions hold that the economy exists to serve human beings, so all economic entities have an obligation to society (e.g., cf.^ In developed societies much of a company’s sustainability obligations are met through being a good employer and paying taxes for governments to reinvest in health, education and infrastructure.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As government reduced interference in economic matters, market forces in general and businesses in particular took a greater role in the economy, and therefore, in society.
  • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many serve on arts boards and have strong commitments to cultural organizations.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Economic Justice for All). .Moreover, as discussed above, many CSR proponents point out that CSR can significantly improve long-term corporate profitability because it reduces risks and inefficiencies while offering a host of potential benefits such as enhanced brand reputation and employee engagement.^ This study examined how factors such as industry norms, market share and indicators of management reputation predict variance in CSR. Different from studies that found no relationship between CSR and profit, this study found that CSR levels and their relationship with profit vary by industry.

^ "But a report is really just a means of communication - and if a company wants to enjoy the real benefits of enhanced corporate reputation as a result of solid positions and work on areas that matter to their most important stakeholders, they will need to find ways which communicate simply, whilst building trust and - ideally - real engagement."
  • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such reporting should show how the company evaluates the long-term impact of potential costs and benefits.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

CSR and questionable motives

.Some critics believe that CSR programs are undertaken by companies such as British American Tobacco (BAT),[16] the petroleum giant BP (well-known for its high-profile advertising campaigns on environmental aspects of its operations), and McDonald's (see below) to distract the public from ethical questions posed by their core operations.^ Gathering the data needed to justify sustained, strategic investments in such programs can be difficult, but without this information executives and investors often see programs as separate from a company’s core business or unrelated to its shareholder value.
  • Valuing social responsibility programs - McKinsey Quarterly - Corporate Finance - Valuation 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.mckinseyquarterly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some companies have made great progress tracking operational metrics (such as tons of carbon emitted) or social indicators (say, the number of students enrolled in programs) but often have difficulty linking such metrics and indicators to a real financial impact.
  • Valuing social responsibility programs - McKinsey Quarterly - Corporate Finance - Valuation 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.mckinseyquarterly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Directors should promote honesty in reporting not only on financial results and other nonfinancial aspects of their company’s operations, but also on the risks, opportunities and results of its social interactions.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They argue that some corporations start CSR programs for the commercial benefit they enjoy through raising their reputation with the public or with government.^ This McKinsey survey 1 asked CFOs, investment professionals, institutional investors, and corporate social responsibility professionals 2 from around the world to identify whether and how environmental, social, and governance programs create value and how much value they create.
  • Valuing corporate social responsibility - McKinsey Quarterly - Corporate Finance - Valuation 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.mckinseyquarterly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, 90 percent of respondents say they do seek a business benefit from their philanthropic programs, the survey says.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "But a report is really just a means of communication - and if a company wants to enjoy the real benefits of enhanced corporate reputation as a result of solid positions and work on areas that matter to their most important stakeholders, they will need to find ways which communicate simply, whilst building trust and - ideally - real engagement."
  • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They suggest that corporations which exist solely to maximize profits are unable to advance the interests of society as a whole.^ The CED Report argues that aligning the interests of the corporation and its shareholders with the long-term interests of society will generate vibrant and successful entities that will help to regain the public's trust.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They suggest that federal reform should focus on strengthening rather than fundamentally overhauling how non-profits are regulated.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It emphasizes that corporate leaders should understand it is in their self interest to engage responsibly with the society around them.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17]
.Another concern is when companies claim to promote CSR and be committed to Sustainable Development whilst simultaneously engaging in harmful business practices.^ CSR is “the continuing commitment by business to behaving ethically and contributing to economic development while improving the quality of life of the work force and their family as well as the community and society at large” ( Watts & Holmes, 1999 cited in Sims, 2003, p.

^ Back to top In one way or another, all discussions of CSR recall the famous, or infamous, claim of economist Milton Friedman (1970) that CSR is bunk.

^ Even some leaders of major companies have seemingly endorsed this conception of CSR. Bjorn Stigson is President of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development, an organization which brings together almost 200 international companies based in over 30 countries.
  • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, since the 1970s, the McDonald's Corporation's association with Ronald McDonald House has been viewed as CSR and relationship marketing.^ This view of CSR builds on what is best about the efficiency and rational market argument supporting the private sector.

^ Unlike the affirmative obligations suggested by CSR, my view of good corporate citizenship is most negative.
  • ProfessorBainbridge.com: Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.professorbainbridge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, especially in the years since the early 1990s, the call for what is termed corporate social responsibility (CSR) [1] has gained significant momentum in many countries.
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.More recently, as CSR has become mainstream, the company has beefed up its CSR programs related to its labor, environmental and other practices[18] All the same, in McDonald's Restaurants v Morris & Steel, Lord Justices Pill, May and Keane ruled that it was fair comment to say that McDonald's employees worldwide 'do badly in terms of pay and conditions'[19] and true that 'if one eats enough McDonald's food, one's diet may well become high in fat etc., with the very real risk of heart disease.'^ After all, the reputational fall of the BBC should be enough to persuade that no-one is immune.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If successful, it should prompt many the CSR movement to tighten their understanding of what makes a best practice company, and what are the limits of expectations of 'one-size-fits-all' compliance frameworks.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Second, any additional forced virtue in terms of environmental or other social spending is in reality nothing more than a tax on doing business.
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[20]
.Shell has a much-publicised CSR policy and was a pioneer in triple bottom line reporting, but this did not prevent the 2004 scandal concerning its misreporting of oil reserves, which seriously damaged its reputation and led to charges of hypocrisy.^ Furthermore, CSR does not indicate how a fair allocation of resources can be achieved among the so-called triple bottom line.
  • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because CSR says that managers are accountable to all of these, however, managers, in fact, will be accountable to none, and could justify just about any decision on the basis that it benefits at least one aspect of the triple bottom line.
  • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We hear reference to the companys triple bottom line to measure performance for shareholders, environment and stakeholders.
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.Since then, the Shell Foundation has become involved in many projects across the world, including a partnership with Marks and Spencer (UK) in three flower and fruit growing communities across Africa.^ In the course of that research, I ran across a blog post by Geoffrey Manne on the Community Interest Company, which is a relatively new form of business organization in the UK. .
  • ProfessorBainbridge.com: Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.professorbainbridge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The RBM Partnership comprises all malaria-endemic countries, bilateral and multilateral development partners, the private sector, nongovernmental organizations, community-based organizations, foundations, and research and academic institutions involved in malaria control.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bloomberg is involved in many projects where people can interact with the arts via communication and technology.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Critics concerned with corporate hypocrisy and insincerity generally suggest that better governmental and international regulation and enforcement, rather than voluntary measures, are necessary to ensure that companies behave in a socially responsible manner.^ Corporate social responsibility.

^ Corporate social responsibility: A critical approach.

^ Consumer reactions to corporate social responsibility.

.Others, such as Patricia Werhane argue that CSR should be looked more upon as a Corporate Moral Responsibility, and limit the reach of CSR by focusing more on direct impacts of the organization as viewed through a systems perspective to identify stakeholders.^ The pyramid of corporate social responsibility: Toward the moral management of organizational stakeholders.

^ New directions in corporate social responsibility.

^ Corporate responsibility, the standards by which an organization is judged.

Ethical consumerism

.The rise in popularity of ethical consumerism over the last two decades can be linked to the rise of CSR. As global population increases, so does the pressure on limited natural resources required to meet rising consumer demand (Grace and Cohen 2005, 147).^ We promote the highest levels of ethical behavior, advance education and culture, and advocate sustainable use of natural resources and respect for the environment.
  • Corporate Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.deloitte.com [Source type: News]

^ This has meant increased demands from customers, employees, statutory bodies and the general public for detailed information about whether companies are meeting acceptable standards.
  • CIPD - Corporate social responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.cipd.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Canadian consumers have demanded that retailers carefully select and audit suppliers to ensure they adhere to global standards within the supply chains they use.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility in the Global Supply Chain - APEC HRDWG Wiki 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC hrd.apec.org [Source type: Academic]

.Industrialization in many developing countries is booming as a result of technology and globalization.^ For many of the topics links are provided to case studies arranged by country and industry sector, along with useful web resources.
  • Intute - Corporate social responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.intute.ac.uk [Source type: General]

^ Businesses encourage creativity in many areas, including management, marketing, and product development, which results in better organizations as well as products and services.
  • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While CSR places the focus on business in addressing environmental and social issues, the fact is that in many developing countries the bigger issue is effective public governance.
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.Consumers are becoming more aware of the environmental and social implications of their day-to-day consumer decisions and are beginning to make purchasing decisions related to their environmental and ethical concerns.^ It is our belief that by providing more Chinese citizens with access to at least basic education, we are equipping them with the awareness and skills necessary to make their contribution to the demographic, social and environmental challenges facing China, such as education, poverty and hunger and environmental management.
  • Corporate social responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.deloitte.com [Source type: News]

^ This commitment to care permeates every aspect of Kimpton Hotels, beginning internally with its employees at all Kimpton Hotels, making a positive social and environmental difference in the community...
  • Kimpton Cares/Charities: Corporate Social Responsibility Programs 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.kimptonhotels.com [Source type: General]

^ Communication from the Commission concerning Corporate Social Responsibility Learn more about making Europe a pole of excellence on CSR .
  • Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.solvay.com [Source type: Reference]

However, this practice is far from consistent or universal.

Globalization and market forces

.As corporations pursue growth through globalization, they have encountered new challenges that impose limits to their growth and potential profits.^ Resource: Audio « first ‹ previous 1 2 3 4 5 6 next › last » Topic: Corporate Social Responsibility , Environment , Philanthropy, Responsible Investing Opportunities In Environmental Area How do environmental challenges create growth opportunities, new markets, and innovation?
  • Corporate Social Responsibility : Center for Social Innovation (CSI) 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC csi.gsb.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Driven by the quest for profits, they invest in new ideas and new facilities that strengthen the foundation of economic growth and prosperity.
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^ Through an institution-wide effort, Brookings delivers new ideas and offers policy solutions to improve health care both at home and globally.
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  • Corporate Social Responsibility - Brookings Institution 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.brookings.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Government regulations, tariffs, environmental restrictions and varying standards of what constitutes labour exploitation are problems that can cost organizations millions of dollars.^ It is only with improvements in public governance that major environmental and social problems can be effectively addressed.
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^ The result is growing expectation that firms should be economically, environmentally, and socially responsible wherever they operate, even if government regulations are inadequate or poorly enforced.
  • Global Environmental Health in the 21st Century: From Governmental Regulation to Corporate Social Responsibility: Workshop Summary 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This problem is complex because societal standards and expectations regarding working conditions and the employment of children vary significantly around the world.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility - organization, levels, definition, model, type, company, business, History, Arguments for and against corporate social responsibility, The stakeholder concept, Contemporary social issues 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.referenceforbusiness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some view ethical issues as simply a costly hindrance.^ He discusses current ethical issues in business: Films, charity projects, how coffee shops treat customers, are just some examples.
  • Intute - Corporate social responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.intute.ac.uk [Source type: General]

^ True CSR involves an allocation of a firm’s wealth toward some view of the public good motivated by normative, that is, ethical principles.
  • Global Environmental Health in the 21st Century: From Governmental Regulation to Corporate Social Responsibility: Workshop Summary 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some companies use CSR methodologies as a strategic tactic to gain public support for their presence in global markets, helping them sustain a competitive advantage by using their social contributions to provide a subconscious level of advertising.^ CSR can be a competitive advantage for a country.
  • Global Environmental Health in the 21st Century: From Governmental Regulation to Corporate Social Responsibility: Workshop Summary 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gain competitive advantage in a recession .
  • Corporate Social Responsibility | Business Blog 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC ayushveda.com [Source type: News]

^ Only if managers take CSR beyond strategic levels or shareholder preferences, does CSR constitute moral hazard.
  • Economics and Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC ideas.repec.org [Source type: Academic]

.(Fry, Keim, Meiners 1986, 105) Global competition places particular pressure on multinational corporations to examine not only their own labour practices, but those of their entire supply chain, from a CSR perspective.^ The role of business in society has also become a more prominent issue because of the process of economic globalization in general and the perception of the power of multinational corporations in particular.
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^ The first part of the essay examines aspects of the current corporate governance and economic environment that are putting management and labor under pressure.
  • ProfessorBainbridge.com: Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.professorbainbridge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Targets ArcelorMittal Brazil has had a supplier engagement program since 2004, focusing in particular on sustainability and corporate responsibility.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Social awareness and education

.The role among corporate stakeholders to work collectively to pressure corporations is changing.^ I'm convinced that CSR works with a collection out of individual SR commitments, framed by a corporate guidance.

^ And with these changes has come a corresponding change in the roles and responsibilities of those who own, run, and work for these companies.
  • The Tuck MBA - Corporate Social Responsibility - Syllabus 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC oracle-www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She works on global governance, energy policy and the public roles of private corporations.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility - Brookings Institution 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.brookings.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Corporate Social Responsibility - Brookings Institution 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.brookings.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Shareholders and investors themselves, through socially responsible investing are exerting pressure on corporations to behave responsibly.^ Corporate social responsibility.

^ Corporate social responsibility: A critical approach.

^ Consumer reactions to corporate social responsibility.

.Non-governmental organizations are also taking an increasing role, leveraging the power of the media and the Internet to increase their scrutiny and collective activism around corporate behavior.^ Non-governmental organizations.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We constantly strive to enhance the lives of the people around us by partnering and supporting activities organized by non-profi t organizations and schools that benefi t communities across the country.
  • OGAWA World - Premier Health and Massage Equipment 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ogawaworld.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Advances in telecommunications (e.g., the introduction of the Internet), NGO activity, and media scrutiny mean that an organization’s activities can be critically tracked and followed more easily than ever before, regardless of their location.
  • Global Environmental Health in the 21st Century: From Governmental Regulation to Corporate Social Responsibility: Workshop Summary 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Through education and dialogue, the development of community in holding businesses responsible for their actions is growing (Roux 2007).^ Through education and dialogue, the development of community in holding businesses responsible for their actions is growing.
  • forceforgood Issues - Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.forceforgood.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As we grow and develop our business, we also help our local communities to grow and develop by reinvesting an appropriate portion of our firm's knowledge, skills and resources into the priority needs of China which we deem to be education and the environment.
  • Corporate social responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.deloitte.com [Source type: News]

^ Originally created by the DTI (now the Department for Business Innovation and Skills), responsibility for the CR Academy, now falls to Business in the Community (BITC).
  • Corporate Social Responsibility and Ethical Careers 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.careers.ed.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Ethics training

.The rise of ethics training inside corporations, some of it required by government regulation, is another driver credited with changing the behaviour and culture of corporations.^ While direct action by consumers and investors has initiated some corporate reforms, it still remains the task of governments to set the legal boundaries for corporate behavior.
  • Social and environmental responsibility of corporations - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Key words to look for when searching include, corporate governance and corporate administration as many such courses contain elements of CSR and business ethics.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility and Ethical Careers 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.careers.ed.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of the CSR consultancies have had a tough time of it, but by and large the drivers for social responsibility haven't been much affected by changed circumstances.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The aim of such training is to help employees make ethical decisions when the answers are unclear.^ Therefore, practitioners should be especially trained and positioned to understand, appreciate, and respect the development of idioms that are current in private and public sector thinking and decision making.

Tullberg believes that humans are built with the capacity to cheat and manipulate, a view taken from (Trivers 1971, 1985), hence the need for learning normative values and rules in human behaviour (Tullberg 1996). The most direct benefit is reducing the likelihood of "dirty hands" (Grace and Cohen 2005), fines and damaged reputations for breaching laws or moral norms. Organizations also see secondary benefit in increasing employee loyalty and pride in the organization. Caterpillar and Best Buy are examples of organizations that have taken such steps (Thilmany 2007).
.Increasingly, companies are becoming interested in processes that can add visibility to their CSR policies and activities.^ It this examined the relationship between a company’s positive (strengths) and negative (concerns) corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities and equity performance.

^ Add to that the inherent risks of disclosure and you had a long protracted process of consideration before some pretty brave companies agreed to go ahead.
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^ This problem seems especially significant for Delaware firms, as Delaware law became increasingly hostile to directorial consideration of nonshareholder interests in the takeover decisionmaking process.
  • ProfessorBainbridge.com: Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.professorbainbridge.com [Source type: Original source]

.One method that is gaining increasing popularity is the use of well-grounded training programs, where CSR is a major issue, and business simulations can play a part in this.^ Furthermore, recent well-publicized corporate scandals involving some very large companies have highlighted the issue of business conduct in society.
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^ The survey cites around 71 percent of the respondents say some issues addressed are relevant to their business, while 53 percent say their programs are less effective in this area.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And, we see more and more companies issuing reports and engaging in programs under the banner of CSR. The assertion of corporate social responsibility may seem fairly uncontroversialwho could object to businesses being socially responsible?
  • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.One relevant documentary is The Corporation, the history of organizations and their growth in power is discussed.^ Corporations, and more generally businesses of all types, are certainly one of the important organizations in society.
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^ Berle & Means (B&M) and Schumpeter distinguish between publicly held corporations and privately held ones in discussing the problems of separating ownership and control.
  • The Tuck MBA - Corporate Social Responsibility - Syllabus 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC oracle-www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Within the realm of wealth and power we are discussing, the distinction between personal and corporate ethics is a weak one and the decisions of those with this power have profound implications for social good.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Corporate social responsibility, what a company does to in trying to benefit society, versus corporate moral responsibility (CMR), what a company should morally do, are both important topics to consider when looking at ethics in CSR. For example, Ray Anderson, in The Corporation, takes a CMR perspective in order to do what is moral and he begins to shift his company's focus towards the biosphere by utilizing carpets in sections so that they will sustain for longer periods.^ Corporate social responsibility.

^ Corporate social responsibility: A critical approach.

^ Corporate social responsibility: A theory of the firm perspective.

.This is Anderson thinking in terms of Garret Hardin's "The Tragedy of the Commons," where if people do not pay attention to the private ways in which we use public resources, people will eventually lose those public resources.^ Therefore, practitioners should be especially trained and positioned to understand, appreciate, and respect the development of idioms that are current in private and public sector thinking and decision making.

^ In those countries which implement EITI, resource companies declare what they pay to the government and the government declares what it has received; providing an opportunity to compare both sides of the ledger.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Laws and regulation

.Another driver of CSR is the role of independent mediators, particularly the government, in ensuring that corporations are prevented from harming the broader social good, including people and the environment.^ Resource: CSI Affiliates Topic : Corporate Social Responsibility , Economic Development , Environment , Government , Nonprofit Management , Social Entrepreneurship An interview with Court Gould (EPNL '06) Court Gould is pushing for Pittsburgh to grow sustainably.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility : Center for Social Innovation (CSI) 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC csi.gsb.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Corporate Social Responsibility : Center for Social Innovation (CSI) 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC csi.gsb.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have argued at more length (in my Accountability and Responsibility in Corporate Governance ) that corporate managers in fact have a lot of power under the business judgment rule to engage in what most people refer to socially responsible governance.
  • Ideoblog: Corporate social responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC busmovie.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first part of the essay examines aspects of the current corporate governance and economic environment that are putting management and labor under pressure.
  • ProfessorBainbridge.com: Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.professorbainbridge.com [Source type: Original source]

.CSR critics such as Robert Reich argue that governments should set the agenda for social responsibility by the way of laws and regulation that will allow a business to conduct themselves responsibly.^ Corporate social responsibility: A critical approach.

^ The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits.

^ It is only with CSR that businesses become socially responsible.
  • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The issues surrounding government regulation pose several problems.^ If the operation of the free market cannot solve a social problem, it becomes the responsibility of government, not business, to address the issue.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility - organization, levels, definition, model, type, company, business, History, Arguments for and against corporate social responsibility, The stakeholder concept, Contemporary social issues 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.referenceforbusiness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Regulation in itself is unable to cover every aspect in detail of a corporation's operations.^ It notes that “corporate engagement” covers a range of concerns, from setting higher environmental, ethical, and workplace standards in normal business operations, to charitable programs targeted at improvements in health, education, and other aspects of human development.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the Internet, virtually every aspect of business and government around the globe can receive instant and detailed attention 24/7.

^ Human experience can never free itself from the terminology operating at a given moment that filters views of physical and social realities (including standards of corporate responsibility).

.This leads to burdensome legal processes bogged down in interpretations of the law and debatable grey areas (Sacconi 2004).^ Public companies are legally obligated to maximize returns to shareholders, according to a widespread interpretation of corporate law.
  • ProfessorBainbridge.com: Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.professorbainbridge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The legal responsibilities relate to the expectation that organizations will comply with the laws set down by society to govern competition in the marketplace.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility - organization, levels, definition, model, type, company, business, History, Arguments for and against corporate social responsibility, The stakeholder concept, Contemporary social issues 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.referenceforbusiness.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The current disagreement within corporate law is as fundamental as in any area of law, and the debate is more heated than at any time since the New Deal.
  • ProfessorBainbridge.com: Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.professorbainbridge.com [Source type: Original source]

.General Electric is an example of a corporation that has failed to clean up the Hudson River after contaminating it with organic pollutants.^ The debate is ongoing, with corporations in particular and businesses in general often viewed as focused too much on short-term economic interests and failing to live up to their social responsibilities.
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^ Although the large MNCs are often used to provide examples of the impact of business on society, it is impossible to limit the discussion to MNCs in particular or corporations in general.
  • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The company continues to argue via the legal process on assignment of liability, while the cleanup remains stagnant. (Sullivan & Schiafo 2005). The second issue is the financial burden that regulation can place on a nation's economy. .This view shared by Bulkeley, who cites the Australian federal government's actions to avoid compliance with the Kyoto Protocol in 1997, on the concerns of economic loss and national interest.^ The broadest set of ethical concerns arises from the organization’s economic, social, and political interests ( Wartick & Cochran, 1985 ).

^ The National Business Development received $17 million from the federal government to operate walk-in small business centers for veterans.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Australian government took the position that signing the Kyoto Pact would have caused more significant economic losses for Australia than for any other OECD nation (Bulkeley 2001, pg 436).On the change of government following the election in November 2007, Prime Minister Kevin Rudd signed the ratification immediately after assuming office on 3 December 2007, just before the meeting of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.^ Many believe that the Government, on the other hand, had gone to war over a position that had proven to be mistaken, and had to defend itself against potentially fatal criticism.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Second, any additional forced virtue in terms of environmental or other social spending is in reality nothing more than a tax on doing business.
  • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Companies should take on more of the responsibility for what government regulation has been expected to achieve if they want to reduce criticism and assume on a positive mantle of corporate responsibility.

.Critics of CSR also point out that organisations pay taxes to government to ensure that society and the environment are not adversely affected by business activities.^ CSR not only ignores the ways in which business already plays a responsible role in society but also threatens to undermine good company governance, redefine the fundamental nature of the company, increase government regulation and place government powers in the hands of business.
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^ From the Committee’s perspective, great strides have been made in the areas of corporate social responsibility, but business can have a larger, more systemic impact by partnering with governments and civil society organizations to create enabling environments in countries where business currently struggles.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CSR Europe reports: For many years there have been inconclusive attempts to prove that improved environmental, social and governance (ESG) performance positively affects overall business performance.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Denmark made a law on CSR. 16 December 2008, the Danish parliament adopted a bill making it mandatory for the 1100 largest Danish companies, investors and state owned companies to include information on corporate social responsibility (CSR) in their annual financial reports.^ Social responsibility and corporate success.

^ Corporate social responsibility: A critical approach.

^ Consumer reactions to corporate social responsibility.

The reporting requirements became effective on 1 January 2009[21].
The information shall include:
  • information on the companies’ policies for CSR or socially responsible investments (SRI)
  • information on how such policies are implemented in practice and
  • information on what results have been obtained so far and managements expectations for the future with regard to CSR/SRI.
.CSR/SRI is still voluntary in Denmark, but if a company has no policy on this they must state information to that effect explicitly in their annual financial report.^ Directors should promote honesty in reporting not only on financial results and other nonfinancial aspects of their company’s operations, but also on the risks, opportunities and results of its social interactions.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That a company genuinely committed to CSR will shine out like a beacon in the night, and will be a paragon of best practice in everything they do.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An executive from the Taiwanese computer company Acer is quoted saying they're going ahead with compliance, having "no choice."
  • RConversation: Corporate Responsibility 15 September 2009 7:13 UTC rconversation.blogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

More on the Danish law on CSRgov.dk

Crises and their consequences

.Often it takes a crisis to precipitate attention to CSR. One of the most active stands against environmental management is the CERES Principles that resulted after the Exxon Valdez incident in Alaska in 1989 (Grace and Cohen 2006).^ One of the last bastions of resistance to CSR programmes within corporates often seems to be the HR department.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Market Green Principle : Creates and sustains competitive advantage by paying attention to the environmental preferences of customers.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As cases, Enron and other businesses in crisis demonstrate that often the organization with what seems to enjoy the best relationships with stakeholders may not actually—and substantively—be the ones adhering to high CSR standards.

.Other examples include the lead poisoning paint used by toy giant Mattel, which required a recall of millions of toys globally and caused the company to initiate new risk management and quality control processes.^ Directors should promote honesty in reporting not only on financial results and other nonfinancial aspects of their company’s operations, but also on the risks, opportunities and results of its social interactions.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Global Network Initiative is actively monitoring developments regarding the Chinese government’s directive that requires computer manufacturers to install the Green Dam/Youth Escort content control software on personal computers produced or sold in China.
  • RConversation: Corporate Responsibility 15 September 2009 7:13 UTC rconversation.blogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But there is no other aspect of management where you would expect such a link to be automatic, regardless of the quality of your work.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In another example, Magellan Metals in the West Australian town of Esperance was responsible for lead contamination killing thousands of birds in the area. .The company had to cease business immediately and work with independent regulatory bodies to execute a cleanup.^ Business in the Community (BITC) - is an independent business-led charity whose purpose is to inspire, engage, and support and challenge companies, to continually improve the impact they have on society.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility and Ethical Careers 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.careers.ed.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Business Environment Partnership (BEP) also runs a programme within Scotland, placing students with companies for paid summer work experience in a commercial environment.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility and Ethical Careers 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.careers.ed.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over the last two years ArcelorMittal has been working with 15 companies in its supply chain, helping them to incorporate social and environmental standards into their business practices.
  • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Stakeholder priorities

.Increasingly, corporations are motivated to become more socially responsible because their most important stakeholders expect them to understand and address the social and community issues that are relevant to them.^ Determinants of corporate social responsibility disclosure: An application of stakeholder theory.

^ What are the corporate social responsibility issues that need to be managed in the workplace?
  • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Social responsibility and corporate success.

Understanding what causes are important to employees is usually the first priority because of the many interrelated business benefits that can be derived from increased employee engagement (i.e. more loyalty, improved recruitment, increased retention, higher productivity, and so on). Key external stakeholders include customers, consumers, investors (particularly institutional investors), regulators, academics, and the media).

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Wood, D. (1991) Corporate Social Performance Revisited. The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 16, No. 4 (Oct., 1991) http://www.jstor.org/stable/258977
  2. ^ Freeman, R. Strategic management :a stakeholder approach . Pitman, 1984. ISBN: 9780273019138
  3. ^ Saether, Kim T.; Ruth V. Aguilera (2008). "Corporate Social Responsibility in a Comparative Perspective". in Crane, A., et al. (PDF). The Oxford Handbook of Corporate Social Responsibility. Oxford: .Oxford University Press.^ The World Bank, World Development Report 2005: A Better Investment Climate for Everyone (Washington, D.C.: The World Bank and Oxford University Press, 2005), p.
    • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ See also Elaine Sternberg, Just Business: Business Ethics in Action, 2 nd Edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000).
    • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Jonathan P. Charkham, Keeping Better Company: Corporate Governance Ten Years On (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), p.
    • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0199211590. http://www.business.uiuc.edu/aguilera/pdf/Williams%20Aguilera%20OUPfinal%20dec%202006.pdf. Retrieved 2008-03-06.
     
  4. ^ Habisch, André; Jan Jonker, Martina Wegner, R. Schmidpeter (eds.) (2005). Corporate Social Responsibility across the Europe. Heidelberg: Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-23251-3. 
  5. ^ http://www.fairtrade.org.uk/work/case_studies/read_a_case_study/default.aspx?ID=40
  6. ^ R.H. Gray, D.L.Owen & K.T.Maunders, Corporate Social Reporting: Accounting and accountability (Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall, 1987) p. IX.
  7. ^ Orlitzky, Marc; Frank L. Schmidt, Sara L. Rynes (2003). "Corporate Social and Financial Performance: A Meta-analysis" (PDF). Organization Studies (London: SAGE Publications) 24 (3): 403–441. doi:10.1177/0170840603024003910. http://www.finanzasostenibile.it/finanza/moskowitz2004.pdf. Retrieved 2008-03-07. 
  8. ^ "Corporate Social Responsibility and Ethical Careers". University of Edinburgh Careers Service. http://www.careers.ed.ac.uk/STUDENTS/Careers/Corporate%20Social%20Responsibility%20and%20Ethical%20Careers.html. Retrieved 2008-03-07. 
  9. ^ Bhattacharya, C.B., Sankar Sen and Daniel Korschun (2008), "Using Corporate Social Responsibility to Win the War for Talent," MIT Sloan Management Review, 49 (2), 37-44; "The Good Company". The Economist. 2005-01-20. http://www.economist.com/surveys/displayStory.cfm?Story_id=3555212. Retrieved 2008-03-07. 
  10. ^ Kytle, Beth; John Gerard Ruggie (2005). "Corporate Social Responsibility as Risk Management: A Model for Multinationals" (PDF). Social Responsibility Initiative Working Paper No. 10.. Cambridge, MA: John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/m-rcbg/CSRI/publications/workingpaper_10_kytle_ruggie.pdf. Retrieved 2008-03-07. 
  11. ^ Paluszek, John (April 6–7, 2005). "Ethics and Brand Value: Strategic Differentiation" (PowerPoint). Business and Organizational Ethics Partnership Meeting. Markkula Center for Applied Ethics, Santa Clara University. http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/focusareas/business/ethics-and-brand-value.ppt. Retrieved 2008-03-07. 
  12. ^ "Dr. Tantillo’s 30-Second 'How To': How To Brand CSR The American Apparel Way" Marketing Doctor Blog. March 28, 2008.
  13. ^ Friedman, Milton (1970-09-13). "The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits". The New York Times Magazine. http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html. Retrieved 2008-03-07. 
  14. ^ c.f., Aquino, M.P., Nuestro Clamor por la Vida. Teología Latinoamericana desde la Perspectiva de la Mujer (San José, Costa Rica: Departamento Ecuménico de Investigaciones, 1992), et al.
  15. ^ Real Leadership Alliance
  16. ^ Friends of the Earth (2005-04-28). "British American Tobacco Report Shows Truth Behind Greenwash". Press release. http://www.foe.co.uk/resource/press_releases/british_american_tobacco_r_27042005.html. Retrieved 2008-03-07. 
  17. ^ McKibben, Bill (November/December 2006). "Hope vs. Hype". Mother Jones. http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2006/11/hype_vs_hope.html. Retrieved 2008-03-07. 
  18. ^ McDonald's Corporation CSR information
  19. ^ [Appeal Judgment p247]
  20. ^ [Judgment p264]
  21. ^ Danish Centre for CSR's official website CSRgov.dk

References

  • Bansal, P., R. Roth (2000). ."Why Companies Go Green: A model of Ecological Responsiveness". The Academy of Management Journal, Vol.43, No.4, pp. 717–736.
  • Bulkeley, H. (2001).^ Academy of Management Journal, 28, 446-463.

    ^ Academy of Management Journal, 22, 501-515.

    ^ Academy of Management Journal, 37, 467-498.

    ."Governing Climate Change: The Politics and Risk Society". Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, New Series, Vol.26, No.4, pp. 430–447.
  • Brand Strategy (2007).^ Ceres also directs the Investor Network on Climate Risk, comprised of more than 50 institutional investors who collectively manage $4 trillion in assets.
    • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ."10 key things to know about CSR". London.^ I would like to know more about the CSR. Standards, indices, awards, etc .

    ^ This study suggests that aligned interest is crucial to and accountable for positive impact of CSR, but also cautions that such facts don’t count if key stakeholders don’t know about the organization’s accomplishments.

    pg.47.
  • Catalyst Consortium (2002). ."What is Corporate Social Responsibility?"
  • Feltus, C.; Petit, M.; Dubois, E.(2009).^ Putting Corporate Social Responsibility on the Table .
    • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Determinants of corporate social responsibility disclosure: An application of stakeholder theory.

    ^ Using a hierarchy-of-effects approach to gauge the effectiveness of corporate social responsibility to generate goodwill toward the firm: Financial versus non-financial impacts.

    .Strengthening employee's responsibility to enhance governance of IT: COBIT RACI chart case study , Proceedings of the first ACM workshop on Information security governance (WISG'09), Chicago, Il, USA. Strengthening employee's responsibility to enhance governance of IT: COBIT RACI chart case study ISBN 978-1-60558-787-5
  • Fialka.^ On the one hand, this may be seen as socially responsible, since the safety of the employee comes first.
    • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    J. (2006). ."Politics & Economics: Big Businesses Have New Take on Warming; Some Companies Move From Opposition to Offering Proposals on Limiting Emissions". Wall Street Journal.^ Wall Street Journal, p.

    ^ Progress: Some companies - notably BP - have made high profile statements that they will refrain from political donations in all the areas they operate.
    • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ He points out that consumers have new sets of social expectations from corporations and his book seeks to offer approaches to companies to enable them to meet these expectations.
    • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    pg.A.4.
  • Fields, S. (2002). ."Sustainable Business Makes Dollars and Cents". Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol.110, No.3, pp.A142-A145.
  • Fry, L. W., G. D. Keim, R. E. Meiners (1982).^ These authors feature a marketing perspective championing CSR as a means for making a business more attractive to customers.

    ."Corporate Contributions: Altruistic or for Profit?" The Academy of Management Journal, Vol.25, No.1, pp. 94–106.
  • Grace, D., S. Cohen (2005).^ Academy of Management Journal, 37, 467-498.

    ^ Academy of Management Journal, 22, 738-764.

    ^ Academy of Management Journal, 42, 526-538.

    .Business Ethics: Australian Problems and Cases.^ Due to these challenges, ICE attempts to outline the different approaches the business community could take to combine business, ethics and the environment, but each present their own problems.
    • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Oxford University Press.^ The World Bank, World Development Report 2005: A Better Investment Climate for Everyone (Washington, D.C.: The World Bank and Oxford University Press, 2005), p.
    • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ See also Elaine Sternberg, Just Business: Business Ethics in Action, 2 nd Edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000).
    • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Jonathan P. Charkham, Keeping Better Company: Corporate Governance Ten Years On (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), p.
    • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0195507940.
  • International Court of Justice. "How the Court Works".
  • Pitts, C. (ed.), .M. Kerr, R. Janda, & C. Pitts (2009) Corporate Social Responsibility: A Legal Analysis (Toronto: LexisNexis).^ Corporate social responsibility.

    ^ Putting Corporate Social Responsibility on the Table .
    • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ What corporate social responsibility activities are valued by the market?

    ISBN 9780433451150.
  • Roux, M. (2007). "Climate conducive to corporate action: 1 All-round Country Edition". The Australian. Canberra, A.C.T. pg.14. online article
  • Sacconi, L. (2004). .A Social Contract Account for CSR as Extended Model of Corporate Governance (Part II): Compliance, Reputation and Reciprocity.^ This early study reviewed three types of published research to derive usable measures of corporate social activities, i.e., (1) social accounting, (2) reputational scales, and (3) content analysis of corporate publications.

    ^ In addition, stock market measures lead in CSR performance, while accounting measures lag CSR. Including sociological factors (such as social impact of an industry) can help explain CSR impact on performance measures.

    ^ The organization asserts that, among other things, CSR policies include adoption of operating policies that exceed compliance with social and environmental laws.
    • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Journal of Business Ethics, No.11, pp. 77–96.
  • Sullivan, N.; R. Schiafo (2005).^ Journal of Business Ethics, 76, 189-206.

    ^ Journal of Business Ethics, 13, 731-738.

    ^ Business ethics: Research issues and empirical studies (pp.

    Talking Green, Acting Dirty (Op-Ed). New York Times, June 12, 2005.
  • Sun, William (2010), How to Govern Corporations So They Serve the Public Good: A Theory of Corporate Governance Emergence, New York: Edwin Mellen, ISBN 9780773438637.
  • Thilmany, J. 2007. "Supporting Ethical Employees." HR Magazine, Vol. 52, No.2, September 2007, pp. 105–110.
  • Tullberg, S., J. Tullberg (1996). "On Human Altruism: The Discrepancy between Normative and Factual Conclusions". Oikos, Vol.75, No.2, pp. 327–329.
  • Visser, W., D. Matten, M. Pohl, N. Tolhurst (eds.) (2008). .The A to Z of Corporate Social Responsibility.^ Determinants of corporate social responsibility disclosure: An application of stakeholder theory.

    ^ Using a hierarchy-of-effects approach to gauge the effectiveness of corporate social responsibility to generate goodwill toward the firm: Financial versus non-financial impacts.

    ^ Buchholz is one of many writers who prefers corporate responsibility, without social as a modifier.

    Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-72395-1.

Further reading

  • Baker, Mallen. ."Arguments against Corporate Social Responsibility".^ For a number of years a variety of organizations have been developing assessment approaches for companies to use in a range of key corporate social responsibility areas, including human rights.
    • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ For many, however, corporate social responsibility means something more than obeying the law and observing general ethical principles.
    • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The debate over the social responsibility of business in the US and in Europe is still developing and important differences exist in how corporate social responsibility is defined.
    • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Business Respect. http://www.mallenbaker.net/csr/CSRfiles/against.html. Retrieved 2008-03-07.
     
  • Carroll, A.; A. Buchholtz (2006). .Business and Society: Ethics and Stakeholder Management, 6th ed.^ Business and society: Ethics and stakeholder management.

    ^ QUESTIONS FOR CLASS Continuing our exploration of the responsibility of business to society, we focus in this class on responsibility to the customer, obviously one of the most important stakeholders in the performance of the business corporation.
    • The Tuck MBA - Corporate Social Responsibility - Syllabus 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC oracle-www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ About us Feedback Home › Web resources › Business and management › Business, society and environment › Corporate social responsibility .
    • Intute - Corporate social responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.intute.ac.uk [Source type: General]

    Mason, OH: Thomson/South-Western. ISBN 0324225814.
  • Carroll, A. (1998). ."The Four Faces of Corporate Citizenship". Business and Society Review.^ QUESTIONS FOR CLASS Continuing our exploration of the responsibility of business to society, we focus in this class on responsibility to the customer, obviously one of the most important stakeholders in the performance of the business corporation.
    • The Tuck MBA - Corporate Social Responsibility - Syllabus 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC oracle-www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ J. Griffin and J.Mahon, “The Corporate Social Performance and Corporate Financial Performance Debate, Business & Society (1997) 36: 5-31; J. Margolis and J. Walsh, “ People and Profits?
    • Does Corporate Social Responsibility Pay Off - Graziadio Business Report 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC gbr.pepperdine.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Business and Society Review, 51, 67-68.

    September, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 1–7
  • Cavett-Goodwin, David (2007-12-03). ."Making the Case for Corporate Social Responsibility".^ Corporate social responsibility.

    ^ What corporate social responsibility activities are valued by the market?

    ^ For many, however, corporate social responsibility means something more than obeying the law and observing general ethical principles.
    • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Cultural Shifts. http://culturalshifts.com/archives/181. Retrieved 2008-03-07.
     
  • Clarkson, M. (1995). ."A stakeholder framework for analyzing and evaluating corporate social performance". Academy of Management Review.^ Dimensions of corporate social performance: An analytic framework.

    ^ Academy of Management Review, 4, 63-74.

    ^ Academy of Management Review, 4, 497-505.

    .Vol.20, pp. 92–117.
  • Davis, K.; R. Blomstrom (1975).^ Academy of Management Review, 20, 92-117.

    .Business and Society: Environment and Responsibility, New York: McGraw-Hill.^ QUESTIONS FOR CLASS Continuing our exploration of the responsibility of business to society, we focus in this class on responsibility to the customer, obviously one of the most important stakeholders in the performance of the business corporation.
    • The Tuck MBA - Corporate Social Responsibility - Syllabus 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC oracle-www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Corporate and Responsible: Lucia Candu writes her blog from New York city, having recently relocated from the Eastern European country of Moldova.
    • 51 Great Sites For Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability | Innovative Thinking on Corporate Volunteering | Fast Company 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.fastcompany.com [Source type: General]

    ^ If social responsibility exists, why should it be limited to the role of business in society?
    • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0070155240.
  • Farnham Castle. ."Corporate Social Responsibility: New Fad or Necessity".^ New directions in corporate social responsibility.

    ^ Corporate social responsibility: Whether or how?

    ^ Corporate social responsibility.

    .http://www.intercultural-training.co.uk/articles/general/corporate_social_resp.asp.^ See http://www.bitc.org.uk/corporate-impact for contact details.
    • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Retrieved 2008-03-07
    .
     
  • "Ian Davis on business and society". The Economist. 2005-05-26. .http://www.economist.com/printedition/displayStory.cfm?Story_ID=4008642.^ After reviewing some of the comments, especially about standards and indices and awards, an excellent web site you can review is the Reputation Institute, http://www.reputationinstitute.com/ .

    ^ Source: IBM, Community Relations , available at http://www.ibm.com/ibm/ibmgives .
    • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Story link http://www.business-ethics.com/thenext.htm .
    • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Retrieved 2008-03-07
    .
      - advantages and limitations of CSR
  • Feltus, C.; Petit, M. (2009). ."Building a Responsibility Model Including Accountability, Capability and Commitment", Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ( IEEE ), Fukuoka, 2009. Building a Responsibility Model Including Accountability, Capability and Commitment
  • Fombrun, C. (2000).^ These authors establish a model which they test to determine the five capabilities of socially responsible organizations: Value-attuned public relations, stakeholder engagement, accountability, business ethics, and dialogue.

    ^ Some of the work by Charles Fombrun and Cees van Riel specifically address these issues, their annual conference and rankings are one of many measures available.

    ."The value to be found in corporate reputation". Financial Times, December 4, 2000.
  • Griffin, J.; J. Mahon (1997).^ Directors should recognize the value of corporate communication with shareholders and the public on issues that bear on the company’s reputation and brand value, even when such communication may not be required by regulation or fit neatly into financial disclosure formats.
    • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ."The Corporate Social Performance and Corporate Financial Performance Debate", Business and Society.^ QUESTIONS FOR CLASS Continuing our exploration of the responsibility of business to society, we focus in this class on responsibility to the customer, obviously one of the most important stakeholders in the performance of the business corporation.
    • The Tuck MBA - Corporate Social Responsibility - Syllabus 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC oracle-www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The debate over the social responsibility of business in the US and in Europe is still developing and important differences exist in how corporate social responsibility is defined.
    • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If social responsibility exists, why should it be limited to the role of business in society?
    • The Limits of �Corporate Social Responsibility� 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.visandvals.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Vol. 36. pp. 5–31.
  • Holton, Glyn A.. "Investor Suffrage Movement" (PDF). Financial Analysts Journal 62 (6). .http://www.contingencyanalysis.com/home/papers/suffrage.pdf.^ Story link http://www.business-ethics.com/thenext.htm .
    • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Home About us Events Training Partners Register Resource Library Community © 2010 www.gsmiweb.com .
    • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Source: IBM, Community Relations , available at http://www.ibm.com/ibm/ibmgives .
    • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Retrieved 2008-03-07.
     
  • Habisch, A; Jonker, J.; Wagner, M; Schmidpeter, R.(2005): Corporate Social Responsibility Across Europe.^ Putting Corporate Social Responsibility on the Table .
    • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Corporate Social Responsibility: More than mere Lip Service!
    • Corporate Social Responsibility | Business Blog 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC ayushveda.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Determinants of corporate social responsibility disclosure: An application of stakeholder theory.

    Springer. ISBN 3-540-23251-6.
  • Hemingway, C.A. (2005). ."Personal Values as a Catalyst for Corporate Social Entrepreneurship", Journal of Business Ethics.^ Results supported the attribute-salience relationship and addressed relationships among CEO values, salience, and corporate social performance.

    ^ From “Corporate Social Responsibility” to “Green Business” .
    • Corporate Social Responsibility | Business Blog 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC ayushveda.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Corporate Values and Business Realities .
    • Corporate Social Responsibility | Business Blog 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC ayushveda.com [Source type: News]

    Vol.60, No.3, pp.233–249.
  • International Business Report (2008). .Corporate Social Responsibility: a necessity not a choice, Grant Thornton.
  • Jastram, Sarah (2007).^ Corporate social responsibility.

    ^ Corporate social responsibility: A critical approach.

    ^ Consumer reactions to corporate social responsibility.

    ."The Link Between Corporate Social Responsibility and Strategic Management". CIS Papers No.17. Centre of International Studies, Hamburg.
  • Lin-Hi, Nick (2008).^ This study empirically tests the ability of stakeholder theory to explain one specific CSR activity - social responsibility disclosure.

    ^ Managing with integrity: Social responsibilities of business as seen by America’s CEOs.

    ^ Corporate social responsibility.

    ."Corporate Social Responsibility: An Investment in Social Cooperation for Mutual Advantage", Wittenberg Center for Global Ethics Discussion Paper 2008-6.
  • Maignan, I., O. Ferrell, G. Tomas (1999).^ Corporate social responsibility.

    ^ Putting Corporate Social Responsibility on the Table .
    • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ What corporate social responsibility activities are valued by the market?

    ."Corporate Citizenship: Cultural Antecedents and Business Benefits". Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science.^ This week we're delving into the corporate world and finding out what efforts are being made to inject ethical behaviours into business culture.
    • Encounter - 15 November 2009 - Corporate Social Responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Role of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Strengthening Firm’s Market Orientation in Dubai: The Case of Dubai ( Journal of Business Research, forthcoming) .
    • Corporate Social Responsibility in the Middle East and North Africa 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC csrarabia.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Becker-Posner Blog The Journal of the Business Law Society The Race to the Bottom The Volokh Conspiracy - - TRUTH ON THE MARKET Wall Street Journal Law Blog .
    • Ideoblog: Corporate social responsibility 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC busmovie.typepad.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Vol.27, No.4, pp. 455–469.
  • Maignan, I., O. Ferrell (2001). ."Corporate citizenship as a marketing instrument". European Journal of Marketing.^ Corporate Social Concerns: Are They Good Citizenship or a Rip-off for Investors, Wall Street Journal, 12-6-05, pp.
    • The Tuck MBA - Corporate Social Responsibility - Syllabus 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC oracle-www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Vol.35, No.3/4, pp. 457–484
  • Matten, D., A. Crane, W. Chapple (2003). ."Behind the mask: Revealing the true face of corporate citizenship". Journal Business Ethics, Vol.45, No.1, p. 109.
  • Menon, A., A. Menon (1997).^ Journal of Business Ethics, 13, 731-738 3.

    ^ Journal of Business Ethics, 76, 189-206.

    ^ While the survey reveals much about what is lacking in the management of corporate citizenship, it also gives some indications of what management structure and strategies are associated with higher performing citizenship.
    • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ."Enviropreneurial marketing strategy: the emergence of corporate environmentalism as marketing strategy". Journal of Marketing, Vol.61, pp. 51–67.
  • "Millennium Poll on Corporate Responsibility", Environics International Ltd., in cooperation with The Prince of Wales Trust, September 1999.
  • Jones, I., M. Pollitt, D. Bek (2006).^ What corporate social responsibility activities are valued by the market?

    ^ So when it comes to winning trust, a commitment to the highest standards of corporate responsibility should, I believe, be a real source of competitive advantage.
    • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Corporate responsibility, customer satisfaction, and market value.

    ."Multinationals in their communities: A social capital approach to corporate citizenship projects", University of Cambridge Working Paper 337.
  • Manne, Henry G. (2006-11-24).^ Corporate social responsibility: A critical approach.

    ^ This book helped to establish the four pillars of issues management: Strategic business planning, issues monitoring, corporate social responsibility, and issues communication.

    ^ The next wave of corporate community involvement: Corporate social initiatives.

    "Milton Friedman Was Right". .The Wall Street Journal.^ Wall Street Journal .
    • Corporate Social Responsibility | Business Blog 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC ayushveda.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Wall Street Journal, p.

    .http://www.opinionjournal.com/editorial/feature.html?id=110009295.^ After reviewing some of the comments, especially about standards and indices and awards, an excellent web site you can review is the Reputation Institute, http://www.reputationinstitute.com/ .

    ^ Story link http://www.business-ethics.com/thenext.htm .
    • Corporate Social Responsibility CSR | Resource Library 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.gsmiweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Retrieved 2008-03-07
    . 
  • Milchen, Jeff (May, 2000). "Inherent Rules of Corporate Behavior". ReclaimDemocracy.org. http://reclaimdemocracy.org/corporate_accountability/corporations_cannot_be_responsible.html. Retrieved 2008-03-07. 
  • Norman, Wayne; Chris MacDonald. ."Triple Bottom Line: a Critique".^ CSR annual report: This report should incorporate triple bottom line thinking: financial, environmental, and social performance.

    http://www.businessethics.ca/3bl
    . Retrieved 2008-03-07.
     
  • Porter, Michael; Mark Kramer. ."The Link Between Competitive Advantage and Corporate Social Responsibility" (PDF).^ From “Corporate Social Responsibility” to “Green Business” .
    • Corporate Social Responsibility | Business Blog 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC ayushveda.com [Source type: News]

    ^ New directions in corporate social responsibility.

    ^ Corporate social responsibility: Whether or how?

    .Harvard Business Review.^ Harvard Business Review, 80(12), 57-68.

    http://harvardbusinessonline.hbsp.harvard.edu/email/pdfs/Porter_Dec_2006.pdf
    .
     
  • Rowe, James (2005-01-01). ."Corporate Social Responsibility as Business Strategy".^ Managing with integrity: Social responsibilities of business as seen by America’s CEOs.

    ^ Corporate social responsibility.

    ^ Putting Corporate Social Responsibility on the Table .
    • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    CGIRS-Reprint-2005-08. Center for Global, International, and Regional Studies, University of California, Santa Cruz. http://repositories.cdlib.org/cgirs/reprint/CGIRS-Reprint-2005-08/. Retrieved 2008-03-07.
     
  • Sen, Sankar, C. B. Bhattacharya and Daniel Korschun (2006). ."The Role of Corporate Social Responsibility in Strengthening Multiple Stakeholder Relationships: A Field Experiment."^ This study empirically tests the ability of stakeholder theory to explain one specific CSR activity - social responsibility disclosure.

    ^ Corporate social responsibility.

    ^ Putting Corporate Social Responsibility on the Table .
    • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 34 (2), 158-66.
  • SMEs Focus.^ Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 34, 158-166.

    ^ Journal of Academy of Marketing Science, 29, 248-262.

    ^ Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 34, 147-157.

    ."Making Europe a Pole of Excellence on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)".
  • Spence, L.; Habisch, A.; Schmidpeter R. (Editors) (2004).^ This study empirically tests the ability of stakeholder theory to explain one specific CSR activity - social responsibility disclosure.

    ^ New directions in corporate social responsibility.

    ^ Corporate social responsibility: Whether or how?

    Responsibility and Social Capital. .The World of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises.^ However, even in Brazil it can be challenging to persuade the managers of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to introduce sustainability into their management processes.
    • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Palgrave. ISBN 0-333-71459-8.
  • Visser, Wayne, Dirk Matten, Manfred Pohl, and Nick Tolhurst (Editors) (2007). .The A to Z of Corporate Social Responsibility.^ From “Corporate Social Responsibility” to “Green Business” .
    • Corporate Social Responsibility | Business Blog 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC ayushveda.com [Source type: News]

    ^ New directions in corporate social responsibility.

    ^ Corporate social responsibility: Whether or how?

    London, England; New York, NY: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-72395-1.
  • Waddell, S. (2000). ."New institutions for the practice of corporate citizenship: Historical Intersectoral, and Developmental Perspectives". Business and Society Review, Vol.105, pp. 323–345.
  • Wartick, S., P. Cochran (1985).^ The report " Structure and Strategies, Profile of the Practice 2008: Managing Corporate Citizenship" is based on survey data from 330 global corporations, most based in North America.
    • Get Your Business Ethics Articles and Articles on Corporate Social Responsibility From Ethicsworld.org 10 February 2010 13:45 UTC www.ethicsworld.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Business and Society Review, 51, 67-68.

    ^ Wartick, S. L., & Cochran, P. L. (1985).

    ."The Evolution of the Corporate Social Performance Model". Academy of Management Review, Vol.10, p. 767.
  • Wheeler, David; Maria Sillanpää (1997).^ Academy of Management Review, 4, 63-74.

    ^ Academy of Management Review, 20, 92-117.

    ^ Results supported the attribute-salience relationship and addressed relationships among CEO values, salience, and corporate social performance.

    The Stakeholder Corporation: a blueprint for maximizing stakeholder value. London: Pitman. ISBN 0273626612. 
  • Wood, D. (1991). "Corporate Social Performance Revisited". Academy of Management Review, Vol.4, pp. 691–718.
  • World Business Council for Sustainable Development (2001), The Business Case for Sustainable Development: Making a difference toward the Johannesburg Summit 2002 and beyond.
  • World Business Council for Sustainable Development (2000), Corporate Social Responsibility: Making good business sense.
  • World Business Council for Sustainable Development (1999), Corporate Social Responsibility: Meeting changing expectations.

Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 13, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Corporate social responsibility, which are similar to those in the above article.








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