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In the theory of criminal law, correctional system refers to a network of governmental agencies that administer a jurisdiction's prisons and parole system.[1] The components of the criminal justice system that serve to punish criminal offenders involve the deprivation of life, liberty or property after due process of law (see Fourteenth Amendment). Sentences imposed upon offenders range from probation to serving time in prison, with intermediate sanctions, including sentences to a halfway house or community corrections program, home confinement, and electronic monitoring. Financial penalties may include fines, forfeiture, and restitution.

In some countries, including Western countries in the past, this has also included judicially-ordered corporal punishment.



The use of sanctions, which can be either positive (rewarding) or negative (punishment) is the basis of all criminal theory, along with the main goals of social control, and deterrence of deviant behavior.

Many facilities operating in the United States adhere to particular correctional theories. Although often heavily modified, these theories determine the nature of the facilities' design and security operations. The two primary theories used today are the more traditional Remote Supervision and the more contemporary Direct Supervision Models. In the Remote Supervision Model, officers observe the inmate population from remote positions, e.g., towers or secure desk areas. The Direct Supervision Model positions corrections officers within the inmate population, creating a more pronounced presence.

See also


Juvenile corrections



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