Cotton: Wikis

  
  
  
  
  

Did you know ...

  • part of the land where the depopulated Palestinian village territory of Jahula lay is used to cultivate cotton and watermelons today?

More interesting facts on Cotton

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cotton bolls ready for harvest
Picking cotton in Oklahoma, USA, in the 1890s
Cotton is a soft, fluffy, staple fiber that grows in a form known as a boll around the seeds of the cotton plant, a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Americas, India and Africa. The fiber most often is spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile, which is the most widely used natural-fiber cloth in clothing today. The English name derives from the Arabic (al) qutn قُطْن , which began to be used circa 1400.[1]

Contents

History

Cotton plants as imagined and drawn by John Mandeville in the fourteenth century
Cotton was first cultivated seven thousand years ago (5th millennium BC-4th millennium BC), by the inhabitants of the Indus Valley Civilization, a civilization that covered a huge swath of the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising today of parts of Eastern Pakistan and Northwestern India.[2] The Indus cotton industry was well developed and some methods used in cotton spinning and fabrication continued to be used until the modern Industrialization of India.[3] Well before the Common Era the use of cotton textiles had spread from India to the Mediterranean and beyond.[4]
Greeks and Arabs were apparently ignorant about cotton until the time of Alexander the Great as his contemporary Megasthenes told Seleucus of ”there being trees on which wool grows” in Indica.
According to The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition:[5]
"Cotton has been spun, woven, and dyed since prehistoric times. It clothed the people of ancient India, Egypt, and China. Hundreds of years before the Christian era cotton textiles were woven in India with matchless skill, and their use spread to the Mediterranean countries. In the 1st cent. Arab traders brought fine muslin and calico to Italy and Spain. The Moors introduced the cultivation of cotton into Spain in the 9th cent. Fustians and dimities were woven there and in the 14th cent. in Venice and Milan, at first with a linen warp. Little cotton cloth was imported to England before the 15th cent., although small amounts were obtained chiefly for candlewicks. By the 17th century the East India Company was bringing rare fabrics from India. Native Americans skillfully spun and wove cotton into fine garments and dyed tapestries. Cotton fabrics found in Peruvian tombs are said to belong to a pre-Inca culture. In color and texture the ancient Peruvian and Mexican textiles resemble those found in Egyptian tombs."
According to the Foods and Nutrition Encyclopedia, the earliest cultivation of cotton discovered thus far in the Americas occurred in Mexico, some 8,000 years ago. The indigenous species was Gossypium hirsutum which is today the most widely planted species of cotton in the world, constituting about 90% of all production worldwide. The greatest diversity of wild cotton species is found in Mexico, followed by Australia and Africa.[6]
In Iran (Persia), the history of cotton dates back to Achaemenid era (5th century B.C.), however there are few sources about the planting of cotton in Pre-Islamic Iran. The planting of cotton was common in Merv, Ray and Pars of Iran (Persia). In the poems of Persian poets, specially Ferdowsi's Shahname, there are many referrals to Cotton ("Panbe" in Persian). Marco Polo (13th century) refers to the major products of Persia (Iran), including Cotton. John Chardin a famous french traveler of 17th century who has visited the Safavid Persia, has approved the vast cotton farms of Persia.[7]
In Peru, cultivation of the indigenous cotton species Gossypium barbadense was the backbone of the development of coastal cultures such as the Norte Chico, Moche and Nazca. Cotton was grown upriver, made into nets and traded with fishing villages along the coast for large supplies of fish. The Spanish who came to Mexico in the early 1500s found the people growing cotton and wearing clothing made of it.
During the late medieval period, cotton became known as an imported fiber in northern Europe, without any knowledge of how it was derived, other than that it was a plant; noting its similarities to wool, people in the region could only imagine that cotton must be produced by plant-borne sheep. John Mandeville, writing in 1350, stated as fact the now-preposterous belief: "There grew there [India] a wonderful tree which bore tiny lambs on the endes of its branches. These branches were so pliable that they bent down to allow the lambs to feed when they are hungrie [sic]." (See Vegetable Lamb of Tartary.) This aspect is retained in the name for cotton in many European languages, such as German Baumwolle, which translates as "tree wool" (Baum means "tree"; Wolle means "wool"). By the end of the 16th century, cotton was cultivated throughout the warmer regions in Asia and the Americas.
India's cotton-processing sector gradually declined during British expansion in India and the establishment of colonial rule during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. This was largely due to aggressive colonialist mercantile policies of the British East India Company, which made cotton processing and manufacturing workshops in India uncompetitive. Indian markets were increasingly forced to supply only raw cotton and were forced, by British-imposed law, to purchase manufactured textiles from Britain.
The advent of the Industrial Revolution in Britain provided a great boost to cotton manufacture, as textiles emerged as Britain's leading export. In 1738 Lewis Paul and John Wyatt, of Birmingham, England, patented the Roller Spinning machine, and the flyer-and-bobbin system for drawing cotton to a more even thickness using two sets of rollers that traveled at different speeds. Later, the invention of the spinning jenny in 1764 and Richard Arkwright's spinning frame (based on the Roller Spinning Machine) in 1769 enabled British weavers to produce cotton yarn and cloth at much higher rates. From the late eighteenth century onwards, the British city of Manchester acquired the nickname "cottonopolis" due to the cotton industry's omnipresence within the city, and Manchester's role as the heart of the global cotton trade. Production capacity in Britain and the United States was further improved by the invention of the cotton gin by the American Eli Whitney in 1793. Improving technology and increasing control of world markets allowed British traders to develop a commercial chain in which raw cotton fibers were (at first) purchased from colonial plantations, processed into cotton cloth in the mills of Lancashire, and then re-exported on British ships to captive colonial markets in West Africa, India, and China (via Shanghai and Hong Kong).
By the 1840s, India was no longer capable of supplying the vast quantities of cotton fibers needed by mechanized British factories, while shipping bulky, low-price cotton from India to Britain was time-consuming and expensive. This, coupled with the emergence of American cotton as a superior type (due to the longer, stronger fibers of the two domesticated native American species, Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense), encouraged British traders to purchase cotton from plantations in the United States and the Caribbean. This was also much cheaper as it was produced by unpaid slaves. By the mid 19th century, "King Cotton" had become the backbone of the southern American economy. In the United States, cultivating and harvesting cotton became the leading occupation of slaves.
During the American Civil War, American cotton exports slumped due to a Union blockade on Southern ports, also because of a strategic decision by the Confederate Government to cut exports, hoping to force Britain to recognize the Confederacy or enter the war, prompting the main purchasers of cotton, Britain and France, to turn to Egyptian cotton. British and French traders invested heavily in cotton plantations and the Egyptian government of Viceroy Isma'il took out substantial loans from European bankers and stock exchanges. After the American Civil War ended in 1865, British and French traders abandoned Egyptian cotton and returned to cheap American exports, sending Egypt into a deficit spiral that led to the country declaring bankruptcy in 1876, a key factor behind Egypt's annexation by the British Empire in 1882.
Prisoners farming cotton under trusty system - 1911
Picking cotton in Georgia, United States, in 1943
During this time cotton cultivation in the British Empire, especially India, greatly increased to replace the lost production of the American South. Through tariffs and other restrictions the British government discouraged the production of cotton cloth in India; rather the raw fiber was sent to England for processing. The Indian patriot Mahatma Gandhi described the process:
  1. English people buy Indian cotton in the field, picked by Indian labor at seven cents a day, through an optional monopoly.
  2. This cotton is shipped on British ships, a three-week journey across the Indian Ocean, down the Red Sea, across the Mediterranean, through Gibraltar, across the Bay of Biscay and the Atlantic Ocean to London. One hundred per cent profit on this freight is regarded as small.
  3. The cotton is turned into cloth in Lancashire. You pay shilling wages instead of Indian pennies to your workers. The English worker not only has the advantage of better wages, but the steel companies of England get the profit of building the factories and machines. Wages; profits; all these are spent in England.
  4. The finished product is sent back to India at European shipping rates, once again on British ships. The captains, officers, sailors of these ships, whose wages must be paid, are English. The only Indians who profit are a few lascars who do the dirty work on the boats for a few cents a day.
  5. The cloth is finally sold back to the kings and landlords of India who got the money to buy this expensive cloth out of the poor peasants of India who worked at seven cents a day. (Fisher 1932 pp 154–156)
In the United States, Southern cotton provided capital for the continuing development of the North. The cotton produced by enslaved African Americans not only helped the South but also enriched Northern merchants. Much of the Southern cotton was transshipped through the northern ports.
Cotton remained a key crop in the southern economy after emancipation and the end of the civil war in 1865. Across the South, sharecropping evolved, in which free black farmers and landless white farmers worked on white-owned cotton plantations of the wealthy in return for a share of the profits. Cotton plantations required vast labor forces to hand-pick cotton, and it was not until the 1950s that reliable harvesting machinery was introduced into the South (prior to this, cotton-harvesting machinery had been too clumsy to pick cotton without shredding the fibers). During the early twentieth century, employment in the cotton industry fell as machines began to replace laborers, and the South's rural labor force dwindled during the First and Second World Wars. Today, cotton remains a major export of the southern United States, and a majority of the world's annual cotton crop is of the long-staple American variety.[8]

Tangüis cotton

Fermín Tangüis poses with an example of the "Tangüis cotton"
In 1901, Peru's cotton industry suffered because of a fungus plague caused by a plant disease known as "Cotton wilt" and " "Fusarium wilt" (Fusarium vasinfectum).[9] The plant disease, which spread throughout Peru, entered the plant by its roots and worked its way up the stem until the plant was completely dried up. Fermín Tangüis, a Puerto Rican agriculturist who lived in Peru, studied some species of the plant that were affected by the disease to a lesser extent and experimented in germination with the seeds of various cotton plants. In 1911, after 10 years of experimenting and failures, Tangüis was able to develop a seed which produced a superior cotton plant resistant to the disease. The seeds produced a plant that had a 40% longer (between 29 mm and 33 mm) and thicker fiber that did not break easily and required little water.[10] The Tangüis cotton, as it became known, is the variety which is preferred by the Peruvian national textile industry. It constituted 75 percent of all the Peruvian cotton production, both for domestic use and apparel exports. The Tangüis cotton crop was estimated at 225,000 bales that year.[11]

Cultivation

Cotton plowing in Togo, 1928
Harvested cotton in Tennessee (2006)
Cotton modules in Australia (2007)
Successful cultivation of cotton requires a long frost-free period, plenty of sunshine, and a moderate rainfall, usually from 600 to 1200 mm (24 to 48 inches). Soils usually need to be fairly heavy, although the level of nutrients does not need to be exceptional. In general, these conditions are met within the seasonally dry tropics and subtropics in the Northern and Southern hemispheres, but a large proportion of the cotton grown today is cultivated in areas with less rainfall that obtain the water from irrigation. Production of the crop for a given year usually starts soon after harvesting the preceding autumn. Planting time in spring in the Northern hemisphere varies from the beginning of February to the beginning of June. The area of the United States known as the South Plains is the largest contiguous cotton-growing region in the world. While dryland (non-irrigated) cotton is successfully grown in this region, consistent yields are only produced with heavy reliance on irrigation water drawn from the Ogallala Aquifer.
There are other crops requiring more water, such as maize. Since cotton is somewhat salt and drought tolerant, this makes it an attractive crop for arid and semi-arid regions. As water resources get tighter around the world, economies that rely on it face difficulties and conflict, as well as potential environmental problems.[12][13][14][15][16] For example, improper cropping and irrigation practices have led to desertification in areas of Uzbekistan, where cotton is a major export. In the days of the Soviet Union, the Aral Sea was tapped for agricultural irrigation, largely of cotton, and now salination is widespread.[15][16]

Genetic modification

Genetically modified (GM) cotton was developed to reduce the heavy reliance on pesticides. The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis naturally produces a chemical harmful only to a small fraction of insects, most notably the larvae of moths and butterflies, beetles, and flies, and harmless to other forms of life. The gene coding for BT toxin has been inserted into cotton, causing cotton to produce this natural insecticide in its tissues. In many regions the main pests in commercial cotton are lepidopteran larvae, which are killed by the BT protein in the transgenic cotton that they eat. This eliminates the need to use large amounts of broad-spectrum insecticides to kill lepidopteran pests (some of which have developed pyrethroid resistance). This spares natural insect predators in the farm ecology and further contributes to non-insecticide pest management.
Bt cotton is ineffective against many cotton pests, however, such as plant bugs, stink bugs, aphids, etc.; depending on circumstances it may still be desirable to use insecticides against these. A study done by Cornell researchers on Bt cotton farming in China found other pests necessitated the use of pesticides at similar levels to non-Bt cotton, causing less profit for farmers because of the expense of GM seeds.[17] The International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA) said that, worldwide, GM cotton was planted on an area of 67,000 km² in 2002. This is 20% of the worldwide total area planted in cotton. The U.S. cotton crop was 73% GM in 2003.
The initial introduction of GM cotton proved to be a huge success in Australia - the yields were equivalent to the no transgenic varieties and the crop used much less pesticide to produce (85% reduction). The subsequent introduction of a second variety of GM cotton led to increases in GM cotton production until today when 90% of the crop is GM.
Cotton has also been genetically modified for resistance to glyphosate (marketed as Roundup in North America), an inexpensive and highly effective but broad-spectrum herbicide. Originaly, it was only possible to achieve glyphosate resistance when the plant was young, but with the development of Roundup Ready Flex, it is possible to achieve Glyphosate resistance much later in the growing season.
GM cotton acreage in India continues to grow at a rapid rate increasing from 50,000 hectares in 2002 to 3.8 million hectares in 2006. The total cotton area in India is about 9.0 million hectares (the largest in the world or, about 25% of world cotton area) so GM cotton is now grown on 42% of the cotton area. This makes India the country with the largest area of GM cotton in the world, surpassing China (3.5 million hectares in 2006). The major reasons for this increase is a combination of increased farm income ($225/ha) and a reduction in pesticide use to control the Cotton Bollworm.
Cotton has gossypol, a toxin that makes it inedible. However, scientists have silenced the gene that produces the toxin, making it a potential food crop.[18]

Organic production

Organic cotton is generally understood as cotton, from non genetically modified plants, that is certified to be grown without the use of any synthetic agricultural chemicals such as fertilizers or pesticides.[19] Its production also promotes and enhances biodiversity and biological cycles.[20] United States cotton plantations are required to enforce the National Organic Program (NOP). This institution determines the allowed practices for pest control, growing, fertilizing, and handling of organic crops.[21][22] As of 2007, 265,517 bales of organic cotton were produced in 24 countries and worldwide production was growing at a rate of more than 50% per year.[23]

Pests and weeds

Hoeing a cotton field to remove weeds, Greene County, Georgia, USA, 1941
The cotton industry relies heavily on chemicals such as fertilizers and insecticides, although a very small number of farmers are moving toward an organic model of production and organic cotton products are now available for purchase at limited locations. These are popular for baby clothes and diapers. Under most definitions, organic products do not use genetic engineering.
Historically, in North America, one of the most economically destructive pests in cotton production has been the boll weevil. Due to the US Department of Agriculture's highly successful Boll Weevil Eradication Program (BWEP), this pest has been eliminated from cotton in most of the United States. This program, along with the introduction of genetically engineered "Bt cotton" (which contains a bacterial gene that codes for a plant-produced protein that is toxic to a number of pests such as cotton bollworm and pink bollworm), has allowed a reduction in the use of synthetic insecticides.

Mechanized harvesting

The Case IH Module Express 625 is a complete harvesting and module building machine.
Offloading freshly harvested cotton into a module builder in Texas; previously built modules can be seen in the background
Most cotton in the United States, Europe, and Australia is harvested mechanically, either by a cotton picker, a machine that removes the cotton from the boll without damaging the cotton plant, or by a cotton stripper, which strips the entire boll off the plant. Cotton strippers are used in regions where it is too windy to grow picker varieties of cotton, and usually after application of a chemical defoliant or the natural defoliation that occurs after a freeze. Cotton is a perennial crop in the tropics and without defoliation or freezing, the plant will continue to grow.
Cotton continues to be picked by hand in developing countries such as Uzbekistan.[24]

Competition from synthetic fibers

The era of manufactured fibers began with the development of Rayon in France in the 1890s. Rayon is derived from a natural cellulose and cannot be considered synthetic, but requires extensive processing in a manufacturing process and led the less expensive replacement of more naturally derived materials. A succession of new synthetic fibers were introduced by the chemicals industry in the following decades. Acetate in fiber form was developed in 1924. Nylon, the first fiber synthesized entirely from petrochemicals, was introduced as a sewing thread by DuPont in 1936, followed by DuPont's acrylic in 1944. Some garments were created from fabrics based on these fibers, such as women's hosiery from nylon, but it was not until the introduction of polyester into the fiber marketplace in the early 1950s that the market for cotton came under threat.[25] The rapid uptake of polyester garments in the 1960s caused economic hardship in cotton exporting economies, especially in Central American countries such as Nicaragua where cotton production had boomed tenfold between 1950 and 1965 with the advent of cheap chemical pesticides. Cotton production recovered in the 1970s, but crashed to pre-1960 levels in the early 1990s.[26]
Beginning as a self-help program in the mid-1960s, the Cotton Research & Promotion Program was organized by U.S. cotton producers in response to cotton's steady decline in market share. At that time, producers voted to set up a per-bale assessment system to fund the program, with built-in safeguards to protect their investments. With the passage of the Cotton Research & Promotion Act of 1966, the program joined forces and began battling synthetic competitors and re-establishing markets for cotton. Today, the success of this program has made cotton the best-selling fiber in the U.S. and one of the best-selling fibers in the world.
Administered by the Cotton Board and conducted by Cotton Incorporated, the Cotton Research & Promotion Program works to greatly increase the demand for and profitability of cotton through various research and promotion activities. It is funded by U.S. cotton producers and importers.

Uses

Cotton is used to make a number of textile products. These include terrycloth, used to make highly absorbent bath towels and robes; denim, used to make blue jeans; chambray, popularly used in the manufacture of blue work shirts (from which we get the term "blue-collar"); and corduroy, seersucker, and cotton twill. Socks, underwear, and most T-shirts are made from cotton. Bed sheets often are made from cotton. Cotton also is used to make yarn used in crochet and knitting. Fabric also can be made from recycled or recovered cotton that otherwise would be thrown away during the spinning, weaving, or cutting process. While many fabrics are made completely of cotton, some materials blend cotton with other fibers, including rayon and synthetic fibers such as polyester. It can either be used in knitted or woven fabrics, as it can be blended with elastine to make a stretchier thread for knitted fabrics, and things such as stretch jeans.
In addition to the textile industry, cotton is in fishnets, coffee filters, tents, gunpowder (see Nitrocellulose), cotton paper, and in bookbinding. The first Chinese paper was made of cotton fiber. Fire hoses were once made of cotton.
The cottonseed which remains after the cotton is ginned is used to produce cottonseed oil, which, after refining, can be consumed by humans like any other vegetable oil. The cottonseed meal that is left generally is fed to ruminant livestock; the gossypol remaining in the meal is toxic to monogastric animals. Cottonseed hulls can be added to dairy cattle rations for roughage. During the American slavery period, cotton root bark was used in folk remedies as an abortifacient, that is, to induce a miscarriage.[27]
Cotton linters are fine, silky fibers which adhere to the seeds of the cotton plant after ginning. These curly fibers typically are less than 1/8 in (3 mm) long. The term also may apply to the longer textile fiber staple lint as well as the shorter fuzzy fibers from some upland species. Linters are traditionally used in the manufacture of paper and as a raw material in the manufacture of cellulose. In the UK, linters are referred to as "cotton wool". This can also be a refined product (absorbent cotton in U.S. usage) which has medical, cosmetic and many other practical uses. The first medical use of cotton wool was by Dr Joseph Sampson Gamgee at the Queen's Hospital (later the General Hospital) in Birmingham, England.
Shiny cotton is a processed version of the fiber that can be made into cloth resembling satin for shirts and suits. However, its hydrophobic property of not easily taking up water makes it unfit for the purpose of bath and dish towels (although examples of these made from shiny cotton are seen).
The term Egyptian cotton refers to the extra long staple cotton grown in Egypt and favored for the luxury and upmarket brands worldwide. During the U.S. Civil War, with heavy European investments, Egyptian-grown cotton became a major alternate source for British textile mills. Egyptian cotton is more durable and softer than American Pima cotton, which is why it is more expensive. Pima cotton is American cotton that is grown in the southwestern states of the U.S.

International trade

Cottonseed output in 2005
The largest producers of cotton, currently (2009), are China and India, with annual production of approximately 34 million bales and 24 million bales, respectively; most of this production being consumed by their respective textile industries. The largest exporters of raw cotton are the United States, with sales of $4.9 billion, and Africa, with sales of $2.1 billion. The total international trade is estimated to be $12 billion. Africa's share of the cotton trade has doubled since 1980. Neither area has a significant domestic textile industry, textile manufacturing having moved to developing nations in Eastern and South Asia such as India and China. In Africa cotton is grown by numerous small holders. Dunavant Enterprises, based in Memphis, Tennessee, is the leading cotton broker in Africa with hundreds of purchasing agents. It operates cotton gins in Uganda, Mozambique, and Zambia. In Zambia it often offers loans for seed and expenses to the 180,000 small farmers who grow cotton for it, as well as advice on farming methods. Cargill also purchases cotton in Africa for export.
The 25,000 cotton growers in the United States are heavily subsidized at the rate of $2 billion per year. The future of these subsidies is uncertain and has led to anticipatory expansion of cotton brokers' operations in Africa. Dunavant expanded in Africa by buying out local operations. This is only possible in former British colonies and Mozambique; former French colonies continue to maintain tight monopolies, inherited from their former colonialist masters, on cotton purchases at low fixed prices.[28]

Leading producer countries

Top ten cotton producers — 2009
(480-pound bales)
 People's Republic of China 32.5 million bales
 India 24.3 million bales
 United States 13.0 million bales
 Pakistan 9.2 million bales
 Egypt 5.4 million bales
 Uzbekistan 4.2 million bales
 Australia 1.8 million bales
 Turkey 1.7 million bales
 Turkmenistan 1.1 million bales
 Syria 1.0 million bales
Source:[29]
The five leading exporters of cotton in 2009 are (1) the United States, (2) India, (3) Uzbekistan, (4) Brazil, and (5) Australia. The largest non-producing importers are Korea, Russia, Taiwan, Japan, and Hong Kong.[29]
In India, the states of Maharashtra (26.63%), Gujarat (17.96%) and Andhra Pradesh (13.75%) and also Madhya Pradesh are the leading cotton producing states,[30] these states have a predominantly tropical wet and dry climate.
In the United States, the state of Texas lead in total production as of 2004,[31] while the state of California had the highest yield per acre.[32]

Fair trade

Cotton is an enormously important commodity throughout the world. However, many farmers in developing countries receive a low price for their produce, or find it difficult to compete with developed countries.
This has led to an international dispute:
On 27 September 2002 Brazil requested consultations with the US regarding prohibited and actionable subsidies provided to US producers, users and/or exporters of upland cotton, as well as legislation, regulations, statutory instruments and amendments thereto providing such subsidies (including export credits), grants, and any other assistance to the US producers, users and exporters of upland cotton.[33]
On 8 September 2004, the Panel Report recommended that the United States "withdraw" export credit guarantees and payments to domestic user and exporters, and "take appropriate steps to remove the adverse effects or withdraw" the mandatory price-contingent subsidy measures.[34]
In addition to concerns over subsidies, the cotton industries of some countries are criticized for employing child labor and damaging workers' health by exposure to pesticides used in production. The Environmental Justice Foundation has campaigned against the prevalent use of forced child and adult labor in cotton production in Uzbekistan, the world's third largest cotton exporter.[35] The international production and trade situation has led to 'fair trade' cotton clothing and footwear, joining a rapidly growing market for organic clothing, fair fashion or so-called 'ethical fashion'. The fair trade system was initiated in 2005 with producers from Cameroon, Mali and Senegal.[36]

Trade

Cotton is bought and sold by investors and price speculators as a tradable commodity on 2 different stock exchanges in the United States of America.
  • Cotton futures contracts are traded on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) under the ticker symbol TT. They are delivered every year in March, May, July, October, & December.[37]
  • Cotton #2 futures contracts are traded on the New York Board of Trade (NYBOT) under the ticker symbol CT. They are delivered every year in March, May, July, October, and December.[38]

Critical temperatures

Cotton dries out, becomes hard and brittle and loses all elasticity at temperatures above 25°C (77°F). Extended exposure to light causes similar problems.
A temperature range of 25 °C (77 °F) to 35 °C (95°F) is the optimal range for mold development. At temperatures below 0°C (32 °F), rotting of wet cotton stops. Damaged cotton is sometimes stored at these temperatures to prevent further deterioration.[39]

British standard yarn measures

  • 1 thread = 55 inches (about 137 cm)
  • 1 skein or rap = 80 threads (120 yards or about 109 m)
  • 1 hank = 7 skeins (840 yards or about 768 m)
  • 1 spindle = 18 hanks (15,120 yards or about 13.826 km)

Fibers properties

Property Evaluation
Shape Fairly uniform in width, 12-20 micrometers; length varies from 1 cm to 6 cm (½ to 2½ inches); typical length is 2.2 cm to 3.3 cm (⅞ to 1¼ inches).
Luster high
Tenacity (strength)
Dry
Wet

3.0-5.0 g/d
3.3-6.0 g/d
Resiliency low
Density 1.54-1.56 g/cm³
Moisture absorption
raw: conditioned
saturation
mercerized: conditioned
saturation

8.5%
15-25%
8.5-10.3%
15-27%+
Dimensional stability good
Resistance to
acids
alkali
organic solvents
sunlight
microorganisms
insects

damage, weaken fibers
resistant; no harmful effects
high resistance to most
Prolonged exposure weakens fibers.
Mildew and rot-producing bacteria damage fibers.
Silverfish damage fibers.
Thermal reactions
to heat
to flame

Decomposes after prolonged exposure to temperatures of 150˚C or over.
Burns readily.
The chemical composition of cotton is as follows:

See also

References

  1. ^ Metcalf, 1999, p. 123.
  2. ^ Stein, page 47
  3. ^ Wisseman & Williams, page 127
  4. ^ The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. cotton.
  5. ^ "cotton". The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-07.
  6. ^ The Biology of Gossypium hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L. (cotton)
  7. ^ Encyclopaedia Islamica Foundation. بنیاد دائره المعارف اسلامی , Retrieved on 28 February 2009; The original Persian text: تاریخچهٔ پنبه در ایران احتمالاً به دوران هخامنشیان بازمی گردد، اما دربارة کاشت پنبه پیش از دورة اسلامی ایران اطلاعات معتبر اندکی در دست است. ] به نوشتة مؤلف حدودالعالم (ح ۳۷۲)، در مرو، ری و ناحیة فارس کشت پنبه رواج داشته‌است (ص ۹۴، ۱۳۰، ۱۴۲). همچنین اشارات متعددی به پنبه در آثار شاعران، بویژه شاهنامة فردوسی (کتاب سوم، ج ۵، ص ۱۴۷۵ـ ۱۴۷۶، کتاب چهارم، ج ۶، ص ۱۹۹۹، ۲۰۰۴) وجود دارد. در قرن هفتم / سیزدهم، مارکوپولو به محصولات عمدة ایران از جمله پنبه اشاره می‌کند (ج ۱، ص ۸۴) [. ژان شاردن، جهانگرد مشهور فرانسوی در قرن یازدهم / هفدهم، که از ایران دورة صفویه بازدید کرده، وجود کشتزارهای وسیع پنبه را تأیید کرده‌است (ج ۲، ص ۷۱۲).
  8. ^ Stephen Yafa (2004). Cotton: The Biography of a Revolutionary Fiber. Penguin (Non-Classics). pp. 16. ISBN 0-14-303722-6. 
  9. ^ Boletin, (Spanish) Retrieved July 17, 2008
  10. ^ Peru's Cotton
  11. ^ Peru Cotton Production and Imports
  12. ^ Wegerich K. 2002. Natural drought or human-made water scarcity in Uzbekistan? Central Asia and the Caucasus. 2,154–162.
  13. ^ Pearce, Fred (2004). "9 "A Salty Hell"". Keepers of the Spring. Island Press. pp. 109–122. ISBN 1559636815. 
  14. ^ A.K. Chapagain, A.Y. Hoekstra, H.H.G. Savenije and R. Gautam (1 November 2006). "The water footprint of cotton consumption: An assessment of the impact of worldwide consumption of cotton products on the water resources in the cotton producing countries". Ecological Economics 60 (1): 186–203. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2005.11.027. 
  15. ^ a b Mainguet, Monique; René Létolle (1998). "Human-made Desertification in the Aral Sea Basin". The Arid Frontier. Springer. pp. 129–145. ISBN 0792342275. 
  16. ^ a b Waltham, Tony; Ihsan Sholji (2001). "The demise of the Aral Sea – an environmental disaster". Geology Today 17 (6): 218–228. doi:10.1046/j.0266-6979.2001.00319.x. 
  17. ^ First documented case of pest resistance to biotech cotton
  18. ^ Technology Review
  19. ^ CCVT Sustainable
  20. ^ VineYardTeam Econ
  21. ^ AMSv1
  22. ^ OrganicConsumers.org
  23. ^ Organic Trade Association
  24. ^ Craig Murray. Murder in Samarkand - A British Ambassador's Controversial Defiance of Tyranny in the War on Terror. ISBN 978-1845961947. 2006.
  25. ^ Fiber History
  26. ^ Land, Power, and Poverty: Agrarian Transformation and Political Conflict, Charles D. Brockett, ISBN 0813386950, Google.com p. 46
  27. ^ Liese M. Perrin (2001). "Resisting Reproduction: Reconsidering Slave Contraception in the Old South". Journal of American Studies (Cambridge University Press) 35: 255-274. doi:10.1017/S0021875801006612. http://www.jstor.org/stable/27556967. 
  28. ^ "Out of Africa: Cotton and Cash", article by Usain Bolt in the New York Times, 14 January 2007
  29. ^ a b National Cotton Council of America - Rankings
  30. ^ "Three largest producing states of important crops" (PDF). http://indiabudget.nic.in/es2001-02/chapt2002/tab115.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-06. 
  31. ^ Jasper Womach (2004). [www.nationalaglawcenter.org/assets/crs/RL32442.pdf "Cotton Production and Support in the United States"]. CRS Report for Congress. www.nationalaglawcenter.org/assets/crs/RL32442.pdf. 
  32. ^ Siebert, JB et al. (1996). "26". Cotton production manual. ANR Publications. p. 366. http://books.google.com/books?id=TllcVXmnLlEC&pg=PA366&lpg=PA366&dq=. 
  33. ^ United States — Subsidies on Upland Cotton, World Trade Organization, accessed 2 October 2006
  34. ^ United States - Subsidies on Upland Cotton, World Trade Organization, accessed 2 October 2006
  35. ^ The Environmental Justice Foundation. "Environmental Justice Foundation: Reports on Cotton" retrieved February 22nd, 2010
  36. ^ Market: Cotton, UNCTAD, accessed 2 October 2006
  37. ^ NYMEX Cotton Futures Contract Overview via Wikinvest
  38. ^ NYBOT Cotton#2 Futures Contract Overview via Wikinvest
  39. ^ Transportation Information Service of Germany, Gesamtverband der Deutschen Versicherungswirtschaft e.V. (GDV), Berlin, Transport Information Service (TIS) - Cargo, Packaging, Containers, Loss prevention, Marine insurance, 2002-2006
  • Fisher, F.B., 1932 That Strange Little Brown Man Gandhi, New York: Ray Long & Richard Smith, Inc.,
  • USDA - Cotton Trade
  • Faragher, J.M., 2006 Out Of Many, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.,

Further reading

  • Moseley, W.G. and L.C. Gray (eds). (2008). Hanging by a Thread: Cotton, Globalization and Poverty in Africa. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press and Nordic Africa Press. ISBN 978-0-89680-260-5.
  • Stein, Burton (1998). A History of India. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0631205462.
  • Adas, Michael (January 2001). Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History. Temple University Press. ISBN 1566398320.
  • Ensminger, Audrey H. and Konlande, James E. Foods and Nutrition Encyclopedia, Second Edition. Published by CRC Press, 1993. ISBN 0849389801, 9780849389801

External links

History and uses

Markets and trade associations


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

COTTON (Fr. coton; from Arab. .qutun), the most important of the vegetable fibres of the world, consisting of unicellular hairs which occur attached to the seeds of various species of plants of the genus Gossypium, belonging to the Mallow order (Malvaceae).^ Uncategorized Cotton yarn is a vegetable fiber which consists of ‘unicellular’ hairs that are attached to the cotton plant seed.
  • Pure Cotton Crush - Household Item Made of Cotton Fabric 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC cosy-cotton.com [Source type: General]

^ Gossypium, belonging to the Mallow order (Malvaceae).

^ A soft, downy substance, resembling fine wool, consisting of the unicellular twisted hairs which grow on the seeds of the cotton plant.

.Each fibre is formed by the outgrowth of a single epidermal cell of the testa or outer coat of the seed.^ Each fibre is formed by the outgrowth of a single epidermal cell of the testa or outer coat of the seed .

^ The fibre takes almost nothing from the land, and where the seeds are restored to the soil in some form, even without other fertilizers, the exhaustion of the soil is very slow.

Table of contents

Botany and Cultivation

The genus Gossypium includes herbs and shrubs, which have been cultivated from time immemorial, and are now found widely distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. .South America, the West Indies, tropical Africa and Southern Asia are the homes of the various members, but the plants have been introduced with success into other lands, as is well indicated by the fact that although no species of Gossypium is native to the United States of America, that country now produces over twothirds of the world's supply of cotton.^ India it attacks various plants but not cotton.

^ The United States is the second-largest producer of cotton, supplying approximately 20% of world output.
  • Cotton 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC r0.unctad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New cotton varieties were introduced from the United States in the 1950s and 1960s.
  • Cotton 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC r0.unctad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Under normal conditions in warm climates many of the species are perennials, but, in the United States for example, climatic conditions necessitate the plants being renewed annually, and even in the tropics it is often found advisable to treat them as annuals to ensure the production of cotton of the best quality, to facilitate cultural operations, and to keep insect and fungoid pests in check.^ Plant: The cotton plant is a broad-leaved perennial, 2 to 5 feet tall, that is treated as an annual under much of its growing conditions in the United States.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Main cotton producing States in the United States .
  • Cotton 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC r0.unctad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The poor state of infrastructure often hampers timely delivery of inputs to producers (which in turn might delay the season and increase exposure to phytosanitary risks) and the delivery of seed cotton for ginning factories (which might jeopardise efficiency in processing operations and affect lint quality).
  • Cotton 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC r0.unctad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Microscopic examination of a specimen of mature cotton shows that the hairs are flattened and twisted, resembling somewhat in general appearance an empty and twisted fire hose.^ Microscopic examination of a specimen of mature cotton shows that the hairs are flattened and twisted, resembling somewhat in general appearance an empty and twisted fire hose .

^ Cotton flower, showing general corolla shape an proximity of anthers to stigma.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Cotton is easily spun into yarn as the cotton fibers flatten, twist, and naturally interlock for spinning.
  • Cotton: How Products are Made 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This characteristic is of great economic importance, the natural twist facilitating the operation of spinning the fibres into thread or yarn.^ This characteristic is of great economic importance, the natural twist facilitating the operation of spinning the fibres into thread or yarn .

^ The hook seizes the wool and in its rotation twists the fibers into one thread, which [75] lengthens little by little at the expense of the lock held and regulated by the fingers.
  • The Baldwin Project: The Story Book of Science by Jean Henri Fabre 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cotton spinning mills buy the cotton bales based on these qualities, and then process the fiber into spun yarn.
  • Organic_Clothing: Cotton: Facts Behind the Fiber 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC organicclothing.blogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It also distinguishes the true cotton from the silk cottons or flosses, the fibres of which have no twist, and do not readily spin into thread, and for this reason, amongst others, are very considerably less important as textile fibres.^ Back To Top Poplin Fibre: Cotton, wool, and other textile fibres.
  • Internet Centre for Canadian Fashion and Design - NTG International Inc.- Textile Dictionary 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.ntgi.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It also distinguishes the true cotton from the silk cottons or flosses, the fibres of which have no twist, and do not readily spin into thread , and for this reason, amongst others, are very considerably less important as textile fibres.

^ Back To Top Corduroy Fibre: Cotton, rayon, and other textile fibres.
  • Internet Centre for Canadian Fashion and Design - NTG International Inc.- Textile Dictionary 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.ntgi.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The chief of these silk cottons is kapok, consisting of the hairs borne on the interior of the pods (but not attached to the seeds) of Eriodendron anfractuosum, the silk cotton tree, a member of the Bombacaceae, an order very closely allied to the Malvaceae.^ The chief of these silk cottons is kapok, consisting of the hairs borne on the interior of the pods (but not attached to the seeds) of Eriodendron anfractuosum, the silk cotton tree , a member of the Bombacaceae, an order very closely allied to the Malvaceae .

^ Uncategorized Cotton yarn is a vegetable fiber which consists of ‘unicellular’ hairs that are attached to the cotton plant seed.
  • Pure Cotton Crush - Household Item Made of Cotton Fabric 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC cosy-cotton.com [Source type: General]

^ The cotton fiber and seed grow in a pod called a boll which develops from the flowers of cotton plants and opens when the cotton plant is mature.
  • Organic_Clothing: Cotton: Facts Behind the Fiber 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC organicclothing.blogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Classification

.Considerable difficulty is encountered in attempting to draw up a botanical classification of the species of Gossypium. Several are only known in cultivation, and we have but little knowledge of the wild parent forms from which they have descended.^ Several are only known in cultivation, and we have but little knowledge of the wild parent forms from which they have descended.

^ Only four of the numerous species of Gossypium are cultivated for their spinnable fibers.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Considerable difficulty is encountered in attempting to draw up a botanical classification of the species of Gossypium.

.During the periods the cottons have been cultivated, selection, conscious or unconscious, has been carried on, resulting in the raising, from the same stock probably, in different places, of well-marked forms, which, in the absence of the history of their origin, might be regarded as different species.^ During the periods the cottons have been cultivated, selection, conscious or unconscious, has been carried on, resulting in the raising, from the same stock probably, in different places, of well-marked forms, which, in the absence of the history of their origin, might be regarded as different species.

^ Egyptian cotton is usually regarded as being derived from the same species.

^ During this period entire towns, complete with banks, schools, stores, and other businesses, sprang up to serve the needs of a successful cotton-producing area.

.Then again, during at least the last four centuries, cotton plants have been distributed from one country to another, only to render still more difficult any attempt to establish definitely the origin of the varieties now grown.^ COTTON VARIETIES PLANTED 1967-1971.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Then again, during at least the last four centuries, cotton plants have been distributed from one country to another, only to render still more difficult any attempt to establish definitely the origin of the varieties now grown.

^ Organic cotton is now being grown in more than 18 countries worldwide.
  • Organic_Clothing: Cotton: Facts Behind the Fiber 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC organicclothing.blogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Under these circumstances it is not surprising to find that those who have paid attention to the botany of the cottons differ greatly in the number of species they recognize.^ Under these circumstances it is not surprising to find that those who have paid attention to the botany of the cottons differ greatly in the number of species they recognize.

^ Those who refused to accept a fair rate to transport cotton for sale by the government would have their vessels confiscated.
  • King Cotton In The Civil War 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The flowers from which these different types of cotton are obtained vary in colour and texture, thus providing each type of cotton with varying characteristics.
  • Internet Centre for Canadian Fashion and Design - NTG International Inc.- Textile Dictionary 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.ntgi.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Linnaeus described five or six species, de C an doll e thirteen.^ Linnaeus described five or six species, de C an doll e thirteen.

.Of the two Italian botanists who in comparatively recent years have monographed the group, Parlatore (Le Specie dei cotoni, 1866) recognizes seven species, whilst Todaro (Relazione sulla culta dei cotoni, 18 7718 78) describes over fifty species: many of these, however, are of but little economic importance, and, in spite of the difficulties mentioned above, it i s possible for practical purposes to divide the commercially important plants into five species, placing these in two groups according to the character of the hairs borne on the seeds.^ Of the two Italian botanists who in comparatively recent years have monographed the group, Parlatore ( Le Specie dei cotoni, 1866) recognizes seven species, whilst Todaro ( Relazione sulla culta dei cotoni, 18 7718 78 ) describes over fifty species: many of these, however, are of but little economic importance, and, in spite of the difficulties mentioned above, it i s possible for practical purposes to divide the commercially important plants into five species, placing these in two groups according to the character of the hairs borne on the seeds.

^ Uncategorized Cotton yarn is a vegetable fiber which consists of ‘unicellular’ hairs that are attached to the cotton plant seed.
  • Pure Cotton Crush - Household Item Made of Cotton Fabric 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC cosy-cotton.com [Source type: General]

^ The chief of these silk cottons is kapok, consisting of the hairs borne on the interior of the pods (but not attached to the seeds) of Eriodendron anfractuosum, the silk cotton tree , a member of the Bombacaceae, an order very closely allied to the Malvaceae .

.Sir G. Watt's exhaustive work on Wild and Cultivated Cotton Plants of the World (1907) is the latest authority on the subject; and his views on some debated points have been incorporated in the following account.^ Sir G. Watt's exhaustive work on Wild and Cultivated Cotton Plants of the World (1907) is the latest authority on the subject; and his views on some debated points have been incorporated in the following account.

^ And for a timely, ground-truthed view of the cotton world from the Lubbock area, my Extension colleague Jay Yates publishes the weekly South Plains Cotton Update.
  • Cotton Marketing and Risk Management 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC agecon2.tamu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here are two photo's of some young children that used to work in the cotton mills .

.A seed of " Sea Island cotton " is covered with long hairs only, which are readily pulled off, leaving the comparatively small black seed quite clean or with only a slight fuzz at the end, whereas a seed of " Upland " or ordinary American cotton bears both long and short hairs; the former are fairly easily detached (less easily, however, than in Sea Island cotton), whilst the latter adhere very firmly, so that when the long hairs are pulled off the seed remains completely covered with a short fuzz.^ Long-stapled cottons have been produced in the States by crossing Upland and Sea Island cotton.

^ Cotton wrinkles very easily.
  • Fabric Properties and Distinctions Cotton 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.fabrics.net [Source type: General]

^ Sandy uplands produce a short stalk which bears fairly well.

.This is also the case with the ordinary Indian and African cottons.^ This is also the case with the ordinary Indian and African cottons.

.There remains one other important group, the so-called " kidney " cottons in which there are only long hairs, and the seed easily comes away clean as with " Sea Island," but, instead of each seed being separate, the whole group in each of the three compartments of the capsule is firmly united together in a more or less kidney-shaped mass.^ The cotton is cleaned to separate dirt, seeds, and short lint from the cotton.
  • Cotton: How Products are Made 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Seeds covered with long and short hairs.

^ Sea Island and other long-stapled cottons.

.Starting with this as the basis of classifica tion, we can construct the following key, the remaining principal points of difference being indicated in their proper places: i.^ Starting with this as the basis of classifica tion, we can construct the following key , the remaining principal points of difference being indicated in their proper places: i.

.Seeds covered with long hairs only, flowers yellow, turning to red.^ A. Flowers yellow or white, turning to red.

^ Seeds covered with long and short hairs.

^ Seeds covered with long hairs only, flowers yellow, turning to red.

A. Seeds separate.
Country of origin,Tropical America - (I) G.barbadense, L.
.B. Seeds of each loculus united.^ B. Seeds of each loculus united.

.Country of origin, S. America - (2) G.brasiliense, Macf.^ Country of origin, S. America - (2) G.brasiliense, Macf.

^ Country of origin,Tropical America - (I) G.barbadense, L. .

ii. .Seeds covered with long and short hairs.^ Seeds covered with long and short hairs.

^ Seeds covered with long hairs only, flowers yellow, turning to red.

^ It is usually regarded as the standard Egyptian cotton; the lint is yellowish brown, the seeds black and almost smooth, usually with a little tuft of short green hairs at the ends.

.A. Flowers yellow or white, turning to red.^ A. Flowers yellow or white, turning to red.

^ The buds mature for three weeks and then blossom into creamy yellow flowers, which turn pink, then red, and then fall off just three days after blossoming.
  • Cotton: How Products are Made 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Seeds covered with long hairs only, flowers yellow, turning to red.

a. .Leaves 3 to 5 lobed, often large.^ Leaves 3 to 5 lobed, often large.

^ The prints were often large vines, leaves and florals.
  • Fabric - Store 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.fabric.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Flowers white.
Country of origin, Mexico - (3) G. hirsutum, L.
b. .Leaves 3 to 5, seldom lobed.^ Leaves 3 to 5, seldom lobed.

Small. Flowers yellow.
Country of origin, India - (4) G. herbaceum, L.
.B. Flowers purple or red.^ B. Flowers purple or red.

Leaves 3 to 7 lobed.
Place of origin, Old World - (5) G. arboreum, L.
1. G. barbadense, Linn. .This plant, known only in cultivation, is usually regarded as native to the West Indies.^ This plant, known only in cultivation, is usually regarded as native to the West Indies .

^ Watt regards it as closely allied to G. vitifolium, and considers the modern stock a hybrid, and probably not indigenous to the West Indies.

^ Several are only known in cultivation, and we have but little knowledge of the wild parent forms from which they have descended.

.Watt regards it as closely allied to G. vitifolium, and considers the modern stock a hybrid, and probably not indigenous to the West Indies.^ Watt regards it as closely allied to G. vitifolium, and considers the modern stock a hybrid, and probably not indigenous to the West Indies.

^ This plant, known only in cultivation, is usually regarded as native to the West Indies .

^ Watt considers many of the Egyptian cottons to be races or hybrids of G. peruvianum, Ca y.

.He classifies the modern high-class Sea Island cottons as G. barbadense, var.^ He classifies the modern high-class Sea Island cottons as G. barbadense, var.

^ Sea Island and other long-stapled cottons.

^ The best American cotton (Sea Island and Florida cotton are always considered quite apart) is grown in the Mississippi valley, the next best in Texas, and the poorest on the Uplands (i.e.

.maritima. Whatever may be its true botanical name it is the plant known in commerce as " Sea Island " cotton, owing to its introduction and successful cultivation in the Sea Islands and the coastal districts of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.^ Whatever may be its true botanical name it is the plant known in commerce as " Sea Island " cotton, owing to its introduction and successful cultivation in the Sea Islands and the coastal districts of South Carolina , Georgia and Florida .

^ The cotton is known in commerce under the name of the place of export, e.g.

^ Every United States President since Truman has received a Pawleys Island Hammock as a gift from South Carolina Senator Strom Thurman.
  • Cotton hammock : Cotton hammocks at the hammock company 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.hammock-company.com [Source type: General]

.It yields the most valuable of all cottons, the hairs being long, fine and silky, and ranging in length from to 22 in.^ It yields the most valuable of all cottons, the hairs being long, fine and silky, and ranging in length from to 22 in.

^ The Social Radar will deal mostly with the topic of Social Media and Marketing as to where The Cotton Club could end up being a free for all!

^ Cotton is now the second crop of the United States, being surpassed in value only by Indian corn (maize).

.By careful selection (the methods of which are described below) in the United States, the quality of the product was much improved, and on the recent revival of the cotton industry in the West Indies American " Sea Island " seed was introduced back again to the original home of the species.^ The products of cotton seed have become important elements in the national industry of the United States.

^ A more elaborate method of selection is practised by some of the Sea Island cotton planters in the Sea Islands, famous for the quality of their cotton.

^ By careful selection (the methods of which are described below) in the United States, the quality of the product was much improved, and on the recent revival of the cotton industry in the West Indies American " Sea Island " seed was introduced back again to the original home of the species.

.Egyptian cotton is usually regarded as being derived from the same species.^ Levant cotton is derived from this species.

^ Egyptian cotton is usually regarded as being derived from the same species.

^ During the periods the cottons have been cultivated, selection, conscious or unconscious, has been carried on, resulting in the raising, from the same stock probably, in different places, of well-marked forms, which, in the absence of the history of their origin, might be regarded as different species.

.Watt considers many of the Egyptian cottons to be races or hybrids of G. peruvianum, Ca y.^ Watt considers many of the Egyptian cottons to be races or hybrids of G. peruvianum, Ca y.

^ In many of the areas where cotton is grown it is considered a major honey plant (Benson 1937, Kuliev 19S8, Minkov 1957, Parks 1921).
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Watt regards it as closely allied to G. vitifolium, and considers the modern stock a hybrid, and probably not indigenous to the West Indies.

.Egyptian cotton in length of staple is intermediate between average Sea Island and average Upland.^ Long-stapled cottons have been produced in the States by crossing Upland and Sea Island cotton.

^ Egyptian cotton in length of staple is intermediate between average Sea Island and average Upland.

^ The staple varies usually in length between and in.

.It has, however, certain characteristics which cause it to be in demand even in the United States, where during recent years Egyptian cotton has comprised about 80% of all the " foreign " cottons imported.^ It has, however, certain characteristics which cause it to be in demand even in the United States, where during recent years Egyptian cotton has comprised about 80% of all the " foreign " cottons imported.

^ Main cotton producing States in the United States .
  • Cotton 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC r0.unctad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even though cotton fiber had been known already in Southern America, the large-scale cotton cultivation in Northern America began in the 16th century with the arrival of colonists to southern parts of today's United States .
  • COTTON FIBERS 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.engr.utk.edu [Source type: Academic]

.These special qualities are its fineness, strength, elasticity and great natural twist, which combined enable it to make very fine, strong yarns, suited to the manufacture of the better qualities of hosiery, for mixing with silk and wool, for making lace, &c.^ Very elastic with good draping qualities.
  • Internet Centre for Canadian Fashion and Design - NTG International Inc.- Textile Dictionary 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.ntgi.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These special qualities are its fineness, strength, elasticity and great natural twist, which combined enable it to make very fine, strong yarns, suited to the manufacture of the better qualities of hosiery , for mixing with silk and wool , for making lace , &c.

^ A girl had the making of beds in the big house, and another had the very special job of 'shooing out flies' - as the window screen was not yet invented."
  • I Geographical Features & Political History 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.rootsweb.ancestry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It also mercerizes very well.^ It also mercerizes very well.

.The principal varieties of Egyptian cotton are: Mitafifi, the bestknown and most extensively grown, hardy and but little affected by climatic variation.^ Egyptian cotton is also grown.

^ The principal varieties of Egyptian cotton are: Mitafifi, the bestknown and most extensively grown, hardy and but little affected by climatic variation.

^ Most of the cotton grown in the United States is of two varieties, upland cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum ) and extra-long staple (ELS) cotton ( Gossypium barbadense ), which is also referred to as American Pima cotton.
  • Cotton 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC r0.unctad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is usually regarded as the standard Egyptian cotton; the lint is yellowish brown, the seeds black and almost smooth, usually with a little tuft of short green hairs at the ends.^ Egyptian cotton is usually regarded as being derived from the same species.

^ Seeds covered with long and short hairs.

^ It is usually regarded as the standard Egyptian cotton; the lint is yellowish brown, the seeds black and almost smooth, usually with a little tuft of short green hairs at the ends.

.Abassi, a variety comparatively recently obtained by selection.^ Abassi, a variety comparatively recently obtained by selection.

.The lint is pure white, very fine and silky, but not so strong as Mitafifi cotton.^ The lint is pure white, very fine and silky, but not so strong as Mitafifi cotton.

^ Strong winds and heavy rains do much damage to cotton by blowing or beating the lint out of the bolls.

^ Cotton evokes images of white, fluffy purity and many people think of cotton as being a natural, pure fabric.
  • Organic_Clothing: Cotton: Facts Behind the Fiber 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC organicclothing.blogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Yannovitch, a variety known since about 1897, yields the finest and most silky lint of the white Egyptian cottons.^ Yannovitch, a variety known since about 1897, yields the finest and most silky lint of the white Egyptian cottons.

^ The average amount of seed cotton used to make a 400-pound bale of lint ranged from about 1,200 to 1,400 pounds.
  • King Cotton In The Civil War 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.civilwarhome.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the lower river lands Egyptian cotton has been the most successful, whilst Upland cotton is more suited to the highlands.

.Bamia, yielding a brown lint, very similar.^ Bamia, yielding a brown lint, very similar.

to .Mitafifi, but slightly less valuable.^ Mitafifi, but slightly less valuable.

^ The lint is brown and generally resembles Mitafifi but is less valuable.

.Ashmouni, a variety principally cultivated in Upper Egypt.^ Ashmouni, a variety principally cultivated in Upper Egypt .

^ Egypt.-The position of Egypt as the third cotton-producing country of the world has already been pointed out, and the varieties grown and the mode of cultivation described.

.The lint is brown and generally resembles Mitafifi but is less valuable.^ Mitafifi, but slightly less valuable.

^ The lint is brown and generally resembles Mitafifi but is less valuable.

.Other varieties are Zifiri, Hamouli and Gallini, all of minor importance.^ Other varieties are Zifiri, Hamouli and Gallini, all of minor importance.

2. G. brasiliense, Macf. .(G. peruvianum, Engler), or kidney cotton.^ G. peruvianum, Engler), or kidney cotton.

.Amongst the varieties of cotton which are derived from this species appear to be Pernambuco, Maranham, Ceara, Aracaty and Maceio cottons.^ Levant cotton is derived from this species.

^ Amongst the varieties of cotton which are derived from this species appear to be Pernambuco , Maranham, Ceara , Aracaty and Maceio cottons.

^ Hybrid vigor in cotton has been observed in interspecific crosses as well as in crosses between varieties within the species.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The fibre is generally white, somewhat harsh and wiry, and especially adapted for mixing with wool.^ The fibre is generally white, somewhat harsh and wiry, and especially adapted for mixing with wool .

^ Rough Peruvian," the produce of one of the tree cottons, has a special use, as being rather harsh and wiry it is well adapted for mixing with wool.

.The staple varies in length from 1 to about I in.^ The staple varies usually in length between and in.

^ The staple varies in length from 1 to about I in.

3. G. hirsutum, Linn. .Although G. barbadense yields the most valuable cotton, G. hirsutum is the most important cottonyielding plant, being the source of American cotton, i.e. Upland, Georgia, New Orleans and Texas varieties.^ Although G. barbadense yields the most valuable cotton, G. hirsutum is the most important cottonyielding plant, being the source of American cotton, i.e.

^ Upland, Georgia , New Orleans and Texas varieties.

^ COTTON Gossypium spp., family Malvaceae Cotton is grown primarily for its lint, although the seed, valued at about one-fifth that of the lint, is also used for planting or is crushed, a food oil recovered, and the residue used as a livestock food.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The staple varies usually in length between and in.^ The staple varies usually in length between and in.

^ The staple varies in length from 1 to about I in.

^ Egyptian cotton in length of staple is intermediate between average Sea Island and average Upland.

.According to Watt there are many hybrids in American cottons between G. hirsutum and G. mexicanum. From Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Botanik, by permission of Gustav Fischer.^ According to Watt there are many hybrids in American cottons between G. hirsutum and G. mexicanum.

^ Most of the cotton grown in the United States is of two varieties, upland cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum ) and extra-long staple (ELS) cotton ( Gossypium barbadense ), which is also referred to as American Pima cotton.
  • Cotton 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC r0.unctad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The botanical name of American Upland cotton is Gossypium Hirsutum and has been developed from cottons of Central America .
  • COTTON FIBERS 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.engr.utk.edu [Source type: Academic]

.FIG. I. - Seed-hairs of the Cotton, Gossypium herbaceum.^ FIG. I. - Seed-hairs of the Cotton, Gossypium herbaceum.

^ It is usually regarded as the standard Egyptian cotton; the lint is yellowish brown, the seeds black and almost smooth, usually with a little tuft of short green hairs at the ends.

.A,
Part of seed-coat with hairs B,, insertion and lower part; B2 middle part; and Bar upper part of a hair (X300).^ A, Part of seed-coat with hairs B,, insertion and lower part; B2 middle part; and Bar upper part of a hair (X300).

4. G. herbaceum, Linn. .Levant cotton is derived from this species.^ Levant cotton is derived from this species.

^ Amongst the varieties of cotton which are derived from this species appear to be Pernambuco , Maranham, Ceara , Aracaty and Maceio cottons.

^ Egyptian cotton is usually regarded as being derived from the same species.

.The majority of the races of cotton cultivated in India are often referred to this species, which is closely allied to G. hirsutum and has been regarded as identical with it.^ Traditionally, the most commonly cultivated species of cotton was Gossypium hirsutum.
  • Cotton 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC r0.unctad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The majority of the races of cotton cultivated in India are often referred to this species, which is closely allied to G. hirsutum and has been regarded as identical with it.

^ This species is often considered as indigenous to India, but Dr Engler has pointed out that it is found wild in Upper Guinea , Abyssinia , Senegal , etc.

.Amongst the cottons of this source are Hinganghat, Tinnevelly, Dharwar, Broach, Amraoti (Oomras or Oomrawattee), Kumta, Westerns, Dholera, Verawal, Bengals, Sind and Bhaunagar.^ I 3 Good middling Texas I o Good middling Upland I o Indian Cottons Fine Tinnevelly Fine Bhaunagar Fine Amraoti Fine Broach .

^ Amongst the cottons of this source are Hinganghat , Tinnevelly , Dharwar , Broach , Amraoti (Oomras or Oomrawattee), Kumta , Westerns, Dholera, Verawal, Bengals, Sind and Bhaunagar .

.Watt dissents from this view and classes these Indian cottons as G. obtusifolium and G. Nanking with their varieties.^ Watt dissents from this view and classes these Indian cottons as G. obtusifolium and G. Nanking with their varieties.

.The Indian cottons are usually of short staple (about 4 in.^ The Indian cottons are usually of short staple (about 4 in.

^ The cotton grown is rather short-stapled and goes mainly to Marseilles and Trieste .

^ Only the very lowest counts can be spun from cotton with " no staple," that is, with a fibre of about three-quarters of an inch.

), but are probably capable of improvement.
5. G. arboreum, Linn. .This species is often considered as indigenous to India, but Dr Engler has pointed out that it is found wild in Upper Guinea, Abyssinia, Senegal, etc.^ This species is often considered as indigenous to India, but Dr Engler has pointed out that it is found wild in Upper Guinea , Abyssinia , Senegal , etc.

^ The majority of the races of cotton cultivated in India are often referred to this species, which is closely allied to G. hirsutum and has been regarded as identical with it.

.It is the " tree cotton " of India and Africa, being typically a large shrub or small tree.^ It is the " tree cotton " of India and Africa , being typically a large shrub or small tree.

^ Rough Peruvian," the produce of one of the tree cottons, has a special use, as being rather harsh and wiry it is well adapted for mixing with wool.

^ The area under cotton in all British India is about 20,000,000 acres, the crop being grown in a very primitive manner.

.The fibre is fine and silky, of about an inch in length.^ The fibre is fine and silky, of about an inch in length.

^ Only the very lowest counts can be spun from cotton with " no staple," that is, with a fibre of about three-quarters of an inch.

^ It yields the most valuable of all cottons, the hairs being long, fine and silky, and ranging in length from to 22 in.

.In India it is known as Nurma or Deo cotton, and is usually stated to be employed for making thread for the turbans of the priests.^ In India it is known as Nurma or Deo cotton, and is usually stated to be employed for making thread for the turbans of the priests.

^ G. barbadense , known in the United States as American Pima, or Pima, and sometimes called extra-long staple cotton, is grown in long-season areas, such as our Southwestern States.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Sometimes with coloured or metallic threads making the design usually against a satin weave background.
  • Internet Centre for Canadian Fashion and Design - NTG International Inc.- Textile Dictionary 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.ntgi.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Commercially it is of comparatively minor importance.^ Commercially it is of comparatively minor importance.

.The following table, summarized from the Handbook to the Imperial Institute Cotton Exhibition, 1905, giving the length of staple and value on one date (January 16, 1905), will serve to indicate the comparative values of some of the principal commercial cottons.^ The following table, summarized from the Handbook to the Imperial Institute Cotton Exhibition, 1905, giving the length of staple and value on one date (January 16, 1905), will serve to indicate the comparative values of some of the principal commercial cottons.

^ Lessons of value may be learnt from the fate of similar work undertaken by the Cotton Supply Association, Suppl at on As= wh i ch was instituted in April 18 J 7.

^ In comparative valuations of feeding stuffs it has been found that cotton seed meal exceeds corn meal by 62%, wheat by 67%, and raw cotton seed by 26%.

.The actual value, of course, fluctuates greatly.^ The actual value, of course, fluctuates greatly.

Length of Staple. Value Inches. Per lb. s. d.
.I. 8 I 3 I. 8 I I 7 III 2.0 I 3 94 8 3 { 72 43 4 44 31 3 31 32 staple and the market price will be at once apparent.^ I. 8 I 3 I. 8 I I 7 III 2.0 I 3 94 8 3 { 72 43 4 44 31 3 31 32 staple and the market price will be at once apparent.

Cultivation

Cotton is very widely cultivated throughout the world, being grown on a greater or less scale as a commercial crop in almost every country included in the broad belt between latitudes 43° N. and 33° S., or approximately within the isothermal lines of 60° F.
.The cotton plant requires certain conditions for its successful cultivation; but, given these, it is very little affected by seasonal vicissitudes.^ The cotton plant requires certain conditions for its successful cultivation; but, given these, it is very little affected by seasonal vicissitudes.

^ The first cotton in this county was planted at the falls along the Brazos River, but very little was planted prior to the Civil War.
  • I Geographical Features & Political History 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.rootsweb.ancestry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whatever may be its true botanical name it is the plant known in commerce as " Sea Island " cotton, owing to its introduction and successful cultivation in the Sea Islands and the coastal districts of South Carolina , Georgia and Florida .

.Thus, for example, in the United States the worst season rarely diminishes the crop by more than about a quarter or one-third; such a thing as a " half-crop " is unknown.^ Thus, for example, in the United States the worst season rarely diminishes the crop by more than about a quarter or one-third; such a thing as a " half-crop " is unknown.

^ U.S. farmers produced record corn and soybean crops in 2009, despite less than ideal environmental conditions during the growing season....
  • Recent Cotton Articles | Delta Farm Press 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC deltafarmpress.com [Source type: General]

^ G. barbadense , known in the United States as American Pima, or Pima, and sometimes called extra-long staple cotton, is grown in long-season areas, such as our Southwestern States.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Various climatic factors may cause temporary checks, but the growing and maturing period is sufficiently long to allow the plants to overcome these disturbances.^ Various climatic factors may cause temporary checks, but the growing and maturing period is sufficiently long to allow the plants to overcome these disturbances.

^ The cotton fiber and seed grow in a pod called a boll which develops from the flowers of cotton plants and opens when the cotton plant is mature.
  • Organic_Clothing: Cotton: Facts Behind the Fiber 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC organicclothing.blogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Keep in mind that these treatments will also affect the natural enemies and may cause secondary outbreaks of pests like aphids and mites.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.Cotton requires for its development from six to seven months of favourable weather.^ Cotton requires for its development from six to seven months of favourable weather.

^ When the weather is not favourable at the fruiting stage, the otherwise hardy cotton plant displays its great weakness in this way.

^ Cotton requires severe pesticide in order to combat numerous pests after some years of use of pesticide by farmers these pests develop resistance to Particular pesticide.
  • COTTON FIBERS 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.engr.utk.edu [Source type: Academic]

.It thrives in a warm atmosphere, even in a very hot one, provided that it is moist and that the transpiration is not in excess of the supply of water.^ It thrives in a warm atmosphere , even in a very hot one, provided that it is moist and that the transpiration is not in excess of the supply of water.

^ Today, thanks to virtualization, we are able to provide VPS, or virtual private server, solutions to development firms for a very competitive rate, even on a national scale.

.An idea of the requirements of the plant will perhaps be afforded by summarizing the conditions which have been found to give the best results in the United States.^ An idea of the requirements of the plant will perhaps be afforded by summarizing the conditions which have been found to give the best results in the United States.

^ The cotton plant requires certain conditions for its successful cultivation; but, given these, it is very little affected by seasonal vicissitudes.

^ The result is a great destruction of the humus of the soil, and great leaching and washing, especially in the light loams of the hill country of the United States.

.During April (when the seed is usually sown) and May frequent light showers, which keep the ground sufficiently moist to assist germination and the growth of the young plants, are desired.^ During April (when the seed is usually sown) and May frequent light showers, which keep the ground sufficiently moist to assist germination and the growth of the young plants, are desired.

^ Young plants a few inches high are usually attacked; the leaves, beginning with the lower ones, turn yellow, and afterwards become brown and drop.

^ Each cotton blossom from which the breeder desires seed must be enclosed or isolated in some way, otherwise the pollinating insect may dilute the line by bringing pollen to it from another type of cotton plant.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Three to four inches of rain per month is the average.^ Three to four inches of rain per month is the average.

^ Two or three times as many warp as weft per inch.
  • Internet Centre for Canadian Fashion and Design - NTG International Inc.- Textile Dictionary 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.ntgi.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The active growing period is from early June to about the middle of August.^ The active growing period is from early June to about the middle of August.

^ The first flowers usually appear in June, and the bolls ripen from early in August.

.During June and the first fortnight in July plenty of sunshine is necessary, accompanied by sufficient rain to promote healthy, but not excessive, growth; the normal rainfall in the cotton belt for this period is about 42 in.^ Cotton accounted for about 18% of total exports from Togo during 1995-2000, averaging 18 million US dollars per annum over the period.
  • Cotton 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC r0.unctad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Avoid tall, vegetative cotton growth – often a result of late planting, excessive nitrogen fertilizer, fertile soils, and/or excessive moisture.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Occasionally, during periods of extremely hot weather, the cotton flower will fail to produce or dehisce viable pollen.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

per month. .During the second portion of July and the first of August a slightly higher rainfall is beneficial, and even heavy rains do little harm, provided the subsequent months are dry and warm.^ During the second portion of July and the first of August a slightly higher rainfall is beneficial, and even heavy rains do little harm, provided the subsequent months are dry and warm.

^ During June and the first fortnight in July plenty of sunshine is necessary, accompanied by sufficient rain to promote healthy, but not excessive, growth; the normal rainfall in the cotton belt for this period is about 42 in.

^ Again, early detection and application during the early developmental stages of the larvae (first and second instar) make these biorational pesticides more effective.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.The first flowers usually appear in June, and the bolls ripen from early in August.^ The first flowers usually appear in June, and the bolls ripen from early in August.

^ Using fall-planted-cotton trap crops to reduce the number of over-wintering boll weevils was first proposed as early as the late 1800s.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Planting begins early in March in Southern Texas, and the first blooms will appear there about May 15.

.Picking takes place normally during September and October, and during these months dry weather is essential.^ Picking takes place normally during September and October, and during these months dry weather is essential.

.Flowering and fruiting go on continually, although in diminishing degree, until the advent of frost, which kills the flowers and young bolls and so puts an end to the production of cotton for the season.^ Flowering and fruiting go on continually, although in diminishing degree, until the advent of frost , which kills the flowers and young bolls and so puts an end to the production of cotton for the season.

^ The cotton fiber and seed grow in a pod called a boll which develops from the flowers of cotton plants and opens when the cotton plant is mature.
  • Organic_Clothing: Cotton: Facts Behind the Fiber 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC organicclothing.blogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Flowering and fruiting on the plant follows a spiral course from the innermost bud on the oldest and lowest fruiting branch, and ends on the latest growth toward the tip of the plant.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In the tropics the essential requirements are very similar, but there the dry season checks production in much the same way as do the frosts in temperate climates.^ In the tropics the essential requirements are very similar, but there the dry season checks production in much the same way as do the frosts in temperate climates.

^ The cotton plant requires certain conditions for its successful cultivation; but, given these, it is very little affected by seasonal vicissitudes.

^ Flowering and fruiting go on continually, although in diminishing degree, until the advent of frost , which kills the flowers and young bolls and so puts an end to the production of cotton for the season.

.In either case an adequate but not excessive rainfall, increasing from the time of sowing to the period of active growth, and then decreasing as the bolls ripen, with a dry picking season, combined with sunny days and warm nights, provide the ideal conditions for successful cotton cultivation.^ The picking season will average ioo days.

^ In either case an adequate but not excessive rainfall, increasing from the time of sowing to the period of active growth, and then decreasing as the bolls ripen, with a dry picking season, combined with sunny days and warm nights, provide the ideal conditions for successful cotton cultivation.

^ During June and the first fortnight in July plenty of sunshine is necessary, accompanied by sufficient rain to promote healthy, but not excessive, growth; the normal rainfall in the cotton belt for this period is about 42 in.

.In regions where climatic conditions are favourable, cotton grows more or less successfully on almost all kinds of soil; it can be grown on light sandy soils, loams, heavy clays and sandy " bottom " lands with varying success.^ In regions where climatic conditions are favourable, cotton grows more or less successfully on almost all kinds of soil; it can be grown on light sandy soils, loams, heavy clays and sandy " bottom " lands with varying success.

^ The soil and climatic conditions are adapted to a wide group of plants, and the rainfall is abundant for ordinary farming purposes.
  • I Geographical Features & Political History 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.rootsweb.ancestry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Clay and " bottom " lands produce a large, leafy plant, yielding less lint in proportion.

.Sandy uplands produce a short stalk which bears fairly well.^ Sandy uplands produce a short stalk which bears fairly well.

.Clay and " bottom " lands produce a large, leafy plant, yielding less lint in proportion.^ Clay and " bottom " lands produce a large, leafy plant, yielding less lint in proportion.

^ This is partly explained by the fact that the town does not now receive cotton from as great a distance as then, but it is chiefly due to the decreased yield of the land caused by the continuous planting of cotton.
  • I Geographical Features & Political History 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.rootsweb.ancestry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Simpson and Duncan (1953) also showed that cultivars selfed for 10 years produced 15 percent less cotton than the original plants.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The most suitable soils are medium grades of loam.^ The most suitable soils are medium grades of loam .

.The soil should be able to maintain very uniform conditions of moisture.^ The soil should be able to maintain very uniform conditions of moisture.

^ The best soil for cotton is thus a deep, welldrained loam , able to afford a uniform supply of moisture during the growing period.

^ Assuming adequate moisture and soil temperature, germination should occur within two weeks.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.Sudden variations in the amount of water supplied are injurious: a sandy soil cannot retain water; on the other hand a clay soil often maintains too great a supply, and rank growth with excess of foliage ensues.^ Sudden variations in the amount of water supplied are injurious: a sandy soil cannot retain water; on the other hand a clay soil often maintains too great a supply, and rank growth with excess of foliage ensues.

^ In regions where climatic conditions are favourable, cotton grows more or less successfully on almost all kinds of soil; it can be grown on light sandy soils, loams, heavy clays and sandy " bottom " lands with varying success.

^ Avoid tall, vegetative cotton growth – often a result of late planting, excessive nitrogen fertilizer, fertile soils, and/or excessive moisture.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.The best soil for cotton is thus a deep, welldrained loam, able to afford a uniform supply of moisture during the growing period.^ The best soil for cotton is thus a deep, welldrained loam , able to afford a uniform supply of moisture during the growing period.

^ Cotton accounted for about 18% of total exports from Togo during 1995-2000, averaging 18 million US dollars per annum over the period.
  • Cotton 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC r0.unctad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In regions where climatic conditions are favourable, cotton grows more or less successfully on almost all kinds of soil; it can be grown on light sandy soils, loams, heavy clays and sandy " bottom " lands with varying success.

.Wind is another important factor, as cotton does not do well in localities subject to very high winds; and in exposed situations, otherwise favourable, wind belts have at times to be provided.^ Wind is another important factor, as cotton does not do well in localities subject to very high winds; and in exposed situations, otherwise favourable, wind belts have at times to be provided.

^ This important book provides a comprehensive analysis of the key scientific and technological advances that ensure the quality of cotton is maintained from the field to fabric.

^ When the weather is not favourable at the fruiting stage, the otherwise hardy cotton plant displays its great weakness in this way.

Cultivation in the United States

.The United States being the most important cotton-producing country, the methods of cultivation practised there are first described, notes on methods adopted in other countries being added only when these differ considerably from American practice.^ Main cotton producing States in the United States .
  • Cotton 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC r0.unctad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States being the most important cotton-producing country, the methods of cultivation practised there are first described, notes on methods adopted in other countries being added only when these differ considerably from American practice.

^ Building on these basics, Part two analyses various means for producing cotton such as genetic modification and organic production.

.The culture of cotton must be a clean one.^ The culture of cotton must be a clean one.

^ In spite of the clean culture, good crops of cotton have been grown on some soils in the south for more than forty successive years.

.It is not necessarily deep culture, and during the growing season the cultivation is preferably very shallow.^ It is not necessarily deep culture, and during the growing season the cultivation is preferably very shallow.

^ U.S. farmers produced record corn and soybean crops in 2009, despite less than ideal environmental conditions during the growing season....
  • Recent Cotton Articles | Delta Farm Press 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC deltafarmpress.com [Source type: General]

^ Bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv malvacearum is common in areas with warm, wet weather during the growing season.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.The result is a great destruction of the humus of the soil, and great leaching and washing, especially in the light loams of the hill country of the United States.^ The result is a great destruction of the humus of the soil, and great leaching and washing, especially in the light loams of the hill country of the United States.

^ The following notes deal only with the practical side of the question, and as the United States produce some seven-tenths of the world's cotton crop attention is especially directed to the principal cotton pests of that country.

^ An idea of the requirements of the plant will perhaps be afforded by summarizing the conditions which have been found to give the best results in the United States.

.The main object, therefore, of the American cotton-planter is to prevent erosion.^ The main object, therefore, of the American cotton-planter is to prevent erosion.

^ Cotton seed in those days was the object of so much aversion that the planter burned it or threw it into running streams, as was most convenient.

^ There are four main types of cotton: American Upland, Egyptian, Sea Island and Asiatic.
  • Internet Centre for Canadian Fashion and Design - NTG International Inc.- Textile Dictionary 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.ntgi.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Wherever the planters have failed to guard their fields by hillside ploughing and terracing, these have been extensively denuded of soil, rendering them barren, and devastating other fields lying at a lower level, which are covered by the wash.^ The hillsides have gradually to be terraced with the plough , upon almost an exact level.

^ Wherever the planters have failed to guard their fields by hillside ploughing and terracing, these have been extensively denuded of soil, rendering them barren, and devastating other fields lying at a lower level, which are covered by the wash .

^ In conventional fields where broad-spectrum insecticides are used, these natural enemies are so depleted that continuous spraying is required to keep bollworms and other pests in check.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.The hillsides have gradually to be terraced with the plough, upon almost an exact level.^ The hillsides have gradually to be terraced with the plough , upon almost an exact level.

^ Wherever the planters have failed to guard their fields by hillside ploughing and terracing, these have been extensively denuded of soil, rendering them barren, and devastating other fields lying at a lower level, which are covered by the wash .

.On the better farms this is done with a spirit-level or compass from time to time and hillside ditches put in at the proper places.^ On the better farms this is done with a spirit-level or compass from time to time and hillside ditches put in at the proper places.

.In the moist bottom-lands along the rivers it is the custom to throw the soil up in high beds with the plough, and then to cultivate them deep.^ In the moist bottom-lands along the rivers it is the custom to throw the soil up in high beds with the plough, and then to cultivate them deep.

^ For cotton cultivation the land is ploughed, carefully levelled, and then thrown up into ridges about 3 ft.

^ A narrow deep furrow is usually run immediately in advance of the planter, to break up the soil under the seed.

.This is the more common method of drainage, but it is expensive, as it has to be renewed every few years.^ This is the more common method of drainage, but it is expensive, as it has to be renewed every few years.

^ The World Health Organization estimates that at least three million people are poisoned by pesticides every year and 20-40,000 more are killed.
  • Organic_Clothing: Cotton: Facts Behind the Fiber 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC organicclothing.blogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.More intelligent planters drain their bottom-lands with underground or open drains.^ More intelligent planters drain their bottom-lands with underground or open drains.

^ On rich bottom-land they should be more distant.

.In the case of small plantations the difficulties of adjusting a right-of-way for outlet ditches have interfered seriously with this plan.^ In the case of small plantations the difficulties of adjusting a right-of-way for outlet ditches have interfered seriously with this plan.

.Many planters question the wisdom of deepbreaking and subsoiling.^ Many planters question the wisdom of deepbreaking and subsoiling.

^ Planters are, as a result, divided in opinion as to the wisdom of subsoiling.

^ A good many of these cotton planters brought their slaves to Falls County on account of the current agitation of the slave question.
  • I Geographical Features & Political History 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.rootsweb.ancestry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There can be no question that a deep soil is better for the cottonplant; but the expense of obtaining it, the risk of injuring the soil through leaching, and the danger of bringing poor soil to the surface, have led many planters to oppose this plan.^ Planned rotations are one of the most effective means of breaking many insect pest and plant disease cycles in the soil.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Being sympathetic with me, my elder daughter said that there was no need to worry and we can plan in future.

^ Soil mineral levels are built up through the application of animal manure, compost, soluble rock powders, and deep-rooted cover crops that bring up nutrients from deep within the soil.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.Sandy soils are made thereby too dry and leachy, and it is a questionable proceeding to turn the heavy clays upon the top.^ Sandy soils are made thereby too dry and leachy, and it is a questionable proceeding to turn the heavy clays upon the top.

^ In regions where climatic conditions are favourable, cotton grows more or less successfully on almost all kinds of soil; it can be grown on light sandy soils, loams, heavy clays and sandy " bottom " lands with varying success.

.Planters are, as a result, divided in opinion as to the wisdom of subsoiling.^ Planters are, as a result, divided in opinion as to the wisdom of subsoiling.

^ Many planters question the wisdom of deepbreaking and subsoiling.

.Nothing definite can be said with regard to a rotation of crops Sea Island Cotton - Carolina Sea Island Florida „ „ Georgia „ Barbados „ „ Egyptian Cottons Yannovitch.^ Nothing definite can be said with regard to a rotation of crops Sea Island Cotton - Carolina Sea Island Florida „ „ Georgia „ Barbados „ „ Egyptian Cottons Yannovitch.

^ Whatever may be its true botanical name it is the plant known in commerce as " Sea Island " cotton, owing to its introduction and successful cultivation in the Sea Islands and the coastal districts of South Carolina , Georgia and Florida .

^ He classifies the modern high-class Sea Island cottons as G. barbadense, var.

.I.5 Abassi I.5 Good Brown Egyptian (1Vlitafifi).^ I.5 Abassi I.5 Good Brown Egyptian (1Vlitafifi).

.1.2 American Cotton Good middling Memphis.^ American Cotton Good middling Memphis.

^ I 3 Good middling Texas I o Good middling Upland I o Indian Cottons Fine Tinnevelly Fine Bhaunagar Fine Amraoti Fine Broach .

.I 3 Good middling Texas I o Good middling Upland I o Indian Cottons Fine Tinnevelly Fine Bhaunagar Fine Amraoti Fine Broach.^ The best American cotton (Sea Island and Florida cotton are always considered quite apart) is grown in the Mississippi valley, the next best in Texas, and the poorest on the Uplands (i.e.

^ American Cotton Good middling Memphis.

^ I 3 Good middling Texas I o Good middling Upland I o Indian Cottons Fine Tinnevelly Fine Bhaunagar Fine Amraoti Fine Broach .

0.9 Fine Bengal 0.9 Fine ginned Sind. o .8 Good ginned Kumta o The close relationship between the length of the upon the cotton plantation.^ Cotton gins are located in close proximity to cotton farms.
  • Cotton 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC r0.unctad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The plantation boasted a store, a blacksmith shop, and a cotton gin.
  • I Geographical Features & Political History 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.rootsweb.ancestry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The researchers found no difference between fiber length, strength, or micronaire between conventional and organic cotton.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.Planters appreciate generally the value of broad-leaved and narrow-leaved plants and root crops, but there is an absence of exact knowledge, with the result that their practices are very varied.^ Plant: The cotton plant is a broad-leaved perennial, 2 to 5 feet tall, that is treated as an annual under much of its growing conditions in the United States.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

It is believed that the rotation must differ with every variety of soil, with the result that each planter has his own method, and little can be said in general. .A more careful study of the physical as well as the chemical properties of a soil must precede intelligent experimentation in rotation.^ A more careful study of the physical as well as the chemical properties of a soil must precede intelligent experimentation in rotation.

^ It is believed that the rotation must differ with every variety of soil, with the result that each planter has his own method, and little can be said in general.

^ The first part of the book discusses the fundamental chemical and physical structure of cotton and its various properties.

.This knowledge is still lacking with regard to most of the cotton soils.^ There are many types of nematodes in soils, most are beneficial, and a few are cotton pests.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Most cotton farms are still family-owned and operated (with average household size of 5 to 6 people).
  • Cotton 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC r0.unctad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The only uniform practice is to let the fields " rest " when they have become exhausted.^ The only uniform practice is to let the fields " rest " when they have become exhausted.

.Nature then restores them very rapidly.^ Nature then restores them very rapidly.

.The exhaustion of the soil under cotton culture is chiefly due to the loss of humus, and nature soon puts this back in the excellent climate of the cotton-growing belt.^ The exhaustion of the soil under cotton culture is chiefly due to the loss of humus , and nature soon puts this back in the excellent climate of the cotton-growing belt.

^ This is partly explained by the fact that the town does not now receive cotton from as great a distance as then, but it is chiefly due to the decreased yield of the land caused by the continuous planting of cotton.
  • I Geographical Features & Political History 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.rootsweb.ancestry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cotton acreage began shifting to Western States in the 1960s and 1970s, but has started shifting back to traditional cotton-growing regions since the 1980s.
  • Cotton 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC r0.unctad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fields considered utterly used up, and allowed to " rest " for years, when cultivated again have produced better crops than those which had been under a more or less thoughtful rotation.^ Fields considered utterly used up, and allowed to " rest " for years, when cultivated again have produced better crops than those which had been under a more or less thoughtful rotation.

^ It was realized that woven fabrics have much better properties than Nonwovens; so, the approach was to claim the market where superior qualities of woven or knit fabrics were not essential but where qualities better than those of paper were needed.
  • COTTON FIBERS 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.engr.utk.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ U.S. farmers produced record corn and soybean crops in 2009, despite less than ideal environmental conditions during the growing season....
  • Recent Cotton Articles | Delta Farm Press 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC deltafarmpress.com [Source type: General]

.In spite of the clean culture, good crops of cotton have been grown on some soils in the south for more than forty successive years.^ In spite of the clean culture, good crops of cotton have been grown on some soils in the south for more than forty successive years.

^ The culture of cotton must be a clean one.

^ Simpson and Duncan (1953) also showed that cultivars selfed for 10 years produced 15 percent less cotton than the original plants.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The fibre takes almost nothing from the land, and where the seeds are restored to the soil in some form, even without other fertilizers, the exhaustion of the soil is very slow.^ The fibre takes almost nothing from the land, and where the seeds are restored to the soil in some form, even without other fertilizers, the exhaustion of the soil is very slow.

^ Through good soil and biodiversity management, farms can become increasingly self-sufficient in fertility, while pest problems are diminished, and some pests are even controlled outright.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It has frequently been noted that even well-fertilized plants upon good soil will mature only 15 or 20% of the bolls produced.

.If the burningup of humus and the leaching of the soil could be prevented, there is no reason whyia cotton soil should not produce good crops continuously for an indefinite time.^ If the burningup of humus and the leaching of the soil could be prevented, there is no reason whyia cotton soil should not produce good crops continuously for an indefinite time.

^ There can be no question that a deep soil is better for the cottonplant; but the expense of obtaining it, the risk of injuring the soil through leaching, and the danger of bringing poor soil to the surface, have led many planters to oppose this plan.

^ It is evident that the buying of cotton on the principles suggested would be calculated to cause great unsteadiness of prices, especially as cotton is not continuously forthcoming, but is produced periodically in harvests.

Bedding up land previous to planting is almost universal. The bed forms a warm seed-bed in the cool weather of early spring, and holds the manure which is drilled in usually to better advantage. The plants are generally left 2 or 3 in. above the middle of the row, which in four-foot rows gives a slope of i in. to the foot, causing the plough to lean from the plants in cultivating, and thus to cut fewer roots. The plants are usually cut out with a hoe from 8 to 14 in. apart. It seems to make little difference exactly what distance they are, so long as they are not wider apart on average land than i ft. .On rich bottom-land they should be more distant.^ The majority of slave owners began growing cotton on the rich bottom lands of rivers such as the Mississippi.
  • I Geographical Features & Political History 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.rootsweb.ancestry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Brazos bottom was originally a veritable land of paradise for the hunter and fisherman, and its rich soil attracted the attention of colonists interested in agriculture.
  • I Geographical Features & Political History 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.rootsweb.ancestry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The seed is dropped from a planter, five or six seeds in a single line, at regular intervals i o to 1 2 in. apart. .A narrow deep furrow is usually run immediately in advance of the planter, to break up the soil under the seed.^ Cool wet soils, deep seed placement, soil compaction, and cool temperatures contribute to seedling disease development.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.The only time the hoe is used is to thin out the cotton in the row; all the rest of the cultivation is by various forms of ploughs and so-called cultivators.^ Polyester A manufactured fiber introduced in the early 1950s, and is second only to cotton in worldwide use.
  • Fabric - Store 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.fabric.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fifteen percent of world cotton production is ginned on roller gins and almost all rest of cotton is saw ginned in most countries [14].Cotton fibers in non-wovens are generally used in their bleached form.
  • COTTON FIBERS 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.engr.utk.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Since 1991, all classification has been carried out with a set of up-to-date instruments, called "HVI"(High Volume Instrumentation) classification [1].
  • COTTON FIBERS 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.engr.utk.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The question of deep and shallow culture has been much discussed among planters without any conclusion applicable to all soils being reached.^ The question of deep and shallow culture has been much discussed among planters without any conclusion applicable to all soils being reached.

^ There can be no question that a deep soil is better for the cottonplant; but the expense of obtaining it, the risk of injuring the soil through leaching, and the danger of bringing poor soil to the surface, have led many planters to oppose this plan.

^ It is not necessarily deep culture, and during the growing season the cultivation is preferably very shallow.

.All grass and weeds must be kept down, and the crust must be broken after every rain, but these seem to be the only principles upon which all agree.^ All grass and weeds must be kept down, and the crust must be broken after every rain, but these seem to be the only principles upon which all agree.

^ In order for these strategies to be effective, they must be practiced by all cotton growers in an area.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Al-Jibouri (1960) seemed to agree, for after reporting an average of only 0.47 percent crossing in Iraq, he concluded that this inbreeding could result in deterioration of the variety.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The most effective tool against the weeds is a broad sharp " sweep," as it is called, which takes everything it meets, while going shallower than most ploughs.^ The most effective tool against the weeds is a broad sharp " sweep," as it is called, which takes everything it meets, while going shallower than most ploughs.

^ Spray formulations are most effective against armyworms and those species feeding on exposed leaf surfaces.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Where weeds such as johnsongrass are a problem, spring-tooth harrows and similar tools can be effective in catching and pulling the rhizomes to the soil surface, where they desiccate and die.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.Harrows and cultivators are used where there are few weeds, and the mulching process is the one desired.^ Harrows and cultivators are used where there are few weeds, and the mulching process is the one desired.

^ When annual weeds are the concern, cultivation is best kept as shallow as possible to bring as few weed seeds as possible near the soil surface.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As allelopathic weed suppression subsides, a no-till cultivator may be used for weed control.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.The date of cotton-planting varies from March i to June 1, according to situation.^ India it attacks various plants but not cotton.

^ The date of cotton-planting varies from March i to June 1, according to situation.

^ The improvements desired in cotton vary to some degree in different countries, according to the present character of the plants, climatic conditions, the chief pests, special market requirements, and other circumstances.

.Planting begins early in March in Southern Texas, and the first blooms will appear there about May 15. Planting may be done as late as April 15 in the Piedmont region of North Carolina, and continue as late as the end of May.^ Planting begins early in March in Southern Texas, and the first blooms will appear there about May 15.

^ It may not begin until September ro in Piedmont , North Carolina .

^ Planting may be done as late as April 15 in the Piedmont region of North Carolina , and continue as late as the end of May.

The first blooms will appear in this region about July Is. .Picking may begin on July io in Southern Texas, and continue late into the winter, or until the rare frost kills the plants.^ Picking may begin on July io in Southern Texas, and continue late into the winter, or until the rare frost kills the plants.

^ Secretion may begin a few hours to a few days before the flower opens, but, because of its unavailability to pollinators until the flower opens, this possible early secretion is of no consequence.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Flowering and fruiting go on continually, although in diminishing degree, until the advent of frost , which kills the flowers and young bolls and so puts an end to the production of cotton for the season.

.It may not begin until September ro in Piedmont, North Carolina.^ It may not begin until September ro in Piedmont , North Carolina .

^ Picking may begin on July io in Southern Texas, and continue late into the winter, or until the rare frost kills the plants.

^ Secretion may begin a few hours to a few days before the flower opens, but, because of its unavailability to pollinators until the flower opens, this possible early secretion is of no consequence.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.It is a peculiarity of the cotton-plant to lose a great many of its blooms and bolls.^ It is a peculiarity of the cotton-plant to lose a great many of its blooms and bolls.

^ This is partly explained by the fact that the town does not now receive cotton from as great a distance as then, but it is chiefly due to the decreased yield of the land caused by the continuous planting of cotton.
  • I Geographical Features & Political History 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.rootsweb.ancestry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cotton fiber and seed grow in a pod called a boll which develops from the flowers of cotton plants and opens when the cotton plant is mature.
  • Organic_Clothing: Cotton: Facts Behind the Fiber 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC organicclothing.blogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the weather is not favourable at the fruiting stage, the otherwise hardy cotton plant displays its great weakness in this way.^ When the weather is not favourable at the fruiting stage, the otherwise hardy cotton plant displays its great weakness in this way.

^ This is partly explained by the fact that the town does not now receive cotton from as great a distance as then, but it is chiefly due to the decreased yield of the land caused by the continuous planting of cotton.
  • I Geographical Features & Political History 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.rootsweb.ancestry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wind is another important factor, as cotton does not do well in localities subject to very high winds; and in exposed situations, otherwise favourable, wind belts have at times to be provided.

.It sheds its " forms " (as the buds are called), blooms, and even half-grown bolls in great numbers.^ It sheds its " forms " (as the buds are called), blooms, and even half-grown bolls in great numbers.

^ Some of this shedding occurs in the bud stage, but the peak occurs about 5 or 6 days after flowering, then tapers off toward the full-grown boll stage.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It is a peculiarity of the cotton-plant to lose a great many of its blooms and bolls.

.It has frequently been noted that even well-fertilized plants upon good soil will mature only 15 or 20% of the bolls produced.^ It has frequently been noted that even well-fertilized plants upon good soil will mature only 15 or 20% of the bolls produced.

^ Simpson and Duncan (1953) also showed that cultivars selfed for 10 years produced 15 percent less cotton than the original plants.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Through good soil and biodiversity management, farms can become increasingly self-sufficient in fertility, while pest problems are diminished, and some pests are even controlled outright.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.No means are known so far for preventing this great waste.^ No means are known so far for preventing this great waste.

.Experts are at an entire loss to form a correct idea of the cause, or to apply any effective remedy.^ Experts are at an entire loss to form a correct idea of the cause, or to apply any effective remedy.

.Cotton-picking is at once the most difficult and most expensive operation in cotton production.^ Cotton-picking is at once the most difficult and most expensive operation in cotton production.

^ So, the rather commonplace production of cotton, when compared to the excitement of cattle raising, has played a most prominent part in the development of Texas.
  • I Geographical Features & Political History 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.rootsweb.ancestry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has been commonly thought that the production of cotton in the south is limited by the amount that can be picked, but this limit is evidently very remote.

.It is paid for at the rate of from 45 to cents per cwt.^ It is paid for at the rate of from 45 to cents per cwt.

of seed cotton. .The work is light, and is effectually performed by women and even children, as well as men; but it is tedious and requires care.^ The work is light, and is effectually performed by women and even children, as well as men; but it is tedious and requires care.

^ Uses: Sails, awnings, and all kinds of sportswear for men, women, and children.
  • Internet Centre for Canadian Fashion and Design - NTG International Inc.- Textile Dictionary 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.ntgi.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Uses: Infants and children's wear, men's, women's and children's sleeping wear, pocket linings, quilts, shirtings.
  • Internet Centre for Canadian Fashion and Design - NTG International Inc.- Textile Dictionary 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.ntgi.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The picking season will average ioo days.^ The picking season will average ioo days.

^ It is evident, therefore, that if this number could work through the whole season of ioo days, they could pick three or four times as much cotton as the largest crop ever made.

^ There is in the cotton states a rural population of over 7,000,000, more or less occupied in cottongrowing, and capable, at the low average of ioo lb a day, of picking daily nearly 50o,000 bales.

.It is difficult to get the hands to work until the cotton is fully opened, and it is hard to induce them to pick over ioo lb a day, though some expert hands are found in every cotton plantation who can pick twice as much.^ It is difficult to get the hands to work until the cotton is fully opened, and it is hard to induce them to pick over ioo lb a day, though some expert hands are found in every cotton plantation who can pick twice as much.

^ The picking season will average ioo days.

^ Cotton-picking is at once the most difficult and most expensive operation in cotton production.

.The loss resulting from careless work is very serious.^ The loss resulting from careless work is very serious.

.The cotton falls out easily or is dropped.^ The cotton falls out easily or is dropped.

.The careless gathering of dead leaves and twigs, and the soiling of the cotton by earth or by the natural colouring matter from the bolls, injure the quality.^ The careless gathering of dead leaves and twigs, and the soiling of the cotton by earth or by the natural colouring matter from the bolls, injure the quality.

^ The exhaustion of the soil under cotton culture is chiefly due to the loss of humus , and nature soon puts this back in the excellent climate of the cotton-growing belt.

^ Possessing soil, climate and apparently all the requisite elements from nature for the production of cotton to an almost boundless extent, and of a 1 Approximately.

.It has been commonly thought that the production of cotton in the south is limited by the amount that can be picked, but this limit is evidently very remote.^ It has been commonly thought that the production of cotton in the south is limited by the amount that can be picked, but this limit is evidently very remote.

^ Cotton-picking is at once the most difficult and most expensive operation in cotton production.

^ There was some cotton production in the vicinity of San Antonio late in the eighteenth century, but little is known of the amount produced.
  • I Geographical Features & Political History 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.rootsweb.ancestry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The negro population of the towns and villages of the cotton country is usually available for a considerable share in cotton-picking.^ The negro population of the towns and villages of the cotton country is usually available for a considerable share in cotton-picking.

^ Calvert is one of the few towns in Texas with a larger Negro population than White.
  • I Geographical Features & Political History 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.rootsweb.ancestry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Australia , Israel and USA are the only countries where all cottons are picked by machines.
  • COTTON FIBERS 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.engr.utk.edu [Source type: Academic]

.There is in the cotton states a rural population of over 7,000,000, more or less occupied in cottongrowing, and capable, at the low average of ioo lb a day, of picking daily nearly 50o,000 bales.^ The picking season will average ioo days.

^ There is in the cotton states a rural population of over 7,000,000, more or less occupied in cottongrowing, and capable, at the low average of ioo lb a day, of picking daily nearly 50o,000 bales.

^ If machine harvesting had been used, doubtless more cotton would have been collected where there were fewest motes - in the bee cages.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.It is evident, therefore, that if this number could work through the whole season of ioo days, they could pick three or four times as much cotton as the largest crop ever made.^ The picking season will average ioo days.

^ It is evident, therefore, that if this number could work through the whole season of ioo days, they could pick three or four times as much cotton as the largest crop ever made.

^ From 'goo to 1905 the crop was about ioo,000 bales per annum; the whole is consumed in local mills, and cotton is imported also from the United States.

Great efforts have been made to devise cottonpicking machines, but, as yet, complete success has not been attained. .Lowne's machine is useful in specially wide-planted fields and when the ground is sufficiently hard.^ Mowing or a burn-down herbicide is often used in conventional systems to kill the rye cover crop so that no-till plantings of field crops can be established.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

Cotton Ginning

The crop having been picked, it has to be prepared for purpose of manufacture. .This comprises separating the fibre or lint from the seeds, the operation being known as " ginning."^ The lint can be removed from the seed with the same type of gin saws that are used on upland cotton, but the quality of the lint is better if it is removed with a roller gin.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Under the program, cotton seed processing activities (oil and soap production) had been separated from cotton-ginning operations and privatised, essentially abandoning the structure of vertical integration.
  • Cotton 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC r0.unctad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sodefitex processes the cotton grain into fibre at five ginning units (with a combined capacity of 65,000 tonnes of seed cotton).
  • Cotton 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC r0.unctad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When this has been accomplished the weight of the crop is reduced to about one-third, each 100 lb of seed cotton as picked yielding after ginning some 33 lb of lint and 66 lb of cotton seed.^ COTTON Gossypium spp., family Malvaceae Cotton is grown primarily for its lint, although the seed, valued at about one-fifth that of the lint, is also used for planting or is crushed, a food oil recovered, and the residue used as a livestock food.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The motes in a cotton crop represent a loss in yield.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Adding conventional nitrogen fertilizer boosted the two-year rotation cotton lint yields in this study another 79 pounds per acre.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.The actual amounts differ with different varieties, conditions of cultivation, methods of ginning, &c.; a recent estimate in the United States gives 35% of lint for Upland cotton and 25% for Sea Island cotton as more accurate.^ New cotton varieties were introduced from the United States in the 1950s and 1960s.
  • Cotton 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC r0.unctad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main cotton producing States in the United States .
  • Cotton 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC r0.unctad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even though cotton fiber had been known already in Southern America, the large-scale cotton cultivation in Northern America began in the 16th century with the arrival of colonists to southern parts of today's United States .
  • COTTON FIBERS 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.engr.utk.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The separation of lint from seed is accomplished in various ways.^ Most of this raw cotton is currently machine-harvested then transported to a cotton gin where the lint is separated from the seed then pressed into bales.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

The most primitive is hand-picking, the fibre being laboriously pulled from off each seed, as still practised in parts of Africa. .In modern commercial cotton production ginning machines are always used.^ The largest rise in cotton production is connected with the invention of the saw-tooth cotton gin by Eli Whitney in 1793.
  • COTTON FIBERS 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.engr.utk.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ If machine harvesting had been used, doubtless more cotton would have been collected where there were fewest motes - in the bee cages.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ These may have implications for cotton production when used as fertilizer.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.Very simple machines are used in some parts of Africa.^ Very simple machines are used in some parts of Africa.

.The simplest cotton gin in extensive use is the " churka," used from early times, and still largely employed in India and China.^ Polyester A manufactured fiber introduced in the early 1950s, and is second only to cotton in worldwide use.
  • Fabric - Store 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.fabric.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Early-sown cotton has been used as a boll-weevil trap crop.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cotton cultivation first spread from India to Egypt , China and the South Pacific.
  • COTTON FIBERS 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.engr.utk.edu [Source type: Academic]

.It consists essentially of two rollers either both of wood, or one of wood and one of iron, geared to revolve in contact in opposite directions; the seed cotton is fed to the rollers, the lint is drawn through, and the seed being unable to pass between the rollers is rejected.^ COTTON Gossypium spp., family Malvaceae Cotton is grown primarily for its lint, although the seed, valued at about one-fifth that of the lint, is also used for planting or is crushed, a food oil recovered, and the residue used as a livestock food.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ One of the many questions asked Austin was his purpose of coming to the province of Texas, to which he replied through an interpreter: 'to provide for his subsistence by raining sugar and cotton.'
  • I Geographical Features & Political History 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.rootsweb.ancestry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Breeders know that a cotton blossom isolated by any one of several techniques will usually develop a mature boll with viable seed.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

With this primitive machine, worked by hand, about 5 lb of lint is the daily output. .In the Macarthy roller gin, the lint, drawn by a roller covered with leather (preferably walrus hide), is drawn between a metal plate called the " doctor " (fixed tangentially to the roller and very close to it) and a blade called the " beater " or knife, which rapidly moves up and down immediately behind, and parallel to, the fixed plate.^ The lint can be removed from the seed with the same type of gin saws that are used on upland cotton, but the quality of the lint is better if it is removed with a roller gin.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Cotton is not the preferred host of lygus, but once the surrounding vegetation starts to dry up, they will move into irrigated cotton and feed on succulent plant parts.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.The lint is held by the roughness of the roller, and the blade of the knife or beater readily detaches the seed from the lint; the seed falls through a grid, while the lint passes over the roller to the other side of the machine.^ The lint is held by the roughness of the roller, and the blade of the knife or beater readily detaches the seed from the lint; the seed falls through a grid, while the lint passes over the roller to the other side of the machine.

^ It consists essentially of two rollers either both of wood, or one of wood and one of iron , geared to revolve in contact in opposite directions; the seed cotton is fed to the rollers, the lint is drawn through, and the seed being unable to pass between the rollers is rejected.

^ In the Macarthy roller gin , the lint, drawn by a roller covered with leather (preferably walrus hide ), is drawn between a metal plate called the " doctor " (fixed tangentially to the roller and very close to it) and a blade called the " beater " or knife , which rapidly moves up and down immediately behind, and parallel to, the fixed plate.

.A hand Macarthy roller gin worked by two men will clean about 4 to 6 lb of lint per hour.^ With this primitive machine, worked by hand, about 5 lb of lint is the daily output.

^ A hand Macarthy roller gin worked by two men will clean about 4 to 6 lb of lint per hour.

^ The lint can be removed from the seed with the same type of gin saws that are used on upland cotton, but the quality of the lint is better if it is removed with a roller gin.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.A similar, but larger machine, requiring about horse-power to run it, will turn out 50 to 60 lb of Egyptian or 60 to 80 lb of Sea Island cleaned cotton per hour.^ A similar, but larger machine, requiring about horse-power to run it, will turn out 50 to 60 lb of Egyptian or 60 to 80 lb of Sea Island cleaned cotton per hour.

^ Sea Island and other long-stapled cottons.

^ He classifies the modern high-class Sea Island cottons as G. barbadense, var.

.By simple modifications the Macarthy gin can be used for all kinds of cotton.^ Virtually all of the ginned cotton is exported.
  • Cotton 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC r0.unctad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By simple modifications the Macarthy gin can be used for all kinds of cotton.

^ Uses: Shirts, dresses, particularly the tailored type in plain colours, blouses, summer wear of all kinds.
  • Internet Centre for Canadian Fashion and Design - NTG International Inc.- Textile Dictionary 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.ntgi.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Various attempts have been made to substitute a comb for the knife or beater, and one of the latest productions is the " Universal fibre gin," in which a series of blunt combs working horizontally replace the solid beater and so-called knife of the Macarthy gin.^ Various attempts have been made to substitute a comb for the knife or beater, and one of the latest productions is the " Universal fibre gin," in which a series of blunt combs working horizontally replace the solid beater and so-called knife of the Macarthy gin.

^ In the Macarthy roller gin , the lint, drawn by a roller covered with leather (preferably walrus hide ), is drawn between a metal plate called the " doctor " (fixed tangentially to the roller and very close to it) and a blade called the " beater " or knife , which rapidly moves up and down immediately behind, and parallel to, the fixed plate.

^ They are called " stainers " because their excrement is yellow and stains the fibre; also if crushed during the process of ginning they give the cotton a reddish coloration.

.Opposed to the various types of roller gins is the " saw gin," invented by Eli Whitney, an American, in 1792. This machine, under various modifications, is employed for ginning the greater portion of the cotton grown in the Southern States of America.^ Opposed to the various types of roller gins is the " saw gin," invented by Eli Whitney , an American, in 1792.

^ This machine, under various modifications, is employed for ginning the greater portion of the cotton grown in the Southern States of America.

^ Even though cotton fiber had been known already in Southern America, the large-scale cotton cultivation in Northern America began in the 16th century with the arrival of colonists to southern parts of today's United States .
  • COTTON FIBERS 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.engr.utk.edu [Source type: Academic]

.It consists essentially of a series of circular notched disks, the so-called saws, revolving between the interstices of an iron bed upon which the cotton is placed: the teeth of the " saws " catch the lint and pull it off from the seeds, then a revolving brush removes the detached lint from the saws, and creates sufficient draught to carry the lint out of the machine to some distance.^ It consists essentially of a series of circular notched disks, the so-called saws, revolving between the interstices of an iron bed upon which the cotton is placed: the teeth of the " saws " catch the lint and pull it off from the seeds, then a revolving brush removes the detached lint from the saws, and creates sufficient draught to carry the lint out of the machine to some distance.

^ After the seed of Upland cotton has been passed through a fine gin, which takes off the short lint or linters left upon it by the farmer, it is passed through what is called a sheller, consisting of a revolving cylinder , armed with numerous knives, which cut the seed in two and force the kernels or meats from the shells.

^ It consists essentially of two rollers either both of wood, or one of wood and one of iron , geared to revolve in contact in opposite directions; the seed cotton is fed to the rollers, the lint is drawn through, and the seed being unable to pass between the rollers is rejected.

.Saw gins do considerable damage to the fibre, but for short-stapled cotton they are largely used, owing to their great capacity.^ They do considerable damage to cotton seed.

^ Saw gins do considerable damage to the fibre, but for short-stapled cotton they are largely used, owing to their great capacity.

^ The largest rise in cotton production is connected with the invention of the saw-tooth cotton gin by Eli Whitney in 1793.
  • COTTON FIBERS 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.engr.utk.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The average yield of lint per " saw " in the United States, when working under perfect conditions, is about 6 lb per hour.^ The average yield of lint per " saw " in the United States, when working under perfect conditions, is about 6 lb per hour.

^ Average Price in Pence per lb.

^ It is accredited for hours/units for licensed/accredited applicators in 7 U.S. Cotton Belt states (Florida, Georgia, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, South Carolina an d Tennessee.
  • Recent Cotton Articles | Delta Farm Press 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC deltafarmpress.com [Source type: General]

.Some of the American ginners are very large indeed, a number (Bulletin of the Bureau of the Census on Cotton Production) being reported as containing on the average 1 156 saws with an average production of 4120 bales of cotton.^ Some of the American ginners are very large indeed, a number ( Bulletin of the Bureau of the Census on Cotton Production ) being reported as containing on the average 1 156 saws with an average production of 4120 bales of cotton.

^ The largest rise in cotton production is connected with the invention of the saw-tooth cotton gin by Eli Whitney in 1793.
  • COTTON FIBERS 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.engr.utk.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Chad's cotton production is largely exported to the European Union.
  • Cotton 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC r0.unctad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Saw gins are not adapted to long-stapled cottons, such as Sea Island and Egyptian, which are generally ginned by machines of the Macarthy type.^ Sea Island and other long-stapled cottons.

^ Long-stapled cottons have been produced in the States by crossing Upland and Sea Island cotton.

^ Egyptian cotton in length of staple is intermediate between average Sea Island and average Upland.

.The machine which will gin the largest quantity in the shortest time is naturally preferred, unless such injury is ,occasioned as materially to diminish the market value of the cotton.^ The machine which will gin the largest quantity in the shortest time is naturally preferred, unless such injury is ,occasioned as materially to diminish the market value of the cotton.

^ Game must go at least 55 minutes for the following betting markets to have action, unless a team has already scored at the time the game is suspended.
  • Cotton Bowl Betting - Oklahoma State vs. Mississippi Bowl Odds - College Football Game Lines 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gamblerspalace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite State's divestiture, the enterprise is still integrated along the value chain (purchasing of seed cotton, sale of inputs, processing, marketing).
  • Cotton 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC r0.unctad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This has sometimes been to the extent of id.^ This has sometimes been to the extent of id.

or 2d. per lb and even more as regards .Sea Island and other long-stapled cottons.^ Long-stapled cottons have been produced in the States by crossing Upland and Sea Island cotton.

^ Sea Island and other long-stapled cottons.

^ Most of the cotton grown in the United States is of two varieties, upland cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum ) and extra-long staple (ELS) cotton ( Gossypium barbadense ), which is also referred to as American Pima cotton.
  • Cotton 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC r0.unctad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The production, therefore, of the most perfect and efficient cotton-cleaning machinery is of importance alike to the planter and manufacturer.^ The production, therefore, of the most perfect and efficient cotton-cleaning machinery is of importance alike to the planter and manufacturer.

^ Cotton-picking is at once the most difficult and most expensive operation in cotton production.

^ Cotton seed in those days was the object of so much aversion that the planter burned it or threw it into running streams, as was most convenient.

Baling

.The cotton leaves the ginning machine in a very loose condition, and has to be compressed into bales for convenience of transport.^ The ginned cotton fibre is then compacted into bales.
  • Cotton 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC r0.unctad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cotton leaves the ginning machine in a very loose condition, and has to be compressed into bales for convenience of transport.

^ The cotton plant requires certain conditions for its successful cultivation; but, given these, it is very little affected by seasonal vicissitudes.

.Large baling presses are worked by hydraulic power; the operation needs no special description.^ Large baling presses are worked by hydraulic power; the operation needs no special description.

.Bales from different countries vary greatly in size, weight and appearance.^ Bales from different countries vary greatly in size, weight and appearance.

^ The cotton sectors of developed and developing countries differ in various respects, including: the size of cotton farms; the level of mechanisation (in harvesting, processing, and grading systems -visual and instrumental); and uses of harvested cotton.
  • Cotton 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC r0.unctad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The American bale has been described in a standard American book on cotton as " the clumsiest, dirtiest, most expensive and most wasteful package, in which cotton or any other commodity of like value is anywhere put up." Suggestions for its improvement, which if carried out would (it is estimated) result in a monetary saving of £r,000,000 annually, were made by the Lancashire Private Cotton Investigation Commission which visited the Southern States of America in 1906.
.The approximate weights of some of the principal bales on the English market are as follows: United States.^ The approximate weights of some of the principal bales on the English market are as follows: United States.

^ From 'goo to 1905 the crop was about ioo,000 bales per annum; the whole is consumed in local mills, and cotton is imported also from the United States.

^ The United States is the second-largest producer of cotton, supplying approximately 20% of world output.
  • Cotton 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC r0.unctad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
Indian. Egyptian. Peruvian. Brazilian .
.With baling the work of the producer is concluded.^ With baling the work of the producer is concluded.

Cultivation in Egypt. - .Climatic conditions in Egypt differ radically from those in the United States, the rainfall being so small as to be quite insufficient for the needs of the plant, very little rain indeed falling in the Nile Delta during the whole growing season of the crop: yet Egypt is in order the third cottonproducing country of the world, elaborate irrigation works supplying the crop with the requisite water.^ Climatic conditions in Egypt differ radically from those in the United States, the rainfall being so small as to be quite insufficient for the needs of the plant, very little rain indeed falling in the Nile Delta during the whole growing season of the crop: yet Egypt is in order the third cottonproducing country of the world, elaborate irrigation works supplying the crop with the requisite water.

^ U.S. farmers produced record corn and soybean crops in 2009, despite less than ideal environmental conditions during the growing season....
  • Recent Cotton Articles | Delta Farm Press 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC deltafarmpress.com [Source type: General]

^ G. barbadense , known in the United States as American Pima, or Pima, and sometimes called extra-long staple cotton, is grown in long-season areas, such as our Southwestern States.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The area devoted to cotton in Egypt is about 1,800,000 acres, and nine-tenths of it is in the Nile Delta.^ The area devoted to cotton in Egypt is about 1,800,000 acres, and nine-tenths of it is in the Nile Delta .

^ The area under cotton is about 1,800,000 acres.

^ The area devoted to this crop in 1879 was 14,480,019 acres, and the-total commercial crop was 5,755,359 bales.

.The delta soil is typically a heavy, black, alluvial clay, very fertile, but difficult to work; admixture of sand is beneficial, and the localities where this occurs yield the best cotton.^ The delta soil is typically a heavy, black, alluvial clay, very fertile, but difficult to work; admixture of sand is beneficial, and the localities where this occurs yield the best cotton.

^ Adding conventional nitrogen fertilizer boosted the two-year rotation cotton lint yields in this study another 79 pounds per acre.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sandy soils are made thereby too dry and leachy, and it is a questionable proceeding to turn the heavy clays upon the top.

.Formerly in Egypt the cotton was treated as a perennial, but this practice has been generally abandoned, and fresh plants are raised from seed each year, as in America; one great advantage is that more than one crop can thus be obtained each year.^ Formerly in Egypt the cotton was treated as a perennial, but this practice has been generally abandoned, and fresh plants are raised from seed each year, as in America; one great advantage is that more than one crop can thus be obtained each year.

^ The Cotton Bowl classic has been played for more than 70 years.
  • Cotton Bowl Betting - Oklahoma State vs. Mississippi Bowl Odds - College Football Game Lines 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gamblerspalace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cost of seed cotton is more than $500 in USA to produce one hectare of seed cotton.
  • COTTON FIBERS 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.engr.utk.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The following rotation is frequently adopted.^ The following rotation is frequently adopted.

.It should be noted that in Egypt the year is divided into three seasons - winter, summer and " Nili."^ It should be noted that in Egypt the year is divided into three seasons - winter, summer and " Nili."

^ No remedy is known for the disease, and cotton should not be planted on infected land for at least three or four years.

.The two first explain themselves; Nili is the season in which the Nile overflows its banks.^ The two first explain themselves; Nili is the season in which the Nile overflows its banks .

^ The first Cotton Bowl was actually a post-season game between two high school teams on New Years Day of 1936.
  • Cotton Bowl Betting - Oklahoma State vs. Mississippi Bowl Odds - College Football Game Lines 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gamblerspalace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Winter.
Summer.
Nili.
First year. .
Clover
Cotton
Second y ear
Beans or wheat
..
Corn or fallow
.For cotton cultivation the land is ploughed, carefully levelled, and then thrown up into ridges about 3 ft.^ According to Enda, only 6% of cotton would be locally made into end products, which means that processing opportunities at the domestic level are not fully exploited.
  • Cotton 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC r0.unctad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cotton is grown on almost 160,000 farms, covering about one third of the cultivated land.
  • Cotton 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC r0.unctad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cotton is not the preferred host of lygus, but once the surrounding vegetation starts to dry up, they will move into irrigated cotton and feed on succulent plant parts.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

apart. Channels formed at right angles to the cultivation ridges provide for the access of water to the crop. .The seeds, previously soaked, are sown, usually in March, on the sides of the ridges, and the land watered.^ The seeds, previously soaked, are sown, usually in March, on the sides of the ridges, and the land watered.

^ Near Mettler Station, the water supply was acute; therefore, the growers devoted some of their land to alfalfa seed production, which required less water than cotton.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.After the seedlings appear, thinning is completed in usually three successive hoeings, the plants being watered after thinning, and subsequently at intervals of from twelve to fifteen days, until about the end of August when picking commences.^ After the seedlings appear, thinning is completed in usually three successive hoeings, the plants being watered after thinning, and subsequently at intervals of from twelve to fifteen days, until about the end of August when picking commences.

^ Fifteen to 20 days later the strips were lightly tilled and the cotton planted.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cotton has not been cultivated in China from such early times as in India, and although cotton cloths are mentioned in early writings it was not until about A.D. 1300 that the plant was grown on any considerable scale.

The total amount of water given is approximately equivalent to a rainfall of about 35 in. The crop is picked, ginned and baled in the usual way, the Macarthy style action roller gins being almost exclusively employed.

Cotton Seed

.The history of no agricultural product contains more of interest and instruction for the student of economics than does that of cotton seed in the United States.^ The history of no agricultural product contains more of interest and instruction for the student of economics than does that of cotton seed in the United States.

^ The products of cotton seed have become important elements in the national industry of the United States.

^ It is accredited for hours/units for licensed/accredited applicators in 7 U.S. Cotton Belt states (Florida, Georgia, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, South Carolina an d Tennessee.
  • Recent Cotton Articles | Delta Farm Press 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC deltafarmpress.com [Source type: General]

The revolution in its treatment is a real romance of industry. Up till 1870 or thereabouts, cotton seed was regarded as a positive nuisance upon the American plantation. .It was left to accumulate in vast heaps about ginhouses, to the annoyance of the farmer and the injury of his premises.^ It was left to accumulate in vast heaps about ginhouses, to the annoyance of the farmer and the injury of his premises.

.Cotton seed in those days was the object of so much aversion that the planter burned it or threw it into running streams, as was most convenient.^ Sodefitex processes the cotton grain into fibre at five ginning units (with a combined capacity of 65,000 tonnes of seed cotton).
  • Cotton 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC r0.unctad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of this raw cotton is currently machine-harvested then transported to a cotton gin where the lint is separated from the seed then pressed into bales.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Cotton ovules that fail to develop into seeds with well-developed ginnable fibers are termed "motes."
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.If the seed were allowed to lie about, it rotted, and hogs and other animals, eating it, often died.^ If the seed were allowed to lie about, it rotted, and hogs and other animals, eating it, often died.

.It was very difficult to burn, and when dumped into rivers and creeks was carried out by flood water to fill the edges of the flats with a decaying and offensive mass of vegetable matter.^ It was very difficult to burn, and when dumped into rivers and creeks was carried out by flood water to fill the edges of the flats with a decaying and offensive mass of vegetable matter.

.Although used in the early days to a limited extent as a food for milch cows and other stock, and to a larger extent as a manure, no systematic efforts were made anywhere in the South to manufacture the seed until the later 'fifties, when the first cotton seed mills were established.^ Although used in the early days to a limited extent as a food for milch cows and other stock, and to a larger extent as a manure, no systematic efforts were made anywhere in the South to manufacture the seed until the later 'fifties, when the first cotton seed mills were established.

^ First made by Wamsutta Mills.
  • Internet Centre for Canadian Fashion and Design - NTG International Inc.- Textile Dictionary 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.ntgi.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ COTTON Gossypium spp., family Malvaceae Cotton is grown primarily for its lint, although the seed, valued at about one-fifth that of the lint, is also used for planting or is crushed, a food oil recovered, and the residue used as a livestock food.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.It is said that there were only seven cotton oil mills in the South in 1860. The cotton-growing industry was interrupted by the Civil War, and the seed-milling business did not begin again until 1868. After that time the number of mills rapidly increased.^ It is said that there were only seven cotton oil mills in the South in 1860.

^ The cotton-growing industry was interrupted by the Civil War, and the seed-milling business did not begin again until 1868.

^ After that time the number of mills rapidly increased.

.There were 25 in the South in 1870, 50 in 1880, 120 in 1890, and about 500 in 1901, about one-third being in Texas.^ There were 25 in the South in 1870, 50 in 1880, 120 in 1890, and about 500 in 1901, about one-third being in Texas.

^ About one-third of the cotton used in Russian mills is grown on Russian territory, the remainder coming chiefly from the United States.

^ Cotton is grown on almost 160,000 farms, covering about one third of the cultivated land.
  • Cotton 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC r0.unctad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Experience shows that 1000 lb of seed are produced for every 50o lb of cotton brought to market.^ Experience shows that 1000 lb of seed are produced for every 50o lb of cotton brought to market.

^ Instead of attempting to increase the local supply, they concluded that hybrid cotton seed must be produced "in marginal cotton growing areas where bee activity is great."
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ There are about 2000 producers' associations responsible for input distribution and seed cotton delivery.
  • Cotton 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC r0.unctad.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the basis, therefore, of a cotton crop of io,000,000 bales of 500 lb each, there are produced 5,000,000 tons of cotton seed.^ Bales of 500 lb.

^ (In 500 lb Bales.

^ An estimate of the crop puts it at about 1,500,000 bales.

.If about 3,000,000 tons only are pressed, there remain to be utilized on the farm 2,000,000 tons of cotton seed, which, if manufactured, would produce a total of $100,000,000 from cotton seed.^ If about 3,000,000 tons only are pressed, there remain to be utilized on the farm 2,000,000 tons of cotton seed, which, if manufactured, would produce a total of $100,000,000 from cotton seed.

^ Instead of attempting to increase the local supply, they concluded that hybrid cotton seed must be produced "in marginal cotton growing areas where bee activity is great."
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It is evident that the buying of cotton on the principles suggested would be calculated to cause great unsteadiness of prices, especially as cotton is not continuously forthcoming, but is produced periodically in harvests.

.In contrast with the farmers of the 'sixties, the southern planter of the 10th century appreciates the value of his cotton seed, and farmers, too remote from the mills to get it pressed, now feed to their stock all the cotton seed they conveniently can, and use the residue either in compost or directly as manure.^ They do considerable damage to cotton seed.

^ Organic cotton farmers usually sell either to a mill or a manufacturer.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In contrast with the farmers of the 'sixties, the southern planter of the 10th century appreciates the value of his cotton seed, and farmers, too remote from the mills to get it pressed, now feed to their stock all the cotton seed they conveniently can, and use the residue either in compost or directly as manure.

.The average of a large number of analyses of Upland cotton seed gives the following figures for its fertilizing constituents: - Nitrogen, 3.07%; phosphoric acid, 1.02%; potash, 1.17%; besides small amounts of lime, magnesia and other valuable but less important ingredients.^ Sea Island cotton seed is rather more valuable than Upland: the corresponding figures for the three principal constituents being nitrogen 3.51, phosphoric acid 1 69, potash 1.59%.

^ Using average prices paid for nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash when bought in large quantities and in good forms, these ingredients, in a ton of cotton seed, amount to $9.00 worth of fertilizing material.

^ The average of a large number of analyses of Upland cotton seed gives the following figures for its fertilizing constituents: - Nitrogen , 3.07%; phosphoric acid , 1.02%; potash, 1.17%; besides small amounts of lime , magnesia and other valuable but less important ingredients.

.Sea Island cotton seed is rather more valuable than Upland: the corresponding figures for the three principal constituents being nitrogen 3.51, phosphoric acid 1 69, potash 1.59%.^ Sea Island cotton seed is rather more valuable than Upland: the corresponding figures for the three principal constituents being nitrogen 3.51, phosphoric acid 1 69, potash 1.59%.

^ The average of a large number of analyses of Upland cotton seed gives the following figures for its fertilizing constituents: - Nitrogen , 3.07%; phosphoric acid , 1.02%; potash, 1.17%; besides small amounts of lime , magnesia and other valuable but less important ingredients.

^ The seed was saved and gave rise to a row of plants all of which grew healthily in an infected field, whereas 95% of ordinary Sea Island cotton plants from seed from a non-infected field planted alongside as a control were killed.

.Using average prices paid for nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash when bought in large quantities and in good forms, these ingredients, in a ton of cotton seed, amount to $9.00 worth of fertilizing material.^ These may have implications for cotton production when used as fertilizer.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Using average prices paid for nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash when bought in large quantities and in good forms, these ingredients, in a ton of cotton seed, amount to $9.00 worth of fertilizing material.

^ The average of a large number of analyses of Upland cotton seed gives the following figures for its fertilizing constituents: - Nitrogen , 3.07%; phosphoric acid , 1.02%; potash, 1.17%; besides small amounts of lime , magnesia and other valuable but less important ingredients.

.Compared with the commercial fertilizer which the farmer has to buy, cotton seed possesses, therefore, a distinct value.^ Compared with the commercial fertilizer which the farmer has to buy, cotton seed possesses, therefore, a distinct value.

^ In comparative valuations of feeding stuffs it has been found that cotton seed meal exceeds corn meal by 62%, wheat by 67%, and raw cotton seed by 26%.

^ About 50 ovules must be fertilized if a full complement of seeds is produced; therefore, at least 50 viable pollen grains must contact the stigma.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

Proteins
Carbo-
hydrates or
Ash or Bone
Average Analyses.
or Flesh
Fuel and Fat
Fats.
Makers.
Formers.
Suppliers.
Cotton seed meal
43.26
22.31
13.45
7.02
Corn. .. .
Io 5
70.0
5.5
1.02
Oats. .. .
17 o
65 o
8 o
I.2
.The products of cotton seed have become important elements in the national industry of the United States.^ The products of cotton seed have become important elements in the national industry of the United States.

^ It is accredited for hours/units for licensed/accredited applicators in 7 U.S. Cotton Belt states (Florida, Georgia, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, South Carolina an d Tennessee.
  • Recent Cotton Articles | Delta Farm Press 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC deltafarmpress.com [Source type: General]

^ G. barbadense , known in the United States as American Pima, or Pima, and sometimes called extra-long staple cotton, is grown in long-season areas, such as our Southwestern States.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The main product is the refined oil, which is used for a great number of purposes, such as a substitute for olive oil, mixed with beef products for preparation of compound lard, which is estimated to consume one-third of cotton seed oil produced in the States.^ The main product is the refined oil, which is used for a great number of purposes, such as a substitute for olive oil, mixed with beef products for preparation of compound lard , which is estimated to consume one-third of cotton seed oil produced in the States.

^ COTTON Gossypium spp., family Malvaceae Cotton is grown primarily for its lint, although the seed, valued at about one-fifth that of the lint, is also used for planting or is crushed, a food oil recovered, and the residue used as a livestock food.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Instead of attempting to increase the local supply, they concluded that hybrid cotton seed must be produced "in marginal cotton growing areas where bee activity is great."
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

The poorer grades are employed in the manufacture of soap, candles and phonograph records. Miners' lamp oil consists of the bleached oil mixed with kerosene. .Cotton seed cake or meal (the residue after the oil is extracted) is one of the most valuable of feeding stuffs, as the following simple comparison between it and oats and corn will show: 500 lb 400 lb 700 lb 200 lb 200 to 300 lb Cotton Cotton seed meal, though poor in carbohydrates, the fatand energy-supplying ingredients, is exceedingly rich in protein, the nerveand muscle-feeding ingredients.^ COTTON Gossypium spp., family Malvaceae Cotton is grown primarily for its lint, although the seed, valued at about one-fifth that of the lint, is also used for planting or is crushed, a food oil recovered, and the residue used as a livestock food.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Instead of attempting to increase the local supply, they concluded that hybrid cotton seed must be produced "in marginal cotton growing areas where bee activity is great."
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Breeders know that a cotton blossom isolated by any one of several techniques will usually develop a mature boll with viable seed.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

But it still contains a large amount of oil, which forms animal fat and heat, and thus makes up for part of its deficiency in carbohydrates. The meal, in fact, is so rich in protein that it is best utilized as a food for animals when mixed with some coarse fodder, thus furnishing a more evenly-balanced ration. .In comparative valuations of feeding stuffs it has been found that cotton seed meal exceeds corn meal by 62%, wheat by 67%, and raw cotton seed by 26%.^ Kapok A short, lightweight, cotton-like, vegetable fiber found in the seed pods of the Bombocaceae tree.
  • Fabric - Store 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.fabric.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A study comparing cotton varieties found lower aphid densities on cotton varieties exhibiting the smooth-leaf characteristics.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Pinkies damage cotton by feeding on buds and flowers and on developing seeds and lint in bolls.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.Cotton seed meal, in the absence of sufficient stock to consume it, is also used extensively as a fertilizer, and for this purpose it is worth, determining the price on the same basis as used above for the seed, from $19 to $20 per ton.^ Glushkov and Skrebtsov (1960) stated that with 4.9 and 6.6 colonies per hectare (2.0 to 2.5 colonies per acre) the cotton production was increased 20.9 and 45 percent, respectively, over the control areas.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ These may have implications for cotton production when used as fertilizer.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The lint can be removed from the seed with the same type of gin saws that are used on upland cotton, but the quality of the lint is better if it is removed with a roller gin.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

But it has seldom reached this price, except in some of the northern states, where it is used for feeding purposes. A more rational proceeding would be to feed the meal to animals and apply the resulting manure to the soil. .When this is done, from 80 to 90% of the fertilizing material of the meal is recovered in the manure, only 10 to 20% being converted by the animal into meat and milk.^ When this is done, from 80 to 90% of the fertilizing material of the meal is recovered in the manure, only 10 to 20% being converted by the animal into meat and milk .

^ It has frequently been noted that even well-fertilized plants upon good soil will mature only 15 or 20% of the bolls produced.

^ A more rational proceeding would be to feed the meal to animals and apply the resulting manure to the soil.

.The profit derived from the 20% thus removed is a very large one.^ The profit derived from the 20% thus removed is a very large one.

.These facts indicate that we have here an agricultural product the market price of which is still far below its value as compared, on the basis of its chemical composition, either with other feeding stuffs or with other fertilizers.^ These facts indicate that we have here an agricultural product the market price of which is still far below its value as compared, on the basis of its chemical composition, either with other feeding stuffs or with other fertilizers.

^ Very little on the market to-day, but the designs are still in use on other fabrics and sold as "calico print".
  • Internet Centre for Canadian Fashion and Design - NTG International Inc.- Textile Dictionary 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.ntgi.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In comparative valuations of feeding stuffs it has been found that cotton seed meal exceeds corn meal by 62%, wheat by 67%, and raw cotton seed by 26%.

.Though it is probably destined to be used even more extensively as a fertilizer before the demand for it as a feeding stuff becomes equal to the supply, practically all the cotton seed meal of the south will ultimately be used for feeding.^ Though it is probably destined to be used even more extensively as a fertilizer before the demand for it as a feeding stuff becomes equal to the supply, practically all the cotton seed meal of the south will ultimately be used for feeding.

^ Cotton seed meal .

^ Cotton seed cake or meal (the residue after the oil is extracted) is one of the most valuable of feeding stuffs, as the following simple comparison between it and oats and corn will show: 500 lb 400 lb 700 lb 200 lb 200 to 300 lb Cotton Cotton seed meal , though poor in carbohydrates, the fatand energy-supplying ingredients, is exceedingly rich in protein, the nerveand muscle -feeding ingredients.

.One explanation of this condition of things is that there is still a large surplus of cotton seed which cannot be manufactured by the mills.^ One explanation of this condition of things is that there is still a large surplus of cotton seed which cannot be manufactured by the mills.

^ Breeders know that a cotton blossom isolated by any one of several techniques will usually develop a mature boll with viable seed.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ If about 3,000,000 tons only are pressed, there remain to be utilized on the farm 2,000,000 tons of cotton seed, which, if manufactured, would produce a total of $100,000,000 from cotton seed.

Another reason is found in the absence of cattle in the south to eat it.
.With the consideration of cotton seed oil and meal we have not, however, exhausted its possibilities.^ They do considerable damage to cotton seed.

^ Cotton seed meal .

^ With the consideration of cotton seed oil and meal we have not, however, exhausted its possibilities.

.Cotton seed hulls constitute about half the weight of the ginned seed.^ Cotton seed hulls constitute about half the weight of the ginned seed.

^ The lint can be removed from the seed with the same type of gin saws that are used on upland cotton, but the quality of the lint is better if it is removed with a roller gin.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ If about 3,000,000 tons only are pressed, there remain to be utilized on the farm 2,000,000 tons of cotton seed, which, if manufactured, would produce a total of $100,000,000 from cotton seed.

.After the seed of Upland cotton has been passed through a fine gin, which takes off the short lint or linters left upon it by the farmer, it is passed through what is called a sheller, consisting of a revolving cylinder, armed with numerous knives, which cut the seed in two and force the kernels or meats from the shells.^ After the seed of Upland cotton has been passed through a fine gin, which takes off the short lint or linters left upon it by the farmer, it is passed through what is called a sheller, consisting of a revolving cylinder , armed with numerous knives, which cut the seed in two and force the kernels or meats from the shells.

^ It consists essentially of a series of circular notched disks, the so-called saws, revolving between the interstices of an iron bed upon which the cotton is placed: the teeth of the " saws " catch the lint and pull it off from the seeds, then a revolving brush removes the detached lint from the saws, and creates sufficient draught to carry the lint out of the machine to some distance.

^ It consists essentially of two rollers either both of wood, or one of wood and one of iron , geared to revolve in contact in opposite directions; the seed cotton is fed to the rollers, the lint is drawn through, and the seed being unable to pass between the rollers is rejected.

.The shells and kernels are then separated in a winnowing machine.^ The shells and kernels are then separated in a winnowing machine.

.This removal of the shell makes a great difference in the oilcake, as the decorticated cake is more nutritious than the undecorticated.^ This removal of the shell makes a great difference in the oilcake, as the decorticated cake is more nutritious than the undecorticated.

^ It seems to make little difference exactly what distance they are, so long as they are not wider apart on average land than i ft.

^ Then, whether prices rise or fall as a whole, he gains if the difference between the two prices becomes less than a d., but if it becomes more, he loses.

.For a long time these shells or hulls, as they are called, were burned at oil mills for fuel, 22 tons being held equal to a cord of wood, and 43 tons to a ton of coal.^ For a long time these shells or hulls, as they are called, were burned at oil mills for fuel , 22 tons being held equal to a cord of wood, and 43 tons to a ton of coal .

^ It yields the most valuable of all cottons, the hairs being long, fine and silky, and ranging in length from to 22 in.

.The hulls thus burned produced an ash containing an average of 9% of phosphoric acid and 24% of potash - a very valuable fertilizer in itself, and one eagerly sought by growers of tobacco and vegetables.^ The hulls thus burned produced an ash containing an average of 9% of phosphoric acid and 24% of potash - a very valuable fertilizer in itself, and one eagerly sought by growers of tobacco and vegetables.

^ The average of a large number of analyses of Upland cotton seed gives the following figures for its fertilizing constituents: - Nitrogen , 3.07%; phosphoric acid , 1.02%; potash, 1.17%; besides small amounts of lime , magnesia and other valuable but less important ingredients.

^ Sea Island cotton seed is rather more valuable than Upland: the corresponding figures for the three principal constituents being nitrogen 3.51, phosphoric acid 1 69, potash 1.59%.

.It was not long, however, before the stock-feeder in the South found that cotton seed hulls were an excellent substitute for hay.^ It was not long, however, before the stock-feeder in the South found that cotton seed hulls were an excellent substitute for hay .

^ In comparative valuations of feeding stuffs it has been found that cotton seed meal exceeds corn meal by 62%, wheat by 67%, and raw cotton seed by 26%.

^ Though it is probably destined to be used even more extensively as a fertilizer before the demand for it as a feeding stuff becomes equal to the supply, practically all the cotton seed meal of the south will ultimately be used for feeding.

.They are used on a very large scale in the vicinity of oil mills in southern cities like Memphis, New Orleans, Houston, and Little Rock, from Soo to s000 cattle being often collected in a single yard for this purpose.^ They are used on a very large scale in the vicinity of oil mills in southern cities like Memphis, New Orleans , Houston , and Little Rock , from Soo to s000 cattle being often collected in a single yard for this purpose.

^ Very little on the market to-day, but the designs are still in use on other fabrics and sold as "calico print".
  • Internet Centre for Canadian Fashion and Design - NTG International Inc.- Textile Dictionary 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.ntgi.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The price of options of course varies: that of double options is always highest, but they are little used.

.No other feed is required, the only provision necessary being an adequate supply of water and an occasional allowance of salt.^ No other feed is required, the only provision necessary being an adequate supply of water and an occasional allowance of salt .

^ India for a long series of years did but little towards supplying the manufactures of other countries with the raw material which they required.

^ This usually occurs only when no other pollen is available for the bees.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Many thousands of cattle are fattened annually in this way at remarkably low cost.^ Many thousands of cattle are fattened annually in this way at remarkably low cost.

.Careful attention is now given to the employment of the seed in new cotton countries, and oil expression is practised in the West Indies.^ Careful attention is now given to the employment of the seed in new cotton countries, and oil expression is practised in the West Indies.

^ The profits obtained from ground-nuts ( Arachis hypogea ) in Gambia , gold mining in the Gold Coast , and from products of the oil palm ( Elaeis guineensis) in the palm -oil belt serve to prevent much attention being given to cotton in these districts.

^ At the end of the 18th century the bulk of British cotton was obtained from the West Indies.

.Hull is the principal seat of the industry in Great Britain, and enormous quantities of Indian and Egyptian cotton seed are imported and worked up.^ Hull is the principal seat of the industry in Great Britain, and enormous quantities of Indian and Egyptian cotton seed are imported and worked up.

^ Instead of attempting to increase the local supply, they concluded that hybrid cotton seed must be produced "in marginal cotton growing areas where bee activity is great."
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It is easily transported from place to place in seed-cotton, and for this reason the Egyptian government in 1904 prohibited the importation of American cotton seed.

.The following diagram, modified from one by Grimshaw, in accordance with the results obtained by the better class of modern mills, gives an interesting resume of the products obtained from a ton of cotton seed: - Products from a Ton of Cotton Seed. Cotton seed, 2000 pounds.^ Cotton seed, 2000 pounds.

^ The following diagram , modified from one by Grimshaw, in accordance with the results obtained by the better class of modern mills, gives an interesting resume of the products obtained from a ton of cotton seed: - Products from a Ton of Cotton Seed.

^ He classifies the modern high-class Sea Island cottons as G. barbadense, var.

.Lin I ters, 23 pounds.^ Lin I ters, 23 pounds.

.Meats, 1090 pounds.^ Meats, 1090 pounds.

.Hul s, 888 pounds.^ Hul s, 888 pounds.

Fibre.
.Crude oil, 290 pounds.^ Crude oil, 290 pounds.

.(High-grade paper.^ (High-grade paper.

) Summer Yellow. I Soap stock. (Fuel.) .(WinterCotton seed yellow stearin.^ (WinterCotton seed yellow stearin.

) .(Cattle food) with the meal.^ (Cattle food) with the meal.

Salad oil.
Summer white.
.These together, Lard.^ These together, Lard .

a very valuable manure.
.Cottolene (with beef stearin, cooking oil).^ Cottolene (with beef stearin, cooking oil).

Miners' oil. Soap.
.Pests and Diseases of the Cotton Plant.^ Planned rotations are one of the most effective means of breaking many insect pest and plant disease cycles in the soil.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ No remedy is known for the disease, and cotton should not be planted on infected land for at least three or four years.

^ Pests and Diseases of the Cotton Plant.

Insect Pests. - .It
is common knowledge that when any plant is cultivated on a large scale various diseases and pests frequently appear.^ It is common knowledge that when any plant is cultivated on a large scale various diseases and pests frequently appear.

^ Planned rotations are one of the most effective means of breaking many insect pest and plant disease cycles in the soil.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In a nutshell, we invite pest problems by planting large expanses of a single susceptible crop.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

In some cases the pest was already present but of minor importance. .As the supply of its favourite food plant is increased, conditions of life for the pest are improved, and it accordingly multiplies also, possibly becoming a serious hindrance to successful cultivation.^ As the supply of its favourite food plant is increased, conditions of life for the pest are improved, and it accordingly multiplies also, possibly becoming a serious hindrance to successful cultivation.

^ The number of flowers on a cotton plant are determined by numerous factors including the available plant food, water supply, variety, and density of the plant population.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Late day applications will stay on the plant longer, increasing the chances of contact with target pests.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.At other times the pest is introduced, and under congenial conditions (and possibly in the absence of some other organism which keeps it in check in its native country) increases accordingly.^ At other times the pest is introduced, and under congenial conditions (and possibly in the absence of some other organism which keeps it in check in its native country) increases accordingly.

^ In some instances a slight difference in the shape, mode of opening, &c., of the boll prevents this, and accordingly seed is selected from bolls which suffer least under the particular adverse conditions.

^ Many other diseases occur, but the above are sufficient to indicate some of the principal ones in the most important cotton countries of the world.

.Some idea of the enormous damage wrought by the collective attacks of individually small and weak animals may be gathered from the fact that a conservative estimate places the loss due to insect attacks on cotton in the United States at the astounding figure of $60,000,000 (£12,000,000) annually.^ Some idea of the enormous damage wrought by the collective attacks of individually small and weak animals may be gathered from the fact that a conservative estimate places the loss due to insect attacks on cotton in the United States at the astounding figure of $60,000,000 (£12,000,000) annually.

^ A wide variety of insects attack cotton.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In former years the annual damage done by it in the United States was assessed at £4,000,000 to £6,000,000.

.Of this total no less than $40,000,000 (8,000,000) is credited to a small beetle, the cotton boll weevil, and to two caterpillars.^ Of this total no less than $40,000,000 (8,000,000) is credited to a small beetle , the cotton boll weevil , and to two caterpillars.

^ The boll weevil and tobacco budworm are no longer economic pests in most areas of the Cotton Belt, but theyve been replaced by secondary pests like the tarnished plant bug, which are proving to be costly bugs to control as well....
  • Recent Cotton Articles | Delta Farm Press 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC deltafarmpress.com [Source type: General]

^ The boll weevil has two effective insect parasites, Bracon mellitor and Catolaccus grandis .
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.The best means of combating these attacks depends on a knowledge of the life-histories and habits of the pests.^ The best means of combating these attacks depends on a knowledge of the life-histories and habits of the pests.

.The following notes deal only with the practical side of the question, and as the United States produce some seven-tenths of the world's cotton crop attention is especially directed to the principal cotton pests of that country.^ The approximate weights of some of the principal bales on the English market are as follows: United States.

^ The following notes deal only with the practical side of the question, and as the United States produce some seven-tenths of the world's cotton crop attention is especially directed to the principal cotton pests of that country.

^ The United States produced very nearly seven-tenths of the total " visible " cotton crops of the world.

.Those of other regions are only referred to when sufficiently important to demand separate notice.^ Those of other regions are only referred to when sufficiently important to demand separate notice.

^ Many other diseases occur, but the above are sufficient to indicate some of the principal ones in the most important cotton countries of the world.

.The cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis), a small grey weevil often called the Mexican boll weevil, is the most serious pest of cotton in the United States, where the damage done by it in 1907 was estimated at about £5,000,000. It steadily increased in destructiveness during the preceding eight years.^ It is the most serious pest of cotton in the West Indies.

^ It steadily increased in destructiveness during the preceding eight years.

^ In former years the annual damage done by it in the United States was assessed at £4,000,000 to £6,000,000.

.Attention was drawn to it in 1862, when it caused the abandonment of cotton cultivation about Monclova in Mexico.^ Attention was drawn to it in 1862, when it caused the abandonment of cotton cultivation about Monclova in Mexico .

^ For cotton cultivation the land is ploughed, carefully levelled, and then thrown up into ridges about 3 ft.

^ In Fiji the cotton exported in the 'sixties and 'seventies was worth £93,000 annually; but the cultivation has been practically abandoned.

.About 1893 it appeared in Texas, and then rapidly spread.^ About 1893 it appeared in Texas, and then rapidly spread.

^ Planting begins early in March in Southern Texas, and the first blooms will appear there about May 15.

.It is easily transported from place to place in seed-cotton, and for this reason the Egyptian government in 1904 prohibited the importation of American cotton seed.^ It is easily transported from place to place in seed-cotton, and for this reason the Egyptian government in 1904 prohibited the importation of American cotton seed.

^ Up till 1870 or thereabouts, cotton seed was regarded as a positive nuisance upon the American plantation.

^ It placed on record "its cordial appreciation of the efforts of those governments and institutions which have already supported cotton-growing in their respective colonies."

.Not only is the pest carried from place to place, but it also migrates, and in 1907 it crossed from Louisiana, where it first appeared in 1905, to Mississippi.^ Not only is the pest carried from place to place, but it also migrates, and in 1907 it crossed from Louisiana , where it first appeared in 1905, to Mississippi .

^ For example, tubes in cross-pollinated flowers were visible within 5 to 10 minutes after the pollen was placed on the stigma, but tubes from self pollen did not appear until after 60 to 150 minutes.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.That the insect is likely to prove adaptable is perhaps indicated by the fact that in 1906 it made a northward advance of about 60 m.^ That the insect is likely to prove adaptable is perhaps indicated by the fact that in 1906 it made a northward advance of about 60 m.

in a season with no obvious special features favouring the pest. .Its eastern progress was also rapid.^ Its eastern progress was also rapid.

." The additional territory infested during 1904 aggregates about 15,000,000 sq.^ The additional territory infested during 1904 aggregates about 15,000,000 sq.

m., representing approximately an area devoted to the culture of cotton of .900,000 acres " (Year-book, U.S. Dept.^ Year-book, U.S. Dept.

Agriculture,
1904). .In 1906 the additional area invaded amounted to 1,500,000 acres (Ibid., 1906).^ In 1906 the additional area invaded amounted to 1,500,000 acres ( Ibid., 1906).

^ The annual damage was in 1906 reduced to £r,000,000 to £ 2,000,000, and this on a larger area devoted to cotton than in the case of the estimate given above.

^ The area under cotton in all British India is about 20,000,000 acres, the crop being grown in a very primitive manner.

.1 Cake, 800 pounds.^ Cake, 800 pounds.

Meal. (Feeding stuff. Fertilizer.) I I?
Soaps. Ashes.
Fertilizer.
Bran. (Cattle food.) .The adult weevils puncture the young flower-buds and deposit eggs; and as the grubs from the eggs develop, the bud drops.^ The adult weevils puncture the young flower -buds and deposit eggs; and as the grubs from the eggs develop, the bud drops.

^ Pinkies damage cotton by feeding on buds and flowers and on developing seeds and lint in bolls.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They pierce stems and suck plant juices, causing damage to flower buds (squares), young bolls, and terminal buds.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.They also lay eggs later in the year in the young bolls.^ They also lay eggs later in the year in the young bolls.

^ They pierce stems and suck plant juices, causing damage to flower buds (squares), young bolls, and terminal buds.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They bore holes and penetrate into flower -buds and young bolls, causing them to drop.

.These do not drop, but as the grubs develop the cotton is ruined and the bolls usually become discoloured and crack, their contents being rendered useless.^ These do not drop, but as the grubs develop the cotton is ruined and the bolls usually become discoloured and crack, their contents being rendered useless.

^ Breeders know that a cotton blossom isolated by any one of several techniques will usually develop a mature boll with viable seed.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Pinkies damage cotton by feeding on buds and flowers and on developing seeds and lint in bolls.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.No certain remedy is known for the destruction on a commercial scale of the boll weevil, but every effort has been made in the United States to check the advance of the insect, to ascertain and encourage its natural enemies, and to propagate races of cotton which resist its attacks.^ No certain remedy is known for the destruction on a commercial scale of the boll weevil, but every effort has been made in the United States to check the advance of the insect, to ascertain and encourage its natural enemies, and to propagate races of cotton which resist its attacks.

^ A wide variety of insects attack cotton.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Special interest attaches to experiments made in the United States to endeavour to raise races of cotton resistant to the boll weevil.

.Special interest attaches to the investigations made by Mr O. F. Cook, of the U.S. Dept.^ Special interest attaches to the investigations made by Mr O. F. Cook , of the U.S. Dept.

^ Special interest attaches to experiments made in the United States to endeavour to raise races of cotton resistant to the boll weevil.

of Agriculture, in Guatemala. .The Indians in part of Guatemala raise cotton, although the boll weevil is abundant.^ A weevil attractant pheromone was used to lure boll weevils to the cotton trap crops.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Finally, most organic cotton is grown in the northern fringe of the Cotton Belt, out of the main range of the boll weevil.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Using fall-planted-cotton trap crops to reduce the number of over-wintering boll weevils was first proposed as early as the late 1800s.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.Examination showed that although the weevil attacked the young buds these did not drop off, but that a special growth of tissue inside the bud frequently killed the grub.^ Honey bee colonies have been observed in Arizona by the author (unpublished data) and Grout (1955) showing every evidence of pollen deficiency, although these colonies were surrounded by hundreds of acres of both species of cotton in flower.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Also, inside the young bolls which had been pierced a similar poliferation or growth of the tissue was set up, which enveloped and killed the pest.^ They pierce stems and suck plant juices, causing damage to flower buds (squares), young bolls, and terminal buds.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If the plant "makes up" for motes by setting more bolls, harvest is delayed.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Aphid problems in conventional cotton are usually the result of secondary pest flair ups caused by excessive spraying for a primary pest like lygus or boll weevil, because the broad-spectrum insecticides also kill the beneficial insects.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.Probably by unconscious selection of surviving plants through long ages this type has been evolved in Guatemala, and experiments have been made to develop weevil-resistant races in the United States.^ G. barbadense , known in the United States as American Pima, or Pima, and sometimes called extra-long staple cotton, is grown in long-season areas, such as our Southwestern States.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Plant: The cotton plant is a broad-leaved perennial, 2 to 5 feet tall, that is treated as an annual under much of its growing conditions in the United States.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Fruiting on the plant begins later in the season, which tends to restrict its culture to the area with the longest growing season, such as the extreme southwestern United States.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

Mr Cook also found that the boll weevil was attacked, killed and eaten by an ant-like creature, the " kelep." Attempts have been made to introduce this into the infested area in Texas; but owing to the winter proving fatal to the " kelep " its usefulness may be restricted to tropical and subtropical regions.
.The cotton bollworm (Chlorides obsoleta, also known as Heliothis armiger) is a caterpillar.^ The cotton bollworm ( Chlorides obsoleta, also known as Heliothis armiger ) is a caterpillar .

.The parent moth lays eggs, from which the young " worms " hatch out.^ The parent moth lays eggs, from which the young " worms " hatch out.

^ They also lay eggs later in the year in the young bolls.

^ Pheromone traps will indicate when mating flights are occurring, and through degree-day calculations one can estimate egg laying and hatching.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.They bore holes and penetrate into flower-buds and young bolls, causing them to drop.^ They bore holes and penetrate into flower -buds and young bolls, causing them to drop.

^ The larvae suck the sap from the young bolls and seeds, causing shrivelling and reduction in quantity of fibre.

^ Paris green kills it in its young stages before it has entered the buds or bolls.

.Fortunately the " worms " prefer maize to cotton, and the inter-planting at proper times of maize, to be cut down and destroyed when well infested, is a method commonly employed to keep down this pest.^ Fortunately the " worms " prefer maize to cotton, and the inter-planting at proper times of maize , to be cut down and destroyed when well infested, is a method commonly employed to keep down this pest.

^ The boll weevil and tobacco budworm are no longer economic pests in most areas of the Cotton Belt, but theyve been replaced by secondary pests like the tarnished plant bug, which are proving to be costly bugs to control as well....
  • Recent Cotton Articles | Delta Farm Press 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC deltafarmpress.com [Source type: General]

^ Unmowed or strip-mowed alfalfa is preferred by that pest over cotton.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.Paris green kills it in its young stages before it has entered the buds or bolls.^ Paris green kills it in its young stages before it has entered the buds or bolls.

^ Flowering and fruiting go on continually, although in diminishing degree, until the advent of frost , which kills the flowers and young bolls and so puts an end to the production of cotton for the season.

^ They pierce stems and suck plant juices, causing damage to flower buds (squares), young bolls, and terminal buds.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.The boll worm is most destructive in the south-western states, where the damage done is said to vary from 2 to 60% of the crop.^ The boll worm is most destructive in the south-western states, where the damage done is said to vary from 2 to 60% of the crop.

^ The Egyptian boll worm ( Earias insulana ) is the most important insect pest in Egypt and occurs also in other parts of Africa.

^ The weights vary, but most often the count is around 148 x 60.
  • Internet Centre for Canadian Fashion and Design - NTG International Inc.- Textile Dictionary 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.ntgi.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Taking a low average of 4%, the annual loss due to the pest is estimated at about 1 - 2,500,000, and it occupies second place amongst the serious cotton pests of the U.S.A. The boll worm is widely spread through the tropical and temperate zones.^ Taking a low average of 4%, the annual loss due to the pest is estimated at about 1 - 2,500,000, and it occupies second place amongst the serious cotton pests of the U.S.A. The boll worm is widely spread through the tropical and temperate zones.

^ An estimate of the crop puts it at about 1,500,000 bales.

^ Cotton insect loss estimates-1999.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.It may occur in a country without being a pest to cotton, e.g. in India it attacks various plants but not cotton.^ India it attacks various plants but not cotton.

^ It may occur in a country without being a pest to cotton, e.g.

^ Locusts, green-fly, leaf -bugs, blister mites, and various other pests also damage cotton, in a similar way to that in which they injure other crops.

.It has not yet been reported as a cotton pest in the West Indies.^ It has not yet been reported as a cotton pest in the West Indies.

^ It is the most serious pest of cotton in the West Indies.

^ In 1902 the total area under cotton cultivation in the British West Indies was Soo acres.

.The Egyptian boll worm (Earias insulana) is the most important insect pest in Egypt and occurs also in other parts of Africa.^ The Egyptian boll worm ( Earias insulana ) is the most important insect pest in Egypt and occurs also in other parts of Africa.

^ The timing coincides with a period when cotton is most vulnerable to insect pests.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Planned rotations are one of the most effective means of breaking many insect pest and plant disease cycles in the soil.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.Indian boll worms include the same species, and the closely related Earias fabia, which also occurs in Egypt.^ Indian boll worms include the same species, and the closely related Earias fabia, which also occurs in Egypt.

^ The caterpillars (" cut worms ") of various species of Agrotis and other moths occur in all parts of the world and attack young cotton.

^ The Egyptian boll worm ( Earias insulana ) is the most important insect pest in Egypt and occurs also in other parts of Africa.

.The cotton worm (Aletia argillacea) - also called cotton caterpillar, cotton army worm, cotton-leaf worm - is also one stage in the life-history of a moth.^ The cotton worm ( Aletia argillacea) - also called cotton caterpillar , cotton army worm, cotton- leaf worm - is also one stage in the life-history of a moth .

^ The caterpillars (" cut worms ") of various species of Agrotis and other moths occur in all parts of the world and attack young cotton.

^ Bishop Richard Montague , a library borrower, called Cotton's library a ` Magazine of History' (presumably using `magazine' in the sense of a storehouse).

.It is a voracious creature, and unchecked will often totally destroy a crop.^ It is a voracious creature, and unchecked will often totally destroy a crop.

.In former years the annual damage done by it in the United States was assessed at £4,000,000 to £6,000,000. Dusting with Paris green is, however, an efficient remedy if promptly applied at the outset of the attack. The annual damage was in 1906 reduced to £r,000,000 to £ 2,000,000, and this on a larger area devoted to cotton than in the case of the estimate given above.^ Simpson and Duncan (1953) also showed that cultivars selfed for 10 years produced 15 percent less cotton than the original plants.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ G. barbadense , known in the United States as American Pima, or Pima, and sometimes called extra-long staple cotton, is grown in long-season areas, such as our Southwestern States.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Glushkov and Skrebtsov (1960) stated that with 4.9 and 6.6 colonies per hectare (2.0 to 2.5 colonies per acre) the cotton production was increased 20.9 and 45 percent, respectively, over the control areas.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.It is the most serious pest of cotton in the West Indies.^ It is the most serious pest of cotton in the West Indies.

^ It has not yet been reported as a cotton pest in the West Indies.

^ The timing coincides with a period when cotton is most vulnerable to insect pests.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.The Egyptian cotton worm is Prodenia littoralis. The caterpillars (" cut worms ") of various species of Agrotis and other moths occur in all parts of the world and attack young cotton.^ India it attacks various plants but not cotton.

^ The caterpillars (" cut worms ") of various species of Agrotis and other moths occur in all parts of the world and attack young cotton.

^ The Egyptian cotton worm is Prodenia littoralis.

.They can be killed by spreading about cabbage leaves, &c., poisoned with Paris green.^ They can be killed by spreading about cabbage leaves, &c., poisoned with Paris green.

^ Paris green kills it in its young stages before it has entered the buds or bolls.

.Locusts, green-fly, leaf-bugs, blister mites, and various other pests also damage cotton, in a similar way to that in which they injure other crops.^ They do considerable damage to cotton seed.

^ Locusts, green-fly, leaf -bugs, blister mites, and various other pests also damage cotton, in a similar way to that in which they injure other crops.

^ Early maturing crops are more likely to escape damage from late-season infestations of boll weevil, tobacco budworm, cotton bollworm, armyworms, loopers, and other pests.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.The " cotton stainers," various species of Dysdercus, are widely distributed, occurring for example in America, the West Indies, Africa, India, &c.^ Sisal A strong bast fiber that originates from the leaves of the Agave plant, which is found in the West Indies, Central America, and Africa.
  • Fabric - Store 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.fabric.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recognizing the variation in cotton due to natural speciation, breeder manipulation, the wide distribution, and the conditions under which it is grown, the following discussion will be largely confined to upland cotton.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The larvae suck the sap from the young bolls and seeds, causing shrivelling and reduction in quantity of fibre.^ The larvae suck the sap from the young bolls and seeds, causing shrivelling and reduction in quantity of fibre.

^ They pierce stems and suck plant juices, causing damage to flower buds (squares), young bolls, and terminal buds.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They bore holes and penetrate into flower -buds and young bolls, causing them to drop.

.They are called " stainers " because their excrement is yellow and stains the fibre; also if crushed during the process of ginning they give the cotton a reddish coloration.^ They are called " stainers " because their excrement is yellow and stains the fibre; also if crushed during the process of ginning they give the cotton a reddish coloration.

^ Pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella – or pinkies, as they are commonly called – is a significant cotton pest in the Southwest.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Saw gins do considerable damage to the fibre, but for short-stapled cotton they are largely used, owing to their great capacity.

.The Egyptian cotton seed bug or cotton stainer belongs to another genus, being Oxycarenus hyalinipennis. Other species of this genus occur on the west coast of Africa.^ Many other insect species show a preference for the floral nectary of cotton.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Interplanting alfalfa in cotton to control lygus bugs and other insect pests.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ LONG STAPLE COTTON FROM HYBRID SEED OF CROSS BETWEEN HIRSUTUM AND BARBADENSE SPECIES. Indian Cotton Growing Rev. .
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.They do considerable damage to cotton seed.^ They do considerable damage to cotton seed.

^ Instead of attempting to increase the local supply, they concluded that hybrid cotton seed must be produced "in marginal cotton growing areas where bee activity is great."
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Locusts, green-fly, leaf -bugs, blister mites, and various other pests also damage cotton, in a similar way to that in which they injure other crops.

Fungoid Diseases

." Wilt disease," or " frenching," perhaps the most important of the fungoid disease of cotton in the United States, is due to Neocosmospora vasinfecta.^ Wilt disease," or " frenching," perhaps the most important of the fungoid disease of cotton in the United States, is due to Neocosmospora vasinfecta.

^ It is accredited for hours/units for licensed/accredited applicators in 7 U.S. Cotton Belt states (Florida, Georgia, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, South Carolina an d Tennessee.
  • Recent Cotton Articles | Delta Farm Press 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC deltafarmpress.com [Source type: General]

^ G. barbadense , known in the United States as American Pima, or Pima, and sometimes called extra-long staple cotton, is grown in long-season areas, such as our Southwestern States.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Young plants a few inches high are usually attacked; the leaves, beginning with the lower ones, turn yellow, and afterwards become brown and drop.^ Young plants a few inches high are usually attacked; the leaves, beginning with the lower ones, turn yellow, and afterwards become brown and drop.

^ Once the plants are infested, the yellow spots turn reddish brown.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They are found on the undersides of cotton leaves, and when their numbers are high enough, the honeydew falls to leaf surfaces below where sooty mold forms, turning the leaf black.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.The plants remain very dwarf and generally unhealthy, or die.^ The plants remain very dwarf and generally unhealthy, or die.

^ Planters appreciate generally the value of broad-leaved and narrow-leaved plants and root crops, but there is an absence of exact knowledge, with the result that their practices are very varied.

The roots also are affected, and instead of growing considerably in length, branch repeatedly and give rise to little tufts of rootlets. .There is no method known of curing this disease, and all that can be done is to take every precaution to eradicate it, by pulling up and burning diseased plants, isolating the infected area by means of trenches, and avoiding growing cotton, or an allied plant such as the ochro (
Hibiscus esculentus), in the field.^ Avoid growing cotton on ground that is known to harbor this disease.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There is no method known of curing this disease, and all that can be done is to take every precaution to eradicate it, by pulling up and burning diseased plants, isolating the infected area by means of trenches, and avoiding growing cotton, or an allied plant such as the ochro ( Hibiscus esculentus ), in the field.

^ The boll weevil and tobacco budworm are no longer economic pests in most areas of the Cotton Belt, but theyve been replaced by secondary pests like the tarnished plant bug, which are proving to be costly bugs to control as well....
  • Recent Cotton Articles | Delta Farm Press 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC deltafarmpress.com [Source type: General]

.Fortunately the careful work of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and of planters such as Mr E. L. Rivers of James Island, South Carolina, has resulted in the production of disease-resistant races.^ Fortunately the careful work of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and of planters such as Mr E. L. Rivers of James Island, South Carolina , has resulted in the production of disease-resistant races.

^ The resistance was well maintained in succeeding generations, and races so raisedDform a practical means of combating this serious disease.

^ Some of the United States planters are alert to take advantage of the application of science to industry, and in many cases even to render active assistance, and very successful results have been attained by the co-operation of the United States Department of Agriculture and planters.

.In one instance Mr Rivers found one healthy plant in a badly affected field.^ In one instance Mr Rivers found one healthy plant in a badly affected field.

^ Thus sometimes a field of cotton is attacked by some disease, perhaps " wilt," and a comparatively few plants are but very slightly affected.

^ A field is gone over carefully, and perhaps some 5 o of the best plants selected; a second examination in the field reduces these perhaps to one half, and each plant is numbered.

.The seed was saved and gave rise to a row of plants all of which grew healthily in an infected field, whereas 95% of ordinary Sea Island cotton plants from seed from a non-infected field planted alongside as a control were killed.^ The alfalfa seed fields and cotton fields were interspersed.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The seed was saved and gave rise to a row of plants all of which grew healthily in an infected field, whereas 95% of ordinary Sea Island cotton plants from seed from a non-infected field planted alongside as a control were killed.

^ There is no method known of curing this disease, and all that can be done is to take every precaution to eradicate it, by pulling up and burning diseased plants, isolating the infected area by means of trenches, and avoiding growing cotton, or an allied plant such as the ochro ( Hibiscus esculentus ), in the field.

The resistance was well maintained in succeeding generations, and races so raisedDform a practical means of combating this serious disease.
.In " Root rot," as the name implies, the roots are attacked, the fungus being a species of Ozonium, which envelops the roots in a white covering of mould or mycelium.^ In " Root rot," as the name implies, the roots are attacked, the fungus being a species of Ozonium, which envelops the roots in a white covering of mould or mycelium.

.The roots are prevented from fulfilling their function of taking up water and salts from the soil; the leaves accordingly droop, and the whole plant wilts and in bad attacks dies.^ The roots are prevented from fulfilling their function of taking up water and salts from the soil; the leaves accordingly droop, and the whole plant wilts and in bad attacks dies.

^ Young plants a few inches high are usually attacked; the leaves, beginning with the lower ones, turn yellow, and afterwards become brown and drop.

^ It prevents weeds and grasses from growing up and it reduces soil erosion.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.It has yearly proved a more serious danger in Texas and other parts of the south-west of the United States, and the damage due to it in Texas during 1905 was estimated at about £750,000. No remedy is known for the disease, and cotton should not be planted on infected land for at least three or four years.^ No remedy is known for the disease, and cotton should not be planted on infected land for at least three or four years.

^ It has yearly proved a more serious danger in Texas and other parts of the south-west of the United States, and the damage due to it in Texas during 1905 was estimated at about £750,000.

^ In former years the annual damage done by it in the United States was assessed at £4,000,000 to £6,000,000.

." Boll rot," or "Anthracnose," is a disease which may at times be sufficiently serious to destroy from ro to 50% of the crop.^ Boll rot," or "Anthracnose," is a disease which may at times be sufficiently serious to destroy from ro to 50% of the crop.

^ This alteration in pollinator population is further accentuated by applications of toxic pesticides to crops, which may damage, destroy, or cause removal of the majority of the pollinators in a given area.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The eggs are now too much in one basket , and local disease, or bad weather, or some other misfortune, may diminish by serious percentages the supplies anticipated.

.The fungus which causes it (Colletotrichum gossypii) is closely related to one of the fungi attacking sugar-cane in various parts of the world.^ The fungus which causes it ( Colletotrichum gossypii ) is closely related to one of the fungi attacking sugar - cane in various parts of the world.

^ The caterpillars (" cut worms ") of various species of Agrotis and other moths occur in all parts of the world and attack young cotton.

^ With high humidity, it takes only one or two larvae to destroy an entire boll, because damaged bolls are vulnerable to infection by fungi that cause boll rot.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.Small red-brown spots appear on the bolls, gradually enlarge, and develop into irregular black and grey patches.^ These spots enlarge, developing orange-reddish to brown centers.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Boll symptoms are small, round, water-soaked spots that become black.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Southwestern cotton rust, Puccinia cacabata , first appears as small, yellowish spots on leaves, stems, and bolls, usually after a rain.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.The damage may be only slight, or the entire boll may ripen prematurely and become dry and dead.^ With high humidity, it takes only one or two larvae to destroy an entire boll, because damaged bolls are vulnerable to infection by fungi that cause boll rot.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The downside of this strategy may include risks of increased damage from certain insect pests such as boll weevil, tobacco budworm, and cotton bollworm.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.Many other diseases occur, but the above are sufficient to indicate some of the principal ones in the most important cotton countries of the world.^ Many other diseases occur, but the above are sufficient to indicate some of the principal ones in the most important cotton countries of the world.

^ Planned rotations are one of the most effective means of breaking many insect pest and plant disease cycles in the soil.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It may occur in a country without being a pest to cotton, e.g.

.Improvement of Cotton by Seed Selection. In the cotton belt of the United States it would be possible to put a still greater acreage under this crop, but the tendency is rather towards what is known as " diversified " or mixed farming than to making cotton the sole important crop.^ It is accredited for hours/units for licensed/accredited applicators in 7 U.S. Cotton Belt states (Florida, Georgia, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, South Carolina an d Tennessee.
  • Recent Cotton Articles | Delta Farm Press 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC deltafarmpress.com [Source type: General]

^ G. barbadense , known in the United States as American Pima, or Pima, and sometimes called extra-long staple cotton, is grown in long-season areas, such as our Southwestern States.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The benefits derived by cotton from insect pollination have been cited by numerous workers, largely in Russia, where much attention has been given to this subject, but also in Egypt, India, and the United States.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Cotton, however, is in increasing demand, and the problem for the American cotton planter is to obtain a better yield of cotton from the same area, - by " better yield " meaning an increase not only in quantity but also in quality of lint.^ Cotton, however, is in increasing demand, and the problem for the American cotton planter is to obtain a better yield of cotton from the same area, - by " better yield " meaning an increase not only in quantity but also in quality of lint.

^ Instead of attempting to increase the local supply, they concluded that hybrid cotton seed must be produced "in marginal cotton growing areas where bee activity is great."
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ G. barbadense , known in the United States as American Pima, or Pima, and sometimes called extra-long staple cotton, is grown in long-season areas, such as our Southwestern States.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.This ideal is before the cotton grower in all parts of the world, but practical steps are not always taken to realize it.^ Cotton was naturally dispersed throughout much of the warmer parts of the world even before 3,000 B.C., when its lint was spun and woven into cloth (Gulati and Turner 1928).
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Cotton a white vegetable fiber grown in warmer climates in many parts of the world, has been used to produce many types of fabric for hundreds of years.
  • Fabric - Store 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.fabric.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In order for these strategies to be effective, they must be practiced by all cotton growers in an area.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.Some of the United States planters are alert to take advantage of the application of science to industry, and in many cases even to render active assistance, and very successful results have been attained by the co-operation of the United States Department of Agriculture and planters.^ It is accredited for hours/units for licensed/accredited applicators in 7 U.S. Cotton Belt states (Florida, Georgia, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, South Carolina an d Tennessee.
  • Recent Cotton Articles | Delta Farm Press 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC deltafarmpress.com [Source type: General]

^ ATTRA - National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service is managed by the National Center for Appropriate Technology (NCAT) and is funded under a grant from the United States Department of Agriculture's Rural Business-Cooperative Service .
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 1971.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.With the improvement of cotton the name of Mr Herbert J. Webber is prominently associated, and a full discussion of methods and results will be found in his various papers in the Year-books of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.^ With the improvement of cotton the name of Mr Herbert J. Webber is prominently associated, and a full discussion of methods and results will be found in his various papers in the Year-books of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

^ The study found an 11% yield increase for a 2-year cotton-legume-corn rotation compared to continuous cotton grown with legumes each year.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Fortunately the careful work of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and of planters such as Mr E. L. Rivers of James Island, South Carolina , has resulted in the production of disease-resistant races.

The principle on which the work is based is that plants have their individualities and tend to transmit them to their progeny. .Accordingly a selection of particular plants to breed from, because they possess certain desirable characteristics, is as rational as the selection of particular animals for breeding purposes in order to maintain the character of a herd of cattle or of a flock of sheep.^ This is particularly true if the breeder is using the individual plant selection method where he breeds offspring from a single plant.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Inspection of a field of cotton shows that different plants vary as regards productiveness, length, and character of the lint, period of ripening, power of resistance to various pests and of withstanding drought.^ Simpson and Duncan (1953) also showed that cultivars selfed for 10 years produced 15 percent less cotton than the original plants.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ These beneficial organisms also help in creating a healthy plant that is able to resist pest attack.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The concept of induced resistance in plants has generated much interest in alternative pest control circles recently.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.A simple method of increasing the yield is that practised with success by some growers in the States.^ Ter-Avanesyan and Lalaev (1954) reported yield increase, bolls ripening 5 to 6 days earlier, and some resistance to Verticillium wilt.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

Pickers are trained to recognize the best plants, " that is, those most productive, earliest in ripening, and having the largest, best formed and most numerous bolls." .These pickers go carefully over the field, usually just before the second picking, and gather ripe cotton from the best plants only; this selected seed cotton is ginned separately, and the seed used for sowing the next year's crop.^ The alfalfa seed fields and cotton fields were interspersed.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ COTTON Gossypium spp., family Malvaceae Cotton is grown primarily for its lint, although the seed, valued at about one-fifth that of the lint, is also used for planting or is crushed, a food oil recovered, and the residue used as a livestock food.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Simpson and Duncan (1953) also showed that cultivars selfed for 10 years produced 15 percent less cotton than the original plants.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.A more elaborate method of selection is practised by some of the Sea Island cotton planters in the Sea Islands, famous for the quality of their cotton.^ Because of some lack of agreement on the pollination requirements of cotton, more than the usual amount of space is devoted herein to this crop.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Finest quality made from Egyptian or combed pima cotton - also sea island.
  • Internet Centre for Canadian Fashion and Design - NTG International Inc.- Textile Dictionary 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC www.ntgi.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This characteristic has been transferred to some commercial selections to provide a nectariless cotton (Meyer and Meyer 1961).
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.A field is gone over carefully, and perhaps some 5 o of the best plants selected; a second examination in the field reduces these perhaps to one half, and each plant is numbered.^ Some of these parasites and predators can be purchased or harnessed naturally through planting or conserving habitat for them.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some of these parasite beneficials parasitize more than one whitefly species.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Using fall-planted-cotton trap crops to reduce the number of over-wintering boll weevils was first proposed as early as the late 1800s.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.The cotton from each is collected and kept separately, and at the end of the season carefully examined and weighed, and a final selection is then made which reduces the number to perhaps five; the cotton from each of these plants is gained separately and the seed preserved for sowing.^ The number of flowers on a cotton plant are determined by numerous factors including the available plant food, water supply, variety, and density of the plant population.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Also, the cotton was handpicked, with extreme care taken to collect every seed.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Cotton fleahopper (Heteroptera: Miridae) responses to volatiles from selected host plants.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

The simplest possible case in which only one plant is finally selected is illustrated in the diagram.
1st. Year 2nd. Year 3rd. Year 4th. Year 5th. Year After Webber, 1902.
.Improvement of Cotton by Seed Selection.^ COTTON IMPROVEMENT THROUGH TYPE SELECTION. U.S. Dept.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Improvement of Cotton by Seed Selection.

^ IMPROVEMENT OF COTTON BY SEED SELECTION. U.S. Dept.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.From the seeds of the selected plant of the ist year about 500 plants can be raised in the next year.^ From the seeds of the selected plant of the ist year about 500 plants can be raised in the next year.

^ Formerly in Egypt the cotton was treated as a perennial, but this practice has been generally abandoned, and fresh plants are raised from seed each year, as in America; one great advantage is that more than one crop can thus be obtained each year.

^ Korea is stated to have originally received its cotton plants from China some 500 years ago.

.One plant is selected again from these 500, and the general crop of seed is used to sow about five acres for the 3rd year, from which seed is obtained for the general crop in the 4th year.^ One plant is selected again from these 500, and the general crop of seed is used to sow about five acres for the 3rd year, from which seed is obtained for the general crop in the 4th year.

^ From the seeds of the selected plant of the ist year about 500 plants can be raised in the next year.

^ Formerly in Egypt the cotton was treated as a perennial, but this practice has been generally abandoned, and fresh plants are raised from seed each year, as in America; one great advantage is that more than one crop can thus be obtained each year.

.One special plant is selected each year from the Soo raised from the previous season's test plant, and in four years' time the progeny of this plant constitutes the " general crop."^ One special plant is selected each year from the Soo raised from the previous season's test plant, and in four years' time the progeny of this plant constitutes the " general crop."

^ Formerly in Egypt the cotton was treated as a perennial, but this practice has been generally abandoned, and fresh plants are raised from seed each year, as in America; one great advantage is that more than one crop can thus be obtained each year.

^ Anon., 1993 ) A minimum of two years planted to non-host species is the standard recommendation.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.The practice may be modified according to the size of estate by selecting more than one plant each year, but the principle remains unaltered.^ The practice may be modified according to the size of estate by selecting more than one plant each year, but the principle remains unaltered.

^ Simpson and Duncan (1953) also showed that cultivars selfed for 10 years produced 15 percent less cotton than the original plants.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Formerly in Egypt the cotton was treated as a perennial, but this practice has been generally abandoned, and fresh plants are raised from seed each year, as in America; one great advantage is that more than one crop can thus be obtained each year.

.This method is in actual use by growers of Sea Island cotton in America and in the islands off the coast of S. Carolina; the greatest care is taken to enhance the quality of the lint, which has been gradually improved in length, fineness and silkiness.^ This method is in actual use by growers of Sea Island cotton in America and in the islands off the coast of S. Carolina; the greatest care is taken to enhance the quality of the lint, which has been gradually improved in length, fineness and silkiness.

^ Sea Island and other long-stapled cottons.

^ He classifies the modern high-class Sea Island cottons as G. barbadense, var.

.Mr Webber, in summing up, says, " When Sea Island cotton was first introduced into the United States from the West Indies, it was a perennial plant, unsuited to the duration of the season of the latitude of the Sea Islands of S. Carolina; but, through the selection of seed from early maturing individual plants, the cotton has been rendered much earlier, until now it is thoroughly adapted to the existing conditions.^ Into the Society Islands Sea Island cotton was introduced about 1860-1870.

^ Mr Webber, in summing up, says, " When Sea Island cotton was first introduced into the United States from the West Indies, it was a perennial plant, unsuited to the duration of the season of the latitude of the Sea Islands of S. Carolina; but, through the selection of seed from early maturing individual plants, the cotton has been rendered much earlier, until now it is thoroughly adapted to the existing conditions.

^ The seed was saved and gave rise to a row of plants all of which grew healthily in an infected field, whereas 95% of ordinary Sea Island cotton plants from seed from a non-infected field planted alongside as a control were killed.

.The fibre has increased in length from about z4 to 22 in., and the plants have at the same time been increased in productiveness.^ The fibre has increased in length from about z4 to 22 in., and the plants have at the same time been increased in productiveness.

^ The fibre is fine and silky, of about an inch in length.

^ Cotton has not been cultivated in China from such early times as in India, and although cotton cloths are mentioned in early writings it was not until about A.D. 1300 that the plant was grown on any considerable scale.

.The custom of carefully selecting the seed has grown with the industry and may be said to be inseparable from it.^ The custom of carefully selecting the seed has grown with the industry and may be said to be inseparable from it.

.It is only by such careful and con tinuous selection that the staple of these high-bred strains can be kept up to its present superiority, and if for any reason the selection is interrupted there is a general and rapid decline in quality."^ It is only by such careful and con tinuous selection that the staple of these high-bred strains can be kept up to its present superiority, and if for any reason the selection is interrupted there is a general and rapid decline in quality."

^ Probably an the prices infinitude of subtle influences came into play, and among these there seems reason to include the in- of futures."

^ For these reasons, bumble bees are not always present in adequate numbers when desired, and their numbers cannot be increased as desired.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.When selection is being made for several characters at the same time, and also in hybridization experiments, where it is important to have full records of the characters of individual plants and their progeny, " score cards," such as are used in judging stock, with a scale of points, are used.^ When selection is being made for several characters at the same time, and also in hybridization experiments, where it is important to have full records of the characters of individual plants and their progeny, " score cards," such as are used in judging stock, with a scale of points, are used.

^ Probably by unconscious selection of surviving plants through long ages this type has been evolved in Guatemala, and experiments have been made to develop weevil-resistant races in the United States.

^ The principle on which the work is based is that plants have their individualities and tend to transmit them to their progeny.

.The improvements desired in cotton vary to some degree in different countries, according to the present character of the plants, climatic conditions, the chief pests, special market requirements, and other circumstances.^ India it attacks various plants but not cotton.

^ The date of cotton-planting varies from March i to June 1, according to situation.

^ The improvements desired in cotton vary to some degree in different countries, according to the present character of the plants, climatic conditions, the chief pests, special market requirements, and other circumstances.

.Amongst the more important desiderata are: r.^ Amongst the more important desiderata are: r.

Increased Yield.
.2. Increase in Length of Lint.^ Increase in Length of Lint.

- .Webber records the case of Stamm Egyptian cotton imported into Columbia, in which by simple selection, as outlined above, during two years plants were obtained uniformly earlier, more productive, and yielding longer and better lint.^ Webber records the case of Stamm Egyptian cotton imported into Columbia , in which by simple selection, as outlined above, during two years plants were obtained uniformly earlier, more productive, and yielding longer and better lint.

^ Simpson and Duncan (1953) also showed that cultivars selfed for 10 years produced 15 percent less cotton than the original plants.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Clay and " bottom " lands produce a large, leafy plant, yielding less lint in proportion.

.3. Uniformity in Length of the Lint.^ Uniformity in Length of the Lint.

- .This is important especially in the Iong-stapled cottons, unevenness leading to waste in manufacture, and consequently to a lower price for the cotton.^ This is important especially in the Iong-stapled cottons, unevenness leading to waste in manufacture, and consequently to a lower price for the cotton.

^ It is evident that the buying of cotton on the principles suggested would be calculated to cause great unsteadiness of prices, especially as cotton is not continuously forthcoming, but is produced periodically in harvests.

^ In the future Korea may become an important source of supply for Japan , especially if, as appears likely, Korea proves suited to the cultivation of American cotton.

4. Strength of Fibre. - .Long-stapled cottons have been produced in the States by crossing Upland and Sea Island cotton.^ Long-stapled cottons have been produced in the States by crossing Upland and Sea Island cotton.

^ Egyptian cotton in length of staple is intermediate between average Sea Island and average Upland.

^ Sea Island and other long-stapled cottons.

.These hybrids produce a lint which is long and silky, but often deficient in strength: selection for strength amongst the hybrids, with due regard to length, may overcome this.^ These hybrids produce a lint which is long and silky, but often deficient in strength: selection for strength amongst the hybrids, with due regard to length, may overcome this.

^ Each section of the oval, 1-inch boll that develops from the ovary may produce a "lock," a distinct group of lint-entangled seed.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It yields the most valuable of all cottons, the hairs being long, fine and silky, and ranging in length from to 22 in.

5. Season of Maturing. - .Seed should be selected from early and late opening bolls, according to requirements.^ Seed should be selected from early and late opening bolls, according to requirements.

^ In some instances a slight difference in the shape, mode of opening, &c., of the boll prevents this, and accordingly seed is selected from bolls which suffer least under the particular adverse conditions.

^ Using fall-planted-cotton trap crops to reduce the number of over-wintering boll weevils was first proposed as early as the late 1800s.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.Earliness is especially important in countries where the season is short.^ Earliness is especially important in countries where the season is short.

^ The objective of short-season cotton is to escape significant damage caused by the second generation of weevils, through early fruiting and harvest.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.6. Adaptation to Soil and Climate.^ Adaptation to Soil and Climate.

- .High-class cottons often do not flourish if introduced into a new country.^ High-class cottons often do not flourish if introduced into a new country.

^ He classifies the modern high-class Sea Island cottons as G. barbadense, var.

^ Into the Society Islands Sea Island cotton was introduced about 1860-1870.

.They are adapted to special conditions which are lacking in their new surroundings, but a few will probably do fairly well the first year, and the seeds from these probably rather better the next, and so on, so that in a few years' time a strain may be available which is equal or even superior to the original one introduced.^ They are adapted to special conditions which are lacking in their new surroundings, but a few will probably do fairly well the first year, and the seeds from these probably rather better the next, and so on, so that in a few years' time a strain may be available which is equal or even superior to the original one introduced.

^ Concluding cautiously, we may admit the probability of the relations between near and distant "futures" and "spot" (even in respect of "futures" running out in the same crop year) indicating sometimes at least the intentional or unintentional "bulling" or "bearing" or "spot" by "futures."

^ It seems a plausible conjecture that if "futures" were " bulling " the market in the first case, they were at least " bulling " it less in the second case ceteris paribus, and probably correlations have not been worked out.'

7. Resistance to Disease. - .The method employed is to select, for seed purposes, plants which are resistant to the particular disease.^ The method employed is to select, for seed purposes, plants which are resistant to the particular disease.

^ Accordingly a selection of particular plants to breed from, because they possess certain desirable characteristics, is as rational as the selection of particular animals for breeding purposes in order to maintain the character of a herd of cattle or of a flock of sheep .

^ In some instances a slight difference in the shape, mode of opening, &c., of the boll prevents this, and accordingly seed is selected from bolls which suffer least under the particular adverse conditions.

.Thus sometimes a field of cotton is attacked by some disease, perhaps " wilt," and a comparatively few plants are but very slightly affected.^ Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae is widespread, attacking many other agronomic, horticultural, and ornamental crops, as well as some weeds.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the study, cotton intercropped with crimson clover yielded 5,564 pounds of seed cotton per acre, compared with 1,666 pounds of seed cotton in the rest of the field ( Yancy, 1994 ).
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Simpson (1954a) also stated: "Cotton is a partially cross-pollinated plant, thus some degree of heterozygosity is maintained indefinitely when open pollinated seeds from an original F 1 population is continued on through F 2 , and F 3 , and subsequent generations.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

These are propagated, and there are instances as described above of very successful and commercially important results having been attained. .Special interest attaches to experiments made in the United States to endeavour to raise races of cotton resistant to the boll weevil.^ Special interest attaches to experiments made in the United States to endeavour to raise races of cotton resistant to the boll weevil.

^ No certain remedy is known for the destruction on a commercial scale of the boll weevil, but every effort has been made in the United States to check the advance of the insect, to ascertain and encourage its natural enemies, and to propagate races of cotton which resist its attacks.

^ About one-third of the cotton used in Russian mills is grown on Russian territory, the remainder coming chiefly from the United States.

8. Resistance to Weather. - .Strong winds and heavy rains do much damage to cotton by blowing or beating the lint out of the bolls.^ The damage caused by aphids and other homopterans, like whiteflies, comes from their honeydew excretion that contaminates the lint and causes sticky cotton.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Pinkies damage cotton by feeding on buds and flowers and on developing seeds and lint in bolls.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A season of heavy rains and high humidity with grama grass close by has the potential for problems with cotton rust.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.In some instances a slight difference in the shape, mode of opening, &c., of the boll prevents this, and accordingly seed is selected from bolls which suffer least under the particular adverse conditions.^ Under dry conditions, no measurable yield reduction occurs until 25 to 30% of the bolls are infested; at this level the infested bolls have more than one larva.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.Attention has been paid in the West Indies to seed selection, by the officers of the imperial Department of Agriculture, with the object of retaining for West Indian Sea Island cotton its place as the most valuable cotton on the British market.^ As shown in other places herein, its value in the United States would appear to be in proportion to its use and concentration on the cotton.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Most of this raw cotton is currently machine-harvested then transported to a cotton gin where the lint is separated from the seed then pressed into bales.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ STUDIES IN PLANT BREEDING AND TECHNIQUE. IV, THE INHERITANCE OF AGRICULTURAL CHARACTERS IN 3 INTERSTRAIN CROSSES OF COTTON. Indian Jour.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In India, where conditions are much more diversified and it is more difficult to induce the native cultivator to adopt new methods, attention has also been directed during recent years to the improvement of the existing races.^ The benefits derived by cotton from insect pollination have been cited by numerous workers, largely in Russia, where much attention has been given to this subject, but also in Egypt, India, and the United States.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Cisneros and Godfrey, 2001 ) This increase in aphid pressure has also increased insecticide application, from an average of 2-3 to 4-6 or more per season in recent years in many areas.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

Efforts have been made in the same direction in Egypt, West Africa, &c.
Country.
Approximate
Production.
Bales of 500 lb.
Percentage.
United States of America
11,000,000
68.75
Indi
18.75
Egypt.. .
6.25
All other countries. .. .
1,000,000
6.25
Total .
16,000,000
100.00
Country.
1904.
1905.
1906.
United States .
13,085,000
10, 340,000
13,016,000
British India .
2,843,000
2,519,000
3,708,000
Egypt
1,258,000
1,181,000
1,400,000
Russia
554,000
585,000
675,000
China
468,000
415,000
418,000
Brazil
210,000
258,000
275,000
Mexico
114,000
125,000
130,000
Peru
40,000
55,000
55,000
Turkey
100,000
107,000
107,000
Persia
45,000
47,000
47,000
Japan
16,000
15,000
11,000
Other countries. .
70,000
100,000
100,000
Total
18,803,000
1 5,747, 000
19,942,000
.The World's Commercial Cotton Crop. It is impossible to give an exact return of the total amount of cotton produced in the world, owing to the fact that in China, India and other eastern countries, in Mexico, Brazil, parts of the Russian empire, tropical Africa, &c., considerable - in some cases very large - quantities of cotton are made up locally into wearing apparel, &c., and escape all statistical record.^ All other countries.

^ It is impossible to give an exact return of the total amount of cotton produced in the world, owing to the fact that in China , India and other eastern countries, in Mexico, Brazil , parts of the Russian empire, tropical Africa, &c., considerable - in some cases very large - quantities of cotton are made up locally into wearing apparel , &c., and escape all statistical record.

^ Very simple machines are used in some parts of Africa.

.It is estimated that the amount thus used in India exclusive of the consumption of mills is equivalent to about 400,000 bales.^ An estimate of the crop puts it at about 1,500,000 bales.

^ It is estimated that the amount thus used in India exclusive of the consumption of mills is equivalent to about 400,000 bales.

^ From 'goo to 1905 the crop was about ioo,000 bales per annum; the whole is consumed in local mills, and cotton is imported also from the United States.

.Neglecting, however, Select 5??T Plant Plants Select Plant 5 Acres Select Plant these quantities, which do not affect the world's market, the annual supplies of cotton are approximately as follows: In 1905 the world's crop closely approximated to 16,000,000 bales, whilst in 1904 it was nearly 19,000,000 bales and in 1906 nearly 20,000,000 bales.^ Neglecting, however, Select 5??T Plant Plants Select Plant 5 Acres Select Plant these quantities, which do not affect the world's market, the annual supplies of cotton are approximately as follows: In 1905 the world's crop closely approximated to 16,000,000 bales, whilst in 1904 it was nearly 19,000,000 bales and in 1906 nearly 20,000,000 bales.

^ The average annual production in India approximates to 3,000,000 bales.

^ Exports of Cotton from British West Africa, 1904, 1905 and 1906.

.The United States produced very nearly seven-tenths of the total " visible " cotton crops of the world.^ The United States produced very nearly seven-tenths of the total " visible " cotton crops of the world.

^ The following notes deal only with the practical side of the question, and as the United States produce some seven-tenths of the world's cotton crop attention is especially directed to the principal cotton pests of that country.

^ From 'goo to 1905 the crop was about ioo,000 bales per annum; the whole is consumed in local mills, and cotton is imported also from the United States.

.This, however, is quite a modern development, comparatively speaking.^ This, however, is quite a modern development, comparatively speaking.

." During the period from 1786 to 1790 the West Indies furnished about 70% of the British supply, the Mediterranean countries 20%, and Brazil 8%; whilst the quantity contributed by the United States and India was less than 1% and Egypt contributed none.^ Approximately the supplies were as follows in million lb: British West Indies.

^ In 1906 the United States contributed 65% of the commercial cotton, British India 19%, 19%, Egypt 7%, and Russia 3%.

^ During the period from 1786 to 1790 the West Indies furnished about 70% of the British supply, the Mediterranean countries 20%, and Brazil 8%; whilst the quantity contributed by the United States and India was less than 1% and Egypt contributed none.

.In 1906 the United States contributed 65% of the commercial cotton, British India 19%,19%, Egypt 7%, and Russia 3%.^ In 1906 the United States contributed 65% of the commercial cotton, British India 19%, 19%, Egypt 7%, and Russia 3%.

^ In India it is known as Nurma or Deo cotton, and is usually stated to be employed for making thread for the turbans of the priests.

^ From 'goo to 1905 the crop was about ioo,000 bales per annum; the whole is consumed in local mills, and cotton is imported also from the United States.

.Of the countries which were prominent in the production of cotton in 1790, Brazil and Asiatic Turkey alone remain " (U.S.A. Bureau of the Census, Bulletin No 76). The actual figures for the chief countries for 1904-1906, taken from the same source, are as follows: The World's Commercial Cotton Crop. (In 500 lb Bales.^ Of the countries which were prominent in the production of cotton in 1790, Brazil and Asiatic Turkey alone remain " (U.S.A. Bureau of the Census , Bulletin No 76).

^ (In Thousand Statistical Bales of 500 lb each.

^ Bales of 500 lb.

) This title serves to ind'cate the principal countries contributing to the world's supply of cotton. .The following notes afford a summary of the position of the industry in the more important countries.^ The following notes afford a summary of the position of the industry in the more important countries.

United States of America.-The cultivation of cotton as a staple crop in the United States dates from about 1770, 1 although efforts appear to have been made in Virginia as far back as 1621.
.The supplies continued to be small up to the end of the century.^ The supplies continued to be small up to the end of the century.

.In 1792 the quantity exported from the United States was only 1 It is related that in the year 1784 William Rathbone, an American merchant resident in Liverpool, received from one of his correspondents in the southern states a consignment of eight bags of cotton, which on its arrival in Liverpool was seized by the customhouse officers, on the allegation that it could not have been grown in the United States, and that it was liable to seizure under the Shipping Acts, as not being imported in a vessel belonging to the country of its growth.^ In 1792 the quantity exported from the United States was only 1 It is related that in the year 1784 William Rathbone , an American merchant resident in Liverpool , received from one of his correspondents in the southern states a consignment of eight bags of cotton, which on its arrival in Liverpool was seized by the customhouse officers, on the allegation that it could not have been grown in the United States, and that it was liable to seizure under the Shipping Acts, as not being imported in a vessel belonging to the country of its growth.

^ Some arrivals have been diverted to Manchester since the opening of the Manchester ship s canal; shipments through the canal from the 1st of entry, September to the 30th of August in each year for the decade 1894-1895 to 1904-1905 are appended - six to eight times as much is still unloaded at Liverpool.

^ The United States being the most important cotton-producing country, the methods of cultivation practised there are first described, notes on methods adopted in other countries being added only when these differ considerably from American practice.

.When afterwards released, it lay for many months 'unsold, in consequence of the spinners doubting whether it could be profitably worked up.^ When afterwards released, it lay for many months 'unsold, in consequence of the spinners doubting whether it could be profitably worked up.

equivalent to .275 bales, but by the year 1800 it had increased to nearly 36,000 bales.^ Maceio , The total production in 1906 was estimated at about 275,000 bales, but only a portion was available for export, there being an increasing consumption in Brazil itself.

^ In 1899 the acreage had increased to 24,275,101 and the crop to 9,507,786 bales.

.At the close of the war in 1815 the revival of trade led to an increased demand, and the progress of cotton cultivation in America became rapid and continuous, until at length about 85% of the raw material used by English manufacturers was derived from this one source.^ Ton, 2002 ) Demand for organic cotton is highest in Europe (about 3,500 tons or 58% of the total) and the U.S. (about 2000 tons or 33%) ( Ton, 2002 ).
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the long-term Louisiana study, cotton yields declined for the first nine years when cover crops were used, but increased steadily thereafter.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The study found an 11% yield increase for a 2-year cotton-legume-corn rotation compared to continuous cotton grown with legumes each year.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.With a capacity for the production of cotton almost boundless, the crop which was so insignificant when the century began had in 1860 reached the enormous extent of 4,824,000 bales.^ With a capacity for the production of cotton almost boundless, the crop which was so insignificant when the century began had in 1860 reached the enormous extent of 4,824,000 bales.

^ From 'goo to 1905 the crop was about ioo,000 bales per annum; the whole is consumed in local mills, and cotton is imported also from the United States.

^ The area under cotton in all British India is about 20,000,000 acres, the crop being grown in a very primitive manner.

.This great source of supply, when apparently most abundant and secure, was shortly after suddenly cut off, and thousands were for a time deprived of employment and the means of subsistence.^ This great source of supply, when apparently most abundant and secure, was shortly after suddenly cut off, and thousands were for a time deprived of employment and the means of subsistence.

.In this period of destitution the cotton-growing resources of every part of the globe were tested to the utmost; and in the exhibition of 1862 the representatives of every country from which supplies might be expected met to concert measures for obtaining all that was wanted without the aid of America.^ In this period of destitution the cotton-growing resources of every part of the globe were tested to the utmost; and in the exhibition of 1862 the representatives of every country from which supplies might be expected met to concert measures for obtaining all that was wanted without the aid of America.

^ Lastly, the countries to which cotton-growing is carried should gain in prosperity.

^ Average Quantities of Raw Cotton imported Annually into the United Kingdom from the following Countries in the Periods 1896-1900 and 1901-1904.

.The colonies and dependencies of Great Britain, including India, seemed well able to grow all the cotton that could be required, whilst numerous other countries were ready to afford their co-operation.^ Ann Cotton was apparently well acquainted with all of the players in Bacons Rebellion.

^ Cotton was assisted by his librarian, Richard James, who, despite D'Ewes's accusation that he sold his master's papers, seems to have served Cotton well.

^ Could this John Cotton/en have been a sailor in his youth or at leas t made several trips out of the colony?

.A powerful stimulus was thus given to the growth of cotton in all directions; a degree of activity and enterprise never witnessed before was seen in India, Egypt, Turkey, Greece, Italy, Africa, the West Indies, Queensland, New South Wales, Peru, Brazil, and in short wherever cotton could be produced; and there seemed no room to doubt that in a short time there would be abundant supplies independently of America.^ Turkey produces the most at 29%, with the U.S. being second at 27% and India third at 17%.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There are a number of U.S. merchants/brokers and eight U.S. mills listed that could be potential buyers of organic cotton.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ With weevil eradication programs, however, organic cotton may have a better chance than before to produce well throughout the Cotton Belt.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.But ten years afterwards, in the exhibition of 1872, which was specially devoted to cotton, a few only of the thirty-five countries which had sent their samples in 1862 again appeared, and these for the most part only to bear witness to disappointment and failure.^ Only a few species are damaging to cotton.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ But ten years afterwards, in the exhibition of 1872, which was specially devoted to cotton, a few only of the thirty-five countries which had sent their samples in 1862 again appeared, and these for the most part only to bear witness to disappointment and failure.

^ In this period of destitution the cotton-growing resources of every part of the globe were tested to the utmost; and in the exhibition of 1862 the representatives of every country from which supplies might be expected met to concert measures for obtaining all that was wanted without the aid of America.

.America had re-entered the field of competition, and was rapidly gaining ground so as to be able to bid defiance to the world.^ America had re-entered the field of competition, and was rapidly gaining ground so as to be able to bid defiance to the world.

.True, the supply from India had been more than doubled, the adulteration once so rife had been checked, and the improved quality and value of the cotton had been fully acknowledged, but still the superiority of the produce of the United States was proved beyond all dispute, and American cotton was again king.^ True, the supply from India had been more than doubled, the adulteration once so rife had been checked, and the improved quality and value of the cotton had been fully acknowledged, but still the superiority of the produce of the United States was proved beyond all dispute, and American cotton was again king.

^ The uneasiness caused by the excessive dependence of Great Britain upon the United States for cotton, coupled with the Recent belief that shortages of supply are more frequent than R they ought to be, and the fear that diminishing returns attempts to open may operate in America, occasioned the formation in England of the British Cotton Growing Association on.

^ Lessons of value may be learnt from the fate of similar work undertaken by the Cotton Supply Association, Suppl at on As= wh i ch was instituted in April 18 J 7.

Slave labour disappeared, and under new and more promising auspices a fresh career of progress began. .With rare combination of facilities and advantages, made available with remarkable skill and enterprise, the production of cotton in America seems likely for a long series of years to continue to increase in magnitude and importance.^ Glushkov and Skrebtsov (1960) stated that with 4.9 and 6.6 colonies per hectare (2.0 to 2.5 colonies per acre) the cotton production was increased 20.9 and 45 percent, respectively, over the control areas.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ His results convinced him that pollination of cotton by honey bees should increase production.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The long-term effects of Winter Cover Crops on Cotton Production in Northwest Louisiana.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.The total area of the cotton-producing region in the States is estimated at 448,000,000 acres, of which in 1906 only about one acre in fifteen was devoted to cotton.^ The area devoted to cotton in Egypt is about 1,800,000 acres, and nine-tenths of it is in the Nile Delta .

^ The area under cotton is about 1,800,000 acres.

^ The total area of the cotton-producing region in the States is estimated at 448,000,000 acres, of which in 1906 only about one acre in fifteen was devoted to cotton.

The potentialities of the region are thus enormus.
States and Territories.
Upland Cotton.
Sea Island Cotton.
Total Value.
Quantity.
Value.
Quantity.
Value.
lb
$
lb
$
$
Alabama.. .
603,651,989
60,425,564
..
...
60,425,564
Arkansas.. .
45 0 ,99 1 ,3 61
45, 1 44, 2 35
45,144,235
Florida. .
17,876,133
1,789,401
9,031,896
2,587,638
4,377,039
Georgia. .
750,762,910
75, 1 5 1 ,3 6 7
9,950,634
2,850,857
78,002,224
Indian Territory .
196,648,765
1 9, 68 4,54 2
..
..
19,684,542
Kansas.. .
9,844
985
.
985
Kentucky.. .
1,008,290
100,930
..
..
; - 100,930
Louisiana .
473,222,310
47,3 6 9,553
47,369,553
Mississippi..
73 2 ,755,97 8
73,34 8, 8 74
-
73,348,874
Missouri.. .
26,040,093
2,606,613
..
2,606,613
New Mexico. .
74,340
7,442
7,442
North Carolina .
276,215,506
27,649,172
..
..
27,649,172
Oklahoma. .
2 33,39 6 ,9 0 5
2 3,3 6 3, 0 3 0
23,363,030
South Carolina .
415,386,362
41,580,175
2,723,59
999,656
42,579,831
Tennessee.. .
1 4 6 ,5 6 9,434
14,671,600
..
..
14,671,600
Texas. .. .
2,001,181,289
200,318,247
..
200,318,247
Virginia.. .
6,609,963
661,657
..
..
661,657
Total-United States
6 ,33 2 ,4 01 ,47 2
6 33, 8 73,3 8 7
21,706,389
6,438,151
640,311,538
(=12,644,803
..
(=43,413
..
..
bales)
bales)
..
..
.Cotton is now the second crop of the United States, being surpassed in value only by Indian corn (maize).^ Cotton is now the second crop of the United States, being surpassed in value only by Indian corn (maize).

^ In comparative valuations of feeding stuffs it has been found that cotton seed meal exceeds corn meal by 62%, wheat by 67%, and raw cotton seed by 26%.

^ From 'goo to 1905 the crop was about ioo,000 bales per annum; the whole is consumed in local mills, and cotton is imported also from the United States.

The area devoted to this crop in 1879 was 14,480,019 acres, and the-total commercial crop was 5,755,359 bales. .In 1899 the acreage had increased to 24,275,101 and the crop to 9,507,786 bales.^ In 1899 the acreage had increased to 24,275,101 and the crop to 9,507,786 bales.

.In 1906 the total area was 28,686,000 acres and the crop 13,305,265 bales.^ In 1906 the total area was 28,686,000 acres and the crop 13,305,265 bales.

^ The area devoted to this crop in 1879 was 14,480,019 acres, and the-total commercial crop was 5,755,359 bales.

^ With a capacity for the production of cotton almost boundless, the crop which was so insignificant when the century began had in 1860 reached the enormous extent of 4,824,000 bales.

.The preceding table gives the quantity, value and character of the crop for each of the cotton-growing states in 1906, as reported by the Bureau of the Census.^ The preceding table gives the quantity, value and character of the crop for each of the cotton-growing states in 1906, as reported by the Bureau of the Census.

^ Of the countries which were prominent in the production of cotton in 1790, Brazil and Asiatic Turkey alone remain " (U.S.A. Bureau of the Census , Bulletin No 76).

^ From 'goo to 1905 the crop was about ioo,000 bales per annum; the whole is consumed in local mills, and cotton is imported also from the United States.

.Mexico.-Cotton is extensively grown in Mexico, and large quantities are used for home consumption.^ Mexico.-Cotton is extensively grown in Mexico, and large quantities are used for home consumption .

^ Cyprus has a soil and climate suited to cotton, which was formerly grown here on a large scale.

^ A long-term cotton study at Auburn, Alabama, showed that using winter annual legumes produced cotton yields equivalent to those grown using fertilizer nitrogen.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.The cultivation is of very old standing.^ The cultivation is of very old standing.

.Cortes in 1519 is said to have received cotton garments as presents from the natives of Yucatan, and to have found the Mexicans using cotton extensively for clothing.^ Cortes in 1519 is said to have received cotton garments as presents from the natives of Yucatan , and to have found the Mexicans using cotton extensively for clothing.

^ For five centuries before the Christian era cotton was largely used in the domestic manufactures of India; and the clothing of the inhabitants then consisted, as now, chiefly of garments made from this vegetable product.

^ The simplest cotton gin in extensive use is the " churka," used from early times, and still largely employed in India and China .

.From 'goo to 1905 the crop was about ioo,000 bales per annum; the whole is consumed in local mills, and cotton is imported also from the United States.^ From 'goo to 1905 the crop was about ioo,000 bales per annum; the whole is consumed in local mills, and cotton is imported also from the United States.

^ An estimate of the crop puts it at about 1,500,000 bales.

^ A considerable amount is used locally, and during the six years ending in 1907 the surplus exported ranged from about 24,000 to 40,000 bales per annum.

.Pernambuco or Pernam, Ceara, Rio Grande, &c.^ Pernambuco or Pernam, Ceara , Rio Grande , &c.

The export
fluctuates greatly.
.Bales of 500 Approx.^ Bales of 500 Approx.

Value.
1901
53,002
500,000
1902
143,963
1,200,000
1903
126,896
1,300,000
1904
59,413
800,000
1905
107,887
1,000,000
1906 .
.
142,972
1,500,000
.Brazil.-The cotton-growing region in Brazil comprises a belt some 200 M. in width, in the north-eastern portion of the country, and a strip along the valley of the San Francisco, where a large amount of the present crop is produced.^ Brazil.-The cotton-growing region in Brazil comprises a belt some 200 M. in width, in the north-eastern portion of the country, and a strip along the valley of the San Francisco , where a large amount of the present crop is produced.

^ It is impossible to give an exact return of the total amount of cotton produced in the world, owing to the fact that in China , India and other eastern countries, in Mexico, Brazil , parts of the Russian empire, tropical Africa, &c., considerable - in some cases very large - quantities of cotton are made up locally into wearing apparel , &c., and escape all statistical record.

^ Of the countries which were prominent in the production of cotton in 1790, Brazil and Asiatic Turkey alone remain " (U.S.A. Bureau of the Census , Bulletin No 76).

.The cotton is known in commerce under the name of the place of export, e.g. Maceio, The total production in 1906 was estimated at about 275,000 bales, but only a portion was available for export, there being an increasing consumption in Brazil itself.^ The annual export is about 30,000 bales.

^ The production of cotton in Russia in 1906 was estimated at 675,000 bales of Soo lb each.

^ Maceio , The total production in 1906 was estimated at about 275,000 bales, but only a portion was available for export, there being an increasing consumption in Brazil itself.

.Peru.-Cotton is an important crop in Peru, where it has long been cultivated.^ Peru .-Cotton is an important crop in Peru, where it has long been cultivated.

^ Malta .-Cotton has long been cultivated in Malta , but the acreage diminished from 1750 acres in 1899 to 670 acres in 1906.

^ British West Indies.-Cotton was cultivated as a minor crop in parts of the West Indies as long ago as the 17th century, and at the opening of the 18th century the islands supplied about 70% of all the cotton used in Great Britain.

.Most of the crop is grown in the irrigated coastal valleys.^ Most of the crop is grown in the irrigated coastal valleys.

^ The most common strip crop grown with cotton is alfalfa.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.With more water available, the output could be considerably increased, e.g. in the Piura district.^ With more water available, the output could be considerably increased, e.g.

." Rough Peruvian," the produce of one of the tree cottons, has a special use, as being rather harsh and wiry it is well adapted for mixing with wool.^ Rough Peruvian," the produce of one of the tree cottons, has a special use, as being rather harsh and wiry it is well adapted for mixing with wool.

^ The fibre is generally white, somewhat harsh and wiry, and especially adapted for mixing with wool .

^ In Uganda the association took no steps, but activity in cottongrowing is not unknown, and some good cotton is being produced.

Egyptian cotton is also grown. .The annual export is about 30,000 bales.^ World production of organic cotton amounts to 6,000 tons of fiber annually, or about 0.03% of global cotton production.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

Island.
Area i
Acres..
Yield
Bales of
500 ib,
Average
Price
in Pence
per lb.
Value of
Lint and
Seed.
Barbados. .. .
2,000
959
15'2
33,557
St Vincent
790
330
18.0
13,557
Grenada (mostly Marie
galante cotton). .
3,600
623
5.0
8,400
St Kitts.. .
1,000
241
15.0
8,380
Nevis
1,700
240
13.0
8,364
Anguilla. .. .
1,000
161
15.0
5,280
Antigua
700
200
14.2
6,522
Montserrat. .
770
196
15.0
6,789
Virgin Islands .
40
14
..
400
Jamaica.. .
1,500
123
..
4,025
Total. .
12,900
308
p95,274
.British West Indies.-Cotton was cultivated as a minor crop in parts of the West Indies as long ago as the 17th century, and at the opening of the 18th century the islands supplied about 70% of all the cotton used in Great Britain.^ Approximately the supplies were as follows in million lb: British West Indies.

^ Peru .-Cotton is an important crop in Peru, where it has long been cultivated.

^ British West Indies.-Cotton was cultivated as a minor crop in parts of the West Indies as long ago as the 17th century, and at the opening of the 18th century the islands supplied about 70% of all the cotton used in Great Britain.

.Greater profits obtained from sugar caused the industry to be abandoned, except in the small island of Carriacou.^ Greater profits obtained from sugar caused the industry to be abandoned, except in the small island of Carriacou.

.In 1900 the Imperial Department of Agriculture and private planters began experiments with the object of reintroducing the cultivation, owing to the decline in value of sugar.^ In 1900 the Imperial Department of Agriculture and private planters began experiments with the object of reintroducing the cultivation, owing to the decline in value of sugar.

^ Fortunately the careful work of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and of planters such as Mr E. L. Rivers of James Island, South Carolina , has resulted in the production of disease-resistant races.

^ Attention has been paid in the West Indies to seed selection, by the officers of the imperial Department of Agriculture, with the object of retaining for West Indian Sea Island cotton its place as the most valuable cotton on the British market.

.The department was actively assisted by the Cotton Production in the British West Indies: 1905-1906.1 British Cotton Growing Association, and the results have been very successful, as was shown at an exhibition held in Manchester in 1908. A supply of seed of a high grade of Sea Island cotton was obtained from Colonel Rivers's estate in the Sea Islands, S. Carolina, and so successful has the cultivation been that from some of the islands West Indian Sea Island cotton obtains a Taken with some modifications from the Agricultural News (1907), vi.^ Approximately the supplies were as follows in million lb: British West Indies.

^ Exports of Cotton from British West Africa, 1904, 1905 and 1906.

^ Attention has been paid in the West Indies to seed selection, by the officers of the imperial Department of Agriculture, with the object of retaining for West Indian Sea Island cotton its place as the most valuable cotton on the British market.

p. 38.
higher price than the corresponding grade of cotton from the .Sea Islands themselves.^ Sea Islands themselves.

.In 1902 the total area under cotton cultivation in the British West Indies was Soo acres.^ In 1902 the total area under cotton cultivation in the British West Indies was Soo acres.

^ The area under cotton is about 1,800,000 acres.

^ The area devoted to this crop in 1879 was 14,480,019 acres, and the-total commercial crop was 5,755,359 bales.

.The industry made rapid progress.^ The industry made rapid progress.

.In 1903 it was 4000; in 1905-1906 it was 12,900; and for 1906-1907 it was 18,166 acres.^ In 1903 it was 4000; in 1905-1906 it was 12,900; and for 1906-1907 it was 18,166 acres.

^ The exports were equivalent to 2 bales of 50o lb in 1902-1903, 114 bales in 1903 - 1904, 570 bales in '904 - 1905, 1 553 bales in 1905-1906 and 1052 bales in 1906-1907.

The table indicates the chief cottonproducing islands, the acreage in each, yield, average value per pound and total value of the crop in 1905-1906.
.The whole of this crop was Sea Island cotton, with the exception of the " Marie galante " grown in Carriacou.^ The whole of this crop was Sea Island cotton, with the exception of the " Marie galante " grown in Carriacou.

^ Grenada (mostly Marie galante cotton).

^ He classifies the modern high-class Sea Island cottons as G. barbadense, var.

.Marie galante is a harsh cotton of the Peruvian or Brazilian type.^ Grenada (mostly Marie galante cotton).

^ Marie galante is a harsh cotton of the Peruvian or Brazilian type.

^ Rough Peruvian," the produce of one of the tree cottons, has a special use, as being rather harsh and wiry it is well adapted for mixing with wool.

.The low yield per acre in this island, and also the low value of the lint per lb compared with the Sea Island cotton, is clearly apparent.^ The low yield per acre in this island, and also the low value of the lint per lb compared with the Sea Island cotton, is clearly apparent.

^ He classifies the modern high-class Sea Island cottons as G. barbadense, var.

^ In comparative valuations of feeding stuffs it has been found that cotton seed meal exceeds corn meal by 62%, wheat by 67%, and raw cotton seed by 26%.

.In 1906-1907 the acreage was substantially increased in many of the islands, e.g. Barbados from 2000 to 5000; St Vincent 790 to 1533; St Kitts and Anguilla '000 to 1500 each; Antigua 700 to 1883. In Jamaica, on the other hand, it was reduced from 1500 to 300 acres.^ In 1906-1907 the acreage was substantially increased in many of the islands, e.g.

^ In Jamaica , on the other hand, it was reduced from 1500 to 300 acres.

^ Barbados from 2000 to 5000; St Vincent 790 to 1533; St Kitts and Anguilla '000 to 1500 each; Antigua 700 to 1883.

.Spain.-Cotton was formerly grown in southern Spain on an extensive scale, and as recently as during the American Civil War a crop of 8000 to 10,000 bales was obtained.^ Spain .-Cotton was formerly grown in southern Spain on an extensive scale, and as recently as during the American Civil War a crop of 8000 to 10,000 bales was obtained.

^ Formerly in Egypt the cotton was treated as a perennial, but this practice has been generally abandoned, and fresh plants are raised from seed each year, as in America; one great advantage is that more than one crop can thus be obtained each year.

^ The best American cotton (Sea Island and Florida cotton are always considered quite apart) is grown in the Mississippi valley, the next best in Texas, and the poorest on the Uplands (i.e.

.It is considered that with facilities for irrigation Andalusia could produce 150,000 bales annually.^ It is considered that with facilities for irrigation Andalusia could produce 150,000 bales annually.

^ The annual export is about 30,000 bales.

^ According to the Liverpool Cotton Gazette , Asiatic Turkey produced in 1906 about ioo,000 bales, and Persia about 47,000 bales.

.The former industry was abandoned as other crops became more remunerative.^ The former industry was abandoned as other crops became more remunerative.

.The government is encouraging recent efforts to re-establish the cultivation.^ The government is encouraging recent efforts to re-establish the cultivation.

.Malta.-Cotton has long been cultivated in Malta, but the acreage diminished from 1750 acres in 1899 to 670 acres in 1906. A considerable quantity of the produce is spun and woven locally; e.g. in 1904 the export was equivalent to about 120 bales out of a total production of 330 bales, and in 1905 to 258 out of 333 bales (of 500 1B each).^ Malta .-Cotton has long been cultivated in Malta , but the acreage diminished from 1750 acres in 1899 to 670 acres in 1906.

^ Exports of Cotton from British West Africa, 1904, 1905 and 1906.

^ A considerable quantity of the produce is spun and woven locally; e.g.

.Cyprus has a soil and climate suited to cotton, which was formerly grown here on a large scale.^ Cyprus has a soil and climate suited to cotton, which was formerly grown here on a large scale.

^ Queensland , New South Wales and South Australia possess suitable climatic conditions, and in the first-named state the cotton has been grown on a commercial scale in past years, the crop in 1897 being about 450 bales.

^ Cotton has not been cultivated in China from such early times as in India, and although cotton cloths are mentioned in early writings it was not until about A.D. 1300 that the plant was grown on any considerable scale.

.The rainfall is uncertain and low, however, never exceeding 40 in., and on the supply of water by irrigation the future of the industry mainly depends.^ Ceasing irrigation can assist in leaf drop and boll maturation in low rainfall areas.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In both areas, the only cotton grown was 'Acala 4-42', and in both areas cultivation was large scale and dependent on irrigation water.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The exports dwindled from 3600 bales in 1865 to 946 in 1905; great fluctuations occur, the export in 1904, for example, being only 338 bales.^ The exports dwindled from 3600 bales in 1865 to 946 in 1905; great fluctuations occur, the export in 1904, for example, being only 338 bales.

^ During 1901-1903 there were no exports of cotton, and in 1904 only 70 bales were sent out.

^ Experimental work has been carried on, and in 1904 Uganda exported about 43 bales of cotton, and British East Africa about 177 bales.

.The cotton grown is rather short-stapled and goes mainly to Marseilles and Trieste.^ The cotton grown is rather short-stapled and goes mainly to Marseilles and Trieste .

^ G. barbadense , known in the United States as American Pima, or Pima, and sometimes called extra-long staple cotton, is grown in long-season areas, such as our Southwestern States.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The Indian cottons are usually of short staple (about 4 in.

.Some is used locally in the manufacture of cloth.^ Some is used locally in the manufacture of cloth.

.Egypt.-The position of Egypt as the third cotton-producing country of the world has already been pointed out, and the varieties grown and the mode of cultivation described.^ Egypt.-The position of Egypt as the third cotton-producing country of the world has already been pointed out, and the varieties grown and the mode of cultivation described.

^ About one-third of the cotton used in Russian mills is grown on Russian territory, the remainder coming chiefly from the United States.

^ In both areas, the only cotton grown was 'Acala 4-42', and in both areas cultivation was large scale and dependent on irrigation water.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The introduction of the exotic varieties dates from the beginning of the 19th century.^ The introduction of the exotic varieties dates from the beginning of the 19th century.

.The industry was actively promoted by a Frenchman named Jumel, in the service of Mehemet Ali, from 1820 onwards with great success.^ The industry was actively promoted by a Frenchman named Jumel, in the service of Mehemet Ali , from 1820 onwards with great success.

.The area under cotton is about 1,800,000 acres.^ The area devoted to cotton in Egypt is about 1,800,000 acres, and nine-tenths of it is in the Nile Delta .

^ The area under cotton is about 1,800,000 acres.

^ The annual damage was in 1906 reduced to £r,000,000 to £ 2,000,000, and this on a larger area devoted to cotton than in the case of the estimate given above.

1850
.87,200 bales of 500 lb.^ Bales of 500 lb.

^ (In 500 lb Bales.

^ (In Thousand Statistical Bales of 500 lb each.

1865
439,000
1890
798,000
1904
1,258,000
1905
I,250,000
1906
1,400,000
.Cotton Production in Egypt.^ Cotton Production in Egypt.

.The Egyptian
Sudan.-Egyptian cotton was cultivated in the Sudan to the extent of 21,788 acres in 1906 chiefly on nonirrigated land.^ The Egyptian Sudan .-Egyptian cotton was cultivated in the Sudan to the extent of 21,788 acres in 1906 chiefly on nonirrigated land.

^ Malta .-Cotton has long been cultivated in Malta , but the acreage diminished from 1750 acres in 1899 to 670 acres in 1906.

^ For cotton cultivation the land is ploughed, carefully levelled, and then thrown up into ridges about 3 ft.

.The exports, however, are small, almost all the crop being used locally.^ The exports, however, are small, almost all the crop being used locally.

^ The area under cotton in all British India is about 20,000,000 acres, the crop being grown in a very primitive manner.

^ Now, however, a large proportion of the crop is sold to local store -keepers who transfer it to exporting firms in neighbouring cities.

.The chief difficulties are the supply of water, labour and transport facilities.^ Lack of direct transport facilities is a difficulty.

^ The chief difficulties are the supply of water, labour and transport facilities.

Lord Cromer in his report on the Sudan for 1906 remarks that: " There seems to be some reason for thinking that the future-or at all events the immediate future-of Sudan agriculture lies more in the direction of cultivating wheat and other cereals than in that of cultivating cotton." West Africa.-Cotton has long been grown in the various countries on the west coast of Africa, ginned by hand or by very primitive means, spun into yarn, and woven on simple looms into " country cloths "; these are often only a few inches wide, so that any large cloths have to be made by sewing the narrow strips together. .These native cloths are exceedingly durable, and many of them are ornamented by using dyed yarns and in other ways: Southern Nigeria (Lagos) and northern Nigeria are the most important cotton countries amongst the British possessions on the coast.^ Northern Nigeria contributes to the cotton exported from Lagos .

^ These native cloths are exceedingly durable, and many of them are ornamented by using dyed yarns and in other ways: Southern Nigeria (Lagos) and northern Nigeria are the most important cotton countries amongst the British possessions on the coast.

^ It is evident of Cotton's standing in the House of Commons that though he did not sit in th e Parliament of 1614, he was consulted on the most important issue.

.From the former there has been an export trade for many years which fluctuates remarkably according to the demand.^ From the former there has been an export trade for many years which fluctuates remarkably according to the demand.

^ Up to the year 1885 there was an average yearly export equivalent to about 2140 bales of 500 lb, after which date the export practically ceased.

^ According to Watt there are many hybrids in American cottons between G. hirsutum and G. mexicanum.

Northern Nigeria is the seat of a very large native cotton industry, to supply the demand for cotton robes for the Mahommedan races inhabiting the country. .The province of Zaria alone is estimated to produce annually 30,000 to 40,000 bales, all of which is used locally.^ The annual export is about 30,000 bales.

^ The province of Zaria alone is estimated to produce annually 30,000 to 40,000 bales, all of which is used locally.

^ From 'goo to 1905 the crop was about ioo,000 bales per annum; the whole is consumed in local mills, and cotton is imported also from the United States.

.Northern Nigeria contributes to the cotton exported from Lagos.^ Northern Nigeria contributes to the cotton exported from Lagos .

^ Northern Nigeria is the seat of a very large native cotton industry, to supply the demand for cotton robes for the Mahommedan races inhabiting the country.

^ These native cloths are exceedingly durable, and many of them are ornamented by using dyed yarns and in other ways: Southern Nigeria (Lagos) and northern Nigeria are the most important cotton countries amongst the British possessions on the coast.

.The country offers a fairly promising field for development, especially now that arrangements have been made for providing the necessary means of transport by the construction of the new railways.^ The country offers a fairly promising field for development, especially now that arrangements have been made for providing the necessary means of transport by the construction of the new railways .

.The profits obtained from ground-nuts (Arachis hypogea) in Gambia, gold mining in the Gold Coast, and from products of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) in the palm-oil belt serve to prevent much attention being given to cotton in these districts.^ Its impact on production has not been given much consideration.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The profits obtained from ground-nuts ( Arachis hypogea ) in Gambia , gold mining in the Gold Coast , and from products of the oil palm ( Elaeis guineensis) in the palm -oil belt serve to prevent much attention being given to cotton in these districts.

^ These may have implications for cotton production when used as fertilizer.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.Exports of Cotton from Lagos. 1865 868 bales of 500 lb.^ Bales of 500 lb.

^ (In 500 lb Bales.

^ (In Thousand Statistical Bales of 500 lb each.

1869 1785 1900 48 1901 15 1902 25 1903 582 1904 1725 1905 2578 Exports of Cotton from British West Africa, 1904, 1905 and 1906.
1904.
1905.
1906.
Bales
Bales
Bales
(50o lb).
(500 lb).
(500 lb).
Gambia. ... .
120
5
0
Sierra Leone. .. .
56
139
176
Gold Coast.. .
115
50
186
Southern Nigeria and Lagos
2296
2771
5392
Northern Nigeria. .
574
2501
712
Total. .
3161
3215
6466

Nyasaland (British Central Africa)

.The cultivation of cotton on a commercial scale is quite new in Nyasaland, and although general conditions of soil and climate appear favourable the question of transport is serious and labour is not abundant.^ The general conditions are favourable.

^ The cultivation of cotton on a commercial scale is quite new in Nyasaland, and although general conditions of soil and climate appear favourable the question of transport is serious and labour is not abundant.

^ The general movement for the extension of cotton cultivation wa.s welcomed by the International Congress of representatives of master cotton spinners and manufacturers' associations at the meeting at Zurich in May 1904.

.The exports were equivalent to 2 bales of 50o lb in 1902-1903, 114 bales in 1903 - 1904, 570 bales in '904 - 1905, 1 553 bales in 1905-1906 and 1052 bales in 1906-1907. In the lower river lands Egyptian cotton has been the most successful, whilst Upland cotton is more suited to the highlands.^ In the lower river lands Egyptian cotton has been the most successful, whilst Upland cotton is more suited to the highlands.

^ Exports of Cotton from British West Africa, 1904, 1905 and 1906.

^ The exports were equivalent to 2 bales of 50o lb in 1902-1903, 114 bales in 1903 - 1904, 570 bales in '904 - 1905, 1 553 bales in 1905-1906 and 1052 bales in 1906-1907.

British East Africa and Uganda

.In these adjoining protectorates wild cottons occur, and suitable conditions exist in certain localities.^ In these adjoining protectorates wild cottons occur, and suitable conditions exist in certain localities.

^ The cotton plant requires certain conditions for its successful cultivation; but, given these, it is very little affected by seasonal vicissitudes.

^ These are of importance to the spinner owing to the necessity of his cleaning machinery being adapted to the condition of the cotton.

.Experimental work has been carried on, and in 1904 Uganda exported about 43 bales of cotton, and British East Africa about 177 bales.^ Exports of Cotton from British West Africa, 1904, 1905 and 1906.

^ Experimental work has been carried on, and in 1904 Uganda exported about 43 bales of cotton, and British East Africa about 177 bales.

^ From 'goo to 1905 the crop was about ioo,000 bales per annum; the whole is consumed in local mills, and cotton is imported also from the United States.

In 1906 the combined exports had risen to 362 bales, including a little from German East Africa. .In 1904-1905 there were some 300 acres under cotton in British East Africa.^ From Bridges History of Northamptonshire I find that Gobions manor was about 300 acres "without the east-gate of the city."

Lack of direct transport facilities is a difficulty. .Some of the native cottons are of fair quality, but Egyptian cotton appears likely to be best suited for growing for export.^ The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis , is considered by some as the primary deterrent to growing cotton organically.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ She concluded that the most critical problem in the production of hybrid cotton appeared to be in finding some way to get the male-sterile flowers pollinated.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

India is probably the most ancient cotton-growing country. .For five centuries before the Christian era cotton was largely used in the domestic manufactures of India; and the clothing of the inhabitants then consisted, as now, chiefly of garments made from this vegetable product.^ These may have implications for cotton production when used as fertilizer.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Throughout this publication, we use examples from conventional farming that illustrate principles relevant to organic cotton production.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Certification also must continue throughout the manufacturing process, from the ginner, yarn spinner, and cloth maker, to the garment manufacturer.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

.More than two thousand years before Europe or England had conceived the idea of applying modern industry to the manufacture of cotton, India had matured a system of hand-spinning, weaving and dyeing which during that vast period received no recorded improvement.^ More than two thousand years before Europe or England had conceived the idea of applying modern industry to the manufacture of cotton, India had matured a system of hand- spinning , weaving and dyeing which during that vast period received no recorded improvement.

^ With less than a thousand volumes , it did not compete favourably in size with other private libraries of the period.

^ Formerly in Egypt the cotton was treated as a perennial, but this practice has been generally abandoned, and fresh plants are raised from seed each year, as in America; one great advantage is that more than one crop can thus be obtained each year.

The people, though remarkable for their intelligence whilst Europe was in a state of barbarism, made no approximation to the mechanical operations of modern times, nor was the cultivation of cotton either improved or considerably extended. .Possessing soil, climate and apparently all the requisite elements from nature for the production of cotton to an almost boundless extent, and of a 1 Approximately.^ Ann Cotton was apparently well acquainted with all of the players in Bacons Rebellion.

useful and acceptable quality, .India for a long series of years did but little towards supplying the manufactures of other countries with the raw material which they required.^ When honey bees are present in sufficient numbers, they collect this material as food, and by removing it they become beneficial in a sense other than as pollinators.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Between the years 1788 and 1850 numerous attempts were made by the East India Company to improve the cultivation and to increase the supply of cotton in India, and botanists and American planters were engaged for the purpose.^ Instead of attempting to increase the local supply, they concluded that hybrid cotton seed must be produced "in marginal cotton growing areas where bee activity is great."
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The number of flowers on a cotton plant are determined by numerous factors including the available plant food, water supply, variety, and density of the plant population.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The benefits derived by cotton from insect pollination have been cited by numerous workers, largely in Russia, where much attention has been given to this subject, but also in Egypt, India, and the United States.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.One great object of their experiments was to introduce and acclimatize exotic cottons.^ John Cotton "was a Virginia planter and very likely a merchant -but not one of the great land owners although associated with them.

Bourbon, New Orleans, Upland, Georgia, Sea Island, Pernambuco, Egyptian, &c., were tried but with little permanent success. The results of these and similar attempts led to the conclusion that efforts to improve the indigenous cottons were most likely to be rewarded with success. .Still more recently, however, experiments have been made to grow Egyptian cotton in Sind with the help of irrigation.^ Growing organic cotton is demanding, but with commitment, experience, and determination, it can be done.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They're in the middle where lupine is still growing inches away from cotton plants.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, at Phoenix, in a large cotton-growing area, he obtained only 1,157 seeds per 100 naturally pollinated flowers, but 1,526 seeds per 100 flowers that received supplementary pollination.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

Abassi has given the best results, and the experiments have been so successful that in 1904-1905 an out-turn of not less than ioo,000 bales " was prophesied in the course of a few years " (Report of Director, Land Records and Agriculture). .The average annual production in India approximates to 3,000,000 bales.^ The average annual production in India approximates to 3,000,000 bales.

^ With a capacity for the production of cotton almost boundless, the crop which was so insignificant when the century began had in 1860 reached the enormous extent of 4,824,000 bales.

^ It is considered that with facilities for irrigation Andalusia could produce 150,000 bales annually.

.The area under cotton in all British India is about 20,000,000 acres, the crop being grown in a very primitive manner.^ The area under cotton in all British India is about 20,000,000 acres, the crop being grown in a very primitive manner.

^ The area under cotton is about 1,800,000 acres.

^ The area devoted to this crop in 1879 was 14,480,019 acres, and the-total commercial crop was 5,755,359 bales.

.The bulk of the cotton is of very short staple, about three-quarters of an inch, and is not well suited to the requirements of the English spinner, but very large mills specially fitted to deal with short-stapled cottons have been erected in India and consume about one-half the total crop, the remainder being exported to Germany and other European countries, Japan and China.^ The bulk of the cotton is of very short staple, about three-quarters of an inch , and is not well suited to the requirements of the English spinner, but very large mills specially fitted to deal with short-stapled cottons have been erected in India and consume about one-half the total crop, the remainder being exported to Germany and other European countries, Japan and China.

^ Only the very lowest counts can be spun from cotton with " no staple," that is, with a fibre of about three-quarters of an inch.

^ The Indian cottons are usually of short staple (about 4 in.

In 1906 the United Kingdom took less than 5% of the cotton exported.
1859
1,316,800 bales of 50o lb.
1904
3,172,800 „
1905
2,848,800 „
1906 .
.. 4,038,400 „
.Cotton Production in British India.' About 50% of the cotton produced is consumed in Indian mills and the remainder is exported.^ About 50 ovules must be fertilized if a full complement of seeds is produced; therefore, at least 50 viable pollen grains must contact the stigma.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ ROLE OF HONEYBEES IN COTTON PRODUCTION. Indian Cotton Growing Rev. .
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ SOME POINTS DESERVING CONSIDERATION IN THE BREEDING AND PURE SEED MULTIPLICATION OF COTTONS IN INDIA. Indian Cotton Crowing Rev. .
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

China

.Cotton has not been cultivated in China from such early times as in India, and although cotton cloths are mentioned in early writings it was not until about A.D. 1300 that the plant was grown on any considerable scale.^ COTTON Gossypium spp., family Malvaceae Cotton is grown primarily for its lint, although the seed, valued at about one-fifth that of the lint, is also used for planting or is crushed, a food oil recovered, and the residue used as a livestock food.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ G. barbadense , known in the United States as American Pima, or Pima, and sometimes called extra-long staple cotton, is grown in long-season areas, such as our Southwestern States.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In many of the areas where cotton is grown it is considered a major honey plant (Benson 1937, Kuliev 19S8, Minkov 1957, Parks 1921).
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

There are no figures obtainable as to the production, but it must be very large, considering that the crop provides clothing for a large proportion of the population of China. .During recent years a considerable quantity of cotton has been exported, but more than a compensating amount of raw cotton, yarns and textiles, is imported.^ Simpson and Duncan (1953) also showed that cultivars selfed for 10 years produced 15 percent less cotton than the original plants.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In their test, 'Pima S-1' produced 24.5 percent more cotton in cages with bees than in cages without bees.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Because of some lack of agreement on the pollination requirements of cotton, more than the usual amount of space is devoted herein to this crop.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

An estimate of the crop puts it at about 1,500,000 bales.
.Korea is stated to have originally received its cotton plants from China some 500 years ago.^ Korea is stated to have originally received its cotton plants from China some 500 years ago.

^ The Council ordered that the library be searched by Sir Henry Vane and, ironically, Sir Edward Coke, whose own collection had been scrutinized by Cotton some years earlier.

^ In spite of the clean culture, good crops of cotton have been grown on some soils in the south for more than forty successive years.

Conditions are well adapted to the cultivation of the plant, and since the cessation of the RussoJapanese War the Japanese have undertaken the development of the industry. Figures are difficult to obtain, but an official report from the Japanese Residency General in 1907 estimated the crop at about 214,000 bales, all being used locally. .In the future Korea may become an important source of supply for Japan, especially if, as appears likely, Korea proves suited to the cultivation of American cotton.^ It seems more likely that it was executed by Camden, but that Cotton exercised a general supervision, especially with regard to the story of Mary queen of Scots.

.Japan received cotton from India before China, and the plant is extensively grown, especially in West and Middle Japan.^ India it attacks various plants but not cotton.

^ Japan received cotton from India before China, and the plant is extensively grown, especially in West and Middle Japan.

^ Cotton has not been cultivated in China from such early times as in India, and although cotton cloths are mentioned in early writings it was not until about A.D. 1300 that the plant was grown on any considerable scale.

.The production is not sufficient to meet the home demand; during the five years of normal trade before the war with Russia Japan imported annually about 800,000 bales of cotton, chiefly from British India, China and the United States, and during the same period exported each year some 2000 bales, mainly to Korea.^ The Council ordered that the library be searched by Sir Henry Vane and, ironically, Sir Edward Coke, whose own collection had been scrutinized by Cotton some years earlier.

^ A three-year rotation of cotton-vetch, corn-rye (fertilized with 60 pounds of conventional N/acre), followed by soybeans, produced about the same cotton yields as the two-year rotation.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Their son John (Bertie) Cotton was born in 1658, three years before John Cotton and Ann Dunbar are listed as a patent fo r transportation for Drummond's headright.

Dutch East Indies

In Java and other Dutch possessions in the East cotton is cultivated. .A considerable amount is used locally, and during the six years ending in 1907 the surplus exported ranged from about 24,000 to 40,000 bales per annum.^ In his more complete report, Shishikin (1952) stated that 4,130 to 5,000 colonies were used, at the rate of one colony per hectare, and distributed in groups 1 km apart.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Shishikin (1952), who studied the effect of bees on about 5,000 acres of cotton in Russia, recommended one colony per acre with the colonies grouped about 0.6 mile apart.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

Russia

.Some cotton is produced in European Russia in the southern Caucasus, but Turkestan in central Asia is by far the 1 Cotton Production 1906, U.S.A. Bureau of the Census, Bulletin No.^ This is not a proven system for organic cotton production but only presented here as food for thought about the development of future organic no-till systems.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

76.
more important source of Russian-grown cotton. .In this region cotton has been cultivated from very early times to supply local demands, and to a minor degree for export.^ Markets for organic cotton are limited, and demand plus foreign supplies influence prices.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They planted a trap crop of cotton in early April, 30 days before the normal cotton planting time, and a late-planted trap crop on August 10.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

Since about 1875 the Russians have fostered the industry, introducing American Upland varieties, distributing seed free, importing gins, providing instruction, and guaranteeing the purchase of the crops. .The Trans-Caspian railway has been an important factor; almost all the cotton exported passes over this line, and the statistics of this trade indicate the progress made.^ In the "natural pollination" studies made by cotton breeders, none have indicated the relative number of pollinators or visits responsible for the crossing.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

The shipments increased from 250,978 bales in 1896-1897 to 495,96 2 bales in 1901-1902 - part, however, being Persian cotton. .The production of cotton in Russia in 1906 was estimated at 675,000 bales of Soo lb each.^ World production of organic cotton amounts to 6,000 tons of fiber annually, or about 0.03% of global cotton production.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

About one-third of the cotton used in Russian mills is grown on Russian territory, the remainder coming chiefly from the United States.
Asia Minor. - .Smyrna is the principal centre of cotton cultivation in this region.^ Smyrna is the principal centre of cotton cultivation in this region.

^ In this region cotton has been cultivated from very early times to supply local demands, and to a minor degree for export.

.A native variety known as " Terli," and American cotton, are grown.^ A native variety known as " Terli," and American cotton, are grown.

^ G. barbadense , known in the United States as American Pima, or Pima, and sometimes called extra-long staple cotton, is grown in long-season areas, such as our Southwestern States.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The best American cotton (Sea Island and Florida cotton are always considered quite apart) is grown in the Mississippi valley, the next best in Texas, and the poorest on the Uplands (i.e.

.The general conditions are favourable.^ The general conditions are favourable.

.According to the Liverpool Cotton Gazette, Asiatic Turkey produced in 1906 about ioo,000 bales, and Persia about 47,000 bales.^ According to the Liverpool Cotton Gazette , Asiatic Turkey produced in 1906 about ioo,000 bales, and Persia about 47,000 bales.

^ The annual damage was in 1906 reduced to £r,000,000 to £ 2,000,000, and this on a larger area devoted to cotton than in the case of the estimate given above.

^ About this time the broker of cotton only began to specialize from the ranks of the brokers who dealt in all kinds of colonial produce.

Cotton was formerly cultivated profitably in Palestine.

Australasia

.The quantity of cotton now produced in Australasia is extremely small.^ The quantity of cotton now produced in Australasia is extremely small.

.Queensland, New South Wales and South Australia possess suitable climatic conditions, and in the first-named state the cotton has been grown on a commercial scale in past years, the crop in 1897 being about 450 bales.^ Queensland , New South Wales and South Australia possess suitable climatic conditions, and in the first-named state the cotton has been grown on a commercial scale in past years, the crop in 1897 being about 450 bales.

^ G. barbadense , known in the United States as American Pima, or Pima, and sometimes called extra-long staple cotton, is grown in long-season areas, such as our Southwestern States.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Korea is stated to have originally received its cotton plants from China some 500 years ago.

.Considerable interest attaches to the " Caravonica " cotton raised in South Australia, which has been experimented with in Australia, Ceylon and elsewhere.^ Considerable interest attaches to the " Caravonica " cotton raised in South Australia , which has been experimented with in Australia , Ceylon and elsewhere.

^ Special interest attaches to experiments made in the United States to endeavour to raise races of cotton resistant to the boll weevil.

.It is probably a hybrid between Sea Island and rough Peruvian cotton, but lacks most of the essential features of Sea Island.^ It is probably a hybrid between Sea Island and rough Peruvian cotton, but lacks most of the essential features of Sea Island.

^ Sea Island and other long-stapled cottons.

^ He classifies the modern high-class Sea Island cottons as G. barbadense, var.

.In Fiji the cotton exported in the 'sixties and 'seventies was worth £93,000 annually; but the cultivation has been practically abandoned.^ In Fiji the cotton exported in the 'sixties and 'seventies was worth £93,000 annually; but the cultivation has been practically abandoned.

^ The annual damage was in 1906 reduced to £r,000,000 to £ 2,000,000, and this on a larger area devoted to cotton than in the case of the estimate given above.

^ Attention was drawn to it in 1862, when it caused the abandonment of cotton cultivation about Monclova in Mexico .

.In 1899 about 60 bales, and in 1900 about 6 bales, were exported.^ In 1899 about 60 bales, and in 1900 about 6 bales, were exported.

^ Up to the year 1885 there was an average yearly export equivalent to about 2140 bales of 500 lb, after which date the export practically ceased.

^ The annual export is about 30,000 bales.

.During 1901-1903 there were no exports of cotton, and in 1904 only 70 bales were sent out.^ During 1901-1903 there were no exports of cotton, and in 1904 only 70 bales were sent out.

^ Only the very lowest counts can be spun from cotton with " no staple," that is, with a fibre of about three-quarters of an inch.

^ It is said that there were only seven cotton oil mills in the South in 1860.

.Into the Society Islands Sea Island cotton was introduced about 1860-1870. Up to the year 1885 there was an average yearly export equivalent to about 2140 bales of 500 lb, after which date the export practically ceased.^ Bales of 500 lb.

^ Into the Society Islands Sea Island cotton was introduced about 1860-1870.

^ (In 500 lb Bales.

.The industry has, however, been revived, and in 1906 over ioo bales, valued at £1052, were exported.^ The industry has, however, been revived, and in 1906 over ioo bales, valued at £1052, were exported.

^ According to the Liverpool Cotton Gazette , Asiatic Turkey produced in 1906 about ioo,000 bales, and Persia about 47,000 bales.

^ In 1906 the combined exports had risen to 362 bales, including a little from German East Africa .

.(W. G. F.) Marketing And Supply In the days of slave-grown cotton, the American planters, being men of wealth farming on a large scale, consigned the bulk Moving of their produce as a rule direct to the ports.^ (W. G. F.) Marketing And Supply In the days of slave-grown cotton, the American planters, being men of wealth farming on a large scale, consigned the bulk Moving of their produce as a rule direct to the ports.

^ Markets for organic cotton are limited, and demand plus foreign supplies influence prices.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The best American cotton (Sea Island and Florida cotton are always considered quite apart) is grown in the Mississippi valley, the next best in Texas, and the poorest on the Uplands (i.e.

.Now, however, a large proportion of the crop is sold to local store-keepers who transfer it to exporting firms in neighbouring cities.^ Now, however, a large proportion of the crop is sold to local store -keepers who transfer it to exporting firms in neighbouring cities.

^ The exports, however, are small, almost all the crop being used locally.

^ There are no figures obtainable as to the production, but it must be very large, considering that the crop provides clothing for a large proportion of the population of China.

.The cultivators, whether owners of the plantations, as is usual in some districts, or tenants, as is customary in others, are financed as a rule by commission agents.^ The cultivators, whether owners of the plantations, as is usual in some districts, or tenants, as is customary in others, are financed as a rule by commission agents.

.The decline of " spot " sales at the ports, partly but not entirely in consequence of the appearance of the small cultivator, has proceeded steadily.^ The decline of " spot " sales at the ports, partly but not entirely in consequence of the appearance of the small cultivator , has proceeded steadily.

.Hammond 1 has constructed a table from information supplied by the secretaries of the cotton exchanges at New York, Charleston, Savannah, Mobile, New Orleans and Galveston, showing the sales of " spot " cotton at those ports for the twenty-two years between 1874-1875 and 1895-1896, and in all cases an absolute decline is evident.^ Hammond 1 has constructed a table from information supplied by the secretaries of the cotton exchanges at New York , Charleston, Savannah, Mobile , New Orleans and Galveston , showing the sales of " spot " cotton at those ports for the twenty-two years between 1874-1875 and 1895-1896, and in all cases an absolute decline is evident.

^ This was followed in the same year by the Daily Table of sales and imports, which in 1874 was succeeded by the present more complete Daily Circular.

^ Between the years 1788 and 1850 numerous attempts were made by the East India Company to improve the cultivation and to increase the supply of cotton in India, and botanists and American planters were engaged for the purpose.

.The receipts of cotton in the season 1904-1905 at the leading interior towns and ports of the United States are given below.^ The receipts of cotton in the season 1904-1905 at the leading interior towns and ports of the United States are given below.

^ Receipts of Cotton at 28 Interior Towns.

^ G. barbadense , known in the United States as American Pima, or Pima, and sometimes called extra-long staple cotton, is grown in long-season areas, such as our Southwestern States.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

17
Memphis, Tenn. .
984
96
19
256
126
219
211
91
Eufaula, Ala. .
29
loo
74
57
87
76
Albany, Ga.
35
Receipts of Cotton at 28 Interior Towns. (In Thousand Statistical Bales of 500 lb each.) 1 Cotton Culture and the Cotton Trade, p. 298.
134
2,423
72
133
446
167
68
Yazoo City, Miss.
65
Newberry, S.C.
17
6712
21
Total .
19
13,565
672
Crop.
2,879
84
2,690
14
33 o
Zoo
Savannah, Ga. .
1,877
187
Charleston, S.C. .
225
Minor Ports .
518
375
Total. .
10,295
62
13,565
34
Crop. .
.Receipts of Cotton at American Ports. (In Thousand Statistical Bales of 500 lb each.^ Bales of 500 lb.

^ (In 500 lb Bales.

^ Receipts of Cotton at American Ports.

) Galveston and Savannah have risen considerably in relative importance of late years.
Before the Civil War each planter would have his own ginhouse. Now, however, ginning is a distinct business, and one gin willserve on an average about thirty farmers. .Moveable gins were tried for a time in some places; they were dragged by traction engines from farm to farm, like threshing machines in parts of England, but the plan proved uneconomical because, among other reasons, farmers were not prepared to meet the cost of providing facilities for storing their cotton.^ Some structures at the base of certain locks of cotton have the appearance of motes, but they are not derived from ovules.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ As well, there are several farmers and farm organizations listed that are involved with organic cotton.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Rotations are a planned approach to diversifying the whole farm system both economically and biologically, bringing diversity to each field over time.
  • Organic Cotton Production 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: Academic]

In addition to the small country ginneries, large modern ginneries have now been set up in all the leading Southern market towns. The cotton is pressed locally and afterwards " compressed " into a very small compass. .The bales are usually square, but cylindrical bales are becoming more common, though their cost is greater.^ The bales are usually square, but cylindrical bales are becoming more common, though their cost is greater.

In the latter, the cotton is arranged in the form of a rolled sheet or " lap." Owing to complaints of the careless packing of American cotton, attention has been devoted of late to the improvement of the square bale.
.London used to be the chief cotton port of England, but Liverpool had assumed undisputed leadership before the 19th century began.^ London used to be the chief cotton port of England, but Liverpool had assumed undisputed leadership before the 19th century began.

^ With a capacity for the production of cotton almost boundless, the crop which was so insignificant when the century began had in 1860 reached the enormous extent of 4,824,000 bales.

^ For five centuries before the Christian era cotton was largely used in the domestic manufactures of India; and the clothing of the inhabitants then consisted, as now, chiefly of garments made from this vegetable product.

.Some arrivals have been diverted to Manchester since the opening of the Manchester ship s canal; shipments through the canal from the 1st of entry, September to the 30th of August in each year for the decade 1894-1895 to 1904-1905 are appended - six to eight times as much is still unloaded at Liverpool.^ The season is from the 1st of September to the 31st of August each year.

^ Some arrivals have been diverted to Manchester since the opening of the Manchester ship s canal; shipments through the canal from the 1st of entry, September to the 30th of August in each year for the decade 1894-1895 to 1904-1905 are appended - six to eight times as much is still unloaded at Liverpool.

^ Ship Canal , has drawn back into Manchester a part of the cotton market which was attracted from Manchester into Liverpool by the famous improvement in transport opened to the public three-quarters of a century ago.

.A Manchester cotton-importing company was recently formed for increasing deliveries direct to Manchester, and establishing a " spot " market there, an end to which the Manchester Cotton Association had directed its efforts for some time past.^ A Manchester cotton-importing company was recently formed for increasing deliveries direct to Manchester, and establishing a " spot " market there, an end to which the Manchester Cotton Association had directed its efforts for some time past.

^ As most of the Lancashire cotton mills lie far from Manchester, direct importations to that city do not usually dispense with a " handling," and frequently save little or nothing in freight rates, though in some cases the economy derived from direct importation is considerable.

^ A man accustomed to devote the whole of his time to the study of demand and supply in relation to cotton, after some years of experience, will be qualified ordinarily to form fairly accurate judgments of the prices to be expected.

.The latter association was established at the end of 1894, with a membership of 265, in the interests of those spinners who desired importations direct to Manchester.^ The latter association was established at the end of 1894, with a membership of 265, in the interests of those spinners who desired importations direct to Manchester.

^ Some Manchester dealers imported themselves, and some spinners bought direct from Liverpool importers, but the rule was the arrangement first described.

^ The centralization of the cotton market in Liverpool fixed firmly the system of buying through brokers, for the Liverpool importer, or his broker , was in no sense a professional adviser to the spinners, informally pledged to advance the latter's interests, as the old Manchester dealers had been.

.The objects of the association are officially stated to be: (1) to frame suitable and authoritative forms of contract, and to make rules and regulations for the proper conduct of the trade; (2) to supervise and facilitate the delivery of the importations of cotton at the Manchester docks to the various consignees; (3) to provide and maintain trustworthy standards of classification; (4) to procure and disseminate useful information on all subjects pertaining to the trade; (5) to act in concert with chambers of commerce and other bodies throughout the world for mutual protection; (6) to establish a hiarket for cotton at Manchester.^ The objects of the association are officially stated to be: (1) to frame suitable and authoritative forms of contract, and to make rules and regulations for the proper conduct of the trade; (2) to supervise and facilitate the delivery of the importations of cotton at the Manchester docks to the various consignees; (3) to provide and maintain trustworthy standards of classification; (4) to procure and disseminate useful information on all subjects pertaining to the trade; (5) to act in concert with chambers of commerce and other bodies throughout the world for mutual protection; (6) to establish a hiarket for cotton at Manchester.

^ A Manchester cotton-importing company was recently formed for increasing deliveries direct to Manchester, and establishing a " spot " market there, an end to which the Manchester Cotton Association had directed its efforts for some time past.

^ Spinning members preponderate, but almost all the Manchester cotton merchants and cotton brokers have also joined the association.

.Spinning members preponderate, but almost all the Manchester cotton merchants and cotton brokers have also joined the association.^ Spinning members preponderate, but almost all the Manchester cotton merchants and cotton brokers have also joined the association.

^ About this time the broker of cotton only began to specialize from the ranks of the brokers who dealt in all kinds of colonial produce.

^ The Trans-Caspian railway has been an important factor; almost all the cotton exported passes over this line, and the statistics of this trade indicate the progress made.

.The importance of the original spinners' representation on the association is shown by the fact that they worked over 14,000,000 spindles: in December 1905 the spindles represented by members had risen to nearly 20,000,000. Some 73,000 looms are also represented.^ Some 73,000 looms are also represented.

^ The importance of the original spinners' representation on the association is shown by the fact that they worked over 14,000,000 spindles: in December 1905 the spindles represented by members had risen to nearly 20,000,000.

^ When the agents of the spinners, that is, the buying brokers, by becoming principals in some transactions, had acquired interests diametrically opposed to those of their customers, the consequent feeling of distrust among spinners gave birth to the Cotton Buying Company, which, constituted originally of twenty to thrity limited cotton-spinning companies, represents to-day nearly 6,000,000 spindles distributed among nearly one hundred firms.

.As most of the Lancashire cotton mills lie far from Manchester, direct importations to that city do not usually dispense with a " handling," and frequently save little or nothing in freight rates, though in some cases the economy derived from direct importation is considerable.^ As most of the Lancashire cotton mills lie far from Manchester, direct importations to that city do not usually dispense with a " handling," and frequently save little or nothing in freight rates, though in some cases the economy derived from direct importation is considerable.

^ Conversely, Harland (1943) proposed that a completely self-fertile cotton might be grown, a direction that some breeders seem to seek, but which is unlikely to result in the most productive type.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Some structures at the base of certain locks of cotton have the appearance of motes, but they are not derived from ovules.
  • Chapter 9: Crop Plants and Exotic Plants 10 February 2010 13:46 UTC gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov [Source type: Academic]

.One gain accruing to Lancashire from the Canal, however, is that its competition has brought down railway rates.^ One gain accruing to Lancashire from the Canal, however, is that its competition has brought down railway rates.

.Fundamental alterations have been made in the structure of the leading cotton markets, and in methods of buying and selling cotton, in the last hundred years.^ Fundamental alterations have been made in the structure of the leading cotton markets, and in methods of buying and selling cotton, in the last hundred years.

^ On methods of marketing to certain portions of the above must be added: Ellison's Cotton Trade of Great Britain; Chapman's Lancashire Cotton Industry (ch.

^ Previously there had not been enough business done in cotton to make it worth any person's while to devote himself to the buying and selling on commission of cotton only.

.We shall not attempt to trace the changes as they appeared in every market of importance, but shall confine our attention to one only, and that perhaps the most important of all, namely, the market at Liverpool.^ We shall not attempt to trace the changes as they appeared in every market of importance, but shall confine our attention to one only, and that perhaps the most important of all, namely, the market at Liverpool.

^ Many other diseases occur, but the above are sufficient to indicate some of the principal ones in the most important cotton countries of the world.

^ Wilt disease," or " frenching," perhaps the most important of the fungoid disease of cotton in the United States, is due to Neocosmospora vasinfecta.

.This selection of one market for detailed examination does not rob our sketch of generality, as might at first be thought, since broadly the history of the development of one market is the history of the development of all, and on the whole the economic explanation of the evolution that has taken place may be universalized.^ This selection of one market for detailed examination does not rob our sketch of generality, as might at first be thought, since broadly the history of the development of one market is the history of the development of all, and on the whole the economic explanation of the evolution that has taken place may be universalized.

^ In the first place, the public speculates to a large extent on the cotton exchange, and its speculation (taken as a whole) is sheer gambling.

^ The difference between the highest and lowest price, we may observe, is a very imperfect indication of the range of movement (though, taken in conjunction with the standard deviation, it is the best at our disposal), because either of the extreme prices might be accidental and quite out of relation to all others.

with less easy terms for payment than were usual in .Manchester, prevented any great numbers from departing from the beaten track.^ Manchester, prevented any great numbers from departing from the beaten track.

.Cotton dealers up to this time had regularly financed the spinners, who were frequently men of little capital, by allowing long credit, and had even employed them to spin on commission.^ Cotton dealers up to this time had regularly financed the spinners, who were frequently men of little capital, by allowing long credit, and had even employed them to spin on commission.

^ The simplest cotton gin in extensive use is the " churka," used from early times, and still largely employed in India and China .

^ Strong representations were made against allowing Cotton to exercise any influence in filling up the vacant post.

.As men of substance increased among the ranks of the spinners, the Manchester cotton dealers found it impossible to retard a movement set on foot by the prospects of such appreciable advantages.^ As men of substance increased among the ranks of the spinners, the Manchester cotton dealers found it impossible to retard a movement set on foot by the prospects of such appreciable advantages.

^ The general movement for the extension of cotton cultivation wa.s welcomed by the International Congress of representatives of master cotton spinners and manufacturers' associations at the meeting at Zurich in May 1904.

^ Cotton dealers up to this time had regularly financed the spinners, who were frequently men of little capital, by allowing long credit, and had even employed them to spin on commission.

.Ultimately many of the old Manchester cotton dealers became brokers for their old customers.^ Ultimately many of the old Manchester cotton dealers became brokers for their old customers.

^ Spinning members preponderate, but almost all the Manchester cotton merchants and cotton brokers have also joined the association.

^ Early in the 19th century it became customary for Manchester dealers and Liverpool importers to carry on business with one another through representatives known as " buying