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Caroline of Zweibrücken
Landgravine of Hesse-Darmstadt
Portrait of Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken
Spouse Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
Caroline of Hesse-Darmstadt
Frederica Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt
Louis I of Hesse-Darmstadt
Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt
Wilhelmina Louisa of Hessen-Darmstadt
Luise Auguste of Hesse-Darmstadt
Frederick of Hesse-Darmstadt
Christian of Hesse-Darmstadt
House House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken
House of Hesse-Darmstadt
Father Christian III, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken
Mother Caroline of Nassau-Saarbrücken
Born 9 March 1721
Died 30 March 1774 (aged 53 years)

Henriette Caroline Christiane Louise of the Palatinate-Zweibrücken (Strassburg, March 9, 1721 – Darmstadt March 30, 1774) was wife of the Landgrave of Hessen-Darmstadt and one of the most learned women of her time.



Henriette Caroline was the daughter of Christian III, Duke of Zweibrücken and his wife Caroline of Nassau-Saarbrücken.

She married on August 12, 1741 in Zweibrücken, Louis IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. Caroline was better known as The Great Landgräfin, a name given to her by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. She was befriended to several writers and philosophers of her time, such as Johann Gottfried Herder, Christoph Martin Wieland and Goethe. Wieland wished he had the power to make her Queen of Europa. She also had contact with Frederick II of Prussia, and she was one of the few women that the Alte Fritz respected. He called her once the Glory and Wonder of our century and after her death he sent to Darmstadt an urn with the text femina sexo, ingenio vir (A woman by sex, a man by spirit), which can still be seen today. Through her daughter she is an ancestor to the royal house of Prussia, Germany and the Netherlands.

They had five daughters and three sons, including:



  • Marita A. Panzer: Die Große Landgräfin Caroline von Hessen-Darmstadt, Verlag Friedrich Pustet Regensburg, 2005

External links

Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken
Cadet branch of the House of Wittelsbach
Born: 9 March 1721 Died: 30 March 1774
German royalty
Title last held by
Charlotte of Hanau-Lichtenberg
Landgravine consort of Hesse-Darmstadt
17 October 1768 - 30 March 1774
Title next held by
Marie Adelaide of Lemberg


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