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The 41 counties (Romanian: judeţe) and the municipality of Bucharest compose the official administrative divisions of Romania. They also represent the European Union' s NUTS-3 geocode statistical subdivision scheme of Romania. Each county serves as the local level of government within its borders.

The earliest organization into judeţe of the Principalities of Wallachia, respectively ţinuturi of Moldavia, dates back at least to the early 15th century. When modern Romania was formed in 1859, the administrative division was modernized using the French departments system as an example. Between 1927 and 1938, a total of 71 judeţe existed, but following the territorial losses during the World War II, the administrative divisions were reorganized. The current format has been in place largely since 1968, and since then only small changes were made, last of which was made in 1995.

According to 2006 Romanian National Institute of Statistics, the average population of Romania's 41 counties is about 479,300, with Iaşi County as the most populous (824,100) and Covasna County (223,800) the least. The average land area is 5,809 sq km, with Timiş County (8,697) being the largest and Ilfov County (1,583) the smalles. The Municipality of Bucharest is both more populous and smaller than any county, with 1,931,200 people and 228 sq km.

Contents

Historic

The 71 counties of Romania between 1927 and 1938

The earliest organization into judeţe of the Principalities of Wallachia,[1] respectively ţinuturi of Moldavia, dates back at least to the early 15th century. Each judeţ, respectively ţinut, was ruled by a jude, respectively pârcălab, an officially appointed person who had administrative and judicial functions in a manner inspired from the organization of the late Byzantine Empire. Transylvania was divided into royal counties (Latin: comitatus), headed by comes (royal counts) with administrative and judicial functions. The term judeţ became used in Romanian universally for all principalities since mid 19th century.

After modern Romania was formed in 1859 through the union of Wallachia and rump Moldavia, the administrative division was modernized using the French departments system as an example. With the exception of part of the Communist period, this system remained in place. Since 1864, for each judeţ there exists a prefect (from the Latin praefectus), a subordinate of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, who is the representative of the government in the county, and the head of the local administration in the areas not delegated to local authorities.[2] Until 1948, each judeţ was further divided into a number of plăşi (singular plasă), with each administered by a pretor (from the Latin praetor), appointed by the prefect.[3]

Current counties imposed over the inter-war counties

In 1923 Romania adopted a new Constitution, and in 1927 it uniformized the traditional administrative systems of the newly aquired regions of Transylvania, Bukovina and Bessarabia with that of the Romanian Old Kingdom. County borders were kept largely intact, with only a couple minor adjustments, while the total of counties was raised to 71 until the beginning of the World War II. In 1938, King Carol II modified the Constitution, and after that the law of administration of the Romanian territory. Ten ţinuturi (approx. translation: "lands") were created, ruled by Rezidenţi Regali (approx. translation "Royal Residents"), appointed directly by the Monarch. The ţinuturi represented another layer of administration between counties and the country; county borders were not erased.[4][2] But, due to the territorial changes during the World War II, this style of administration did not last, the administration at the judeţ level being introduced back until the establishment of communism. Between 1941-1944, Romania administered the territory between Dniester and Southern Bug rivers known as Transnistria, which consisted of a further 13 counties.

After the war, the Communist Party took over the administration of the country, and in 1950, it changed the administration model to the Russian model (regions and raions), but it reverted to the current system in 1968. Nevertheless, the county borders were quite different from those during the interbellic period, as only 39 counties were formed from the 58 remaining after the war.[5] In 1981 Giurgiu, Călăraşi, were split from the former counties of Ilfov and Ialomiţa, and in 1995, the Ilfov County was reinstated (meanwhile it had been a dependency of the Municipality of Bucharest). The county borders introduced in 1968 are largely in place, but administrative reform during 1990s has devolved the functions of different authorities have changed.

Presently, Romania is divided into 41 counties and one municipality which are assigned as NUTS III-level divisions. Each of the counties is further divided into cities (some of which with municipality status) and communes. The prefect and his administration have executive prerogatives within the county limits, while limited legislative powers are assigned to a County Council (Consiliu judeţean) elected for four years during local elections (for mayors). The territorial districts of the Romanian judicial system overlap with county borders, thus avoiding further complication in the separation of powers on the government.[2]

Current list

County
County seat
Development region
Code
[note 1]
Postal code
[note 2][6]
Area code
[note 3][7]
NUTS
code
[8]
Population
(2006)[9]
Area
(km2)

Map
Alba
Actual Alba county CoA.png
Alba Iulia
Coa AlbaIulia RO.jpg
Center AB 51 58 RO121 378,614 6,242 Alba.svg
Arad
Actual Arad county CoA.png
Arad
Actual Arad CoA.png
West AR 31 57 RO421 458,487 7,754 Arad.svg
Argeş
Actual Arges county CoA.png
Piteşti
Actual Pitesti CoA.png
South-Muntenia AG 11 48 RO311 644,590 6,862 Arges.svg
Bacău
Actual Bacau county COA.png
Bacău
Coa Bacau RO.png
North-East BC 60 34 RO211 721,411 6,621 Bacau.svg
Bihor
Actual Bihor county CoA.png
Oradea
Coa oradea ro.gif
North-West BH 41 66 RO111 594,982 7,544 Bihor.svg
Bistriţa-Năsăud
Actual Bistrita-Nasaud county CoA.png
Bistriţa
Coa bistrita ro.gif
North-West BN 42 63 RO112 317,685 5,355 Bistrita Nasaud.svg
Botoşani
Actual Botosani county CoA.png
Botoşani
Coa botosani ro.gif
North-East BT 71 31 RO212 456,765 4,986 Botosani.svg
Braşov
Actual Brasov county CoA.png
Braşov
StemaBrasov.png
Center BV 50 68 RO122 595,758 5,363 Brasov.svg
Brăila
Actual Braila county CoA.png
Brăila
Coa Braila TO.gif
South-East BR 81 39 RO221 367,661 4,766 Braila.svg
Bucureşti
Bucharest-Coat-of-Arms.png
(Municipality of Bucharest) Bucharest-Ilfov B 01–06 1x RO321 1,931,236 228 Bucharest in Romania.svg
Buzău
Actual Buzau county CoA.png
Buzău
Actual Buzau CoA.png
South-East BZ 12 38 RO222 490,981 6,103 Buzau.svg
Caraş-Severin
Actual Caras-Severin county CoA.png
Reşiţa
Coa Resita RO.png
West CS 32 55 RO422 330,517 8,514 Caras-severin.svg
Călăraşi
Actual Calarasi county CoA.png
Călăraşi
Coa Calarasi CL RO.png
South-Muntenia CL 91 42 RO312 316,294 5,088 Calarasi.svg
Cluj
Actual Cluj county CoA.png
Cluj-Napoca
Actual Cluj-Napoca CoA.png
North-West CJ 40 64 RO113 689,523 6,674 Cluj.svg
Constanţa
Actual Constanta county CoA.png
Constanţa
Actual Constanta CoA.png
South-East CT 90 41 RO223 716,576 7,071 Constanta.svg
Covasna
Actual Covasna county CoA.png
Sfântu Gheorghe
Actual Sf Gheorghe CoA.png
Center CV 52 67 RO123 223,750 3,710 Covasna.svg
Dâmboviţa
Actual Dambovita county CoA.png
Târgovişte
Coa targoviste ro.gif
South-Muntenia DB 13 45 RO313 535,087 4,054 Dambovita.svg
Dolj
Actual Dolj county CoA.png
Craiova
Coa Craiova ro.gif
South-West Oltenia DJ 20 51 RO411 715,989 7,414 Dolj.svg
Galaţi
Actual Galati county CoA.png
Galaţi
Actual Galati CoA.png
South-East GL 80 36 RO224 617,979 4,466 Galati.svg
Giurgiu
Actual Giurgiu county CoA.png
Giurgiu
Coa Giurgiu GR RO.png
South-Muntenia GR 08 46 RO314 284,501 3,526 Giurgiu.svg
Gorj
Stema jud Gorj.jpg
Târgu Jiu
Coa Targu Jiu.png
South-West Oltenia GJ 21 53 RO412 383,557 5,602 Gorj.svg
Harghita
Harghita county coat of arms.gif
Miercurea Ciuc
Actual Miercurea Ciuc CoA.png
Center HR 53 66 RO124 326,347 6,639 Harghita.svg
Hunedoara
Actual Hunedoara county CoA.png
Deva
Coa Deva HD RO.png
West HD 33 54 RO423 477,259 7,063 Hunedoara.svg
Ialomiţa
Actual Ialomita county CoA.png
Slobozia
Coa Slobozia RO.gif
South-Muntenia IL 92 43 RO315 291,178 4,453 Ialomita.svg
Iaşi
Actual Iasi county CoA.png
Iaşi
Roiasi.gif
North-East IS 70 32 RO213 824,083 5,476 Iasi.svg
Ilfov
Actual Ilfov county CoA.png
Buftea
Coa buftea if ro.png
Bucharest-Ilfov IF 07 1x RO322 288,296 1,583 Ilfov.svg
Maramureş
Actual Maramures county CoA.png
Baia Mare
Coa BaiaMare MM RO.png
North-West MM 43 62 RO114 515,313 6,304 Maramures.svg
Mehedinţi
Actual Mehedinti county CoA.png
Drobeta-Turnu Severin
Coa drtrsev ro.gif
South-West Oltenia MH 22 52 RO413 301,515 4,933 Mehedinti.svg
Mureş
Actual Mures county CoA.png
Târgu Mureş
Coa tgmures ro.gif
Center MS 54 65 RO125 583,210 6,714 Mures.svg
Neamţ
Actual Neamt county CoA.png
Piatra Neamţ
Coa PiatraNeamt RO.gif
North-East NT 61 33 RO214 567,908 5,896 Neamt.svg
Olt
Actual Olt county CoA.png
Slatina
Coa Slatina RO.gif
South-West Oltenia OT 23 49 RO414 479,323 5,498 Olt.svg
Prahova
Actual Prahova county CoA.png
Ploieşti
Coa ploiesti ro.gif
South-Muntenia PH 10 44 RO316 823,509 4,716 Prahova.svg
Satu Mare
Actual Satu Mare county CoA.png
Satu Mare
COA SatuMare RO.gif
North-West SM 44 61 RO115 367,677 4,418 Satu Mare.svg
Sălaj
Actual Salaj county CoA.png
Zalău
Actual Zalau CoA.png
North-West SJ 45 60 RO116 244,952 3,864 Salaj.svg
Sibiu
Actual Sibiu county CoA.png
Sibiu
Actual Sibiu CoA.png.png
Center SB 55 69 RO126 423,119 5,432 Sibiu.svg
Suceava
Actual Suceava county CoA.png
Suceava
Coa suceava ro.gif
North-East SV 72 30 RO215 705,730 8,553 Suceava.svg
Teleorman
Actual Teleorman county CoA.png
Alexandria
CoA Alexandria RO.PNG
South-Muntenia TR 14 47 RO317 417,183 5,790 Teleorman.svg
Timiş
Actual Timis county CoA.png
Timişoara
Stema Timisoara.svg
West TM 30 56 RO424 660,966 8,697 Timis.svg
Tulcea
Actual Tulcea county CoA.png
Tulcea
CoaTulcea.png
South-East TL 82 40 RO225 251,614 8,499 Tulcea.svg
Vaslui
Actual Vaslui county CoA.png
Vaslui
Coa Vaslui RO.jpg
North-East VS 73 35 RO216 456,686 5,318 Vaslui.svg
Vâlcea
Actual Valcea county CoA.png
Râmnicu Vâlcea
Coa rmvalcea ro.jpg
South-West Oltenia VL 24 50 RO415 413,511 5,765 Valcea.svg
Vrancea
Actual Vrancea county CoA.png
Focşani
Actual Focsani CoA.png
South-East VN 62 37 RO226 393,023 4,857 Vrancea.svg

Notes

Romania

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Romania



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  1. ^ These are the usual abbreviations in use and coincide with the license plate ones; they also correspond to the ISO 3166-2:RO codes.
  2. ^ The postal code format is of the type "xxyzw", where xx indicate the county, while y, z, and w indicate the city, the street, part of the street, or even the building of the address.
  3. ^ Phone numbers are of the type "+40-abb-ccc-cccc, where 40 is the country code, bb is the area code, and a is a digit indicating the operator: 2 for the former national operator, Romtelecom, and 3 for the other ground telephone networks.

References

See also

External links

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Simple English

The judeţe (translated in English as "counties") are administrative units of Romania.

The following is a complete list of all the counties in Romania:

Name Common
Abbrev
Capital Area (km2)
Alba AB Alba Iulia 6,242
Arad AR Arad 7,754
Argeş AG Piteşti 6,862
Bacău BC Bacău 6,621
Bihor BH Oradea 7,544
Bistriţa-Năsăud BN Bistriţa 5,355
Botoşani BT Botoşani 4,986
Braşov BV Braşov 5,363
Brăila BR Brăila 4,766
Buzău BZ Buzău 6,103
Caraş-Severin CS Reşiţa 8,514
Călăraşi CL Călăraşi 5,088
Cluj CJ Cluj-Napoca 6,674
Constanţa CT Constanţa 7,071
Covasna CV Sfântu Gheorghe 3,710
Dâmboviţa DB Târgovişte 4,054
Dolj DJ Craiova 7,414
Galaţi GL Galaţi 4,466
Giurgiu GR Giurgiu 3,526
Gorj GJ Târgu Jiu 5,602
Harghita HR Miercurea Ciuc 6,639
Hunedoara HD Deva 7,063
Ialomiţa IL Slobozia 4,453
Iaşi IS Iaşi 5,476
Ilfov IF Buftea 1,583
Maramureş MM Baia Mare 6,304
Mehedinţi MH Drobeta-Turnu Severin 4,933
Mureş MS Târgu Mureş 6,714
Neamţ NT Piatra Neamţ 5,896
Olt OT Slatina 5,498
Prahova PH Ploieşti 4,716
Satu Mare SM Satu Mare 4,418
Sălaj SJ Zalău 3,864
Sibiu SB Sibiu 5,432
Suceava SV Suceava 8,553
Teleorman TR Alexandria 5,790
Timiş TM Timişoara 8,697
Tulcea TL Tulcea 8,499
Vaslui VS Vaslui 5,318
Vâlcea VL Râmnicu Vâlcea 5,765
Vrancea VN Focşani 4,857
Bucureşti B (Bucharest municipality)


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