Courts of the United States: Wikis

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Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Courts of the United States include both the United States federal courts, comprising the judicial branch of the federal government of the United States (operating under the authority of the United States Constitution and federal law) and state and territorial courts of the individual U.S. states and territories (operating under the authority of the state and territorial constitutions and state and territorial law)

In federal legislation, regulations governing the "courts of the United States" only refer to the courts of the United States government, and not the courts of the individual states. Because of the federalist underpinnings of the division between federal and state governments, the various state court systems are free to operate in ways that vary widely from those of the federal government, and from one another. In practice, however, every state has adopted a division of its judiciary into at least two levels, and almost every state has three levels, with trial courts hearing cases which may be reviewed by appellate courts, and finally by a state supreme court. A few states have two separate supreme courts, with one having authority over civil matters and the other reviewing criminal cases. State courts may have different names and organization; trial courts may be called "courts of common plea" and appellate courts "superior courts" or "commonwealth courts".[1] State courts hear about 98% of litigation; most states have special jurisdiction courts, which typically handle minor disputes such as traffic citations, and general jurisdiction courts which handle more serious disputes.[2]

The U.S. federal court system hears cases involving litigants from two or more states, violations of federal laws, treaties, and the Constitution, admiralty, bankruptcy, and related issues.[3] In practice, about 80% of the cases are civil and 20% criminal.[2] The civil cases often involve civil rights, patents, and Social Security while the criminal cases involve tax fraud, robbery, counterfeiting, and drug crimes.[2] The trial courts are U.S. district courts, followed by United States courts of appeals and then the Supreme Court of the United States. The judicial system, whether state or federal, begins with a court of first instance, is appealed to an appellate court, and then ends at the court of last resort.[4]

Institutions which may be considered courts of the United States are listed below.

Contents

United States federal courts

The geographical boundary of the 12 United States Courts of Appeals
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Geographic based jurisdiction

Specific subject-matter jurisdiction

  • United States federal courts with Original Jurisdiction over specific subject matter:

Former United States Courts

Courts by state of the United States


Alabama

Federal courts located in Alabama

(All United States District Courts in Alabama may be appealed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit, headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia)

Former federal courts of Alabama


Alaska

Federal courts located in Alaska


Arizona

Federal courts located in Arizona


Arkansas

Federal courts located in Arkansas

Former federal courts of Arkansas


California

Headquarters of the Supreme Court of California, in San Francisco.

Federal courts located in California

Former federal courts of California


Colorado

Federal courts located in Colorado


Connecticut

Federal courts located in Connecticut


Delaware

Federal courts located in Delaware


Florida

Headquarters of the Florida Supreme Court in Tallahassee.

Federal courts located in Florida

Former federal courts of Florida


Georgia

Federal courts located in Georgia

Former federal courts of Georgia


Hawaii

Aliʻiōlani Hale, in Honolulu, the building where the Hawaiʻi State Supreme Court meets

Federal courts located in Hawaii


Idaho

Federal courts located in Idaho


Illinois

Federal courts located in Illinois

Former federal courts of Illinois


Indiana

The E. Ross Adair Federal Building, seat of the Fort Wayne division of the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Indiana

Federal courts located in Indiana

Former federal courts of Indiana


Iowa

Federal courts located in Iowa

Former federal courts of Iowa


Kansas

Federal courts located in Kansas


Kentucky

Federal courts located in this state

Former federal courts of Kentucky


Louisiana

Federal courts located in this state

Former federal courts of Louisiana


Maine

Federal courts located in Maine


Maryland

Federal courts located in Maryland

Former federal courts of Maryland


Massachusetts

John Adams Courthouse in Boston, Massachusetts, home to the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court and Massachusetts Appeals Court.

Judicial courts

Administrative courts

Federal courts located in Massachusetts


Michigan

Federal courts located in Michigan

Former federal courts of Michigan


Minnesota

Supreme Court Chamber of the Minnesota Supreme Court in the Minnesota State Capitol in Saint Paul.

Federal courts located in Minnesota


Mississippi

Federal courts located in Mississippi

Former federal courts of Mississippi


Missouri

Missouri State Supreme Court building across from state capitol in Jefferson City.

Federal courts located in Missouri

Former federal courts of Missouri


Montana

Federal courts located in Montana


Nebraska

Federal courts located in Nebraska


Nevada

The headquarters of the Supreme Court of Nevada in Carson City.

Federal courts located in Nevada


New Hampshire

Federal courts located in New Hampshire


New Jersey

Richard J. Hughes Justice Complex, Trenton, New Jersey: The seat of the New Jersey Supreme Court and the central administrative offices of all statewide courts in New Jersey.

Federal courts located in New Jersey

Former federal courts of New Jersey


New Mexico

Federal courts located in New Mexico


New York

The 1842 courthouse of the New York Court of Appeals in Albany.

Federal courts located in New York

Former federal courts of New York


North Carolina

Federal courts located in North Carolina

Former federal courts of North Carolina


North Dakota

Federal courts located in North Dakota


Ohio

The Ohio Judicial Center, current headquarters of the Supreme Court of Ohio.

Federal courts located in this state

Former federal courts of Ohio


Oklahoma

Federal courts located in Oklahoma


Oregon

Courtroom of the Oregon Supreme Court.

Federal courts located in Oregon


Pennsylvania

Federal courts located in Pennsylvania

Former federal courts of Pennsylvania


Rhode Island

Federal courts located in Rhode Island


South Carolina

Federal courts located in South Carolina


South Dakota

Federal courts located in South Dakota


Tennessee

Federal courts located in Tennessee

Former federal courts of Tennessee


Texas

Federal courts located in Texas

Former federal courts of Texas


Utah

The Utah Supreme Court meets in the Scott M. Matheson Courthouse.

Federal courts located in Utah


Vermont

Federal courts located in Vermont


Virginia

Federal courts located in Virginia

Former federal courts of Virginia


Washington

The headquarters of the Washington Supreme Court in Olympia.

Federal courts located in Washington

Former federal courts of Washington


West Virginia

Federal courts located in West Virginia

Former federal courts of West Virginia


Wisconsin

Federal courts located in Wisconsin

Former federal courts of Wisconsin


Wyoming

Federal courts located in Wyoming


Courts in the District of Columbia

Federal courts located in the District of Columbia

Former federal courts in the District of Columbia


Courts of the Territories of the United States

American Samoa

Guam

United States territorial court

Northern Mariana Islands

United States territorial court

Panama Canal Zone

Puerto Rico

  • Supreme Court of Puerto Rico (Tribunal Supremo de Puerto Rico)[364]
    • Circuit Court of Appeals of Puerto Rico (Tribunal de Apelaciones)[365]
      • Courts of First Instance of Puerto Rico (Tribunal de Primera Instancia; 13 divisions)[366]

Federal courts located in Puerto Rico:

United States Virgin Islands

United States territorial court


Extraterritorial courts of the United States

External links

References

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  49. ^ "District Court". Courts.state.ar.us. http://courts.state.ar.us/districtcourt/index.cfm. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
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