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.A covalent bond is a form of chemical bonding that is characterized by the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms, and other covalent bonds.^ The amount of pull on an atom has on a shared pair of electrons, called electronegativity , is what determines the type of bond between atoms.
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^ Covalent bonds are chemical bonds that are formed by sharing valence electrons between adjacent atoms.
  • Structural Biochemistry/Chemical Bonding/Covalent bonds - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a so-called covalent material, such as diamond, germanium, or silicon, each pair of atoms shares a pair of electrons equally to form a bond.
  • Chipping Away at Hardness | Physical Review Focus 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC focus.aps.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In short, the attraction-to-repulsion stability that forms between atoms when they share electrons is known as covalent bonding.^ Covalent bonds are chemical bonds that are formed by sharing valence electrons between adjacent atoms.
  • Structural Biochemistry/Chemical Bonding/Covalent bonds - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The type of bond formed between two atoms depends on their electronegativity.
  • Bonding 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.dbooth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Dative covalent bonds are also known as coordinate bonds.
  • Chemistry:Covalent Bonding 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC sixthsense.osfc.ac.uk [Source type: General]
  • Chemistry:Covalent Bonding 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC sixthsense.osfc.ac.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1]
.Covalent bonding includes many kinds of interaction, including σ-bonding, π-bonding, metal to metal bonding, agostic interactions, and three-center two-electron bonds.^ Electron pairs, covalent bonds .
  • Chemical Reactions and Energy; Formation of ions; Electron pairs, covalent bonds; Acids, Bases, Salts 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC 001yourtranslationservice.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Describe the three major types of bonds (ionic, covalent, and metallic).
  • Bond, Chemical Bond 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC staff.fcps.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Covalent Bond: Sharing of two or more electrons between two atoms.
  • Chemistry 10050 - Covalent Bonding 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.personal.kent.edu [Source type: Reference]

[2][3] .The term covalent bond dates from 1939.[4] The prefix co- means jointly, associated in action, partnered to a lesser degree, etc.; thus a "co-valent bond", essentially, means that the atoms share "valence", such as is discussed in valence bond theory.^ Covalent bonds are chemical bonds that are formed by sharing valence electrons between adjacent atoms.
  • Structural Biochemistry/Chemical Bonding/Covalent bonds - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such atoms would avoid bonding!
  • Nonfatal Attractions: CHM 1311 Lecture 20 June 2000 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.utdallas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Triple Covalent Bond - This is where 2 or more atoms combine covalently by sharing 3 electrons.

.In the molecule H2, the hydrogen atoms share the two electrons via covalent bonding.^ Covalent bonds are chemical bonds that are formed by sharing valence electrons between adjacent atoms.
  • Structural Biochemistry/Chemical Bonding/Covalent bonds - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The hydrogen atom has 1 electron in its ‘K’ shell.
  • Covalent bonds? - Yahoo! Answers 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Each of the covalent bonds contains two electrons - one from a hydrogen atom and one from the oxygen atom .
  • Covalent Bond Definition - Chemistry Glossary Definition of Covalent Bond 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC chemistry.about.com [Source type: Academic]

.Covalency is greatest between atoms of similar electronegativities.^ Covalency is greatest between atoms of similar electronegativities.
  • Materials Science and Engineering/List of Topics/Covalent Bonding - Wikiversity 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Covalent bonds are the strongest type of chemical bond and are created between atoms with similar electronegativity.
  • What are Covalent Bonds? 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.wisegeek.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Covalent bonding between hydrogen atoms .

.Thus, covalent bonding does not necessarily require the two atoms be of the same elements, only that they be of comparable electronegativity.^ The type of bond formed between two atoms depends on their electronegativity.
  • Bonding 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.dbooth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Covalent bonds are formed when two atoms share electrons .

^ In a covalent bond in which the atoms either are identical or have the same electronegativity, the bonding electrons are shared equally.
  • 2.1 Covalent Bonds -- Molecular CellBiology -- NCBI Bookshelf 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Although covalent bonding entails sharing of electrons, it is not necessarily delocalized.^ The shared electrons of a covalent bond can be represented using Lewis diagrams.

^ Triple Covalent Bond - This is where 2 or more atoms combine covalently by sharing 3 electrons.

^ Covalent Bond: Sharing of two or more electrons between two atoms.
  • Chemistry 10050 - Covalent Bonding 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.personal.kent.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Furthermore, in contrast to electrostatic interactions ("ionic bonds") the strength of covalent bond depends on the angular relation between atoms in polyatomic molecules.^ The type of bond formed between two atoms depends on their electronegativity.
  • Bonding 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.dbooth.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Ionic bonds form between metals and nonmetals, and covalent bonds form between nonmetals.
  • science tips 19 November 2009 18:17 UTC rpdp.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is a range of bond between purely ionic and purely covalent that depends upon the electronegativity of the atoms around that bond.
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Contents

History

.
Early concepts in covalent bonding arose from this kind of image of the molecule of methane.
^ ({{Information |Description= Covalently bonded hydrogen and carbon in a molecule of methane .
  • File:Covalent.svg - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Covalent.svg Covalently bonded hydrogen and carbon in a w:molecule of methane .
  • File:Covalent.svg - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ So, each bond in this molecule is a 4/3-order covalent bond!
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Covalent bonding is implied in the Lewis structure that indicates sharing of electrons between atoms.
The term "covalence" in regard to bonding was first used in 1919 by Irving Langmuir in a Journal of the American Chemical Society article entitled "The Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms and Molecules". Langmuir wrote that "we shall denote by the term covalence the number of pairs of electrons which a given atom shares with its neighbors."[5]
.The idea of covalent bonding can be traced several years before 1919 to Gilbert N. Lewis, who in 1916 described the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.^ G.N. Lewis brought shared electron-pairs to the unwashed multitudes [source] .
  • Covalent bonding 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.chem1.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Covalent bonds are chemical bonds that are formed by sharing valence electrons between adjacent atoms.
  • Structural Biochemistry/Chemical Bonding/Covalent bonds - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Formation of coordinate covalent bond is the property of atoms that have lone pair of electrons.
  • PROPERTIES OF COVALENT COMPOUNDS- COORDINATE COVALENT BOND 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.citycollegiate.com [Source type: Reference]

[6] .He introduced the so called Lewis notation or electron dot notation or The Lewis Dot Structure in which valence electrons (those in the outer shell) are represented as dots around the atomic symbols.^ Electron-dot structure of hydrazine, N2H4 .
  • Media Portfolio 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC wps.prenhall.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Lewis electron dot structures.
  • HSC Online 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC hsc.csu.edu.au [Source type: Reference]

^ This outer shell is refered to as the valence shell.

.Pairs of electrons located between atoms represent covalent bonds.^ Covalent bonds are chemical bonds that are formed by sharing valence electrons between adjacent atoms.
  • Structural Biochemistry/Chemical Bonding/Covalent bonds - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The student identify pairs of atoms that will form covalent bonds.
  • Covalent Bonding (CA) - CK12 - Flexbooks 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Covalent Bonding - CK12 - Flexbooks 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC authors.ck12.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Formation of coordinate covalent bond is the property of atoms that have lone pair of electrons.
  • PROPERTIES OF COVALENT COMPOUNDS- COORDINATE COVALENT BOND 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.citycollegiate.com [Source type: Reference]

.Multiple pairs represent multiple bonds, such as double and triple bonds.^ Single bonds have a bond order of 1, double bonds 2, and triple bonds 3.
  • SparkNotes: Organic Chemistry: Covalent Bonding: Covalent Bonds and Lewis Structures 19 November 2009 18:17 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Double bonds and triple bonds are represented by double and triple straight lines between atoms.
  • Covalent Bonding and Electron Pair Sharing 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC cnx.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A group of electrons is a lone pair, a single bond, double bond, or triple bond.
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.Some examples of Electron Dot Notation are shown in the following figure.^ Some dramatic examples of this reactivity are shown in the following equations.
  • Electron Configurations & The Periodic Table 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.cem.msu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Some examples of Electron Dot Notation are shown in the following figure.
  • Covalent bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Some examples of fatty acids are shown in Figure 15.

.An alternative form of representation, not shown here, has bond-forming electron pairs represented as solid lines.^ A bond in which three pairs of electrons are shared.
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^ Note: The solid line represents a bond in the plane of the screen or paper.

^ The pair of shared electrons forming the covalent bond is also often represented as a dash, as in H—H for hydrogen.

.While the idea of shared electron pairs provides an effective qualitative picture of covalent bonding, quantum mechanics is needed to understand the nature of these bonds and predict the structures and properties of simple molecules.^ So, that's his gift to us: the Lewis structure, and the idea that you could share electrons and form a covalent bond.
  • MIT OpenCourseWare | Materials Science and Engineering | 3.091 Introduction to Solid State Chemistry, Fall 2004 | Video Lectures | detail 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC ocw.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The shared electrons of a covalent bond can be represented using Lewis diagrams.

^ Ionic and covalent bonds differ in the extent to which a pair of electrons is shared by the atoms that form the bond.
  • The Covalent Bond 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC chemed.chem.purdue.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Similarities and Differences Between Ionic and Covalent Compounds 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.cartage.org.lb [Source type: Reference]

.Walter Heitler and Fritz London are credited with the first successful quantum mechanical explanation of a chemical bond, specifically that of molecular hydrogen, in 1927.[7] Their work was based on the valence bond model, which assumes that a chemical bond is formed when there is good overlap between the atomic orbitals of participating atoms.^ Notice that both molecular-orbital models show a net double bond between the carbon atoms.
  • Re: Why don't two carbon atoms form a molecule with four covalent bonds? 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.madsci.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Covalent bonds are chemical bonds that are formed by sharing valence electrons between adjacent atoms.
  • Structural Biochemistry/Chemical Bonding/Covalent bonds - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The type of bond formed between two atoms depends on their electronegativity.
  • Bonding 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.dbooth.net [Source type: Original source]

.These atomic orbitals are known to have specific angular relationships between each other, and thus the valence bond model can successfully predict the bond angles observed in simple molecules.^ These atomic orbitals are known to have specific angular relationships between each other, and thus the valence bond model can successfully predict the bond angles observed in simple molecules.
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^ Today the valence bond model has been supplanted by the molecular orbital model.
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^ For example, we have not considered the angles measured between bonds in molecules.
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Resonance

.Many bonding situations can be described with more than one valid Lewis dot structure (for example, ozone, O3).^ Lewis electron dot structures.
  • HSC Online 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC hsc.csu.edu.au [Source type: Reference]

^ A single bond in a Lewis structure is a bond.
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^ Electron-dot structures and bonding pairs of electrons .
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.In a Lewis diagram of O3, the center atom will have a single bond with one atom and a double bond with the other.^ A single bond in a Lewis structure is a bond.
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^ For carbon-carbon bonds, which one has the highest bond energy, single bond, double bond, or triple bond.

^ Single bonds have a bond order of 1, double bonds 2, and triple bonds 3.
  • SparkNotes: Organic Chemistry: Covalent Bonding: Covalent Bonds and Lewis Structures 19 November 2009 18:17 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Lewis diagram cannot tell us which atom has the double bond; the first and second adjoining atoms have equal chances of having the double bond.^ The first bond in a double bond is called sigma s -bond and the second bond is called a pi, p -bond.

^ The LDS diagram cannot tell us which atom has the double bond; the first and second adjoining atoms have equal chances of having the double bond.
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^ The Lewis diagram for this ion shows the central C atom joined to the N atom by a double bond and to the S atom also by a double bond.

.These two possible structures are called resonance structures.^ These structures are called resonance structures.
  • Ionic & Covalent Compounds Unit Plan 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.msu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ In reality, the structure of ozone is a resonance hybrid between its two possible resonance structures.
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^ These two possible structures are called resonance structures.
  • Materials Science and Engineering/List of Topics/Covalent Bonding - Wikiversity 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

.In reality, the structure of ozone is a resonance hybrid between its two possible resonance structures.^ In reality, the structure of ozone is a resonance hybrid between its two possible resonance structures.
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^ These two possible structures are called resonance structures.
  • Materials Science and Engineering/List of Topics/Covalent Bonding - Wikiversity 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

^ These two possible structures are called resonance structures .
  • Covalent bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.Instead of having one double bond and one single bond, there are actually two 1.5 bonds with approximately three electrons in each at all times.^ The electrons are the particle which is concerned in all three types of bonding.
  • How and Why Atoms Combine - A Look at Ionic, Covalent and Metallic Bonding and their Properties by Connor Davidson My Books and Articles (under construction) 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC searchwarp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For carbon-carbon bonds, which one has the highest bond energy, single bond, double bond, or triple bond.

^ A bond consisting of two pairs of (that is, four) electrons is called a double bond.
  • Chemical Bond - examples, body, used, water, type, form, energy, system, oxygen, parts, History, Covalent bonding, Ionic bonding, Electronegativity, Polar and nonpolar bonds 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.scienceclarified.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A special resonance case is exhibited in aromatic rings of atoms (for example, benzene).^ A special resonance case is exhibited in aromatic rings of atoms (for example, benzene).
  • Materials Science and Engineering/List of Topics/Covalent Bonding - Wikiversity 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A special resonance case is exhibited in aromatic rings of atoms (for example, benzene ).
  • Covalent bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The "classical" example of delocalized bonding is the benzene molecule - which can be described as resonance hybrid between a number of alternate structures: (Click on icon to proper sized image).
  • Overview of molecular forces: covalent interactions 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.bip.bham.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Aromatic rings are composed of atoms arranged in a circle (held together by covalent bonds) that may alternate between single and double bonds according to their Lewis diagram.^ Double Covalent vs. Ionic Bonds .
  • Double Covalent vs. Ionic Bonds 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.newton.dep.anl.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ What holds a covalent bond together?
  • Covalent bonding and Dative Covalent bonding 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.webchem.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Atoms in a compound are held together by chemical bonds.
  • Chem: Unit - Bonding (Ionic and Covalent) 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC hs.hpisd.org [Source type: Reference]

.In actuality, the electrons tend to be disambiguously and evenly spaced within the ring.^ Aromatic rings are composed of atoms arranged in a circle (held together by covalent bonds) that may alternate between single and double bonds according to their LDS. In actuality, the electrons tend to be disambiguously and evenly spaced within the ring.
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^ If the electron pairs in covalent bonds were donated and shared absolutely evenly there would be no fixed local charges within a molecule.
  • Electron Configurations & The Periodic Table 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.cem.msu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Those two electrons can live anywhere within that space.
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.Electron sharing in aromatic structures is often represented with a ring inside the circle of atoms.^ A type of bond in which electrons are shared by atoms.
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^ Two shared electrons are represented by a line connecting the appropriate atoms.
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^ The two atoms then share the pair of electrons.

.Lewis dot structures for molecules with resonance are shown by creating the dot structure for every possible form, placing brackets around each structure, and connecting the boxes with double-headed arrows.^ Lewis electron dot structures.
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^ Not every molecule fits nicely into a Lewis structure.
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^ Compare models and Lewis structures of molecules.

Current theory

.Today the valence bond model has been augmented by the molecular orbital model.^ Comparision of valence bond and molecular orbital theory .
  • Chemical bond - Hwiki 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC hwiki.fzk.de [Source type: Reference]

^ The resulting molecular-orbital model of C 2 is .
  • Re: Why don't two carbon atoms form a molecule with four covalent bonds? 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.madsci.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today the valence bond model has been supplanted by the molecular orbital model.
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.In this model, as atoms are brought together, the atomic orbitals interact to form molecular orbitals, which are linear sums and differences of the atomic orbitals.^ Molecular orbitals close to an atomic orbital are said to have more of that atom's character.
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^ Overlaps of atomic orbitals can give molecular orbital’s .
  • Covalent Bond, Lewis Structures, Molecular Orbitals, Chemistry - Educator.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.educator.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In this model, as atoms are brought together, the atomic orbitals interact to form molecular orbitals, which are linear sums and differences of the atomic orbitals.
  • Covalent bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.These molecular orbitals are a cross between the original atomic orbitals and generally extend between the two bonding atoms.^ Bonds between atoms in molecules, e.g.
  • 4. Giant Covalent Lattice Structures, carbon allotropes graphite diamond, silica silicon dioxide, Buckminster fullerenes, Nanotubes, carbon nanotechnology 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.docbrown.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first bond between two atoms is called the σ (sigma) bond.
  • SparkNotes: Organic Chemistry: Covalent Bonding: Covalent Bonds and Lewis Structures 19 November 2009 18:17 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Molecular orbitals close to an atomic orbital are said to have more of that atom's character.
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.Using quantum mechanics, it is possible to calculate the electronic structure, energy levels, bond angles, bond distances, dipole moments, and electromagnetic spectra of simple molecules with a high degree of accuracy.^ Using large quantum mechanical calculations of the reaction ...
  • PhysOrg.com - hydrogen bonds 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: News]

^ Bond distances and angles can be calculated as accurately as they can be measured (distances to a few pm and bond angles to a few degrees).
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^ That leaves a fourth electron in the bonding level.
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.Bond distances and angles can be calculated as accurately as they can be measured (distances to a few pm and bond angles to a few degrees).^ Bond distances and angles can be calculated as accurately as they can be measured (distances to a few pm and bond angles to a few degrees).
  • Covalent bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
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^ Using quantum mechanics it is possible to calculate the electronic structure, energy levels, bond angles, bond distances, dipole moments, and electromagnetic spectra of simple molecules with a high degree of accuracy.
  • Covalent bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
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^ Calculate the volume of oxygen gas, measured at 25 degrees celsius and pressure of 101.3kPa...?
  • Non-polar covalent bonds? - Yahoo!7 Answers 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC au.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

.For small molecules, calculations are sufficiently accurate to be useful for determining thermodynamic heats of formation and kinetic activation energy barriers.^ For small molecules, calculations are sufficiently accurate to be useful for determining thermodynamic heats of formation and kinetic activation energy barriers.
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^ The heat supplies the activation energy.

^ Using quantum mechanics it is possible to calculate the electronic structure, energy levels, bond angles, bond distances, dipole moments, and electromagnetic spectra of simple molecules with a high degree of accuracy.
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Polarity of covalent bonds

.Covalent bonds are affected by the electronegativity of the connected atoms.^ Whether a bond is ionic or covalent depends on the electronegativities of the atoms involved.

^ A covalent bond is represented by a solid line connecting two atoms.

^ In covalent bonding atoms share electrons.
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Two atoms with equal electronegativity will make non-polar covalent bonds such as H-H. An unequal relationship creates a polar covalent bond such as with Cl-H.

See also

References

  1. ^ Campbell, Neil A.; Brad Williamson; Robin J. Heyden (2006). Biology: Exploring Life. Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-250882-6. http://www.phschool.com/el_marketing.html. 
  2. ^ March, J. “Advanced Organic Chemistry” 4th Ed. J. Wiley and Sons, 1991: New York. ISBN 0-471-60180-2.
  3. ^ G. L. Miessler and D. A. Tarr “Inorganic Chemistry” 3rd Ed, Pearson/Prentice Hall publisher, ISBN 0-13-035471-6.
  4. ^ Merriam-Webster - Collegiate Dictionary (2000).
  5. ^ Langmuir, Irving (1919-06-01). "The Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms and Molecules". Journal of the American Chemical Society 41 (6): 868-934. doi:10.1021/ja02227a002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja02227a002. Retrieved 2009-11-10. 
  6. ^ Lewis, Gilbert N. (1916-04-01). "THE ATOM AND THE MOLECULE.". Journal of the American Chemical Society 38 (4): 762-785. doi:10.1021/ja02261a002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja02261a002. Retrieved 2009-11-10. 
  7. ^ W. Heitler and F. London, Zeitschrift für Physik, vol. 44, p. 455 (1927). English translation in H. Hettema, Quantum Chemistry, Classic Scientific Papers, World Scientific, Singapore (2000).

Notes

.
  • "Covalent bonding - Single bonds".^ Whenever you see a single covalent bond, it exists as a sigma bond.
    • General Chemistry/Covalent bonds - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The molecule can be shown as with one carbon = carbon double bond and four carbon - hydrogen single covalent bonds (called a planar shape, its completely flat!, the H-C=C and H-C-H bond angles are 120 o ).
    • 3. Covavent Bonding in small simple molecules, properties of covalent compounds 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.docbrown.info [Source type: Reference]

    ^ In addition, a single stick is drawn to represent a covalent bond irrespective of whether the bond is a single, double, or triple bond or requires resonance structures to represent.

    chemguide. 2000. .http://www.chemguide.co.uk/atoms/bonding/covalent.html. 
  • "Electron Sharing and Covalent Bonds".^ Because the Hydrogen atom is weaker, the shared pair of electrons will be pulled closer to the Oxygen atom.
    • Covalent Bonds - ChemWiki 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC chemwiki.ucdavis.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The amount of pull on an atom has on a shared pair of electrons, called electronegativity , is what determines the type of bond between atoms.
    • CHEMTUTOR COMPOUNDS 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.chemtutor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Covalent bonds are chemical bonds that are formed by sharing valence electrons between adjacent atoms.
    • Structural Biochemistry/Chemical Bonding/Covalent bonds - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Department of Chemistry University of Oxford.^ From Oxford University, there is a really good tutorial on chemical bonding in organic molecules , based on Foundations of Chemistry by Richard E. Dickerson and Irving Geis.
    • http://www.mpcfaculty.net/ron_rinehart/12A/chap1pag.htm 19 November 2009 18:17 UTC www.mpcfaculty.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Authors: Rachel Casiday and Regina Frey Department of Chemistry, Washington University St. Louis, MO 63130 .

    ^ Department of Chemistry University of Oxford.
    • Covalent bond: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

    .http://www.chem.ox.ac.uk/vrchemistry/electronsandbonds/intro1.htm.
     
  • "Chemical Bonds".^ Teachers' Domain, Covalent Bonding, published August 9, 2007, retrieved on , http://www.teachersdomain.org/resource/lsps07.sci.phys.matter.covalentbond/ .

    ^ Double_bond http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/chemistry/classifyingmaterials/covalent_bondingrev1.shtml http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/biology/bio4fv/page/covalenb.htm http://members.aol.com/profchm/covalent.html http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/ch8/valenceframe.html http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/chemical/bond.html http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/VL/GG/ecb/covalent_ionic_bonds.html http://www.chem.ox.ac.uk/vrchemistry/electronsandbonds/intro1.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molecular_orbital_diagram http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electron_configuration http://www.britannica.com/ebc/article-9361773 .
    • Covalent Bonds vs Ionic Bonds - Difference and Comparison - Diffen 19 November 2009 18:17 UTC www.diffen.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Available online at: http://www.webpage.com/hindu/daily/980212/08/08120001.htm .
    • The Secret Nature Of Hydrogen Bonds 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.eurekalert.org [Source type: Academic]

    Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/chemical/bond.html#c5. 

External links


Simple English

Covalent bonds are chemical bonds between two non-metals, for example between H and O in water (H2O). As they are both non-metals—which need to gain electrons—they have to share, so their outer shells cross over in order to have a full outer shell. A full outer shell has eight electrons. The electrons in this outer shell are called valence electrons.

With water the oxygen atom shares one electron with each hydrogen atom and the hydrogens also share one: this means that the hydrogen atoms have two each and the oxygen atom has 8.

Covalent bonds are stronger than ionic bonds, and have a higher melting point in comparison. They are also thought to be poor conductors of electricity. Most scientists can figure out why these bonds happen, the two elements share their valence electrons (outer electrons) to achieve a noble gas configuration (a full outer shell). They say that John Mendel discovered them in 1867. It also consist of two non- metals.



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