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Coyote[1]
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Genus: Canis
Species: C. latrans
Binomial name
Canis latrans
Say, 1823
Coyote range

The coyote (pronounced /ˈkaɪ.oʊt(i)/)[3] (Canis latrans), also known as the American jackal or the prairie wolf,[4] is a species of canid found throughout North and Central America, ranging from Panama in the south, north through Mexico, the United States and Canada. It occurs as far north as Alaska and all but the northernmost portions of Canada.[5] There are currently 19 recognized subspecies, with 16 in Canada, Mexico and the United States, and 3 in Central America.[6] Unlike its cousin the Gray Wolf, which is Eurasian in origin, the coyote evolved in North America during the Pleistocene epoch 1.810 million years ago[7] alongside the Dire Wolf.[8] Unlike the wolf, the coyote's range has expanded in the wake of human civilization, and coyotes readily reproduce in metropolitan areas.[9]

Contents

Name

The name "coyote" is borrowed from Mexican Spanish, ultimately derived from the Nahuatl word cóyotl.[10] Its scientific name, Canis latrans, means "barking dog" in Latin.[11]

Description

Coyote profile

The color of the coyote's pelt varies from grayish brown to yellowish gray on the upper parts, while the throat and belly tend to have a buff or white color. The forelegs, sides of the head, muzzle and paws are reddish brown. The back has tawny-colored underfur and long, black-tipped guard hairs that form a black dorsal stripe and a dark cross on the shoulder area. The black-tipped tail has a scent gland located on its dorsal base. Coyotes shed once a year, beginning in May with light hair loss, ending in July after heavy shedding. The ears are proportionately large in relation to the head, while the feet are relatively small in relation to the rest of the body.[5] Certain experts have noted that the shape of a domestic dog's brain case is closer to the coyote's in shape than the wolf's. Mountain dwelling coyotes tend to be dark furred while desert coyotes tend to be more yellowish in color.[6]

Coyotes typically grow up to 30–34 in (76–86 cm) in length, not counting a tail of 12–16 in (30–41 cm), stand about 23–26 in (58–66 cm) at the shoulder and, on average, weigh from 15–46 lb (6.8–21 kg) .[5][12] Northern coyotes are typically larger than southern subspecies, with the largest coyotes on record weighing 74¾ pounds (33.7 kg) and measuring over five feet in total length.[13]

The coyote's dental formula is I 3/3, C 1/1, Pm 4/4, M usually 2/2, occasionally 3/3, 3/2, or 2/3 × 2 = 40, 42, or 44.[14] Normal spacing between the upper canine teeth is 1⅛–1⅜ inches (29–35 mm) and 1–1¼ inches (25–32 mm) between the lower canine teeth.[15]

The upper frequency limit of hearing for coyotes is 80 KHz, compared to the 60 KHz of domestic dogs.[16] Compared to wolves, and similarly to domestic dogs, coyotes have a higher density of sweat glands on their paw pads. This trait, however, is absent in the large New England coyotes, which are thought to have some wolf ancestry.[17]

During pursuit, a coyote may reach speeds up to 43 mph (Template:Convert/kph),[18] and can jump a distance of over 13+18 ft (4.0 m).[5]

Behavior

Though coyotes have been observed to travel in large groups, they primarily hunt in pairs. Typical packs consist of six closely related adults, yearlings and young. Coyote packs are generally smaller than wolf packs and associations between individuals are less stable,[19] thus making their social behavior more in line with that of the dingo.[20] It has been theorized that this is due to an earlier expression of aggression, and the fact that coyotes reach their full growth in their first year, unlike wolves, which reach it in their second.[19] Common names of coyote groups are a band, a pack, or a rout[21]. Coyotes are primarily nocturnal, but can often be seen during daylight hours.[5] Coyotes were once essentially diurnal, but have adapted to more nocturnal behavior with pressure from humans (McClennen et al., 2001).

Coyotes are capable of digging their own burrows, though they often prefer the burrows of groundhogs or American badgers. Coyote territorial ranges can be as much as 19 kilometers in diameter around the den, and travel occurs along fixed trails.[5]

In areas where wolves have been exterminated, coyotes usually flourish. For example, as New England became increasingly settled and the resident wolves were eliminated, the coyote population increased, filling the empty biological niche. Coyotes appear better able than wolves to live among people.[22]

Coyotes have been known to live a maximum of 10 years in the wild and 18 years in captivity.[5] They seem to be better than dogs at observational learning.[17]

Reproduction

Newborn coyote pup
Seven coyote pups

Female coyotes are monoestrous, and remain in heat for 2–5 days between late January and late March, during which mating occurs. Once the female chooses a partner, the mated pair may remain temporarily monogamous for a number of years. Depending on geographic location, spermatogenesis in males takes around 54 days, and occurs between January and February. The gestation period lasts from 60 to 63 days. Litter size ranges from 1 to 19 pups; the average is 6.[5] These large litters act as compensatory measures against the high juvenile mortality rate, with approximately 50-70% of pups not surviving to adulthood.[23] The pups weigh approximately 250 grams at birth, and are initially blind and limp-eared.[5] Coyote growth rate is faster than that of wolves, being similar in length to that of the dhole.[24] The eyes open and ears become erect after 10 days. Around 21–28 days after birth, the young begin to emerge from the den, and by 35 days they are fully weaned. Both parents feed the weaned pups with regurgitated food. Male pups will disperse from their dens between months 6 and 9, while females usually remain with the parents and form the basis of the pack. The pups attain full growth between 9 and 12 months. Sexual maturity is reached by 12 months.[5] Unlike wolves, mother coyotes will tolerate other lactating females in their pack.[25]

Interspecific hybridization

A Coyote-German Shepherd hybrid

Coyotes will sometimes mate with domestic dogs, usually in areas like Texas and Oklahoma, where the coyotes are plentiful and the breeding season is extended because of the warm weather. The resulting hybrids, called coydogs, maintain the coyote's predatory nature, along with the dog's lack of timidity toward humans, making them a more serious threat to livestock than pure-blooded animals. This cross-breeding has the added effect of confusing the breeding cycle. Coyotes usually breed only once a year, while coydogs will breed year-round, producing many more pups than a wild coyote. Differences in the ears and tail are generally what can be used to distinguish coydogs from domestic/feral dogs or pure coyotes.[26] Breeding experiments in Germany with poodles, coyotes, and later on with the resulting dog-coyote hybrids showed that unlike wolfdogs, coydogs show a decrease in fertility, significant communication problems as well as an increase of genetic diseases after three generations of interbreeding.[27]

Coyotes have also been known on occasion to mate with wolves, though this is less common than with dogs, due to the wolf's hostility to the coyote. The offspring, known as a coywolf, is generally intermediate in size to both parents, being larger than a pure coyote, but smaller than a pure wolf. A study showed that of 100 coyotes collected in Maine, 22 had half or more wolf ancestry, and one was 89 percent wolf. A theory has been proposed that the large eastern coyotes in Canada are actually hybrids of the smaller western coyotes and wolves that met and mated decades ago as the coyotes moved toward New England from their earlier western ranges.[22] The Red Wolf is thought by certain scientists to be in fact a wolf/coyote hybrid rather than a unique species. Strong evidence for hybridization was found through genetic testing, which showed that red wolves have only 5% of their alleles unique from either gray wolves or coyotes. Genetic distance calculations have indicated that red wolves are intermediate between coyotes and gray wolves, and that they bear great similarity to wolf/coyote hybrids in southern Quebec and Minnesota. Analyses of mitochondrial DNA showed that existing red wolf populations are predominantly coyote in origin.[28]

Communication

The calls a coyote makes are high-pitched and variously described as howls, yips, yelps and barks. These calls may be a long rising and falling note (a howl) or a series of short notes (yips). These calls are most often heard at dusk or night, but may be heard in the day or in the middle of the day. Although these calls are made throughout the year, they are most common during the spring mating season and in the fall when the pups leave their families to establish new territories. When a coyote calls his pack together, he howls at one high note. When the pack is together, he howls higher and higher, and then they yip and yelp and also do a yi-yi sound very shrill with the howl.

Ecology

Diet and hunting

Coyote on elk carcass in winter in Lamar Valley

Coyotes are opportunistic, versatile carnivores with a 90% mammalian diet, depending on the season. They primarily eat small mammals, such as voles, prairie dogs, eastern cottontails, ground squirrels, and mice, though they will eat birds, snakes, lizards, deer, javelina, and livestock, as well as large insects and other large invertebrates. Any species of birds that nests on the ground are targeted by coyotes. Though they will consume large amounts of carrion, they tend to prefer fresh meat. Part of the coyote's success as a species is its dietary adaptability. As such, coyotes have been known to eat human rubbish and domestic pets. They catch cats and dogs when they come too close to the pack. Fruits and vegetables are a significant part of the coyote's diet in the autumn and winter months.[5]

Coyotes shift their hunting techniques in accordance with their prey. When hunting small animals such as mice, they slowly stalk through the grass, and use their acute sense of smell to track down the prey. When the prey is located, the coyotes stiffen and pounce on the prey in a cat-like manner. Coyotes will commonly work in teams when hunting large ungulates such as deer. Coyotes may take turns in baiting and pursuing the deer to exhaustion, or they may drive it towards a hidden member of the pack.[5] When attacking large prey, coyotes attack from the rear and the flanks of their prey. Occasionally they also grab the neck and head, pulling the animal down to the ground. Coyotes are persistent hunters, with successful attacks sometimes lasting as much as 21 hours; even unsuccessful ones can continue more than 8 hours before the coyotes give up. Depth of snow can affect the likelihood of a successful kill.[29] Packs of coyotes can bring down prey as large as adult elk, which usually weigh over 250 kg (550 lbs).[30]

The average distance covered in a night's hunting is 4 km (2½ mi).[5]

Interspecific predatory relationships

Rolf Peterson investigating the carcass of a coyote killed by a wolf in Yellowstone National Park, January 1996

The gray wolf is a significant predator of coyotes wherever their ranges overlap. Since the Yellowstone Gray Wolf Reintroduction in 1995 and 1996, the local coyote population went through a dramatic restructuring. Until the wolves returned, Yellowstone National Park had one of the densest and most stable coyote populations in America due to a lack of human impacts. Two years after the wolf reintroductions, the pre-wolf population of coyotes had been reduced 50% through both competitive exclusion and intraguild predation. In Grand Teton, coyote densities were 33% lower than normal in the areas where they coexisted with wolves, and 39% lower in the areas of Yellowstone where wolves were reintroduced. In one study, about 16% of radio-collared coyotes were preyed upon by wolves. Yellowstone coyotes have had to shift their territories as a result, moving from open meadows to steep terrain. Carcasses in the open no longer attract coyotes; when a coyote is chased on flat terrain, it is often killed. They feel more secure on steep terrain where they will often lead a pursuing wolf downhill. As the wolf comes after it, the coyote will turn around and run uphill. Wolves, being heavier, cannot stop and the coyote gains a large lead. Though physical confrontations between the two species are usually dominated by the larger wolves, coyotes have been known to attack wolves if they outnumber them. Both species will kill each other's pups given the opportunity.[31][32] Wolf urine has been marketed and claimed to be an organic coyote deterrent, such as for deterring attacks on sheep.[33]

Cougars sometimes kill coyotes. The coyote's instinctive fear of cougars has led to the development of anti-coyote sound systems which repel coyotes from public places by replicating the sounds of a cougar.[34] Bears can also rarely kill coyotes, more likely in competitive rather than predatory attacks. However, both cougars and bears have been displaced from carcasses by coyote packs.[35]

In sympatric populations of coyotes and red foxes, fox territories tend to be located largely outside of coyote territories. The principal cause of this separation is believed to be active avoidance of coyotes by the foxes. Interactions between the two species vary in nature, ranging from active antagonism to indifference. The majority of aggressive encounters are initiated by coyotes, and there are few reports of red foxes acting aggressively toward coyotes except when attacked or when their pups were approached. Conversely, foxes and coyotes have sometimes been seen feeding together.[36]

Coyotes will sometimes form a symbiotic relationship with American badgers. Because coyotes are not very effective at digging rodents out of their burrows, they will chase the animals while they are above ground. Badgers on the other hand are not fast runners, but are well-adapted to digging. When hunting together, they effectively leave little escape for prey in the area.[5]

In some areas, coyotes share their ranges with bobcats. It is rare for these two similarly sized species to physically confront one another, though bobcat populations tend to diminish in areas with high coyote densities. Coyotes (both single individuals and groups) have been known to occasionally kill bobcats, but in all known cases, the victims were relatively small specimens, such as adult females and juveniles.[37]

Coyotes have also competed with and occasionally eaten Canadian lynxes in areas where both species overlap.[38][39]

Relationship with humans

Adaptation to human environment

A coyote standing by a road in Arizona

Despite being extensively hunted, the coyote is one of the few medium-to-large-sized animals that has enlarged its range since human encroachment began. It originally ranged primarily in the western half of North America, but it has adapted readily to the changes caused by human occupation and, since the early 19th century, has been steadily and dramatically extending its range.[40] Sightings now commonly occur in Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, California, Oregon, New England, New Jersey, Ohio, and eastern Canada. Coyotes have been seen in nearly every continental U.S. state, and also Alaska. Coyotes have moved into most of the areas of North America formerly occupied by wolves, and are often observed foraging in suburban garbage bins.

Coyotes also thrive in suburban settings and even some urban ones. A study by wildlife ecologists at Ohio State University yielded some surprising findings in this regard. Researchers studied coyote populations in Chicago over a seven-year period (2000–2007), proposing that coyotes have adapted well to living in densely populated urban environments while avoiding contact with humans. They found, among other things, that urban coyotes tend to live longer than their rural counterparts, kill rodents and small pets, and live anywhere from parks to industrial areas. The researchers estimate that there are up to 2,000 coyotes living in "the greater Chicago area" and that this circumstance may well apply to many other urban landscapes in North America.[41] In Washington DC's Rock Creek Park, coyotes den and raise their young, scavenge roadkill, and hunt rodents. "I don't see it as a bad thing for a park," the assigned National Park Service biologist told a reporter for Smithsonian Magazine (March 2006). "I see it as good for keeping animal populations in control, like the squirrels and the mice."

As a testament to the coyote's habitat adaptability, a coyote nicknamed "Hal" made his way to New York City's Central Park in March 2006, wandering about the park for at least two days before being captured by officials. New York's parks commissioner Adrian Benepe noted this coyote had to be very "adventurous" and "curious" to get so far into the city.[42] In February 2010, up to three coyotes were spotted on the Columbia University campus, and another coyote sighting occurred in Central Park [2]. An incident also occurred in April 2007 in the Chicago Loop district, where a coyote, later nicknamed "Adrian", quietly entered a Quizno's restaurant during the lunch hours; it was later captured and released at a wildlife rehab center near Barrington, Illinois[43][44]

Attacks on humans

A sign discouraging people from feeding coyotes, which can lead to them habituating themselves to human presence, thus increasing the likelihood of attack

Coyote attacks on humans are uncommon and rarely cause serious injuries, due to the relatively small size of the coyote. However, coyote attacks on humans have increased since 1998 in the state of California. Data from USDA Wildlife Services, the California Department of Fish & Game, and other sources show that while 41 attacks occurred during the period of 1988-1997, 48 attacks were verified from 1998 through 2003. The majority of these incidents occurred in Southern California near the suburban-wildland interface.[45]

Due to an absence of harassment by residents, urban coyotes lose their natural fear of humans, which is further worsened by people intentionally feeding coyotes. In such situations, some coyotes have begun to act aggressively toward humans, chasing joggers and bicyclists, confronting people walking their dogs, and stalking small children.[45] Like wolves, non-rabid coyotes usually target small children, mostly under the age of 10, though some adults have been bitten.

There are only two recorded fatalities in North America from coyote attacks.[46] In 1981 in Glendale, California, a coyote attacked toddler Kelly Keen, who was rescued by her father, but died in surgery due to blood loss and a broken neck.[45][47] In October 2009, Taylor Mitchell, a 19-year-old folk singer on tour, died from injuries sustained in an attack by a pair of coyotes while hiking in the Skyline Trail of the Cape Breton Highlands National Park in Nova Scotia, Canada.[48] Recent studies have shown however that the large northeastern coyotes responsible for this attack may in fact be coyote-wolf hybrids (or coywolves) due to absorption of wolves when coyotes moved into eastern North America.[49]

Livestock and pet predation

Coyotes are presently the most abundant livestock predators in western North America, causing the majority of sheep, goat and cattle losses.[15] For example: according to the National Agricultural Statistics Service, coyotes were responsible for 60.5% of the 224,000 sheep deaths that were attributed to predation in 2004.[50] However the total number of sheep deaths in 2004 comprised only 2.22% of the total sheep and lamb population in the United States.[51] According to the National Agricultural Statistics Service USDA report, "All sheep and lamb inventory in the United States on July 1, 2005, totaled 7.80 million head, 2 percent above July 1, 2004. Breeding sheep inventory at 4.66 million head on July 1, 2005 was 2 percent above July 1, 2004."[52] By virtue of the fact that coyote populations are typically many times greater and more widely distributed than those of wolves, coyotes cause more overall predation losses. However, an Idaho census taken in 2005 showed that individual coyotes were one-twentieth as likely to attack livestock than individual wolves.[53]

Coyotes will typically bite the throat just behind the jaw and below the ear when attacking adult sheep or goats, with death commonly resulting from suffocation. Blood loss is usually a secondary cause of death. Calves and heavily-fleeced sheep are killed by attacking the flanks or hind-quarters, causing shock and blood loss. When attacking smaller prey, such as young lambs, the kill is made by biting the skull and spinal regions, causing massive tissue and ossular damage. Small or young prey may be completely carried off, leaving only blood as evidence of a kill. Coyotes will usually leave the hide and most of the skeleton of larger animals relatively intact, unless food is scarce, in which case they may leave only the largest bones. Scattered bits of wool, skin and other parts are characteristic where coyotes feed extensively on larger carcasses.[15]

Coyote with a typical throat hold on domestic sheep.

Coyote predation can usually be distinguished from dog or coydog predation by the fact that coyotes partially consume their victims. Tracks are also an important factor in distinguishing coyote from dog predation. Coyote tracks tend to be more oval-shaped and compact than those of domestic dogs, plus, claw marks are less prominent and the tracks tend to follow a straight line more closely than those of dogs. With the exception of sighthounds, most dogs of similar weight to coyotes have a slightly shorter stride.[15] Coyote kills can be distinguished from wolf kills by the fact that there is less damage to the underlying tissues. Also, coyote scats tend to be smaller than wolf scats.[54]

The U.S. government routinely shoots, poisons, traps and kills 90,000 coyotes each year to protect livestock.[55]

Coyotes are often attracted to dog food and animals that are small enough to appear as prey. Items like garbage, pet food and sometimes feeding stations for birds and squirrels will attract coyotes into backyards. Approximately 3 to 5 pets attacked by coyotes are brought into the Animal Urgent Care hospital of south Orange County (California) each week, the majority of which are dogs, since cats typically do not survive the attacks.[56] Scat analysis collected near Claremont, California revealed that coyotes relied heavily on pets as a food source in winter and spring.[45] At one location in Southern California, coyotes began relying on a colony of feral cats as a food source. Over time, the coyotes killed most of the cats, and then continued to eat the cat food placed daily at the colony site by citizens who were maintaining the cat colony.[45] Coyotes attack smaller or similar sized dogs, and they have been known to attack even large, powerful breeds like the Rottweiler in exceptional cases[57]. Dogs larger than coyotes are generally able to drive them off, and have been known to kill coyotes. Smaller breeds are more likely to suffer injury or death.

Pelts

In the early days of European settlement in North Dakota, American Beavers were the most valued and sought after furbearers, though other species were also taken, including coyotes.[58] Coyotes are an important furbearer in the region. During the 1983-86 seasons, North Dakota buyers purchased an average of 7,913 pelts annually, for an average annual combined return to takers of $255,458. In 1986-87, South Dakota buyers purchased 8,149 pelts for a total of $349,674 to takers.[59]

The harvest of coyote pelts in Texas has varied over the past few decades, but has generally followed a downward trend. A study from the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, however, found that there was no indication of population decline, and suggested that, as pelt prices were not increasing, the decrease in harvest was likely due to decreasing demand, and not increasing scarcity (where pelt prices would go up.) It suggested that fashion, and the changing custom of wearing fur garments, may be significant among these factors.[60]

Today, coyote fur is still used for full coats and trim and is particularly popular for men’s coats.[61]

Character in mythology

Coyote tries to persuade Opossum to let him have some persimmons, in a Caddo story.

Traditional stories from many Native American, First Nations, and Aboriginal cultures include a deity whose name is translated into English as "Coyote". Although especially common in stories told by southwestern Native American nations, such as the Diné and Apache, stories about Coyote appear in dozens of Native American nations from Canada to Mexico.

Usually appearing as a trickster, a culture hero or both, Coyote also often appears in creation myths and etiological myths. Although often appearing in stories as male, Coyote can be female, hermaphrodite, or gender changing, in traditional Aboriginal stories.

Contemporary cultural references

The coyote is a popular figure in folklore and popular culture. References may invoke either the animal or the mythological figure. Traits commonly described in pop culture appearances include inventiveness, mischievousness, and evasiveness. By far the best known representation is the animated Wile E. Coyote, whose popularity has spread the three-syllable Spanish pronunciation of the word "coyote" throughout English-speaking North America.

"Coyote" is also a slang term for a person who smuggles illegal immigrants over the border from Mexico to the United States.

The Phoenix Coyotes are a National Hockey League franchise based in Arizona.

The mascot of the University of South Dakota is the coyote.

Taxonomy

Subspecies

There are 19 recognized subspecies of this canid:[1]

Genus controversy

In 1816 in the third volume of Lorenz Oken's Lehrbuch der Naturgeschichte, the author found sufficient similarities in the dentition of coyotes and jackals to place these species into a new separate genus from Canis called Thos after the classical Greek word θώς (jackal). Oken's idiosyncratic nomenclatorial ways, however, aroused the scorn of a number of zoological systematists. Nearly all the descriptive words used to justify the genus division were relative terms without a reference measure, and the argument did not take into account the size differences between the species, which can be considerable. Angel Cabrera, in his 1932 monograph on the mammals of Morocco, briefly touched upon the question of whether or not the presence of a cingulum on the upper molars of the jackals and its corresponding absence in the rest of Canis could justify a subdivision of the genus Canis. In practice, he chose the undivided-genus alternative and referred to the jackals as Canis.[63] A few authors, however, Ernest Thompson Seton being among them, accepted Oken's nomenclature, and went as far as referring to the coyote as American jackal.[64]

The Oken/Heller proposal of the new genus Thos did not affect the classification of the coyote. Gerrit S. Miller still had in his 1924 edition of List of North American Recent Mammals in the section “Genus Canis Linnaeas,” the subordinate heading “Subgenus Thos Oken” and backed it up with a reference to Heller. In the reworked version of the book in 1955, Philip Hershkovitz and Hartley Jackson led him to drop Thos both as an available scientific term and as a viable subgenus of Canis. In his definitive study of the taxonomy of the coyote, Jackson had, in response to Miller, queried whether Heller had seriously looked at specimens of coyotes prior to his 1914 article and thought the characters to be “not sufficiently important or stable to warrant subgeneric recognition for the group”.[63]

Notes

  1. ^ a b Wozencraft, W. C. (16 November 2005). Wilson, D. E., and Reeder, D. M. (eds). ed. Mammal Species of the World (3rd edition ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3/browse.asp?id=14000718. 
  2. ^ Sillero-Zubiri & Hoffmann (2008). Canis latrans. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 5 May 2008. Database entry includes justification for why this species is of least concern
  3. ^ coyote - Definitions from Dictionary.com
  4. ^ prairie wolf. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-07
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Canis latrans". Animal Diversity Web. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Canis_latrans.html. Retrieved 2007-08-15. 
  6. ^ a b "Coyote". Lioncrusher's Domain. http://www.lioncrusher.com/animal.asp?animal=11. Retrieved 2007-08-15. 
  7. ^ PaleoBiology Database: Canis latrans
  8. ^ "Statement by Valerius Geist pertaining to the death of Kenton Carnegie" (PDF). Wolf Crossing. http://wolfcrossing.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/2007/10/carnegie-no1.pdf. Retrieved 2008-09-17. 
  9. ^ Koler-Matznick, Janice (2002). "The Origin of the Dog Revisited". Anthrozoös 15 (2): 98–118. 
  10. ^ coyote
  11. ^ "Coyote (Canis latrans)". Western Wildlife Conservancy. http://www.westwildcon.org/library_coyotes.html. Retrieved 2009-11-29. 
  12. ^ http://www.onrc.washington.edu/gis/trail/coyote.ppt
  13. ^ Coyote
  14. ^ Coyote (Canis latrans)
  15. ^ a b c d "Coyote Predation - Description". A. Wade, Dale & E. Bowns, James. Procedures for Evaluating Predation on Livestock and Wildlife. http://texnat.tamu.edu/ranchref/predator/coyote/t-coyote.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-19. 
  16. ^ David L. Mech & Luigi Boitani (2003). Wolves: Behavior, ecology and conservation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 448. ISBN 0226516962. 
  17. ^ a b Coppinger, Ray (2001). Dogs: a Startling New Understanding of Canine Origin, Behavior and Evolution. New York: Scribner. pp. p352. ISBN 0684855305. 
  18. ^ Speed of Animals, Infoplease.com, sourced from Natural History Magazine, March 1974; The American Museum of Natural History
  19. ^ a b Macdonald, David (1984). The Encyclopedia of Mammals: 1. London: Allen & Unwin. p. 446. ISBN 0-04-500028-x. http://www.amazon.com/Encyclopedia-Mammals-David-W-Macdonald/dp/0871968711. 
  20. ^ Domestication: the decline of environmental appreciation by Helmut Hemmer, translated by Neil Beckhaus, Edition: 2, illustrated. Published by Cambridge University Press, 1990. ISBN 0521341787, 9780521341783. 208 pages
  21. ^ Collective Nouns: Java Glossary
  22. ^ a b "Eastern Coyotes Are Becoming Coywolves". David Zimmerman. Caledonian record. http://www.caledonianrecord.com/pages/local_news/story/fef373e9d. Retrieved 2007-08-17. 
  23. ^ "Coyote (Canis latrans)". Michigan Department of Natural Resources. http://www.michigan.gov/dnr/0,1607,7-153-10370_12145_12205-60378--,00.html. Retrieved 2008-03-06. 
  24. ^ Fox, Michael W. (1984). The Whistling Hunters: Field Studies of the Asiatic Wild Dog (Cuon Alpinus). Albany: State University of New York Press. p. 150. ISBN 0873958438. http://www.amazon.com/Whistling-Hunters-Studies-Asiatic-Alpinus/dp/0873958438. 
  25. ^ "The Evolution & History of Wolves". Rioghal Kennels. Rioghal Kennels. http://hal_macgregor.tripod.com/kennel/Kennel.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-04. 
  26. ^ CoyoteClub.org: Photos of deceased coydogs
  27. ^ Doris Feddersen-Petersen, Hundepsychologie, 4. Auflage, 2004, Franck-Kosmos-Verlag 2004
  28. ^ "The red wolf (Canis rufus) – hybrid or not?". Montana State University. http://www.montana.edu/~wwwbi/staff/creel/bio480/The%20red%20wolf.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-04. 
  29. ^ "Yellowstone National Park- Coyotes". nps.gov. http://www.nps.gov/yell/naturescience/coyotes.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-17. 
  30. ^ http://www.nps.gov/yell/naturescience/coyotes.htm
  31. ^ "Weaving A New Web: Wolves Change An Ecosystem", Zoogoer magazine, May/June 1998, Smithsonian National Zoo
  32. ^ "Coyotes Cower in Wolf Territory". Livescience. http://www.livescience.com/animals/070911_wolves_coyotes.html. Retrieved 2008-03-20. 
  33. ^ "Preventing Predation of Your Sheep Flock: Predators and Prey", student project at Purdue University
  34. ^ "Coyote In the Suburbs". Q&A websites. http://www.qawebsites.com/coyote.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-02. 
  35. ^ http://www.yellowstonenationalpark.com/coyote.htm
  36. ^ "Observed Interactions Between Coyotes and Red Foxes", Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, United States Geological Survey
  37. ^ Philip S. Gipson and Jan F. Kamler, "Bobcat Killed by a Coyote" The Southwestern Naturalist, Vol. 47, No. 3 (Sep., 2002), pp. 511-513
  38. ^ "Canada Lynx — Wild cat of the Loomis–and more", Conservation Northwest
  39. ^ UNNELL KD, FLINDERS JT, WOLFE ML (2006) Potential Impacts of Coyotes and Snowmobiles on Lynx Conservation in the Intermountain West. Wildlife Society Bulletin: Vol. 34, No. 3 pp. 828–838
  40. ^ Gompper, M. 2002. Top Carnivores in the Suburbs? Ecological and conservation issues raised by colonization of North-eastern North America by coyotes. BioScience 52:185-190.
  41. ^ "Thriving under our noses, stealthily: coyotes" URL accessed on January 9, 2006.
  42. ^ Newman, Maria, and Janon Fisher. "Elusive Coyote Is Captured in Central Park." New York Times 22 March 2006. 7 Nov 2009.
  43. ^ "And the coyote shall lie down with the SoBes ...". Associated Press. 2007-04-04. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/17950832/. Retrieved 2007-04-04. 
  44. ^ Meincke, Paul (2007-04-04). "Coyote captured in Loop to be set free". WLS-TV. http://abclocal.go.com/wls/story?section=news/local&id=5179979. Retrieved 2007-04-04. 
  45. ^ a b c d e "Coyote Attacks: An Increasing Suburban Problem". http://www.co.san-diego.ca.us/awm/docs/coyoteattacks.pdf. Retrieved 2007-08-19. 
  46. ^ Biologists baffled by attack (link expired)
  47. ^ Coyote Attacks on Children
  48. ^ "Coyotes kill woman in Cape Breton". http://www.cbc.ca/canada/nova-scotia/story/2009/10/28/ns-coyote-attack-died.html. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  49. ^ [1]
  50. ^ Sheep and Goats Death Loss, National Agricultural Statistics Service, May 6, 2005, http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/MannUsda/viewDocumentInfo.do?documentID=1628, retrieved 2007-12-27 
  51. ^ National Agricultural Statistics Service
  52. ^ ""Sheep and lamb inventory"". usda.mannlib.cornell.edu. http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/usda/current/Shee/Shee-07-22-2005.txt. Retrieved 2010-02-01. 
  53. ^ Relative risks of predation on livestock posed by individual wolves, black bears, mountain lions and coyotes in Idaho, Mark Collinge, United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, Boise, Idaho
  54. ^ Ranchers' Guide to Wolf Depredation, Montana State University
  55. ^ http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/31880990/ns/us_news-environment/
  56. ^ "For coyotes, pets are prey". Greg Hardesty. Orange County Register. http://www.ocregister.com/ocr/sections/news/focus_in_depth/article_508026.php. Retrieved 2007-08-19. 
  57. ^ "A coyote attacks in Weymouth and kills a dog", WHDH-TV - New England News
  58. ^ History of the Fur Trade, Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, USGS
  59. ^ Dakotas Prairie Basin Wetlands, Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, USGS
  60. ^ Coyotes As Part Of Texas' Fur Trade, Symposium Proceedings, Coyotes in the Southwest: A Compendium of Our Knowledge December 13-14, 1995, Angelo, Texas
  61. ^ International Fur Trade Federation
  62. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Canis latrans". Fire Effects Information System. USDA Forest Service. http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/animals/mammal/cala/all.html. Retrieved 2009-01-21. 
  63. ^ a b "Thos vs Canis". Holger Homann’s Home Page. http://www.holgerhomann.us/Thos_vs%20%20Canis.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-29. 
  64. ^ Seton, Ernest Thompson (2006). Art Anatomy of Animals. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications. p. 160. ISBN 0486447472. http://www.amazon.co.uk/Anatomy-Animals-Dover-Books-Instruction/dp/0486447472/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qisbn=1206802027&sr=1-1. 

References

  • Canis latrans (TSN 180599). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved on 23 March 2006.
  • Robert M. Timm, Hopland Research & Extension Center, University of California, Hopland, California; Rex O. Baker, California State Polytechnic University-Pomona (retired), Corona, California; Joe R. Bennett, USDA APHIS Wildlife Services, Taft, California; and Craig C. Coolahan, USDA APHIS Wildlife Services, Sacramento, California, "Coyote Attacks: An Increasing Suburban Problem" (March 3, 2004). Hopland Research & Extension Center. Paper timm_baker_P047.
  • http://repositories.cdlib.org/anrrec/hrec/timm_baker_P047
  • Bekoff, Marc. 1977. Canis Latrans, Species Account. American Society of Mammalogists.
  • McClennen, N., R. Wigglesworth, and S. H. Anderson. 2001. "The effect of suburban and agricultural development on the activity patterns of coyotes (Canis latrans), American Midland Naturalist, vol. 146: 27-36.
  • Moehlman, P., and H. Hofer. 1997. "Cooperative breeding, reproductive suppression, and body mass in canids", chapter in Cooperative Breeding in Canids, ed. N. G. Solomon and J. A. French. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
  • Morey, Paul. 2004. "Landscape use and diet of coyotes, Canis latrans, in the Chicago metropolitan area", Masters Thesis, Utah State University.
  • Parker, Gerry. 1995. "Eastern Coyote: Story of Its Success", Nimbus Publishing, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
  • Voigt, D. R., and W. E. Berg. 1999. "Coyote", chapter 28 in Wild Furbearer Management and Conservation in North America, Section IV: Species Biology, Management, and Conservation. Queen's Printer for Ontario, Ontario, Canada.

External links


1911 encyclopedia

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010
(Redirected to coyote article)

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also Coyote

Contents

English

Alternative spellings

  • cayeute (obsolete), cayota (obsolete), cayote (obsolete), coyoto (obsolete)

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /kaɪˈ(j)əʊtiː/
  • IPA: /ˈkaɪ(j)əʊt/
  • IPA: /kɔɪˈ(j)əʊteɪ/
  • IPA: /ˈkɔɪ(j)əʊt/
  •  Audio (US)help, file

Etymology

From Spanish coyote, from Nahuatl coyotl.

Noun

Coyote

Singular
coyote

Plural
coyotes

coyote (plural coyotes)

  1. A canine species native to North America.
    • 1824: William Bullock, Six Months' Residence and Travels in Mexico, p. 119
      Near Rio Frio we shot several handsome birds, and saw a cayjotte, or wild dog, which in size nearly approached the wolf.
  2. A smuggler of illegal immigrants across the land border from Mexico into the United States of America.

Scientific names

Synonyms

  • (canine) prairie wolf

Translations

Derived terms

External links

Anagrams


Dutch

Pronunciation

Noun

coyote m. (plural coyotes)

  1. coyote

Italian

Noun

coyote m (plural: coyoti)

  1. coyote

Spanish

Etymology

From Nahuatl coyotl.

Noun

coyote m. (plural coyotes)

Singular
coyote m.

Plural
coyotes m.

  1. coyote
  2. (Mexico) A smuggler of illegal immigrants across the land border from Mexico into the United States of America.
  3. (Mexico) fixer, middleman

See also


Simple English

Coyote
File:Coyote
The head of a coyote in Yosemite National Park
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Genus: Canis
Species: C. latrans
Binomial name
Canis latrans
Say, 1823
File:Leefgebied

Coyote (Canis latrans) is an animal of the Canidae family. The word "coyote" comes from the Náhuatl (Aztec) word cóyotl.

Contents

Appearance

The color of the coyote's fur is a grayish brown to yellowish gray on the upper parts, while the throat and underside are a more white color. The forelegs, sides of the head, muzzle and feet are reddish brown.

Habitat

Coyotes live only in North America and some areas of Central America. They live in the countryside, but also in cities too. The coyote is found though out North American from California up to as far as Alaska. They normally live in dens About 6 feet wide and four feet tall.

Life

The coyote is an omnivore and can eat many kinds of food: fruits, grasses, and vegetables in the autumn and winter months along with small mammals, for example rabbits, mice, shrews, voles, and foxes. They also eat birds, deer, snakes, and lizards. In the city, coyotes find food easily. They dig up plants in gardens and eat food out of garbage cans.

Sometimes, they join small packs (groups), but normally hunt alone. Coyotes live in dens. They dig a tunnel under the ground and then dig out a larger area at the end of the tunnel where they sleep and have their babies or pups. They can have six pups at a time. Often a coyote den will have two entrances, with one that is hidden. Sometimes they dig more than one den, so they can move if an enemy finds the den.

Coyotes do not have many enemies. Wolves used to eat coyotes, but there are not many wolves left in North America compared to the number of coyotes. The biggest enemy of the coyote is people. They do not usually attack people, but sometimes eat small pets such as cats.

Mythology

The coyote is a character of many myths from Native American peoples. The coyote is often protrayed as a joker, and stories are told to explain things he does, such as why he barks at the moon.

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