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Phonation
Glottal states
From open to closed:
Voiceless (full airstream)
Breathy voice (murmur)
Slack voice
Modal voice (maximum vibration)
Stiff voice
Creaky voice (restricted airstream)
Glottalized (blocked airstream)
Supra-glottal phonation
Faucalized voice ("hollow")
Harsh voice ("pressed")
Strident (harsh trilled)
Non-phonemic phonation
Whisper
Falsetto

In linguistics, creaky voice (sometimes called laryngealisation, pulse phonation or, vocal fry or glottal fry), is a special kind of phonation[1][2] in which the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx are drawn together; as a result, the vocal folds are compressed rather tightly, becoming relatively slack and compact. They vibrate irregularly at 20–50 pulses per second, about two octaves below the frequency of normal voicing, and the airflow through the glottis is very slow. However, although creaky voice may occur with very low pitch, as at the end of a long intonation unit, it can occur with any pitch.

A slight degree of laryngealisation, occurring in some Korean consonants for example, is called "stiff voice."

The Danish prosodic feature stød is an example of a form of laryngealisation that has a phonemic function.

To represent creaky voice phonation of a phone in IPA, a diacritical tilde (" ̰ ") is placed below it, e.g.: [d̰].

See also

References

Ladefoged, Peter; Ian Maddieson (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8.  

  1. ^ Titze, I. R. (2008). The human instrument. Sci.Am. 298 (1):94-101. PM 18225701
  2. ^ Titze, I. R. (1994). Principles of Voice Production, Prentice Hall, ISBN 978-0137178933.

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