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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Creation according to Genesis refers to the creation myth found in the first book of the Hebrew Bible, the Book of Genesis.[1]

Chapter 1 describes God's creation of the world by divine speech in six days, culminating in the sanctification of the seventh day as the Biblical Sabbath, the divinely-ordained day of rest. Man and woman are created to be God's regents over this new creation. The second chapter recounts God's planting of a garden in which he places the first man, and from whose rib (or side) God fashions the first woman. The chapter ends with an injunction on the sanctity of marriage.

The narrative reflects the common substratum of Middle Eastern mythology at the time of its compilation in the 1st millennium BC, and assumes a flat Earth floating in the surrounding waters of Chaos. For its authors it represented a monotheistic polemic directed against Babylon, the oppressor of the Jews;[2] later scholars found in it a homily of the essential unity of mankind and the sanctity of life.[3]



The Creation of Light by Gustave Dore.
God creating the land animals (Vittskövle Church fresco, 1480s).

The modern division of the Bible into chapters dates from c. AD 1200, and the division into verses somewhat later; the distinction between Genesis 1 and 2 is therefore a relatively recent development.[4]


First narrative: Creation week

Genesis 1:1-2:4

The creation week narrative consists of eight divine commands executed over six days, followed by a seventh day of rest.

  • First day: God creates light ("Let there be light!")[Gen 1:3]—the first divine command. The light is divided from the darkness, and "day" and "night" are named.
  • Second day: God creates a firmament ("Let a firmament be...!")[Gen 1:6-7]—the second command—to divide the waters above from the waters below. The firmament is named "skies".
  • Third day: God commands the waters below to be gathered together in one place, and dry land to appear (the third command).[Gen 1:9-10] "Earth" and "sea" are named. God commands the earth to bring forth grass, plants, and fruit-bearing trees (the fourth command).
  • Fourth day: God creates lights in the firmament (the fifth command)[Gen 1:14-15] to separate light from darkness and to mark days, seasons and years. Two great lights are made (most likely the Sun and Moon, but not named), and the stars.
  • Fifth day: God commands the sea to "teem with living creatures", and birds to fly across the heavens (sixth command)[Gen 1:20-21] He creates birds and sea creatures, and commands them to be fruitful and multiply.
  • Sixth day: God commands the land to bring forth living creatures (seventh command);[Gen 1:24-25] He makes wild beasts, livestock and reptiles. He then creates Man and Woman in His "image" and "likeness" (eighth command).[Gen 1:26-28] They are told to "be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the earth, and subdue it." Humans and animals are given plants to eat. The totality of creation is described by God as "very good."
  • Seventh day: God, having completed the heavens and the earth, rests from His work, and blesses and sanctifies the seventh day.

Literary Bridge

Genesis 2:4

These are the generations of the heavens and the earth when they were created.

The phrase "These are the generations (Hebrew תוֹלְדוֹת; tôledôt) of the heavens and the earth when they were created" lies between the creation week narrative and the Eden narrative which follows, and the first of ten phrases ("tôledôt") used to provide structure to the book of Genesis.[5] Since the phrase always precedes the "generation" to which it belongs, the "generations of the heavens and the earth" should logically be taken to refer to Genesis 2; a position taken by most commentators.[6] Nevertheless, other commentators from Rashi to the present day have argued that in this case it should apply to what precedes.[note 1]

Second narrative: Eden narrative

Genesis 2:4-25

Painting by Lucas Cranach the Elder, depicting Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden.

The Eden narrative addresses the creation of the first man and woman:

  • Genesis 2:4b—the second half of the bridge formed by the "generations" formula, and the beginning of the Eden narrative—places the events of the narrative "in the day when YHWH Elohim made the earth and the heavens..."[note 2]
  • Before any plant had appeared, before any rain had fallen, while a mist[note 3] watered the earth, Yahweh formed the man (Heb. ha-adam הָאָדָם) out of dust from the ground (Heb. ha-adamah הָאֲדָמָה), and breathed the breath of life into his nostrils. And the man became a "living being" (Heb. nephesh).
  • Yahweh planted a garden in Eden and he set the man in it. He caused pleasant trees to spout from the ground, and trees necessary for food, also the tree of life and the tree of knowledge of good and evil.[note 4] (An unnamed river is described: it goes out from Eden to water the garden, after which it parts into four named streams.) He takes the man who is to tend His garden and tells him he may eat of the fruit of all the trees except the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, "for in that day thou shalt surely die."
  • Yahweh resolved to make a "helper"[note 5] suitable for (lit. "corresponding to")[7] the man.[8] He made domestic animals and birds, and the man gave them their names, but none of them is a fitting helper. Therefore Yahweh caused the man to sleep, and he took a rib,[note 6] and from it formed a woman. The man then named her "Woman" (Heb. ishah), saying "for from a man (Heb. ish) has this been taken." A statement instituting marriage follows: "Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh."[note 7]
  • The man and his wife were naked, and felt no shame.

Genesis 1-11: Primeval History

Genesis 1-2 opens the “primeval history” of Genesis 1-11. This unit within Genesis forms an introduction to the stories of Abraham and the Patriarchs, and contains the first mention of many themes which are continued throughout the book of Genesis and the Torah, including fruitfulness, God's election of Israel, and His ongoing forgiveness of man's rebellious nature. It is therefore impossible to understand either Genesis 1-2 or the Torah as a whole without reference to this introductory history.[note 8]

Ancient Near East context

Civilizations of the Ancient Near East conceived the Earth as a flat disk with infinite water both above and below it.[9] The dome of the sky, was thought to be a solid metal bowl—tin according to the Sumerians, iron for the Egyptians—separating the surrounding water from the habitable world. The stars were embedded in the under surface of this dome, and there were gates in it that allowed the passage of the Sun and Moon back and forth. The flat-disk Earth was seen as a single island-continent surrounded by a circular ocean, of which the known seas—what we call today the Mediterranean Sea, the Persian Gulf, and the Red Sea—were inlets. Beneath the Earth was a fresh-water sea, the source of all fresh-water rivers and wells. It is this world-view which lies behind the Genesis creation story.[9]

The Genesis creation story is comparable with other Near Eastern creation myths. According to the Enuma Elish, which has the closest parallels, the original state of the universe was a chaos formed by the mingling of two primeval waters, the female saltwater Tiamat and the male freshwater Apsu.[10] Through the fusion of their waters six successive generations of gods were born. A war amongst the gods began with the slaying of Apsu, and ended with the god Marduk splitting Tiamat in two to form the heavens and the earth; the Euphrates and the Tigris rivers emerged from her eye-sockets. Marduk then created humanity, from clay mingled with spit and blood, to tend the Earth for the gods, while Marduk himself was enthroned in Babylon in the Esagila, "the temple with its head in heaven."

The similarities between Genesis and the Enuma Elish are apparent, but there are significant differences. The most notable is the absence from Genesis of the "divine combat" (the gods' battle with Tiamat) which secures Marduk's position as king of the world, but even this has an echo in the claims of Yahweh's kingship over creation in such places as Psalm 29 and Psalm 93, where he is pictured as sitting enthroned over the floods.[10]

Exegetical points

"In the beginning..."

The first word of Genesis 1 in Hebrew, "in the beginning" (Heb. berēšît בְּרֵאשִׁית), provides the traditional Jewish title for the book. The inherent ambiguity of the Hebrew grammar in this verse gives rise to two alternative translations, the first implying that God's initial act of creation was ab nihilo (out of nothing),[11] the second that "the heavens and the earth" (i.e., everything) already existed in a "formless and empty" state, to which God brings form and order:[12]

  1. "In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. And the earth was without form, and void…. God said, Let there be light!" (King James Version).
  2. "At the beginning of the creation of heaven and earth, when the earth was (or the earth being) unformed and void.... God said, Let there be light!" (Rashi, and with variations Ibn Ezra and Bereshith Rabba).

The name of God

Two names of God are used, Elohim in the first narrative and Yahweh Elohim in the second narrative. In Jewish tradition, dating back to the earliest rabbinic literature, the different names indicate different attributes of God.[13][14] In modern times the two names, plus differences in the styles of the two chapters and a number of discrepancies between Genesis 1 and Genesis 2, were instrumental in the development of source criticism and the documentary hypothesis.

"Without form and void"

The phrase traditionally translated in English "without form and void" is tōhû wābōhû (Hebrew: תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ‎). The Greek Septuagint (LXX) rendered this term as "unseen and unformed" (Greek: ἀόρατος καὶ ἀκατασκεύαστος), paralleling the Greek concept of Chaos. In the Hebrew Bible, the phrase is a dis legomenon, being used only in one other place.[Jer. 4:23] There Jeremiah is telling Israel that sin and rebellion against God will lead to "darkness and chaos," or to "de-creation," "as if the earth had been ‘uncreated.’"[15]

The rûach of God

The Hebrew rûach (רוּחַ) has the meanings "wind, spirit, breath," but the traditional Jewish interpretation here is "wind," as "spirit" would imply a living supernatural presence co-extent with yet separate from God at Creation. This, however, is the sense in which rûach was understood by the early Christian church in developing the doctrine of the Trinity, in which this passage plays a central role.[12]

The "deep"

The "deep" (Heb. תְהוֹם tehôm), is the formless body of primeval water surrounding the habitable world. These waters are later released during the great flood, when "all the fountains of the great deep burst forth" from under the earth and from the "windows" of the sky.[Gen. 7:11] [6] The word is cognate with the Babylonian Tiamat,[6] and its occurrence here without the definite article ha (i.e., the literal translation of the Hebrew is that "darkness lay on the face of tehôm) indicates its mythical origins.[16]

The firmament of heaven

The "firmament" (Heb. רָקִיעַ rāqîa) of heaven, created on the second day of creation and populated by luminaries on the fourth day, denotes a solid ceiling[9] which separated the earth below from the heavens and their waters above. The term is etymologically derived from the verb rāqa (רֹקַע ), used for the act of beating metal into thin plates.[6][17]

Great sea monsters

Heb. hatanninim hagedolim (הַתַּנִּינִם הַגְּדֹלִים) is the classification of creatures to which the chaos-monsters Leviathan and Rahab belong.[18] In Genesis 1:21, the proper noun Leviathan is missing and only the class noun great tannînim appears. The great tannînim are associated with mythological sea creatures such as Lotan (the Ugaritic counterpart of the biblical Leviathan) which were considered deities by other ancient near eastern cultures; the author of Genesis 1 asserts the sovereignty of Elohim over such entities.[17]

The number seven

Seven denoted divine completion.[19] It is embedded in the text of Genesis 1 (but not in Genesis 2) in a number of ways, besides the obvious seven-day framework: the word "God" occurs 35 times (7 × 5) and "earth" 21 times (7 × 3). The phrases "and it was so" and "God saw that it was good" occur 7 times each. The first sentence of Genesis 1:1 contains 7 Hebrew words, and the second sentence contains 14 words, while the verses about the seventh day[Gen. 2:1-3] contain 35 words in total.[20]

Man and the image of God

The meaning of the "image of God" has been much debated. The ancient Jewish philosopher Philo of Alexandria and the medieval Jewish scholar Rashi believed it referred to "a sort of conceptual archetype, model, or blueprint that God had previously made for man;" his colleague Maimonides suggested it referred to man's free will.[21] Modern scholarship still debates whether the image of God was represented symmetrically in Adam and Eve, or whether Adam possessed the image more fully than the woman.

Structure and composition

Michelangelo's painting of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel shows the creation of the stars and planets as described in the first chapter of Genesis.


Genesis 1 consists of eight acts of creation within a six day framework. In each of the first three days there is an act of division: Day one divides the darkness from light; day two, the waters from the skies; and day three, the sea from the land. In each of the next three days these divisions are populated: day four populates what was created on day one, and heavenly bodies are placed in the darkness and light; day five populates what was created on day two, and fish and birds are placed in the seas and skies; finally, day six populates what was created on day three, and animals and man are place on the land. This six-day structure is symmetrically bracketed: On day zero primeval chaos reigns, and on day seven there is cosmic order.[22]

Genesis 2 is a simple linear narrative, with the exception of the parenthesis about the four rivers at [2:10-14]. This interrupts the forward movement of the narrative and is possibly a later insertion.[23]

The two are joined by Genesis 2:4a, "These are the tôledôt (תוֹלְדוֹת in Hebrew) of the heavens and the earth when they were created." This echoes the first line of Genesis 1, "In the beginning Yahweh created both the heavens and the earth," and is reversed in the next line of Genesis 2, "In the day when Yahweh Elohim made the earth and the heavens...". The significance of this, if any, is unclear, but it does reflect the preoccupation of each chapter, Genesis 1 looking down from heaven, Genesis 2 looking up from the earth.[24]


Michelangelo's The Creation of Adam (1512) is the most famous Fresco in the Sistine Chapel

According to the tradition the first five books of the Bible were written by Moses, but today many scholars accept that the Pentateuch "was in reality a composite work, the product of many hands and periods.”[25] In the first half of the 20th century the dominant theory regarding its origins was the documentary hypothesis, which supposes that the Torah was produced about 450 BC by combining four distinct, complete and coherent documents, with Genesis 1 from one source (called Priestly source [P]), and Genesis 2 from another (Jahwist [J]).[26] Since the last quarter of the 20th century there has been renewed interest in alternative theories which see [P] (Genesis 1) as an editor adding to an existing [J] document, rather than as a complete and independent document; like the documentary hypothesis, contemporary theories also see Genesis 1-2, with their strong Babylonian influence and anti-Babylonian agenda, as a product of the exilic and post-exilic period (6th-5th centuries BC).[27] The renewed emphasis on the final form of the biblical text has also tended to redirect attention to its overarching theological coherence.[28]

Theology and interpretation

Questions of genre

The genre of Genesis 1-2 (and Genesis 1-11, the larger whole to which the two chapters belong) remains subject to differences of opinion, and modern scholars can only make informed judgments. One inevitable conclusion is that Genesis 1-2 represent theology: the chapters concern the actions of God and the meaning of those acts. Possibly, the authors also believed they were writing a scientific, accurate description of the cosmos and its beginnings as known to them: a flat earth surrounded by infinite water and a solid sky-dome set with stars. A recent study of the numerological basis of Genesis speculated about the authors' possible intentions to give "a scientific description of Creation from the perspective of ritual, and without myth."[29] The story is also presented with a clear chronological progression as part of a history that leads from the moment of first creation to the destruction of the First Temple. This led Thorkild Jacobsen to classify it as "mythical history".[30]

The theology of Genesis 1-2

Traditional Jewish scholarship has viewed it as expressing spiritual concepts (see Nachmanides, commentary on Genesis). The Mishnah in Tractate Chagigah states that the actual meaning of the creation myth, mystical in nature and hinted at in the text of Genesis, was to be taught only to advanced students one-on-one. Tractate Sanhedrin states that Genesis describes all mankind as being descended from a single individual in order to teach certain lessons. Among these are:

  • Taking one life is tantamount to destroying the entire world, and saving one life is tantamount to saving the entire world.
  • A person should not say to another that he comes from better stock because we all come from the same ancestor.
  • To teach the greatness of God, for when human beings create a mold every thing that comes out of that mold is identical, while mankind, which comes out of a single mold, is different in that every person is unique.[31]

Among the many views of modern scholars on Genesis and creation one of the most influential is that which links it to the emergence of Hebrew monotheism from the common Mesopotamian/Levantine background of polytheistic religion and myth around the middle of the 1st millennium BC.[32] The "Creation week" narrative forms a monotheistic polemic on creation-theology directed against pagan creation myths, the sequence of events building to the establishment of the Biblical Sabbath (in Hebrew: שַׁבָּת, Shabbat) commandment as its climax.[33] Where the Babylonian myths saw man as nothing more than a "lackey of the gods to keep them supplied with food,"[34] Genesis starts out with God approving the world as "very good" and with mankind at the apex of created order.[Gen. 1:31] Things then fall away from this initial state of goodness: Adam and Eve eat the fruit of the tree in disobedience of the divine command. Ten generations later in the time of Noah, the Earth has become so corrupted that God resolves to return it to the waters of chaos sparing only one man who is righteous and from whom a new creation can begin.


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Creationism springs from the belief that if one element of the biblical narrative is shown to be untrue, then all others will follow: "Tamper with the Book of Genesis and you undermine the very foundations of Christianity.... If Genesis 1 is not accurate, then there's no way to be certain that the rest of Scripture tells the truth."[35] Thus a literal genre, Genesis as history, is substituted for the symbolic Genesis as theology, and the text is placed in conflict with science.[36] "Young Earth" creationists believe that the seven "days" of Genesis 1 correspond to normal 24-hour days while Day-age creationists, more willing to adjust their religious beliefs to accommodate current scientific findings, hold that each "day" represents an "age" of perhaps millions or even billions of years. Creationists read Genesis 2 as history, holding that God breathed into the nostrils of a being formed out of dust, and from his side (or rib) the first woman was formed.[37]

See also


  1. ^ The argument is based on several grounds, notably the fact that Genesis 1 uses the phrase "heavens and earth" to introduce and close the Creation, while the narrative in Chapter 2 is introduced by the phrase "earth and heavens." Advocates of the other view argue that 2:4 is designed as a chiasm (Wenham, 49)
  2. ^ The lack of punctuation in the Hebrew creates ambiguity over where sentence-endings should be placed in this passage. This is reflected in differing modern translations, some of which attach this clause to Genesis 2:4a and place a full stop at the end of 4b, while others place the full stop after 4a and make 4b the beginning of a new sentence, while yet others combine all verses from 4a onwards into a single sentence culminating in Genesis 2:7.
  3. ^ in some translations, a stream
  4. ^ Some modern translations alter the tense-sequence so that the garden is prepared before the man is set in it, but the Hebrew has the man created before the garden is planted.
  5. ^ `ezer: Most often used to refer to God, such as "The Lord is our Help (`ezer)"[Ps. 115:9] and many other Old Testament verses. (Strong's H5828)
  6. ^ Hebrew tsela`, meaning side, chamber, rib, or beam (Strong's H6763). Some feminist scholars have questioned the traditional "rib" on the grounds that it denigrates the equality of the sexes, suggesting it should read "side": see Reisenberger, Azila Talit. "The creation of Adam...." in Judaism: A Quarterly Journal of Jewish Life and Thought, 9/22/1993 (accessed 09–12–2007).
  7. ^ The lack of punctuation in the Hebrew makes it uncertain whether or not these words about marriage are intended to be a continuation of the speech of the man.
  8. ^ For a schematic representation of the structure of the "primeval history", see table iii of this document from McMaster University (table i contains a breakdown of the "history"according to the documentary hypothesis); for a more detailed discussion, see "Pentateuchal Research", Encyclopedia of Christianity (somewhat dated, but scholarly).


  1. ^ Browning, W. R. F. (1997). A Dictionary of the Bible (myth). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0192116918.  
  2. ^ Meredith G. Kline, "Because It Had Not Rained", (Westminster Theological Journal, 20 (2), May 1958), pp. 146-57; Meredith G. Kline, "Space and Time in the Genesis Cosmogony", Perspectives on Science & Christian Faith (48), 1996), pp. 2-15; Henri Blocher, Henri Blocher. In the Beginning: The Opening Chapters of Genesis. InterVarsity Press, 1984.  ; and with antecedents in St. Augustine of Hippo Davis A. Young (1988). "The Contemporary Relevance of Augustine's View of Creation". Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith 40 (1): 42–45.  
  3. ^ Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Sanhedrin 37a.
  4. ^ Gordon Wenham, "Exploring the Old Testament: Volume 1, The Pentateuch", SPCK, (2003), p.5.
  5. ^ Frank Moore Cross, "The Priestly Work," in Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic, 1973. The other nine are for 2 Adam [1],Genesis 5:1 3 Noah,[Genesis 6:9] 4 Noah's sons Genesis 10L1, 5 Shem,[Gen. 11:10] 6 Terah,[Gen. 11:27] 7 Yishmael,[HE] 8 Isaac,[HE] 9 Esau,[HE] and 10 Jacob.[HE]
  6. ^ a b c d Gordon J. Wenham. Genesis 1-15 (Word Biblical Commentary). Word Books, Texas, 1987.  
  7. ^ footnote Gen. 2:18 in NASB
  8. ^ Kvam, Kristen E., Linda S. Schearing, Valarie H. Ziegler, eds. Eve and Adam: Jewish, Christian, and Muslim readings on Genesis and gender. Indiana University Press, 1999. ISBN 0253212715.
  9. ^ a b c For a description of Near Eastern and other ancient cosmologies and their connections with the Biblical view of the Universe, see Paul H. Seeley, "The Firmament and the Water Above: The Meaning of Raqia in Genesis 1:6-8", Westminster Theological Journal 53 (1991), and "The Geographical Meaning of 'Earth' and 'Seas' in Genesis 1:10", Westminster Theological Journal 59 (1997).
  10. ^ a b Bandstra, Barry L. (1999), "Enuma Elish", Reading the Old Testament: An Introduction to the Hebrew Bible, Wadsworth Publishing Company,  .
  11. ^ Wenham, Gordon. Word Biblical Commentary Vol. 1 Genesis 1-15. Word, 1987. ISBN 0849902002
  12. ^ a b Harry Orlinsky, Notes on Genesis, NJPS translation of the Torah
  13. ^ "Hashem/Elokim: Mixing Mercy with Justice" in The Aryeh Kaplan Reader [2]
  14. ^ The seventy faces of Torah: the Jewish way of reading the Sacred Scriptures, by Stephen M. Wylen [3]
  15. ^ H.B. Huey, vol. 16, Jeremiah, Lamentations, "The New American Commentary" (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2001, c1993), p. 85; Holladay, Jeremiah 1, p. 164; Thompson writes, "it's as if the earth had been ‘uncreated.’", Thompson, Jeremiah, NICOT, p. 230;
  16. ^ Noted by Hermann Gunkel—see Ernest Nicholson, "The Pentateuch in the Twentieth Century", 2002, p.34.)
  17. ^ a b Victor P. Hamilton. The Book of Genesis (New International Commentary on the Old Testament). William B. Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, 1990.  
  18. ^ Vocabulary of Biblical Hebrew, Texas A&M University.
  19. ^ Meir Bar-Ilan, The Numerology of Genesis (Association for Jewish Astrology and Numerology, 2003)
  20. ^ Gordon Wenham, Genesis 1-15 (Commentary, Word Books, 1987. p. 6
  21. ^ Footnotes to Genesis translation at
  22. ^ Bandstra, Barry L. (1999), "Priestly Creation Story", Reading the Old Testament: An Introduction to the Hebrew Bible, Wadsworth Publishing Company,  .
  23. ^ David Carr, “The Politics of Textual Subversion: A Diachronic Perspective on the Garden of Eden Story”, Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 112, No. 4 (Winter, 1993), pp. 577-595.
  24. ^ Richard Elliott Friedman, "The Bible With Sources Revealed", (Harper San Francisco, 2003), fn 3, p. 35
  25. ^ Speiser, E. A. (1964). Genesis. The Anchor Bible. Doubleday. p. XXI. ISBN 0-385-00854-6.  
  26. ^ Documentary Hypothesis (notes from John Barton, "Source Criticism," Anchor Bible Dictionary) describes both the documentary hypothesis and the Mosaic authorship tradition.
  27. ^ E.O. James. "Creation and Mythology: A Historical and Comparative Inquiry", (1969), pp.28 ff
  28. ^ Rabbi Yitzchak Etshalom, "Reassessing B'resheet 1-3"
  29. ^ Meir Bar-Ilan, The Numerology of Genesis", (Rehovot: Association for Jewish Astrology and Numerology, 2003), pp. vi + 218
  30. ^ Thorkild Jacobsen, "The Eridu Genesis", (JBL 100, 1981), pp.513-29
  31. ^ Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Sanhedrin 37a.
  32. ^ For a discussion of the roots of Biblical monotheism in Canaanite polytheism, see Mark S. Smith, "The Origins of Biblical Monotheism"; See also the review of David Penchansky, "Twilight of the Gods: Polytheism in the Hebrew Bible", which describes some of the nuances underlying the subject. See the Bibliography section at the foot of this article for further reading on this subject.
  33. ^ Meredith G. Kline, "Because It Had Not Rained", (Westminster Theological Journal, 20 (2), May 1958), pp. 146-57; Meredith G. Kline, "Space and Time in the Genesis Cosmogony", Perspectives on Science & Christian Faith (48), 1996), pp. 2-15; Henri Blocher, Henri Blocher. In the Beginning: The Opening Chapters of Genesis. InterVarsity Press, 1984.  ; and with antecedents in St. Augustine of Hippo Davis A. Young (1988). "The Contemporary Relevance of Augustine's View of Creation". Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith 40 (1): 42–45.  
  34. ^ T. Jacobson, "The Eridu Genesis", JBL 100, 1981, pp.529, quoted in Gordon Wenham, "Exploring the Old Testament: The Pentateuch", 2003, p.17. See also Gordon J. Wenham. Genesis 1-15 (Word Biblical Commentary). Word Books, Texas, 1987.  
  35. ^ Literalist minister/theologian John MacArthur, in Eugenie C. Scott, "Evolution vs Creationism: An Introduction", University of California Press, 2005, ISBN 978-0520246508, pp. 227-8
  36. ^ Conrad Hyers, "The Meaning of Creation: Genesis and Modern Science", 1984, p. 75
  37. ^ Answers in Genesis—What Was Adam Like?


  • Anderson, Bernhard W. Creation in the Old Testament (editor) (ISBN 0-8006-1768-1)
  • Anderson, Bernhard W. Creation Ver Bernhard W. Understanding the Old Testament (ISBN 0-13-948399-3)
  • Benware, P.N. "Survey of the Old Testament," Moody Press, Chicago IL, (1993).
  • Bloom, Harold and Rosenberg, David The Book of J, Random House, NY, USA 1990.
  • Davis, John, Paradise to Prison—Studies in Genesis, Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1975, p. 23
  • Douglas, J.D. et al., "Old Testament Volume: New Commentary on the Whole Bible," Tyndale, Wheaton, IL, (1990)
  • Friedman, Richard E. Who Wrote The Bible?, Harper and Row, NY, USA, 1987.
  • Nicholson, E. The Pentateuch in the Twentieth Century: The Legacy of Julius Wellhausen Oxford University Press, 2003.
  • Reis, Pamela Tamarkin (2001). Genesis as Rashomon: The creation as told by God and man. Bible Review '17' (3).
  • Rouvière, Jean-Marc, (2006), Brèves méditations sur la création du monde L'Harmattan, Paris.
  • Spurrell,G.J. Notes on the Text of the Book of Genesis, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1896.
  • Tigay, Jeffrey, Ed. Empirical Models for Biblical Criticism University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, PA, USA 1986

External links

Sources for the Biblical text

Other resources


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