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Crime in Australia is exemplified through numerous incidents throughout history.

Contents

History

Convicts

During the late 18th and 19th centuries, large numbers of convicts were transported to the various Australian penal colonies by the British government.[1] One of the primary reasons for the British settlement of Australia was the establishment of a penal colony to alleviate pressure on their overburdened correctional facilities. Over the 80 years more than 165,000 convicts were transported to Australia.[2]

Bushrangers of Australia

Bushrangers were criminals who used the Australian bush as a refuge to hide from authorities between committing their robberies, roughly analogous to the British "highwayman" and American "Old West outlaws,". Their targets often included small-town banks or coach services. The term "bushranger" evolved to refer to those who abandoned social rights and privileges to take up "robbery under arms" as a way of life, using the bush as their base.

Riots in Australia

See also - Civil disturbances in Western Australia

Death penalty in Australia

Capital punishment had been part of the legal system of Australia since British settlement and during the 19th century, crimes that could carry a death sentence included burglary, sheep stealing, forgery, sexual assaults, murder and manslaughter and there is one reported case of someone being executed for "being illegally at large" and during the 19th century, these crimes saw about 80 people hanged each year throughout Australia.

The death penalty was abolished in Queensland in 1922, Tasmania in 1968, the Commonwealth in 1973, Northern Territory in 1973, Victoria in 1975, South Australia in 1976, ACT in 1983, Western Australia in 1984, and New South Wales in 1985. It was finally abolished through federal law in 1973 with the 'Death Penalty Abolition Act 1973[1] of the Commonwealth abolished the dealth penalty for federal offences . It provided in Section 3 that the Act applied to any offence against a law of the Commonwealth, the Territories or under an Omperial Act, and in s. 4 that "[a] person is not liable to the punishment of death for any offence".

No executions were carried out under the bridge of the federal government and the passage of the Death Penalty Abolition Act 1973[2] saw the death penalty replaced with life imprisonment as their maximum punishment. Since the Commonwealth effects of utilizing this Act no more individuals have been exposed to the death penalty and it is now replaced with life imprisonment.

Major crimes in Australia

Law enforcement in Australia

Law enforcement in Australia is served by police, sheriffs and bailiffs under the control of state, territory and the Federal governments. A number of state, territory and federal agencies also administer a wide variety of legislation related to white-collar crime.

The Police are responsible for the criminal law. The sheriff and bailiffs in each state and territory are responsible for the enforcement of the judgments of the courts exercising civil law (common law) jurisdictions.

It is a common misconception that in Australia there are two distinct levels of police forces, the various state police forces and then overriding that, the Australian Federal Police (AFP). In actuality, the various state police forces are responsible for enforcing state law within their own states while the AFP are responsible for the enforcement of and investigation of crimes against Commonwealth law which obviously applies across the whole country.

Organisations

Penal system

The main cell block of Fremantle Prison.

Life imprisonment in Australia

In Australia, life imprisonment is of indeterminate length. The sentencing judge usually sets a non-parole period after which the prisoner can apply for release under parole conditions, or in the case of a criminal who has committed particularly heinous crimes, the sentencing judge may order that the person is "never to be released".

The gatehouse of Fremantle Prison

Prisons in Australia

Private prisons

Prisons in Australia managed by private corporations.

Prison museums

Former Australian prisons which are now open to the public as museums.

A typical cell in Fremantle Prison.

Former prisons

See also

Australian prisoners and detainees

Australian people currently imprisoned, and also those of other nationalities accommodated in Australian prisons.

See also: Category:Australian prisoners and detainees See also: List of Australians in international prisons

Current prisoners

Former prisoners

Regional crime

Australian Capital Territory

New South Wales

Northern Territory

Queensland

South Australia

Tasmania

Victoria

Western Australia

Crime related books

  • The Matriarch: The Kathy Pettingill Story

Crime related television shows in Australia

Documentary

Other

See also

References

  1. ^ Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2002. ISBN 0-19-860575-7. "convictism noun (Hist.) the system of penal settlements for convicts; the body of convicts so transported M19"  
  2. ^ Convict Records, Ancestry.co.uk
  3. ^ http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,25197,20408091-5006786,00.html Torture killer in court plea

External links








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