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This graph shows a sharp drop-off in violent crime since 1993.[1]
Property crime rates in the United States (1986-2005)

Crime statistics for the United States are published annually by the Federal Bureau of Investigation in the Uniform Crime Reports which represents crimes reported to the police. The Bureau of Justice Statistics conducts the annual National Crime Victimization Survey which captures crimes not reported to the police.

The country's overall crime rate is displayed in two indices. The violent crime index comprises homicide, forcible rape, robbery and assault. The property crime index consists of burglary, larceny/theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson. Statistics for index offenses are generally available for the country as a whole, all fifty states and all communities within the United States with 10,000 or more residents.

The crime rate is measured by the number of offenses being reported per 100,000 people. While the crime rate had risen sharply in the late 1960s and early 1970s, bringing it to a constant all-time high during much of the 1980s, it has drastically declined ever since 1993. One hypothesis suggests there is a causal link between legalized abortion and the drop in crime during the 1990s.[2] Another possibility is the introduction of the Three Strikes Law in 1993 by state governments which saw felony offenders who committed a third offence receive life imprisonment.

In 2004 America's crime rate was roughly the same as in 1970, with the homicide rate being at its lowest level since 1965. Overall, the national crime rate was 4982 crimes per 100,000 residents, down from 4852 crimes per 100,000 residents thirty years earlier in 1974 (-17.6%).[3]

The likelihood of committing and falling victim to crime also depends on several demographic characteristics, as well as location of the population. Overall, men, minorities, the young, and those in financially less favorable positions are more likely to be crime victims, as well as commit crimes.[4] Crime in the US is also concentrated in certain areas.

It is quite common for crime in American cities to be highly concentrated in a few, often economically disadvantaged areas. For example, San Mateo County, California had a population of approximately 707,000 and 17 homicides in 2001. 6 of these 17 homicides took place in poor, largely African and Hispanic American East Palo Alto, which had a population of roughly 30,000. So, while East Palo Alto accounted for a mere 4.2% of the population, about one-third of the homicides took place there.[5] According to the FBI, in 2008 14,180 people were murdered in America. [6]

Contents

Crime over time

The violent crime rate of the United States, 1960 to 2005.[7][8]
The property crime rate of the US, 1960 to 2005.[7][8]

Crime has been a long-standing concern in the United States, with high rates at the beginning of the 20th century compared to parts of Western Europe. In 1916, 198 homicides were recorded in Chicago, a city of slightly over 2 million at the time. This level of crime was not exceptional when compared to other American cities such as New York City, but was much higher relative to European cities, such as London, which then had three times the population but recorded only 45 homicides in the same year.[9]

Since 1964, the U.S. crime rate has increased by as much as 350%, and over 11 million crimes were reported in the year 2007 alone.[10] Crime in the United States has fluctuated considerably over the course of the last half-century, rising significantly in the late 1960s and 1970s, peaking in the 1980s and then decreasing considerably in the 1990s.

Over the past thirty years, the crime rate rose throughout the 1980s, reached its peak in 1993 and then began to decrease throughout the 1990s and 2000s. One hypothesis suggests there is a causal link between legalized abortion and this drop.[2] Another possibility is the introduction of the Three Strikes Law in 1993 by state governments which saw felony offenders who committed a third offence receive life imprisonment.

The year 2005 was overall the safest year in the past thirty years. The recent overall decrease has reflected upon all significant types of crime, with all violent and property crimes having decreased and reached an all-time low. The homicide rate in particular has decreased over 42% between its record high point in 1991 and 2005.

Recently, however, the homicide rate has stagnated.[8] While the homicide rate decreased continuously between 1991 and 2000 from 9.8 homicides per 100,000 persons to 5.5 per 100,000, it has remained level through 2005.

Despite the recent stagnation of the homicide rate, however, property and violent crimes overall have continued to decrease, though at a considerably slower pace than in the 1990s.[8] Overall, the crime rate in the U.S. was the same in 2004 as in 1969, with the homicide rate being roughly the same as in 1966. Violent crime overall, however, is still at the same level as in 1974, despite having decreased steadily since 1991.[7]

Crime Rate[7][11] 1960 1961 1963 1965 1967 1969 1971 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2008
Violent crime rate 160.9 158.1 168.2 200.2 253.2 328.7 396.0 417.4 487.8 475.9 548.9 594.3 537.7 556.6 609.7 663.1 758.1 746.8 684.6 610.8 523.0 504.4 475.8 469.2 454.5
Homicide rate 5.1 4.8 4.6 5.1 6.2 7.3 8.6 9.4 9.6 8.8 9.8 9.8 8.3 8.0 8.3 8.7 9.8 9.5 8.2 6.8 5.7 5.6 5.7 5.6 5.4
Property crime rate 1,726 1,747 2,012 2,249 2,736 3,351 3,769 3,737 4,811 4,602 5,017 5,264 4,637 4,650 4,940 5,078 5,140 4,738 4,591 4,312 3,744 3,656 3,591 3,430 3,213

SOURCES: US Bureau of Justice Statistics (2004),[7] Federal Bureau of Investigation, (2008)[11]

Characteristics of offenders

As of 2008, a statistics report which surveyed all persons arrested for offending, stated that of the crimes surveyed for which the identity of the offender could be determined, 69.2 percent of all persons arrested were white or Hispanic, 28.3 percent of people arrested for offending were black or black and Hispanic; and the remaining 2.4 percent were of other races. After arrest, 45.1% of violent crimes and 17.4% of property crimes nationwide were cleared by arrest or exceptional means.[12] As of 2008, statistics report as that of 16,277 murders, 10,568 were committed by males, 1,176 were by female, and 4,533 were committed in which the offenders sex was unknown. Likewise, 5,334 murders where committed by white offenders, 5,943 were committed by black or black and Hispanic offenders, 273 were committed by offenders of other races, and 4,727 murders were committed by offenders whom race is not known. [13]

A 2008 FBI Uniform Crime Report on rape and sexual-based crime published by the United States Department of Justice stated that of the crimes surveyed, Whites represented 65.2% of persons arrested for rape, Blacks represented 32.2%, with American Indians and Asians ranking just above 1%. "Hispanics", "Hispanic-White" or "Hispanic-Black" was not specified into any specific category.[14].

According to the latest "Hate Crimes Reported by Victims and Police," a 2008 Bureau of Justice Statistics Report, hate crime offenders were predominantly white (61%), whereas the victims were predominantly black (72.9%) and targeted because of their race (51%).[15][16] Among religious hate crimes, the majority of victims were of Jewish faith (65.7%) with less than one in ten offenses aimed at people of the Muslim faith (7.7%).[17] Among crimes aimed at ethnicity and national background, the majority of hate crimes were of anti-Hispanic bias (64%).[17]

Reporting at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association (August 3, 2008), sociologists at Bowling Green State University found that men who attend college are more likely to commit property crimes during their college years than their non-college-attending peers. The research draws from three waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and examines education, crime levels, substance abuse and socializing among adolescents and young adults.[18]

Prison statistics

Compared with other countries, the United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world. As of 2006, a record 7 million people were behind bars, on probation or on parole, of which 2.2 million were incarcerated. The People's Republic of China ranks second with 1.5 million. The United States has 5% of the world's population and 25% of the world's incarcerated population.[19]


In terms of federal prison, 57% of those incarcerated were sentenced for drug offenses. However, the federal prison population is a very small percentage of the massive state prison population, which also holds numerous people convicted of drug offenses. Currently, considering local jails as well, almost a million of those incarcerated are in prison for non-violent crime.[20] In 2002, roughly 93.2 % of prisoners were male. About 10.4 % of all black males in the United States between the ages of 25 and 29 were sentenced and in prison by year end, compared to 2.4 % of Hispanic males and 1.2 % of white males.[21]

Many sociologists and Criminal Justice Academics argue that this disparity in prison population is reflective of discriminatory sentencing. In a study conducted by the Rand Corporation, it has been estimated that Blacks and Latinos received longer sentences and spent more time in jail than their white counterparts who were convicted of similar crimes and with similar criminal records. One particular example revealed the state of California statistically imposed sentences that averaged 6.5 months longer for Hispanics, and 1.5 months longer for Blacks when compared to white inmates.[22]

Crime victimology

Patterns are found within the victimology of crime in the United States. Overall, the financially disadvantaged, males, those younger than 25 and non European-Americans were more likely to fall victim to crime. Income, sex and age had the most dramatic effect on the chances of a person being victimized by crime, while the characteristic of race depended upon the crime being committed.[citation needed]

In 2005, 27 out of 1,000 African Americans became the victim of a violent crime, compared to 20 out of every 1,000 White Americans. African Americans were overall 35% more likely to sustain a violent crime. The likelihood of being murdered was drastically higher for African Americans.[23] In 2004 African Americans constituted roughly 13.4% of the general population,[24] yet, nearly half, 49%, of all murder victims in 2005 were African American.

Sexual assault and rape rates were roughly the same for all races. Whites and African Americans also had approximately the same chances of falling victim to simple assaults.

In terms of gender, males were more likely to become crime victims than were females, with 79% percent of all murder victims being male. Males were also twice as likely to be carjacked as were females.

In terms of income, households with an annual income of less than $15,000 were far more likely to have their homes burgled.[25]

Concerning age, those younger than twenty-five were more likely to fall victim to crime, especially violent crime. The chances of being victimized by violent crime decreased far more substantially with age than the chances of becoming the victim of property crime. For example, 1 out of every 33 crimes committed against a young person was theft, while 1 out of every 5 crimes committed against an elderly person was theft. Thus one can conclude that the probability of becoming a crime victim decreases as income and age increase, in addition to being lower for European Americans and females.[23]

Crimes against the homeless

A 2007 study found that the number of violent crimes against the homeless is increasing.[26][27] The rate of such documented crimes in 2005 was 30% higher than of those in 1999.[28] 75% of all perpetrators are under the age of 25. Studies and surveys indicate that homeless people have a much higher criminal victimization rate than the non-homeless, but that most incidents never get reported to authorities.

In recent years, largely due to the efforts of the National Coalition for the Homeless (NCH) and academic researchers the problem of violence against the homeless has gained national attention. The NCH called deliberate attacks against the homeless hate crimes in their report Hate, Violence, and Death on Mainstreet USA (they retain the definition of the American Congress).

The Center for the Study of Hate & Extremism at California State University, San Bernardino in conjunction with the NCH found that 155 homeless people were killed by non-homeless people in "hate killings", while 76 people were killed in all the other traditional hate crime homicide categories such as race and religion, combined.[27] The CSHE contends that negative and degrading portrayals of the homeless contribute to a climate where violence takes place.

International comparison

The manner in which America's crime rate compared to other countries of similar wealth and development depends on the nature of the crime used in the comparison.[29] Overall crime statistic comparisons are difficult to conduct, as the definition of crimes significant enough to be published in annual reports varies across countries. Thus an agency in a foreign country may include crimes in its annual reports which the United States omits.

Some countries such as Canada, however, have similar definitions of what constitutes a violent crime, and nearly all countries had the same definition of the characteristics that constitutes a homicide. Overall the total crime rate of the United States is similar to that of other highly developed countries. Some types of reported property crime in the U.S. survey as lower than in Germany or Canada, yet the homicide rate in the United States is substantially higher.

Homicide

The US homicide rate, which has declined substantially since 1991, is still among the highest in the industrialized world. Only the homicide rate of Northern Ireland in the early 1990s compares to that of the United States today. There were 17,034 murders in the United States in 2006[30] (666,160 murders from 1960 to 1996).[31] In 2004, there were 5.5 homicides for every 100,000 persons, roughly three times as high as Canada (1.9) and five times as high as Germany (1.0).[32][33] Most industrialized countries had homicide rates below the 2.5 mark. Overall the homicide rate in the United States was similar to that of some lesser developed Eastern European countries.[34][35][36]

Country Ireland[37] Germany[38] Norway[37] United Kingdom[37] France[37] Canada[32] Scotland[39] United States[40] Russia[37] Venezuela[37] Jamaica[37] Colombia[37]
Homicide rate 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.4 1.6 1.9 1.59 5.6 20.15 31.61 32.41 61.78
Year 2000 2007 2000 2000 2004 2004 2008 2007 2000 2000 2000 2000

Violent crime

The Burglary rates of selected developed countries as published by the US Bureau of Justice Statistics

The reported US violent crime rate includes only Aggravated Assault, whereas the Canadian violent crime rate includes all categories of assault, including the much-more-numerous Assault level 1 (i.e., assault not using a weapon and not resulting in serious bodily harm).[32][33] A government study concluded that direct comparison of the 2 countries' violent crime totals or rates was "inappropriate".[41]

Property crime

According to a 2004 study by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, looking at the period from 1981 to 1999, the United States had a lower surveyed residential burglary rate in 1998 than Scotland, England, Canada, the Netherlands, and Australia. The other two countries included in the study, Sweden and Switzerland, had only slightly lower burglary rates. (Note: The rate of burglary in Police records remained higher in the U.S. than most other countries during the study period (see graph)). For the first nine years of the study period the same surveys of the public showed only Australia with rates higher than the U.S. The authors noted various problems in doing the comparisons including infrequent data points (The U.S. performed 5 surveys from 1995 to 1999 when its rate dipped below Canada's while Canada ran a single telephone survey during that period for comparison).[29]

Geography of crime

This graph shows the homicide rate for America's three worst and five best ranking jurisdictions in 2004.[42]

Location has a very significant impact on crime in the United States. While some responding jurisdictions are nearly free of serious crime, others are plagued by some of the highest serious crime rates in the industrialized world. The homicide rate exemplifies the stark differences between communities.

For example, in 2004 the Baltimore police departments reported more homicides per 100,000 residents than any other jurisdiction. The rate of homicide per 100,000 was 43.5, nearly eight times the national average. By contrast, in 2005 Forbes magazine listed Long Island, one of the suburban areas of New York City, which is also one of the wealthiest and most expensive communities in the United States, as having 2.042 crimes per 100,000 residents; the lowest crime rate and less than half the US average [4].

Fairfax County, Virginia, a very affluent suburban enclave of the nation's capital with 1,041,200 residents, had the lowest homicide rate of any jurisdiction. In 2004, Fairfax County's homicide rate was reported at 0.3 homicides per 100,000 persons, 94.5% below the national average and 1/145 of Baltimore's homicide rate. It is therefore important to remember that the risk of being victimized by crime in the United States varies greatly from locale to locale.[43][44]

Large cities

Crime among the country's twenty largest cities tended to be above the national average. It is, however, important to note that these statistics exclude the given city's suburbs and only reflect the crime rates within the jurisdiction of a given city's police department.

Rates are based on cases per 100,000 for all of calendar 2007.

City State Population Violent crime Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter Forcible rape Robbery Aggravated assault Property crime Burglary Larceny-theft Motor vehicle theft Arson
Foo Foo 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Austin Texas 716,817 540 4 46 203 287 6,341 1,120 4,808 413 16
Baltimore Maryland 624,237 1,631 45 23 624 939 4,796 1,182 2,682 932 65
Chicago Illinois 2,824,434 N/A[45] 16 N/A[45] 546 617 4,472 876 2,937 659 25
Columbus Ohio 735,981 852 11 90 523 228 6,996 1,952 4,198 846 87
Dallas Texas 1,239,104 1,069 16 41 583 429 6,776 1,814 3,849 1,113 73
Detroit Michigan 860,971 2,289 46 40 764 1,440 6,772 2,064 2,430 2,278 88
El Paso Texas 616,029 418 3 42 77 297 3,201 349 2,361 492 13
Fort Worth Texas 670,693 667 9 50 242 367 5,469 1,343 3,726 400 34
Houston Texas 2,169,544 1,132 16 32 529 555 5,684 1,339 3,449 897 48
Indianapolis Indiana 797,268 1,234 14 63 507 649 6,308 1,679 3,666 963 42
Jacksonville Florida 797,350 1,022 15 31 391 584 5,696 1,394 3,698 604 23
Los Angeles California 3,870,487 718 10 26 348 334 2,621 507 1,506 608 57
Memphis Tennessee 669,264 1,951 19 68 728 1,136 8,062 2,183 4,953 926 22
New York New York 8,220,196 614 6 11 265 332 1,819 254 1,403 161 N/A
Philadelphia Pennsylvania 1,435,533 1,475 27 67 715 667 4,305 803 2,728 774 N/A
Phoenix Arizona 1,541,698 724 14 33 321 356 5,826 1,246 3,227 1,353 32
San Antonio Texas 1,316,882 556 9 48 186 313 6,390 1,272 4,607 511 35
San Diego California 1,261,196 502 5 23 166 308 3,502 609 1,845 1,049 16
San Francisco California 733,799 1,037 14 17 514 493 4,696 692 3,199 804 32
San Jose California 934,553 402 4 23 114 261 2,575 476 1,412 686 36

SOURCES: FBI Uniform Crime Reports (2007)[46]

States

Map of violent crime per 100,000 people in the US by state in 2004.
     < 100      >100-200      >200-300      >300-400      >400-500      >500-600      >600-700      >700-800      >800

Crime rates vary greatly across the states. Overall, New England had the lowest crime rates, for both violent and property crimes. New England states also had the lowest homicide rates in the country.

Southern states had the highest overall crime rates. Crime can also be isolated to one particular part of a state. Lafayette, Louisiana, for instance had 6 murders per 100,000 people in 2004, while New Orleans, Louisiana, had 35 murders per 100,000 people.[47]

Almost all of the nation's wealthiest twenty states, which included northern mid-western and western states such as Wisconsin and California, had crime rates below the national average. In addition to having the country's lowest crime rates, New England states also had the country's highest median household income, while the Southern states have the lowest.

This contrasts starkly to some of the nation's poorer states such as Georgia, Florida or Louisiana. Louisiana had a crime rate 27% and a homicide rate 130.9% above the national average and ranked as the nation's fourth poorest state with a median household income 20% below the national median. While poorer states generally have higher crime rates, several states who fell below the national median for household income such as Maine and Kentucky also had crime rates below the national average, while some wealthier states such as Maryland and Hawaii had crime rates above the national average.[47][48]

State Population Number of Crimes per 100,000 persons (Crime Rates)[48]
Violent Crime Rates Property Crime Rates Total Rank
Violent Crime Homicide Rape Robbery Serious Assault Property Crime Burglary Larceny Motor vehicle theft
Alabama 4,530,182 426.6 5.6 38.5 133.4 249.1 4,025.0 986.0 2,729.5 309.6 4,451.6 17
Alaska 655,435 634.5 5.6 85.1 68.2 475.6 3,382.8 575.6 2,465.4 341.8 4,017.3 23
Arizona 5,743,834 504.1 7.2 33.0 134.4 329.4 5,340.5 990.4 3,387.2 962.9 5,844.6 2
Arkansas 2,752,629 499.1 6.4 42.4 86.2 364.1 4,013.0 1,093.5 2,683.8 235.8 4,512.1 16
California 35,893,799 551.8 6.7 26.8 172.1 346.3 3,419.0 685.1 2,030.1 703.8 11,970.8 26
Colorado 4,601,403 373.5 4.4 42.5 81.5 245.1 3,919.3 717.3 2,679.0 522.9 4,292.8 22
Connecticut 3,503,604 286.3 2.6 20.7 120.5 142.6 2,627.2 444.4 1,868.1 314.7 2,913.5 41
Delaware 830,364 568.4 2.0 41.5 146.7 378.1 3,163.9 648.3 2,257.1 258.6 3,732.3 28
District of Columbia 553,523 1,371.2 35.8 40.1 578.5 716.9 4,859.1 712.9 2,627.2 1,519.0 1,190 1
Florida 17,397,161 711.3 5.4 38.0 172.4 495.5 4,179.7 956.1 2,773.3 450.2 4,891.0 10
Georgia 8,829,383 455.5 6.9 27.0 154.7 266.8 4,265.9 940.0 2,825.0 501.0 4,721.4 14
Hawaii 1,262,840 254.4 2.6 26.4 74.8 150.7 4,792.8 857.4 3,252.8 682.6 5,047.2 6
Idaho 1,393,262 244.9 2.2 40.9 17.2 184.6 2,794.4 547.3 2,051.5 195.5 3,039.3 37
Illinois 12,713,634 542.9 6.1 33.2 177.2 326.4 3,186.1 597.3 2,271.3 317.4 3,729.0 29
Indiana 6,237,569 325.4 5.1 28.9 102.2 189.2 3,37.6 676.0 2,383.5 338.1 3,723.0 30
Iowa 2,954,451 270.9 1.6 26.7 38.0 204.5 2,905.3 615.1 2,107.3 182.9 3,176.2 35
Kansas 2,735,502 374.5 4.5 40.4 66.3 263.4 3,973.5 731.1 2,934.0 308.4 4,348.0 19
Kentucky 4,145,922 244.9 5.7 29.9 78.8 130.5 2,537.7 624.8 1,701.3 211.6 2,782.6 44
Louisiana 4,515,770 638.7 12.7 35.8 145.4 444.9 4,410.2 1,004.5 2,969.2 436.6 5,048.9 5
Maine 1,317,253 103.5 1.4 23.9 21.9 56.3 2,409.6 481.4 1,829.3 98.9 2,513.1 47
Maryland 5,558,058 -------- 9.4 23.7 229.6 437.8 3,640.2 660.0 2,335.1 645.2 4,340.7 1
Massachusetts 6,416,505 458.8 2.6 28.0 116.4 311.7 2,459.7 537.2 1,578.8 343.7 2,918.5 40
Michigan 10,112,620 490.2 6.4 54.2 111.9 317.7 3,057.6 636.8 1,921.0 499.9 3,547.8 32
Minnesota 5,100,958 269.6 2.2 41.6 79.8 146.0 3,039.0 549.9 2,224.2 265.0 3,308.6 33
Mississippi 2,902,966 295.1 7.8 40.0 86.2 161.1 3,478.5 952.9 2,254.2 271.4 3,773.6 27
Missouri 5,754,618 490.5 6.2 25.7 115.2 343.4 3,903.5 703.3 2,750.2 450.0 4,394.0 18
Montana 926,865 293.8 3.2 29.5 25.1 236.0 2,936.2 379.2 2,382.4 174.6 3,230.0 34
Nebraska 1,747,704 308.6 2.3 35.5 65.1 205.7 3,519.6 562.2 2,654.9 302.5 3,828.2 26
Nevada 2,334,771 615.9 7.4 40.9 210.1 357.6 4,206.6 991.2 2,246.0 969.5 4,822.5 12
New Hampshire 1,299,500 167.0 1.4 35.3 38.5 91.8 2,040.1 382.1 1,508.5 149.4 1,675.5 51
New Jersey 8,698,879 355.7 4.5 15.3 150.3 185.6 2,429.2 471.7 1,609.1 348.4 2,784.9 43
New Mexico 1,903,289 687.3 8.9 54.6 108.3 515.5 4,197.7 1,046.8 2,735.7 415.2 4,885.0 11
New York 19,227,088 441.6 4.6 18.8 174.3 244.0 2,198.6 367.7 1,617.7 213.3 2,640.2 46
North Carolina 8,541,221 447.8 6.2 27.4 137.9 276.2 4,160.2 1,184.8 2,659.4 316.0 4,608.0 15
North Dakota 634,366 79.4 1.4 25.1 6.1 46.8 1,916.6 301.1 1,472.7 142.8 1,996.0 49
Ohio 11,459,011 341.8 4.5 40.5 153.1 143.6 3,673.2 846.1 2,470.6 356.5 4,015.0 24
Oklahoma 3,523,553 500.5 5.3 44.2 87.7 363.3 4,242.1 1,000.2 2,874.1 367.7 4,742.6 13
Oregon 3,594,586 298.3 2.5 35.7 76.5 183.6 4,631.3 836.6 3,279.0 515.6 4,929.6 9
Pennsylvania 12,406,292 411.1 5.2 28.5 148.9 228.4 2,415.0 438.8 1,726.5 249.6 2,926.1 39
Rhode Island 1,080,632 247.4 2.4 29.6 67.6 147.7 2,884.1 505.7 2,001.0 377.4 3,131.5 36
South Carolina 4,198,068 784.2 6.9 40.9 129.7 606.7 4,504.8 1,034.4 3,097.9 372.5 5,289.0 3
South Dakota 770,883 171.5 2.3 43.8 14.8 110.5 1,933.5 408.5 1,415.3 109.7 2,105.0 49
Tennessee 5,900,962 695.2 5.9 37.6 149.8 501.8 4,306.5 1,020.3 2,866.8 419.4 5,001.7 8
Texas 22,490,022 540.5 6.1 37.3 159.3 337.9 4,494.0 978.7 3,097.0 418.3 5,034.5 7
Utah 2,389,039 236.0 1.9 39.1 51.7 143.3 4,085.6 637.1 3,128.2 320.3 4,321.6 21
Vermont 621,394 112.0 2.6 24.5 12.2 72.7 2,308.2 544.9 1,670.8 92.5 2,420.2 48
Virginia 7,459,827 275.6 5.2 23.7 92.6 154.1 2,676.6 386.0 2,057.2 233.4 2,952.2 38
Washington 6,203,788 343.8 3.1 46.1 94.6 200.2 4,849.2 977.3 3,175.0 696.9 5,193.0 4
West Virginia 1,815,354 271.2 3.7 17.6 42.3 207.6 2,506.2 602.2 1,698.1 206.0 2,777.4 45
Wisconsin 5,509,026 209.6 2.8 20.6 73.8 112.4 2,663.1 433.0 2,023.6 206.5 2,872.2 42
Wyoming 506,529 229.6 2.2 22.1 13.2 192.1 3,334.3 540.5 2,636.0 157.7 3,563.9 31
United States (Total) 293,655,404 465.5 5.5 32.2 136.7 291.1 3,517.1 729.9 2,365.9 421.3 3,980.6 (26)

SOURCE: US Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2004

See also

References

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  12. ^ http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/cius2008/offenses/clearances/index.html
  13. ^ http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/cius2008/offenses/violent_crime/murder_homicide.html
  14. ^ http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/cius2008/data/table_43.html
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  18. ^ Male College Students More Likely than Less-Educated Peers to Commit Property Crimes Newswise, Retrieved on August 3, 2008.
  19. ^ Report: 7 million Americans in justice system
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  22. ^ http://www.rand.org/pubs/papers/2008/P7742.pdf
  23. ^ a b "Victim characteristics, US Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2005". http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/cvict_v.htm#income. Retrieved 2006-09-29. 
  24. ^ citation needed
  25. ^ Michael R. Rand, National Crime Victimization Survey: Criminal Victimization, 2008, Table 5, Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin, September 2009, NCJ 227777, US Department of Justice. Accessed February, 2010.
  26. ^ Lewan, Todd, "Unprovoked Beatings of Homeless Soaring", Associated Press, April 8, 2007.
  27. ^ a b National Coalition for the Homeless, Hate, "Violence, and Death on Main Street USA: A report on Hate Crimes and Violence Against People Experiencing Homelessness, 2006", February 2007.
  28. ^ National Coalition for the Homeless: A Dream Denied.
  29. ^ a b "National Crime Rates Compared". http://www.crimereduction.gov.uk/statistics/statistics35.htm. Retrieved 2006-09-29. 
  30. ^ United States Crime Rates 1960 - 2006
  31. ^ Twentieth Century Atlas - Homicide
  32. ^ a b c "Crime in Canada, Canada Statistics". http://www.statcan.ca/Daily/English/050721/d050721a.htm. Retrieved 2006-09-27. 
  33. ^ a b "BKA, German federal crime statistics 2004 (German)" (PDF). http://www.bka.de/pks/pks2004ev/pcs_2004.pdf. Retrieved 2006-09-27. 
  34. ^ "International homicide rates from GunCite". http://www.guncite.com/gun_control_gcgvinco.html. Retrieved 2006-09-29. 
  35. ^ "Homicide rate comparisons". http://www.benbest.com/lifeext/murder.html. Retrieved 2006-09-29. 
  36. ^ "National homicide rates, Nation Master.com". http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/cri_mur_percap-crime-murders-per-capita#rest. Retrieved 2006-09-29. 
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h "National homicide rates, UN data published by Nation Master.com". http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/cri_mur_percap-crime-murders-per-capita#rest. Retrieved 2006-09-29. 
  38. ^ "BKA, German federal crime statistics 2007 (German)" (PDF). http://www.bka.de/pks/pks2007/download/pks-jb_2007_bka.pdf. Retrieved 2009-01-17. 
  39. ^ "Eighth United Nations survey of crime trends and operations of criminal justice systems, covering the period 2001 - 2002" (PDF). United Nations Office on drugs and crime division for policy analysis and public affairs. pp. 28–29. Archived from the original on 2006. http://www.google.com/search?q=cache%3Ahttp%3A//www.unodc.org/pdf/crime/eighthsurvey/8sv.pdf. Retrieved 2006-12-02. 
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  41. ^ Feasibility Study on Crime Comparisons Between Canada and the United States Maire Gannon, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Statistics Canada, Cat. no. 85F0035XIE, Accessed June 28, 2009
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  43. ^ "Crime in MD, FBI, 2005". http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/05cius/data/table_08_md.html. Retrieved 2006-09-29. 
  44. ^ "Crime in VA counties, FBI, 2005". http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/05cius/data/table_10_va.html. Retrieved 2006-09-29. 
  45. ^ a b The data collection methodology for the offense of forcible rape used by the Illinois state UCR Program (with the exception of Rockford, Illinois) does not comply with national UCR Program guidelines. Consequently, their figures for forcible rape and violent crime (of which forcible rape is a part) are not published in this table. Source: "Illinois Offenses Known to Law Enforcement by City, 2007". Crime in the United States, 2007. September 2008. http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/cius2007/data/table_08_il.html. Retrieved 2009-01-31. 
  46. ^ http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/cius2007/data/table_08.html
  47. ^ a b "Crime by State and region, FBI". http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/05cius/data/table_04.html. Retrieved 2006-09-29. 
  48. ^ a b "US Census Bureau, median household income by state 2004". http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/income04/statemhi.html. Retrieved 2006-07-01. 

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