Critical thinking: Wikis

  
  
  

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.Critical thinking involves determining the meaning and significance of what is observed or expressed, or, concerning a given inference or argument, determining whether there is adequate justification to accept the conclusion as true.^ Critical Thinking vs Specious Arguments .

^ First asks, What is involved in critical thinking?
  • IUB Campus Writing Program Library: Articles on Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.iub.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Critical thinking means "involving or exercising skilled judgment or observation."
  • Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.irfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Hence, Fisher & Scriven define critical thinking as "Skilled, active, interpretation and evaluation of observations, communications, information, and argumentation."[1] Moore & Parker define it more naturally as the careful, deliberate determination of whether one should accept, reject, or suspend judgment about a claim and the degree of confidence with which one accepts or rejects it.[2]
.Critical thinking gives due consideration to the evidence, the context of judgment, the relevant criteria for making the judgment well, the applicable methods or techniques for forming the judgment, and the applicable theoretical constructs for understanding the problem and the question at hand.^ Critical thinking and creative thinking go hand in hand.
  • How Good Are Your Critical Thinking Skills? | Copyblogger 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.copyblogger.com [Source type: General]

^ Critical thinking is a way to approach problems and make decisions .
  • Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.irfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Begging the question: Is critical thinking biased?"
  • Critical Thinking and Critical Pedagogy 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC faculty.ed.uiuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Critical thinking employs not only logic but broad intellectual criteria such as clarity, credibility, accuracy, precision, relevance, depth, breadth, significance and fairness.^ Questioning is only part of critical thinking.
  • Critical Thinking Skills in the College Curriculum 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.asccc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A broad framework of intellectual rigor is called critical thinking.
  • Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.irfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For me, critical thinking goes hand in hand with clarity.
  • Why Critical Thinking Is Not a Creativity Killer | Lateral Action 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC lateralaction.com [Source type: General]

.In contemporary usage "critical" has the connotation of expressing disapproval,[3] which is not always true of critical thinking.^ Sense perception Having the right attitude and knowing the standards of evaluation are not enough to guarantee that one will always succeed at critical thinking.
  • Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ IMPORTANT: Always keep Critical Thinking.exe and its Data folder TOGETHER in the Critical Thinking folder.

^ As a critical thinking teacher, I dont really care what answers they give or how eloquently they express themselves.
  • Teaching Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.skepdic.com [Source type: Original source]

.A critical evaluation of an argument, for example, might conclude that it is valid.^ That sort of critique might also be worthwhile (we suspect that most Critical Thinking authors would say that it is worthwhile), but it depends on a different sort of analysis, with a different burden of argument — one that philosophers may have less to contribute to than would historians or sociologists, for example.
  • Critical Thinking and Critical Pedagogy 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC faculty.ed.uiuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the general critical thinking course, students are taught the basics of argument evaluation.
  • Teaching Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.skepdic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ How might writing in general education biology affect the analysis, inference, and evaluation skills that are inherent to critical thinking?
  • Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology -- Quitadamo and Kurtz 6 (2): 140 -- CBE-Life Sciences Education 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.lifescied.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Contents

Overview

.Thinking is often casual and informal, whereas critical thinking deliberately evaluates the quality of thinking.^ Critical Thinking Skills, Evaluation $6.99 .

^ Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070) Critical thinking is often defined as that which a particular instrument measures.
  • Critical Thinking Skills - Definitions and Assessment 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC ericae.net [Source type: Academic]

^ He was thinking creatively , and then he took world-changing action after critically evaluating his innovative idea.
  • How Good Are Your Critical Thinking Skills? | Copyblogger 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.copyblogger.com [Source type: General]

In a seminal study on critical thinking and education in 1941, Edward Glaser writes that the ability to think critically involves three things:[4]
.
  1. An attitude of being disposed (state of mind regarding something) to consider in a thoughtful way the problems and subjects that come within the range of one's experiences,
  2. Knowledge of the methods of logical inquiry and reasoning,
  3. Some skill in applying those methods.
Critical thinking calls for a persistent effort to examine any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the evidence that supports it and the further conclusions to which it tends.^ Halpern, Diane F. Thought and knowledge in An introduction to critical thinking.
  • Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.irfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It encourages thinking critically andcreatively in this examination.
  • [MSU] CRC: Critical Thinking Resources 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.montclair.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Particularly the one on Creative & Critical thinking.
  • How Good Are Your Critical Thinking Skills? | Copyblogger 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.copyblogger.com [Source type: General]

It also generally requires ability to recognize problems, to find workable means for meeting those problems, to gather and marshal pertinent(relevant) information, to recognize unstated assumptions and values, to comprehend and use language with accuracy, clarity, and discrimination, to interpret data, to appraise evidence and evaluate arguments, to recognize the existence (or non-existence) of logical relationships between propositions, to draw warranted conclusions and generalizations, to put to test the conclusions and generalizations at which one arrives, to reconstruct one's patterns of beliefs on the basis of wider experience, and to render accurate judgments about specific things and qualities in everyday life.
.Critical thinking can occur whenever one judges, decides, or solves a problem; in general, whenever one must figure out what to believe or what to do, and do so in a reasonable and reflective way.^ Thinking includes problem solving, decision-making, critical thinking, logical reasoning and creative thinking.
  • Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.irfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Critical thinking appears to be a subset of problem solving.
  • Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.irfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Critical thinking: thinking that is clear, accurate, knowledgeable, reflective, and fair in deciding what to believe or do.
  • Teaching Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.skepdic.com [Source type: Original source]

.Reading, writing, speaking, and listening can all be done critically or uncritically.^ What student will be applauded for writing or reading uncritically?
  • Adult Student.com: Quest for the Grail? Searching for Critical Thinking in Adult Education 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.adultstudent.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Piper, sit thee down and write In a book that all may read!” So he vanished from my sight, And I plucked a hollow reed, .
  • critical thinking at Beyond School 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC beyond-school.org [Source type: General]

^ While faculty strive to develop students’ abilities to use critical thinking, it is also important to communicate the logical fallacies students may demonstrate in their writing or speaking.
  • Overview of Critical Thinking Skills 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.adea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Critical thinking is crucial to becoming a close reader and a substantive writer.^ Critical thinking is necessary if seemingly unempowered masses are to turn away from their self-absorbed private lives to become socially concerned and active (p.
  • Adult Student.com: Quest for the Grail? Searching for Critical Thinking in Adult Education 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.adultstudent.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Future critical thinkers must also practice the new skill so critical thinking becomes second nature as your default thinking pattern.
  • Critical Thinking For The Military Professional 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CT/ 0306/1981) Anita Harnadek Critical Thinking Books & Software 1981 A continuation of the first book, Critical Thinking 2 allows the reader to gain more useful skills.

Expressed most generally, critical thinking is “a way of taking up the problems of life.”[5] Irrespective of the sphere of thought, “a well cultivated critical thinker":
  • raises important questions and problems, formulating them clearly and precisely;
  • gathers and assesses relevant information, using abstract ideas to interpret it effectively
  • comes to well-reasoned conclusions and solutions, testing them against relevant criteria and standards;
  • thinks open-mindedly within alternative systems of thought, recognizing and assessing, as need be, their assumptions, implications, and practical consequences; and
  • communicates effectively with others in figuring out solutions to complex problems; without being unduly influenced by others' thinking on the topic.

Principles and Dispositions

.Critical thinking is based on self-corrective concepts and principles, not on hard and fast, or step-by-step, procedures.^ Critical thinking is necessary if seemingly unempowered masses are to turn away from their self-absorbed private lives to become socially concerned and active (p.
  • Adult Student.com: Quest for the Grail? Searching for Critical Thinking in Adult Education 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.adultstudent.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Critical Thinking Wheel provides educators quick and easy access to critical thinking based on Bloom’s Taxonomy.

^ Through the focus on judgment , critical thinking is seen as directed towards non-routine thinking, thinking that cannot be adequately based on algorithms or other mechanical procedures.
  • Critical Thinking: Expanding the Paradigm 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.chss.montclair.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]
.Critical thinking employs not only logic (either formal or, much more often, informal) but broad intellectual criteria such as clarity, credibility, accuracy, precision, relevance, depth, breadth, significance.^ To be right more often, we must master critical thinking.
  • Critical Thinking at Work; thinking at work, rhetorical fallacies, rhetorical fallacy | Chaco Canyon Consulting 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.chacocanyon.com [Source type: General]

^ Questioning is only part of critical thinking.
  • Critical Thinking Skills in the College Curriculum 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.asccc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A broad framework of intellectual rigor is called critical thinking.
  • Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.irfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Critical thinking is an important element of all professional fields and academic disciplines (by referencing their respective sets of permissible questions, evidence sources, criteria, etc.^ Question : Without a doubt, questioning is the most important element of critical thinking.
  • Critical Thinking For The Military Professional 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Questioning is only part of critical thinking.
  • Critical Thinking Skills in the College Curriculum 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.asccc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Begging the question: Is critical thinking biased?"
  • Critical Thinking and Critical Pedagogy 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC faculty.ed.uiuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

). .Within the framework of scientific skepticism, the process of critical thinking involves the careful acquisition and interpretation of information and use of it to reach a well-justified conclusion.^ Critical Thinking is the process of acquiring information, analyzing and evaluating it, and attempting to reach a conclusion or answer by using logic and reasoning skills.
  • The Information Literacy Land of Confusion: Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.information-literacy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Caring and its relationship to critical thinking."
  • Critical Thinking and Critical Pedagogy 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC faculty.ed.uiuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Critical thinking is scientific thinking.
  • An Introduction to Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.freeinquiry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The concepts and principles of critical thinking can be applied to any context or case but only by reflecting upon the nature of that application.^ The ability to apply critical thinking concepts to course concepts.
  • May05_03 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC itdl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reflective thinking includes only aspects of what is now called critical thinking.
  • Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.irfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Critical thinking is defined as reflective skepticism.
  • Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.irfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Critical thinking forms, therefore, a system of related, and overlapping, modes of thought such as anthropological thinking, sociological thinking, historical thinking, political thinking, psychological thinking, philosophical thinking, mathematical thinking, chemical thinking, biological thinking, ecological thinking, legal thinking, ethical thinking, musical thinking, thinking like a painter, sculptor, engineer, business person, etc.^ The peer support system makes it possible for the learner to internalize both external knowledge and critical thinking skills and to convert them into tools for intellectual functioning.
  • JTE Volume 7, Number 1 - Collaborative Learning Enhances Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC scholar.lib.vt.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The movement has also seen a growing attention to the mental attitudes and emotional "dispositions" that foster or impede critical thinking within the broader context of psychological, cultural, social, and political influences.
  • The Information Literacy Land of Confusion: Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.information-literacy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He also provides an argument for the epistemological and ethical necessity of critical thinking, since he sees it as presupposed in the most fundamental structure of human communication.
  • Ben Endres - Habermas and Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.ed.uiuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In other words, though critical thinking principles are universal, their application to disciplines requires a process of reflective contextualization.^ This too requires critical thinking.
  • Critical Thinking: Expanding the Paradigm 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.chss.montclair.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Critical thinking is defined as reflective skepticism.
  • Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.irfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is critical thinking taught at universities?
  • Critical Thinking - an interview Part I 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC critical-thinking.com [Source type: Original source]

.Critical thinking is considered important in the academic fields because it enables one to analyze, evaluate, explain, and restructure their thinking, thereby decreasing the risk of adopting, acting on, or thinking with, a false belief.^ Beliefs Some beliefs can hinder critical thinking.
  • Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Particularly the one on Creative & Critical thinking.
  • How Good Are Your Critical Thinking Skills? | Copyblogger 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.copyblogger.com [Source type: General]

^ Critical Thinking is an academic "buzz" word.
  • Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.irfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, even with knowledge of the methods of logical inquiry and reasoning, mistakes can happen due to a thinker's inability to apply the methods or because of character traits such as egocentrism.^ Another name for this type of knowledge is justified true belief (belief that is probably true because it has been obtained and justified by a reliable method).
  • An Introduction to Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.freeinquiry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Often we can detect unacceptable reasoning either because we recognize the arguments as false, or because, while the arguments may be true, we realize they are being improperly applied to the situation.
  • Introduction to Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.virtualsalt.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If knowledge of how to solve a problem never transferred to problems with new surface structures, schooling would be inefficient or even futile-but of course, such transfer does occur.
  • AdLit.org: Adolescent Literacy - Critical Thinking: Why Is It So Hard to Teach? 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.adlit.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Critical thinking includes identification of prejudice, bias, propaganda, self-deception, distortion, misinformation, etc.^ Specifically this challenge includes relating to non-critical thinking societies, reasoning with non-critical thinking societies, and changing non-critical thinking societies.
  • Critical Thinking For The Military Professional 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Critical thinking is necessary if seemingly unempowered masses are to turn away from their self-absorbed private lives to become socially concerned and active (p.
  • Adult Student.com: Quest for the Grail? Searching for Critical Thinking in Adult Education 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.adultstudent.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thinking includes problem solving, decision-making, critical thinking, logical reasoning and creative thinking.
  • Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.irfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Given research in cognitive psychology, some educators believe that schools should focus on teaching their students critical thinking skills and cultivation of intellectual traits.^ How can we teach critical thinking?

^ A review of research on critical thinking.
  • Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology -- Quitadamo and Kurtz 6 (2): 140 -- CBE-Life Sciences Education 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.lifescied.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some habits of students who do not use critical thinking skills are: .
  • Overview of Critical Thinking Skills 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.adea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Applications

.Critical thinking is about being both willing and able to evaluate one's thinking.^ Critical thinking is not being a critic or a cynic.
  • Critical Thinking For The Military Professional 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Have the students tell you if a reading contains critical thinking, or if they feel the need to think critically about a reading.
  • UI Critical Thinking Handbook: Chapter Two -- Applications 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.class.uidaho.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both were reviled by the good people back then, and both paid with their lives for the same “sin”: critical thinking.
  • critical thinking at Beyond School 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC beyond-school.org [Source type: General]

.Thinking might be criticised because one does not have all the relevant information - indeed, important information may remain undiscovered, or the information may not even be knowable - or because one makes unjustified inferences, uses inappropriate concepts, or fails to notice important implications.^ Use your critical thinking skills, does that make sense?
  • The Information Literacy Land of Confusion: Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.information-literacy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We may want to make important decisions based on intuition or emotion rather than taking the time to gather the appropriate information or carefully weigh alternatives.
  • Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.irfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We now recognize that critical thinking, by its very nature, requires, for example, the recognition that all reasoning occurs within points of view and frames of reference, that all reasoning proceeds from some goals and objectives, has an informational base, that all data when used in reasoning must be interpreted, that interpretation involves concepts, that concepts entail assumptions, and that all basic inferences in thought have implications.

.One's thinking may be unclear, inaccurate, imprecise, irrelevant, narrow, shallow, illogical, or trivial, due to ignorance or misapplication of the appropriate skills of thinking.^ The ability to develop critical thinking skills may be likened to Piaget’s concrete and formal operations.
  • Overview of Critical Thinking Skills 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.adea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From the site: Critical thinking skills figure prominently among the goals for education, whether one asks developers of curricula, educational researchers, parents, or employers.
  • The Information Literacy Land of Confusion: Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.information-literacy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a set of cognitive abilities, critical thinking skills provide students with tangible academic, personal, and professional benefits that may ultimately address these concerns.
  • Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology -- Quitadamo and Kurtz 6 (2): 140 -- CBE-Life Sciences Education 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.lifescied.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.On the other hand, one's thinking might be criticised as being the result of a sub-optimal disposition.^ Construct validity is a more troublesome problem because it presumes that one can write questions focusing on the process of thinking as distinct from other factors.
  • Critical Thinking Skills - Definitions and Assessment 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC ericae.net [Source type: Academic]

^ On the one hand, common experience and innumerable experimental findings remind us that most people are better at some areas of cognitive concern than others, reflecting the divergent demands on thinking that each requires.
  • Critical Thinking: Expanding the Paradigm 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.chss.montclair.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While this kind of circular thinking is being conducted, one must ultimately come back to both purpose and implications.
  • Critical Thinking For The Military Professional 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The dispositional dimension of critical thinking is characterological.^ The disposition toward critical thinking.
  • Walker TRC-Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.utc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ "A taxonomy of critical thinking dispositions and abilities."
  • Critical Thinking and Critical Pedagogy 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC faculty.ed.uiuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "A taxonomy of critical thinking skills and dispositions."
  • Critical Thinking: Expanding the Paradigm 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.chss.montclair.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its focus in developing the habitual intention to be truth-seeking, open-minded, systematic, analytical, inquisitive, confident in reasoning, and prudent in making judgments.^ Bers, Trudy H.; And Others Journal of General Education, v45 n3 p197-223 1996 ISSN: 0021-3667 Document Type: RESEARCH REPORT (143); JOURNAL ARTICLE (080) Describes the California Critical Thinking Dispositions Inventory (CCTDI), highlighting the test's seven subscales: inquisitiveness, open-mindedness, systematicity, analyticity, truth-seeking, critical thinking self-confidence, and maturity.
  • Critical Thinking Skills - Definitions and Assessment 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC ericae.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The concept of critical thinking includes behavioral tendencies or dispositions as well as cognitive skills ( Ennis, 1985 ); these include the tendency to seek truth, to be open-minded, to be analytical, to be orderly and systematic, and to be inquisitive ( Facione and American Philosophical Association, 1990 ).
  • Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology -- Quitadamo and Kurtz 6 (2): 140 -- CBE-Life Sciences Education 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.lifescied.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ With this in mind, the course content was constructed focused on engaging the students to reflect and improve their ability to question, analyze, synthesize, reason, problem solve, and make constructive decisions.
  • ZaidLearn: Coaching Critical Thinking to Think Creatively! (Zaid Alsagoff) 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC zaidlearn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Those who are ambivalent on one or more of these aspects of the disposition toward critical thinking, or who have an opposite disposition (intellectually arrogant, bias, intolerant, disorganized, lazy, heedless of consequences, indifferent toward new information, mistrustful of reasoning, or imprudent) are more likely to encounter problems in using their critical thinking skills.^ Some habits of students who do not use critical thinking skills are: .
  • Overview of Critical Thinking Skills 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.adea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "A taxonomy of critical thinking dispositions and abilities."
  • Critical Thinking and Critical Pedagogy 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC faculty.ed.uiuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to these advantages, using Think!
  • Creative Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC promptoria.com [Source type: General]

.Failure to recognize the importance of correct dispositions can lead to various forms of self-deception and closed-mindedness, both individually and collectively.^ Honesty We are thinking critically when we recognize emotional impulses, selfish motives, nefarious purposes, or other modes of self-deception.
  • Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As adults they will be living in a complex world and in a democracy where both individual and collective actions will require effective selection, processing, and use of information.
  • The Information Literacy Land of Confusion: Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.information-literacy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The thought behind fairness as a standard relates to an individuals propensity for self-deception.
  • Critical Thinking For The Military Professional 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7]
.When individuals possess intellectual skills alone, without the intellectual traits of mind, weak sense critical thinking results.^ "Teaching critical thinking in the strong sense."
  • Critical Thinking and Critical Pedagogy 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC faculty.ed.uiuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "A taxonomy of critical thinking skills and dispositions."
  • Critical Thinking: Expanding the Paradigm 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.chss.montclair.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Use your critical thinking skills, does that make sense?
  • The Information Literacy Land of Confusion: Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.information-literacy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fair-minded or strong sense critical thinking requires intellectual humility, empathy, integrity, perseverance, courage, autonomy, confidence in reason, and other intellectual traits.^ "Teaching critical thinking in the strong sense."
  • Critical Thinking and Critical Pedagogy 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC faculty.ed.uiuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Critical Thinker (strong sense) .
  • Teaching Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.skepdic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Critical thinking as mindful learning."
  • Critical Thinking: Expanding the Paradigm 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.chss.montclair.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, critical thinking without essential intellectual traits often results in clever, but manipulative and often unethical or subjective thought.^ I agree that critical thinking is essential for creativity.
  • Why Critical Thinking Is Not a Creativity Killer | Lateral Action 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC lateralaction.com [Source type: General]

^ Question : Without a doubt, questioning is the most important element of critical thinking.
  • Critical Thinking For The Military Professional 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Document Type: REVIEW LITERATURE (070) Critical thinking is often defined as that which a particular instrument measures.
  • Critical Thinking Skills - Definitions and Assessment 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC ericae.net [Source type: Academic]

.The relationship between critical thinking skills and critical thinking dispositions is an empirical question.^ How are your critical thinking skills?

^ The answer is to develop critical thinking skills.
  • Think About Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC oii.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Critical thinking: Developing skills in radiography.
  • Critical Thinking Resources 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.angelina.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Some people have both in abundance, some have skills but not the disposition to use them, some are disposed but lack strong skills, and some have neither.^ Some habits of students who do not use critical thinking skills are: .
  • Overview of Critical Thinking Skills 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.adea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Critical thinking is a disposition to use our critical thinking skills all the time for any subject, including religion.
  • Teaching Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.skepdic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some people needs killin' Japan trading freedom for safety and getting neither?
  • Casey's Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.hoshuha.com [Source type: General]

.Two measures of critical thinking dispositions are the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory[8] and the California Measure of Mental Motivation.^ "A taxonomy of critical thinking dispositions and abilities."
  • Critical Thinking and Critical Pedagogy 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC faculty.ed.uiuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "A taxonomy of critical thinking skills and dispositions."
  • Critical Thinking: Expanding the Paradigm 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.chss.montclair.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The movement has also seen a growing attention to the mental attitudes and emotional "dispositions" that foster or impede critical thinking within the broader context of psychological, cultural, social, and political influences.
  • The Information Literacy Land of Confusion: Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.information-literacy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9]
.The key to seeing the significance of critical thinking in academics is in understanding the significance of critical thinking in learning.^ It is rather that, as Critical Thinking understands criticality, "impartiality" is a key virtue.
  • Critical Thinking and Critical Pedagogy 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC faculty.ed.uiuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Critical thinking as mindful learning."
  • Critical Thinking: Expanding the Paradigm 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.chss.montclair.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Generally, teachers cannot count on the media or political leaders or family members of students to reinforce the importance of learning how to think critically.
  • Teaching Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.skepdic.com [Source type: Original source]

.There are two meanings to the learning of this content.^ Sometimes the questions students have tend to be shallow and nebulous which might demonstrate there are times they are not thinking through the content they are expected to be learning.

^ But the two sets being opposed mean at times a confusion as to the object of success, and in every case each set destroys a part of the other’s satisfaction and so hampers the primary learning.
  • "The Project Method": Child-Centeredness in Progressive Education 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC historymatters.gmu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The first occurs when learners (for the first time) construct in their minds the basic ideas, principles, and theories that are inherent in content.^ With this in mind, the course content was constructed focused on engaging the students to reflect and improve their ability to question, analyze, synthesize, reason, problem solve, and make constructive decisions.
  • ZaidLearn: Coaching Critical Thinking to Think Creatively! (Zaid Alsagoff) 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC zaidlearn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These basics can be taught in many content area classes, but they take time and the more time spent on such matters, the less time there is for covering the content of the course.
  • Teaching Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.skepdic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What are the most basic ideas, concepts or theories in this field?
  • CriticalThinking.org - Critical Thinking: Where to Begin 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.criticalthinking.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This is a process of internalization. .The second occurs when learners effectively use those ideas, principles, and theories as they become relevant in learners’ lives.^ Assessment of critical thinking skills must be based upon a careful analysis of how they were used, with the relevant 'domain-specific' knowledge in such actual applications as grades in content-based courses or on-the-job effectiveness.
  • Critical Thinking Skills in the College Curriculum 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.asccc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The more they hear these terms, the more ingrained the concepts become, and the more likely it is that they will emerge from your classroom with skills that can be taken and used in other classes.
  • UI Critical Thinking Handbook: Chapter Two -- Applications 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.class.uidaho.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They embody the Socratic principle: The unexamined life is not worth living , because they realize that many unexamined lives together result in an uncritical, unjust, dangerous world."
  • CriticalThinking.org - Critical Thinking: Where to Begin 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.criticalthinking.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This is a process of application. .Good teachers cultivate critical thinking (intellectually engaged thinking) at every stage of learning, including initial learning.^ Learning to think critically .
  • Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.irfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Critical thinking has a place in every classroom.
  • Educational Psychology Interactive: Critical thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC chiron.valdosta.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Critical Thinking Wheel 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.mentoringminds.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Good writing is the epitome of good critical thinking.
  • An Introduction to Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.freeinquiry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This process of intellectual engagement is at the heart of the Oxford, Durham, Cambridge and London School of Economics tutorials. .The tutor questions the students, often in a Socratic manner (see Socratic questioning).^ Overall, students and tutors seemed frustrated with ‘Critical Thinking’, and some even questioned the relevance of this course.
  • ZaidLearn: Coaching Critical Thinking to Think Creatively! (Zaid Alsagoff) 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC zaidlearn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This short pamphlet contains a discussion of Socratic technique, i.e., use of well-designed questions to encourage students to think on their own.
  • UI Critical Thinking Handbook: Chapter Two -- Applications 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.class.uidaho.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although open-ended questions are generally preferred by composition specialists, these types of questions are particularly important within the context of tutoring students with learning disabilities.
  • IUB Campus Writing Program Library: Articles on Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.iub.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The key is that the teacher who fosters critical thinking fosters reflectiveness in students by asking questions that stimulate thinking essential to the construction of knowledge.^ Strategies for fostering critical thinking skills.
  • Walker TRC-Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.utc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Critical thinking skills for college students.
  • Walker TRC-Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.utc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Some habits of students who do not use critical thinking skills are: .
  • Overview of Critical Thinking Skills 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.adea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As emphasized above, each discipline adapts its use of critical thinking concepts and principles.^ Alertness to opportunities to use Critical Thinking.
  • Overview Of Critical Thinking | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Critical thinking: A streamlined conception.
  • AN ANNOTATED LIST OF CRITICAL THINKING TESTS 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.criticalthinking.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You can use critical thinking to defeat them .
  • 16 Techniques of Critical Thinking (lukeprog.com) 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC lukeprog.com [Source type: Original source]

.The core concepts are always there, but they are embedded in subject specific content.^ Sometimes the questions students have tend to be shallow and nebulous which might demonstrate there are times they are not thinking through the content they are expected to be learning.

^ The precise specifications of what is to be gained cannot be determined in advance because the identities of the participants and what they desire are subject to transformation.

^ Even after finding what appears to be an excellent source, your search has not necessarily concluded: there could always be a newer publication that more completely addresses a subject.

.For students to learn content, intellectual engagement is crucial.^ Sometimes the questions students have tend to be shallow and nebulous which might demonstrate there are times they are not thinking through the content they are expected to be learning.

^ Students who learn through a critical thinking process truly learn content.
  • Overview of Critical Thinking Skills 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.adea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SRS have been used in higher education for more than a decade, and research indicates they promote active learning, improve student engagement, and increase student attendance.
  • Critical Thinking in the Age of the Internet 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.collab.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All students must do their own thinking, their own construction of knowledge.^ Critical thinking should be a constructive force and attitude, for examining all ideas and arguments, including your own dearly held ones, and for separating the ideas from their vehicles, to divide true from false, accurate from distorted, complete from incomplete, and so on.
  • Introduction to Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.virtualsalt.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Teachers must recognize that not all students will apply critical thinking skills at the same rate they learn these skills.
  • Overview of Critical Thinking Skills 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.adea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Writing faculty collaboratively crafted a consensus essay, or thought question, designed to elicit student critical thinking and ability to apply content knowledge.
  • Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology -- Quitadamo and Kurtz 6 (2): 140 -- CBE-Life Sciences Education 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.lifescied.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Good teachers recognize this and therefore focus on the questions, readings, activities that stimulate the mind to take ownership of key concepts and principles underlying the subject.^ The narrowing of ideas that occurs while you read (or listen) means that you tend to focus on the surface structure, rather than on the underlying structure of the problem.
  • AdLit.org: Adolescent Literacy - Critical Thinking: Why Is It So Hard to Teach? 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.adlit.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other times, the teacher balances methods of instruction by providing opportunities for the students to take some ownership of their learning.

^ Ask questions precisely, define contexts and purposes, pursue relevant information, analyze key concepts, derive sound inferences, generate good reasons, recognize questionable assumptions, trace important implications, and think empathetically within different points of view (p.
  • Overview of Critical Thinking Skills 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.adea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the UK school system, Critical Thinking is offered as a subject which 16-18 year olds can take as an A-Level.^ Specifically, significant changes in student tendency to seek truth and confidence in thinking critically occurred during the junior and senior years.
  • Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology -- Quitadamo and Kurtz 6 (2): 140 -- CBE-Life Sciences Education 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.lifescied.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This is the first of two papers on The Rhetoric of Reason, the second of which will address the content of a graduate school curriculum which might replace the more conventional "critical thinking" curriculum.

^ When critical thinking is embedded in the organization, all people who share the same role adhere to the same system and behave similarly.

.Under the OCR exam board, students can sit two exam papers for the AS: "Credibility of Evidence" and "Assessing and Developing Argument". The full Advanced GCE is now available: in addition to the two AS units, candidates sit the two papers "Resolution of Dilemmas" and "Critical Reasoning". The A-level tests candidates on their ability to think critically about, and analyze, arguments on their deductive or inductive validity, as well as producing their own arguments.^ "A taxonomy of critical thinking dispositions and abilities."
  • Critical Thinking and Critical Pedagogy 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC faculty.ed.uiuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Problems in testing informal logic/critical thinking/reasoning ability."
  • Critical Thinking and Critical Pedagogy 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC faculty.ed.uiuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Discusses several standardized tests to assess critical thinking.
  • IUB Campus Writing Program Library: Articles on Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.iub.edu [Source type: Academic]

.It also tests their ability to analyse certain related topics such as credibility and ethical decision-making.^ With this in mind, the course content was constructed focused on engaging the students to reflect and improve their ability to question, analyze, synthesize, reason, problem solve, and make constructive decisions.
  • ZaidLearn: Coaching Critical Thinking to Think Creatively! (Zaid Alsagoff) 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC zaidlearn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We study topics like memory, decision making, problem identification and solving, critical thinking, and reasoning.
  • Teaching Critical Thinking-General 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.scottsdalecc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Integrate the other abilities and dispositions in making and defending a decision (The first twelve abilities are constitutive abilities.

.However, due to its comparative lack of subject content, many universities do not accept it as a main A-level for admissions.^ Issues to be resolved are the question of how many lower-level literacy skills to include in a higher-level assessment and the degree to which a pure literacy assessment can be separated from any particular content.
  • Critical Thinking Skills - Definitions and Assessment 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC ericae.net [Source type: Academic]

[10] .Nevertheless, the AS is often useful in developing reasoning skills, and the full advanced GCE is useful for degree courses in politics, philosophy, history or theology, providing the skills required for critical analysis that are useful, for example, in biblical study.^ They describe 8 typical tasks that undergraduate writers do in all their courses, in a developmental sequence requiring more complex skills: listing, definition, seriation, classification, summary, comparison/contrast, analysis, and academic argument.
  • IUB Campus Writing Program Library: Articles on Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.iub.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Within the discipline of philosophy, however, the critical thinking movement has turned from an emphasis on formal logic and linguistic analysis, and toward informal logic, or the application of principles of reasoning to everyday situations.
  • The Information Literacy Land of Confusion: Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.information-literacy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Future Directions This study showed that writing affects student critical thinking skill in a nonmajors biology course, but the results have generated more questions than have been answered.
  • Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology -- Quitadamo and Kurtz 6 (2): 140 -- CBE-Life Sciences Education 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.lifescied.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.There is also an Advanced Extension Award offered in Critical Thinking in the UK, open to any A-level student regardless of whether they have the Critical Thinking A-level.^ Generally, teachers cannot count on the media or political leaders or family members of students to reinforce the importance of learning how to think critically.
  • Teaching Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.skepdic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Implying* that high school students have not yet mastered critical thinking?
  • Dissident Voice : The Corporate Media and Critical Thinking in Education 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC dissidentvoice.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But any individual with an advanced degree in any university discipline has almost certainly learned the techniques of critical thinking.
  • An Introduction to Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.freeinquiry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cambridge International Examinations have an A-level in Thinking Skills.^ Document Type: EVALUATIVE REPORT (142) The California Critical Thinking Skills Test: College Level (CCTST) is a standardized test that targets core college-level critical thinking skills.
  • Critical Thinking Skills - Definitions and Assessment 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC ericae.net [Source type: Academic]

^ All of them call for schools to guide students in developing the higher level thinking skills necessary for an informed society.
  • The Information Literacy Land of Confusion: Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.information-literacy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What level of critical thinking skill do students bring to nonmajors biology courses?
  • Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology -- Quitadamo and Kurtz 6 (2): 140 -- CBE-Life Sciences Education 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.lifescied.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[11] .From 2008, Assessment and Qualifications Alliance will also be offering an A-level Critical Thinking specification;[12] OCR exam board have also modified theirs for 2008. Many examinations for university entrance set by universities, on top of A-level examinations, also include a critical thinking component, such as the LNAT, the UKCAT, the BioMedical Admissions Test and the Thinking Skills Assessment.^ It encourages thinking critically andcreatively in this examination.
  • [MSU] CRC: Critical Thinking Resources 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.montclair.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ What assessments are available for measuring students' critical thinking skills?
  • Critical Thinking Skills - Definitions and Assessment 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC ericae.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Critical thinking has many components.
  • An Introduction to Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.freeinquiry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Research in efficiency of critical thinking instruction

.Research suggests a widespread skepticism about universities' effectiveness in fostering critical thinking.^ A review of research on critical thinking; pp.
  • Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A review of research on critical thinking.
  • Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology -- Quitadamo and Kurtz 6 (2): 140 -- CBE-Life Sciences Education 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.lifescied.org [Source type: Academic]

^ But any individual with an advanced degree in any university discipline has almost certainly learned the techniques of critical thinking.
  • An Introduction to Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.freeinquiry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, in a three year study of 68 public and private colleges in California, though the overwhelming majority (89%) claimed critical thinking to be a primary objective of their instruction, only a small minority (19%) could give a clear explanation of what critical thinking is.^ Questioning is only part of critical thinking.
  • Critical Thinking Skills in the College Curriculum 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.asccc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Claims that teaching writing is teaching critical thinking.
  • IUB Campus Writing Program Library: Articles on Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.iub.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In this study, the Ennis-Weir Critical Thinking Essay Test was used to assess progress in critical thinking after a year of intensive academic English instruction for 36 Japanese students enrolled in a private two-year women's junior college in Oaska, Japan.
  • Critical Thinking Skills - Definitions and Assessment 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC ericae.net [Source type: Academic]

.Furthermore, although the overwhelming majority (78%) claimed that their students lacked appropriate intellectual standards (to use in assessing their thinking), and 73% considered that students learning to assess their own work was of primary importance, only a very small minority (8%) could enumerate any intellectual criteria or standards they required of students or could give an intelligible explanation of what those criteria and standards were.^ This requires that they develop sound criteria and standards for analyzing and assessing their own thinking and routinely use those criteria and standards to improve its quality.
  • Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Generally, teachers cannot count on the media or political leaders or family members of students to reinforce the importance of learning how to think critically.
  • Teaching Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.skepdic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Creativity in the Language Classroomprovides ideas to motivate creative thinking through the use of picturesor graphs, helping to illustrate situations for students to handle linguistically.
  • [MSU] CRC: Critical Thinking Resources 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.montclair.edu [Source type: Academic]

.This study mirrors a meta-analysis of the literature on teaching effectiveness in higher education.^ Heideggerian and Nietzschean philosophy reveals a relationship in which rhetorical theory is a metaphilosophy that implies a role for teaching argumentation as part of higher education.

^ Historically, writing is thought to contribute to the development of critical thinking skills ( Kurfiss, and Association for the Study of Higher Education, 1988 ).
  • Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology -- Quitadamo and Kurtz 6 (2): 140 -- CBE-Life Sciences Education 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.lifescied.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This theory comprises: 1) theory of rationality, 2) the foundations for teaching reasoning, and 3) rearticulation of the relationships between disciplinary discourses, higher education, and social criticism.

[13] .According to the study, critical reports by authorities on higher education, political leaders and business people have claimed that higher education is failing to respond to the needs of students, and that many of our graduates’ knowledge and skills do not meet society’s requirements for well-educated citizens.^ Generally, teachers cannot count on the media or political leaders or family members of students to reinforce the importance of learning how to think critically.
  • Teaching Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.skepdic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ True critical thinking is higher-order thinking, enabling a person to, for example, responsibly judge between political candidates, serve on a murder trial jury, evaluate society's need for nuclear power plants, and assess the consequences of global warming.
  • An Introduction to Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.freeinquiry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They can wait for evidence and weigh evidence...They can resist appeals to their dearest prejudices...Education in the critical faculty is the only education of which it can be truly said that it makes good citizens (pp.

.Thus the meta-analysis focused on the question: How valid are these claims?^ Construct validity is a more troublesome problem because it presumes that one can write questions focusing on the process of thinking as distinct from other factors.
  • Critical Thinking Skills - Definitions and Assessment 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC ericae.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Ask questions about claims: How is it known?
  • Introduction to Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.virtualsalt.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Argument is recursive cycles of claim/question/justification where systemic analysis requires us to ask what the purpose is of this process.

Researchers concluded:
.
  • “Faculty aspire to develop students’ thinking skills, but research consistently shows that in practice we tend to aim at facts and concepts in the disciplines, at the lowest cognitive levels, rather than development of intellect or values.”
  • “Faculty agree almost universally that the development of students’ higher-order intellectual or cognitive abilities is the most important educational task of colleges and universities.”
  • “These abilities underpin our students’ perceptions of the world and the consequent decisions they make.”
  • “Specifically, critical thinking – the capacity to evaluate skillfully and fairly the quality of evidence and detect error, hypocrisy, manipulation, dissembling, and bias – is central to both personal success and national needs.”
  • A 1972 study of 40,000 faculty members by the American Council on Education found that 97 percent of the respondents indicated the most important goal of undergraduate education is to foster students’ ability to think critically.
  • Process-oriented instructional orientations “have long been more successful than conventional instruction in fostering effective movement from concrete to formal reasoning.^ This observation is important because it shows that students can develop critical thinking skills within a fairly short 9-wk period of time, and that writing can play a role in that process.
    • Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology -- Quitadamo and Kurtz 6 (2): 140 -- CBE-Life Sciences Education 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.lifescied.org [Source type: Academic]
    • Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Question : Without a doubt, questioning is the most important element of critical thinking.
    • Critical Thinking For The Military Professional 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Historically, writing is thought to contribute to the development of critical thinking skills ( Kurfiss, and Association for the Study of Higher Education, 1988 ).
    • Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology -- Quitadamo and Kurtz 6 (2): 140 -- CBE-Life Sciences Education 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.lifescied.org [Source type: Academic]
    • Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .Such programs emphasize students’ active involvement in learning and cooperative work with other students and de-emphasize lectures...”
  • “Numerous studies of college classrooms reveal that, rather than actively involving our students in learning, we lecture, even though lectures are not nearly as effective as other means for developing cognitive skills.”
  • “In addition, students may be attending to lectures only about one-half of their time in class, and retention from lectures is low.”
  • “Studies suggest our methods often fail to dislodge students’ misconceptions and ensure learning of complex, abstract concepts.^ Weerts also suggests that student groups can work together and develop critical thinking skills by: .
    • Overview of Critical Thinking Skills 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.adea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Although the transfer is not necessarily automatic, a student with well-developed skills in critical thinking in one area should be able to apply these skills to other areas, and "substantially decrease the amount of time necessary to become proficient in a new field of endeavors (Glock, 1987: 10).
    • Critical Thinking Skills in the College Curriculum 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.asccc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Since the knowledge gained through lecture, demonstration, and performance analysis in the classroom must be applied by the student during practice outside of class, the concept of independent learning is very much supported here.
    • Critical Thinking Skills in the College Curriculum 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.asccc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Capacity for problem solving is limited by our use of inappropriately simple practice exercises.”
  • “Classroom tests often set the standard for students’ learning.^ There is evidence that the students who routinely use the “learn by doing” approach to explore problems develop more sophisticated SDL than students in lecture-based curricula 63 .
    • Overview of Critical Thinking Skills 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.adea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Uses video and discussion during class to enable students to apply concepts as they learn them; derive concepts from observations and data; and practice scientific processes.
    • IUB Campus Writing Program Library: Articles on Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.iub.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ With this in mind, the course content was constructed focused on engaging the students to reflect and improve their ability to question, analyze, synthesize, reason, problem solve, and make constructive decisions.
    • ZaidLearn: Coaching Critical Thinking to Think Creatively! (Zaid Alsagoff) 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC zaidlearn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    As with instruction, however, we tend to emphasize recall of memorized factual information rather than intellectual challenge.“
  • “Taken together with our preference for lecturing, our tests may be reinforcing our students’ commonly fact-oriented memory learning, of limited value to either them or society.”
.In contrast to these results, for students to excel at thinking critically, especially at the graduate level and in research, where it is crucial, they must be taught not how to know the answer, but how to ask the question.^ They only "teach thinking" when they drill their students to answer the exam-type questions.
  • ZaidLearn: Coaching Critical Thinking to Think Creatively! (Zaid Alsagoff) 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC zaidlearn.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How do instructors specifically influence student gains in critical thinking?
  • Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology -- Quitadamo and Kurtz 6 (2): 140 -- CBE-Life Sciences Education 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.lifescied.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ "Begging the question: Is critical thinking biased?"
  • Critical Thinking and Critical Pedagogy 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC faculty.ed.uiuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As Schwartz explains in "The importance of stupidity in scientific research,"[14] researchers must embrace what they do not know.^ They must first name and describethe problem and then explain why it might be wrong or dangerous.
  • [MSU] CRC: Critical Thinking Resources 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.montclair.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Critical thinking is a primary tool in approaching this.^ Sternberg does not specify a “how” approach to teaching and learning critical thinking skills.
  • Overview of Critical Thinking Skills 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.adea.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The primary preoccupation of Critical Thinking is to supplant sloppy or distorted thinking with thinking based upon reliable procedures of inquiry.
  • Critical Thinking and Critical Pedagogy 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC faculty.ed.uiuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Theory for a particularist approach At the Institute for Critical Thinking at Montclair State University, we see critical thinking at the post-secondary level to require engagement with the forms of inquiry.
  • Critical Thinking: Expanding the Paradigm 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.chss.montclair.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Cultivation

.There is no simple way to develop the intellectual traits of a critical thinker.^ Some parents who have no religious axe to grind might also get quite upset if their childrens teachers encourage them to be critical thinkers in the strong sense.
  • Teaching Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.skepdic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If the reports are correct, there is absolutly no interest going Bilick’s way from OBD. .
  • Critical weekend for Bills coaching search - Buffalo Rumblings 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.buffalorumblings.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Becoming a critical thinker is an admiral goal requiring a committed effort to learn the concepts, practice the elements, and teach the ways.
  • Critical Thinking For The Military Professional 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One important way requires developing one's intellectual empathy and intellectual humility.^ The instructor was challenged with a way of promoting student interaction in a mathematics course where most solutions required only one answer.
  • May05_03 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC itdl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Perry scheme of intellectual development is one of the few schemes with practical classroom applications.
  • IUB Campus Writing Program Library: Articles on Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.iub.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The instructor has developed this class in a user-friendly ways and provides an opportunity for learners to interact with one another creating "cool" story problems that we as students can relate to.
  • May05_03 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC itdl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first requires extensive experience in entering and accurately constructing points of view toward which one has negative feelings.^ Point of View: The way one views the world, which shapes one's construction of meaning.
  • Walker TRC-Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.utc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Again, multiple points of view, filtered by one wise person, tend to bring out the best thinking.
  • #14 – Critical thinking in web and interface design « Scott Berkun 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.scottberkun.com [Source type: General]

^ In essence, this approach requires the critical thinker to deliberately enter another point of view.
  • Critical Thinking For The Military Professional 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The second requires extensive experience in identifying the extent of one's own ignorance in a wide variety of subjects (ignorance whose admission leads one to say, "I thought I knew, but I merely believed").^ Going beyond a mere video gameplaying experience, Playmaker Football requires users to apply creativity,organization, and planning.
  • [MSU] CRC: Critical Thinking Resources 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.montclair.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ He also called attention to the fact that most people, if left to their own devices, develop bad habits of thought (which he called "idols") that lead them to believe what is false or misleading.

^ Do not, he says, make the mistake of believing that teaching mathematical manipulation alone will lead to critical thinking.
  • An Introduction to Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.freeinquiry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One becomes less biased and more broad-minded when one becomes more intellectually empathic and intellectually humble, and that involves time, deliberate practice and commitment.^ One major implication reported is that, with context adequately instantiated, less-skilled readers utilize context to facilitate word recognitions as much, if not more, than skilled readers."
  • I Can Read ! - How Phonics Teaches Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.projectpro.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They’ve performed together for more than 25 years; skewering the genre of magic, their sold-out audiences, and themselves -- very often all at the same time, within one mind-boggling evening...
  • SOCIOLOGY 120: CriticalThinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.csub.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Becoming a critical thinker is an admiral goal requiring a committed effort to learn the concepts, practice the elements, and teach the ways.
  • Critical Thinking For The Military Professional 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It involves considerable personal and intellectual development.^ In other words, dialogue directly involves others, while one person’s development of "dialogical thinking" may only indirectly involve others.
  • Critical Thinking and Critical Pedagogy 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC faculty.ed.uiuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To develop one's critical thinking traits, one should learn the art of suspending judgment (for example, when reading a novel, watching a movie, engaging in dialogical or dialectical reasoning).^ Such capacities develop as we learn to think critically.
  • May05_03 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC itdl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Generally, teachers cannot count on the media or political leaders or family members of students to reinforce the importance of learning how to think critically.
  • Teaching Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.skepdic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Instruction in critical thinking is to be designed to achieve an understanding of the relationship of language to logic, which should lead to the ability to analyze, criticize, and advocate ideas, to reason inductively and deductively, and to reach factual or judgmental conclusions based on sound inferences drawn from unambiguous statements of knowledge or belief.
  • Teaching Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.skepdic.com [Source type: Original source]

.Ways of doing this include adopting a perceptive rather than judgmental orientation; that is, avoiding moving from perception to judgment as one applies critical thinking to an issue.^ Critical thinking applied to nursing.
  • SNJourney - Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.snjourney.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "Critical thinking is the ability to think about one's thinking in such a way as 1.
  • Walker TRC-Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.utc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Theyre not the only ones who understand critical thinking in this way.
  • Teaching Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.skepdic.com [Source type: Original source]

One should become aware of one's own fallibility by:
  1. accepting that everyone has subconscious biases, and accordingly questioning any reflexive judgments;
  2. adopting an ego-sensitive and, indeed, intellectually humble stance;
  3. recalling previous beliefs that one once held strongly but now rejects;
  4. tendency towards group think; the amount your belief system is formed by what those around you say instead of what you have personally witnessed;
  5. realizing one still has numerous blind spots, despite the foregoing.
.An integration of insights from the critical thinking literature and cognitive psychology literature is the "Method of Argument and Heuristic Analysis."^ Pseudo critical thinking Specious arguments Scientific method Selective thinking .

^ Educational Psychology Interactive: Critical thinking .
  • Educational Psychology Interactive: Critical thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC chiron.valdosta.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Critical thinking in nursing: An integrated review.
  • Critical Thinking in Nurse Managers: Introduction 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.This technique illustrates the influences of heuristics and biases on human decision making along with the influences of thinking critically about reasons and claims.^ Thinking includes problem solving, decision-making, critical thinking, logical reasoning and creative thinking.
  • Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.irfi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Don’t make a decision and then use critical thinking to back it up.
  • 16 Techniques of Critical Thinking (lukeprog.com) 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC lukeprog.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In critical reasoning, we can make mistakes and often do.
  • Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.plusroot.com [Source type: Original source]

See also

References

  1. ^ Fisher & Scriven, 1997, p. 20
  2. ^ Moore & Parker, Critical Thinking
  3. ^ According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the earliest uses of "critical" (1580) had acquired negative connotations. By 1650, however, it was being used in the sense of "involving or exercising careful judgment or observation," though the OED calls this sense obsolete "or merged in other senses." The phrase "critical thinking" appears to be an example of the survival of this positive sense.
  4. ^ Edward M. Glaser, An Experiment in the Development of Critical Thinking, Teacher’s College, Columbia University, 1941.
  5. ^ Sumner (1906) p. 633
  6. ^ Paul, Dr. Richard; Elder, Dr. Linda, The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking Concepts and Tools. Dillon Beach: Foundation for Critical Thinking Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0944583104.
  7. ^ See Roderick Hindery (2001): Indoctrination and Self-deception or Free and Critical Thought.
  8. ^ About The California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory by Thomas F. Nelson Laird, Indiana University Center for Postsecondary Research
  9. ^ Research on Sociocultural Influences on Motivation and Learning, page 46
  10. ^ Critical Thinking FAQs from Oxford Cambridge and RSA Examinations
  11. ^ "Thinking Skills", University of Cambridge Local Examinations
  12. ^ "New GCEs for 2008", Assessment and Qualifications Alliance
  13. ^ Lion Gardiner, Redesigning Higher Education: Producing Dramatic Gains in Student Learning, in conjunction with: ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education, 1995
  14. ^ Schwartz, M.A., April 2008, Journal of Cell Science 121, pg. 1771

Footnotes

  • Damer, T. Edward. .(2005) Attacking Faulty Reasoning, 5th Edition, Wadsworth.^ Attacking Faulty Reasoning: A Practical Guide to Fallacy-Free Arguments .
    • Teaching Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.skepdic.com [Source type: Original source]

    ISBN 0-534-60516-8
  • Dauer, Francis Watanabe. .Critical thinking: an introduction to reasoning
  • Facione, P. 2007. Critical Thinking: What It Is and Why It Counts - 2007 Update
  • Facione, PA, Facione, NC, and Giancarlo, CA. (2000) The Disposition Toward Critical Thinking: Its Character, Measurement, and Relationship to Critical Thinking Skill.^ Specifically this challenge includes relating to non-critical thinking societies, reasoning with non-critical thinking societies, and changing non-critical thinking societies.
    • Critical Thinking For The Military Professional 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The California Critical Thinking Skills Test—College Level.
    • Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology -- Quitadamo and Kurtz 6 (2): 140 -- CBE-Life Sciences Education 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.lifescied.org [Source type: Academic]
    • Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Historically, writing is thought to contribute to the development of critical thinking skills ( Kurfiss, and Association for the Study of Higher Education, 1988 ).
    • Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology -- Quitadamo and Kurtz 6 (2): 140 -- CBE-Life Sciences Education 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.lifescied.org [Source type: Academic]
    • Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .Informal Logic
    , Volume 20, Number 1, pp. 61–84.
  • Hamby, B.W. (2007) The Philosophy of Anything: Critical Thinking in Context. Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque Iowa.^ Skillfulness points to the fact that critical thinking is embedded in contexts that furnish reliable information and warranted methodology.
    • Critical Thinking: Expanding the Paradigm 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.chss.montclair.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Even though our intro to logic course fit the definition of critical thinking that the CSU Chancellor had presented, that definition would not hold the center.
    • Teaching Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.skepdic.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Rather, I question whether the practices of teaching critical thinking...as it has evolved into the practice of teaching informal logic is sufficient for actualizing the ideal.
    • Critical Thinking and Critical Pedagogy 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC faculty.ed.uiuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 978-0-7575-4724-9
  • Fisher, Alec and Scriven, Michael. .(1997) Critical Thinking: Its Definition and Assessment, Center for Research in Critical Thinking (UK)/Edgepress (US).^ Even though our intro to logic course fit the definition of critical thinking that the CSU Chancellor had presented, that definition would not hold the center.
    • Teaching Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.skepdic.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Those of us who teach critical thinking should be grateful that at least for one day Oprah made our jobs a little easier.
    • Teaching Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.skepdic.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ From the site: Critical thinking skills figure prominently among the goals for education, whether one asks developers of curricula, educational researchers, parents, or employers.
    • The Information Literacy Land of Confusion: Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.information-literacy.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0-9531796-0-5
  • Vincent F. Hendricks. .(2005) Thought 2 Talk: A Crash Course in Reflection and Expression, New York: Automatic Press / VIP. ISBN 87-991013-7-8
  • Paul, Richard and Elder, Linda.^ Democracy and Education .New York: The Free Press, 1944.
    • [MSU] CRC: Critical Thinking Resources 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.montclair.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New York: Teachers College Press,1986.
    • [MSU] CRC: Critical Thinking Resources 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.montclair.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New York: The Free Press, 1972.
    • [MSU] CRC: Critical Thinking Resources 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.montclair.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .(2006) Critical Thinking Tools for Taking Charge of Your Learning and Your Life, New Jersey: Prentice Hall Publishing.^ Learning Outcomes: Self-Awareness, Citizenship, Critical Thinking, Membership & Leadership, Communication, Relationships .
    • ABC Critical Thinking Programs - Academics Beyond the Classroom - Grand Valley State University 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC gvsu.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ But any individual with an advanced degree in any university discipline has almost certainly learned the techniques of critical thinking.
    • An Introduction to Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.freeinquiry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Future critical thinkers must also practice the new skill so critical thinking becomes second nature as your default thinking pattern.
    • Critical Thinking For The Military Professional 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .ISBN 0-13-114962-8.
  • Paul, Richard; Elder, Linda.^ Richard Paul and Linda Elder, Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Learning and Your Life , (Upper Saddle River NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001), p.369.
    • Critical Thinking For The Military Professional 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .(2002) Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Professional and Personal Life.^ Future critical thinkers must also practice the new skill so critical thinking becomes second nature as your default thinking pattern.
    • Critical Thinking For The Military Professional 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If critical thinking skills change during an academic quarter, when does that take place?
    • Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology -- Quitadamo and Kurtz 6 (2): 140 -- CBE-Life Sciences Education 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.lifescied.org [Source type: Academic]
    • Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ To Critical Thinking, the critical person is something like a critical consumer of information; he or she is driven to seek reasons and evidence.
    • Critical Thinking and Critical Pedagogy 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC faculty.ed.uiuc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Published by Financial Times Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-064760-8.
  • Sumner, William (1906, 1940) Folkways: A Study of the Sociological Importance of Usages, Manners, Customs, Mores, and Morals, New York: Ginn and Co.
  • Twardy, Dr. Charles R. (2003) Argument Maps Improve Critical Thinking. .Teaching Philosophy 27:2 June 2004. Preprints: [1] [2]
  • van den Brink-Budgen, R. (2000) 'Critical Thinking for Students', How To Books
  • van den Brink-Budgen, R. (2005) 'Critical Thinking for AS Level', How To Books
  • van den Brink-Budgen, R. (2006) 'Critical Thinking for A2 Level,' How To Books
  • van den Brink-Budgen, R. (2007) 'The Essential Guide to Critical Thinking'
  • van den Brink-Budgen, R. (2008) 'Critical Thinking'
  • Whyte, J. (2003) Bad Thoughts - A Guide to Clear Thinking, Corvo.^ The California Critical Thinking Skills Test—College Level.
    • Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology -- Quitadamo and Kurtz 6 (2): 140 -- CBE-Life Sciences Education 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.lifescied.org [Source type: Academic]
    • Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Historically, writing is thought to contribute to the development of critical thinking skills ( Kurfiss, and Association for the Study of Higher Education, 1988 ).
    • Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology -- Quitadamo and Kurtz 6 (2): 140 -- CBE-Life Sciences Education 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.lifescied.org [Source type: Academic]
    • Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Recognize what makes excellent critical thinking Distinguish elements of the thinking process How Can Critical Thinking Be a Contact Sport?
    • Critical Thinking 10 February 2010 13:50 UTC www.amanet.org [Source type: General]

    ISBN 0-9543255-3-2.
  1. ^ [1]

External links

.

Simple English

Critical thinking is "thinking about thinking." It is a way of deciding if a claim is true, false, or sometimes true and sometimes false, or partly true and partly false. To find out if someone is telling you the truth, one needs evidence. Information is found in libraries, online, and by asking people. Professional librarians can help research library sources. Cybrarians can help research using computers. Professional interviewers are good at finding people who are experts in their fields, and they know how to ask the right questions. To solve a problem, questions can be written as clearly and simply as possible, making certain that all terms are well understood by giving definitions if necessary. Then, this Critical thinking can help one judge how true this information is. Critical thinking tools are taken from many fields of study: statistics, logistics, semantics, experimental research methodology, psychology, sociology. Research sources should be of good quality: up to date, thorough, well informed, and impartial.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 22, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Critical thinking, which are similar to those in the above article.








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