The Full Wiki

Cro-magnon: Wikis


Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

(Redirected to Cro-Magnon article)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Skull of a Cro-Magnon individual, Musée de l'Homme, Paris

The term Cro-Magnon (pronounced /kroʊˈmæɡnən/, French [kʀomaɲɔ̃]) refers to one of the main types of early modern humans (Homo sapiens) of the European Upper Paleolithic. The earliest known remains of Cro-Magnon like humans are dated to 30,000 radiocarbon years. The name is taken from the cave of Crô-Magnon in southwest France, where the first specimen was found.

The Cro-Magnon term falls outside the usual naming conventions for early humans and is often used in a general sense to describe the oldest modern people in Europe, while remaining, anthropologically speaking, a specific (but very frequent) subtype among the fossil remains. In recent scientific literature the term "European early modern humans" is used instead.

The oldest definitely dated European early modern humans (EEMH) specimen [1] with modern and archaic, possibly Neanderthal, mosaic of traits is Oase 1 from 34,000–36,000 14C years ago.[2]

Contents

Assemblages and specimens

The geologist Louis Lartet discovered the first five skeletons of this type in March 1868 in the Cro-Magnon rock shelter. Other specimens have since come to light in other parts of Europe and neighboring areas.

Cro-Magnon 1

Female Cro-Magnon skull
Male Cro-Magnon skull

Cro-Magnon 1 was discovered in a rock shelter at Les Eyzies, Dordogne, France. The type specimen from this find is Cro-Magnon 1, dated to about 28,000 years BP (before the present)[3] (27,680 ± 270 BP). The skeletons showed the same high forehead, upright posture and slender (gracile) skeleton as modern humans.

The condition and placement of the remains of Cro-Magnon 1, along with pieces of shell and animal tooth in what appear to have been pendants or necklaces raises the question whether they were buried intentionally. If Cro-Magnons buried their dead intentionally it suggests they had a knowledge of ritual, by burying their dead with necklaces and tools, or an idea of disease and that the bodies needed to be contained.[4]

Analysis of the pathology of the skeletons shows that the humans of this period led a physically difficult life. In addition to infection, several of the individuals found at the shelter had fused vertebrae in their necks, indicating traumatic injury; the adult female found at the shelter had survived for some time with a skull fracture. As these injuries would be life threatening even today, this suggests that Cro-Magnons believed in community support and took care of each others' injuries.[4]

Oase 1

The oldest EEMH remains are from Peştera cu Oase near the Iron Gates in the Danubian corridor. Oase 1 holotype revealed specific traits combining a variety of archaic Homo, derived early modern humans, and possibly Neanderthal features. Modern human attributes place it close to European early modern humans among Late Pleistocene samples. The fossil is one of the few finds in Europe which could be directly dated and is considered the oldest known early modern human fossil from Europe. Two laboratories independently yielded collagen 14C averaging to 34,950, +990, and –890B.P.[5] The Oase 1 mandible was discovered on February 16, 2002.

Other

Cro-Magnon, remains of Grimaldi, found at Monaco

All EEMH dates are direct fossil dates provided in 14C years B.P.[6]

Not direct dates. Radiocarbon dated were elements from adjacent layers.

  • Les Roisà Mouthiers << 32 k [6]
  • La Quina Aval ≈ max 33 - 32 k (juvenile partial mandible)[6]

Calendar years

Other sites, assemblages or specimens: Brassempouy, La Rochette, Vogelherd. Engis, Hahnöfersand, St. Prokop, Velika Pećina [12]

Cro-Magnon life

Cave painting from Lascaux, France dated to approximately 16,000 years ago (Upper Paleolithic).

Cro-Magnon were anatomically modern, only differing from their modern day descendants in Europe by their more robust physiology and slightly larger cranial capacity.[13] Of modern nationalities, Finns are closest to Cro-Magnons in terms of anthropological measurements.[14]

Surviving Cro-Magnon artifacts include huts, cave paintings, carvings and antler-tipped spears. The remains of tools suggest that they knew how to make woven clothing. They had huts, constructed of rocks, clay, bones, branches, and animal hide/fur. These early humans used manganese and iron oxides to paint pictures and may have created the first calendar around 15,000 years ago[15].

The flint tools found in association with the remains at Cro-Magnon have associations with the Aurignacian culture that Lartet had identified a few years before he found the skeletons.

Qafzeh humans seem to have coexisted with Neanderthals for up to 60,000 years in the Levant[16] although Qafzeh are logical representatives of sub-Saharan Africans but not of Cro-Magnon and subsequent Europeans[17]. Earlier studies[18] argue for more than 15,000 years of Neanderthal and EEMH coexistence in France[19]; newer for east-west cline of patterns between Neanderthals and EEMH. Additionally, the observed reversal of Châtelperronian over Aurignacian cultures may be a mistaken conclusion based on interstratified ("chronologically mixed") paleo-layers, or layers of sediments disrupted by earlier quasi-scientific digs in the cave.[20]

Genetics

A 2003 sequencing on two Cro-Magnons, 23 and 24,000 years old Pelosi 1 and 2, mitochondrial DNA, published by an Italo-Spanish research team led by David Caramelli, identified the mtDNA as Haplogroup N.[21] Haplogroup N is found among modern populations of the Middle East, North Africa and Central Asia, and its descendant haplogroups are found among modern North African, Eurasian, Polynesian and Native American populations.[22]

See also

References

  1. ^ Trinkaus, E (April 2004). "European early modern humans and the fate of the Neandertals" (Free full text). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104 (18): 7367–72. doi:10.1073/pnas.0702214104. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 17452632. PMC 1863481. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17452632.  
  2. ^ Trinkaus, E; Moldovan, O; Milota, S; Bîlgăr, A; Sarcina, L; Athreya, S; Bailey, Se; Rodrigo, R; Mircea, G; Higham, T; Ramsey, Cb; Van, Der, Plicht, J (September 2003). "An early modern human from the Peştera cu Oase, Romania" (Free full text). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100 (20): 11231–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.2035108100. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 14504393. PMC 208740. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=14504393.  
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ a b Museum of Natural History
  5. ^ Trinkaus, E; Moldovan, O; Milota, S; Bîlgăr, A; Sarcina, L; Athreya, S; Bailey, Se; Rodrigo, R; Mircea, G; Higham, T; Ramsey, Cb; Van, Der, Plicht, J (September 2003). "An early modern human from the Peştera cu Oase, Romania" (Free full text). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100 (20): 11231–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.2035108100. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 14504393. PMC 208740. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=14504393. ""When multiple measurements are undertaken, the mean result can be determined through averaging the activity ratios. For Oase 1, this provides a weighted average activity ratio of 〈14a〉 = 1.29 ± 0.15%, resulting in a combined OxA-GrA 14C age of 34,950, +990, and –890 B.P."".  
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Higham, T; Ramsey, Cb; Karavanić, I; Smith, Fh; Trinkaus, E (January 2006). "Revised direct radiocarbon dating of the Vindija G1 Upper Paleolithic Neandertals" (Free full text). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103 (3): 553–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.0510005103. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 16407102. PMC 1334669. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=16407102.  
  7. ^ Anikovich, Mv; Sinitsyn, Aa; Hoffecker, Jf; Holliday, Vt; Popov, Vv; Lisitsyn, Sn; Forman, Sl; Levkovskaya, Gm; Pospelova, Ga; Kuz'Mina, Ie; Burova, Nd; Goldberg, P; Macphail, Ri; Giaccio, B; Praslov, Nd (January 2007). "Early Upper Paleolithic in Eastern Europe and implications for the dispersal of modern humans". Science (New York, N.Y.) 315 (5809): 223–6. doi:10.1126/science.1133376. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 17218523.  
  8. ^ [2]
  9. ^ Wild, Em; Teschler-Nicola, M; Kutschera, W; Steier, P; Trinkaus, E; Wanek, W (May 2005). "Direct dating of Early Upper Palaeolithic human remains from Mladec" (PDF). Nature 435 (7040): 332–5. doi:10.1038/nature03585. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 15902255. http://www.fed.cuhk.edu.hk/~lchang/material/Evolutionary/Time%20out%20of%20Africa.pdf.  
  10. ^ Harvati et al., ʺThe Partial Cranium from Cioclovina, Romania: Morphological Affinities of an Early Modern Europeanʺ2007?
  11. ^ Cidalia Duarte, Joao Mauricio, Paul B. Pettitt, Pedro Souto, Erik Trinkaus, Hans van der Plicht and Joao Zilhao (June 22, 1999). "The Early Upper Paleolithic Human Skeleton from the Abrigo do Lagar Velho (Portugal) and Modern Human Emergence in Iberia" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 96 (13): 7604–7609. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.13.7604. PMC 22133. http://anaconda.ub.rug.nl/misc/ESI4CvD/Gronigen.PNAS.pdf.  
  12. ^ Higham, T.; Ramsey, B.; Karavanić, I.; Smith, H.; Trinkaus, E. (Jan 2006). "Revised direct radiocarbon dating of the Vindija G1 Upper Paleolithic Neandertals" (Free full text). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103 (3): 553–557. doi:10.1073/pnas.0510005103. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 16407102. PMC 1334669. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=16407102.   edit
  13. ^ "Cro-Magnon". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9027935. Retrieved March 2007.  
  14. ^ Niskanen, Markku (PDF). The Origin of the Baltic-Finns from the Physical Anthropological Point of View. http://www.mankindquarterly.org/samples/niskanenbalticcorrected.pdf.  
  15. ^ according to a claim by Michael Rappenglueck, of the University of Munich (2000) [3]
  16. ^ Ofer Bar-Yosef & Bernard Vandermeersch, Scientific American, April 1993, 94-100
  17. ^ Cro-Magnon and Qafzeh — Vive la Difference ; C Loring Brace; Dental antrophology; Vol 10 Nr 6, 1996 pdf
  18. ^ Mellars, P (February 2006). "A new radiocarbon revolution and the dispersal of modern humans in Eurasia". Nature 439 (7079): 931–5. doi:10.1038/nature04521. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 16495989.  
  19. ^ Gravina, B; Mellars, P; Ramsey, Cb (November 2005). "Radiocarbon dating of interstratified Neanderthal and early modern human occupations at the Chatelperronian type-site". Nature 438 (7064): 51–6. doi:10.1038/nature04006. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 16136079.  
  20. ^ Zilhão, J; D'Errico, F; Bordes, Jg; Lenoble, A; Texier, Jp; Rigaud, Jp (August 2006). "Analysis of Aurignacian interstratification at the Chatelperronian-type site and implications for the behavioral modernity of Neandertals" (Free full text). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103 (33): 12643–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.0605128103. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 16894152. PMC 1567932. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=16894152.  
  21. ^ Caramelli, D; Lalueza-Fox, C; Vernesi, C; Lari, M; Casoli, A; Mallegni, F; Chiarelli, B; Dupanloup, I; Bertranpetit, J; Barbujani, G; Bertorelle, G (May 2003). "Evidence for a genetic discontinuity between Neandertals and 24,000-year-old anatomically modern Europeans" (Free full text). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100 (11): 6593–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.1130343100. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 12743370. PMC 164492. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=12743370.  
  22. ^ https://www3.nationalgeographic.com/genographic/atlas.html

Simple English

The Cro-Magnon were is a nickname are simply the first early modern humans (early Homo sapiens sapiens) of the European Upper Paleolithic in Europe. The earliest known remains of Cro-Magnon-like humans are radiometrically dated to 35,000 years before present.









Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message