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Republic of Croatia
Republika Hrvatska
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemLijepa naša domovino
Our beautiful homeland

Location of  Croatia  (orange)

on the European continent  (white)  —  [Legend]

Capital
(and largest city)
Zagreb
45°48′N 16°0′E / 45.8°N 16°E / 45.8; 16
Official language(s) Croatian1
Demonym Croat, Croatian
Government Parliamentary republic
 -  President Ivo Josipović
 -  Prime Minister Jadranka Kosor
 -  President of Parliament Luka Bebić
Establishment
 -  Principality 7852 
 -  Independent Principality 879 
 -  Kingdom 925 
 -  Union with Hungary 1102 
 -  Joined Habsburg Empire 1 January 1527 
 -  Independence from Austria–Hungary 29 October 1918 
 -  Joined Yugoslavia3 29 November 1943 
 -  Decision on independence 25 June 1991 
 -  Declaration of independance 08 October 1991 
Area
 -  Total 56,594 km2 (126th)
21,851 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.09
Population
 -  2009 estimate 4,489,409[1] (122nd)
 -  2001 census 4,437,460[2] 
 -  Density 81/km2 (115th)
208/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $82.407 billion[3] 
 -  Per capita $18,575[3] 
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $69.357 billion[3] 
 -  Per capita $15,633[3] 
Gini (2008) 29 (low
HDI (2007) 0.871[4] (high) (45th)
Currency Kuna (HRK)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .hr
Calling code 385
1 .Also Italian in Istria and languages of other national minorities (Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, Serbian, etc.^ There are also journals published in Hungarian and other minority languages."
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

) in residential municipalities of the national minorities.
2 Shortly after the reign of Prince Višeslav, Franks were defeated in 803.
3 Before co-founding the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia, Croatia co-founded the Kingdom of Yugoslavia on 1 December 1918.
.Croatia (pronounced /kroʊˈeɪʃə/ ( listen), kroe-AY-shə; Croatian: Hrvatska pronounced [xř̩ʋaːtskaː]), officially the Republic of Croatia (Croatian: Republika Hrvatska About this sound listen ), is a country in central and southeastern Europe, at the crossroads of the Pannonian Plain, the Balkans, and the Adriatic Sea.^ Croatia is primarily a transit country for human trafficking to Europe and plays a lesser role as a source and destination country.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That it can be assumed from his [or her] behavior that he [or she] respects the laws and customs of the Republic of Croatia and that he [or she] accepts Croatian culture.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In lateNovember 1993, the Croatian police visited unregistered refugee encampments in north-central Croatia and compiled a list of draft-age males in the camps.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.Its capital (and largest city) is Zagreb.^ The largest number of military apartments in Croatia are located in the cities of Zagreb, Split, Pula, Zadar, Rijeka and Karlovac.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.Croatia borders Slovenia and Hungary to the north, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the southeast, and Serbia and Montenegro to the east.^ Women from many countries, including Russia , Serbia and Montenegro , Romania , Bosnia and Herzegovina and other Eastern European countries are trafficked by truck or boat to Croatia .
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Croatia, Bosnia-Hercegovina, Slovenia and Macedonia have either expressly acceded to most international human rights documents or have acknowledged their applicability.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Similar trials of alleged "war criminals," also are taking place in Serbia and Montenegro, in Serbian-controlled areas of Croatia, and in areas controlled by the predominantly Muslim Bosnian government.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Croats arrived in the early seventh century in what is Croatia today.^ In early 1994, a rapprochement between Bosnian Croats and Muslims, on the one hand, and the Republics of Croatia and Bosnia-Hercegovina on the other, decreased tensions between Muslims and Croats in general.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.They organized the state into two dukedoms.^ Because they were rationing electricity 61 , he came into the living room with two candles ...
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

The first king, King Tomislav was crowned in AD 925 and Croatia was elevated into the status of a kingdom. The Kingdom of Croatia retained its sovereignty for almost two centuries, reaching its peak during the rule of Kings Peter Krešimir IV and Demetrius Zvonimir. .Croatia entered a union with Hungary in 1102. In 1526, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand from the House of Habsburg to the Croatian throne.^ In mid-1994, the Croatian government accepted a draft proposal for a law regulating evictions from state-owned housing, but parliament postponed indefinately a vote on the proposal.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Currently, the higher house of the Croatian parliament - formed in March 1993 - is the House of Counties ( ñ upanijski dom) which represents Croatia's twenty-one counties ( ñ upanije).
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If a significant number of Serbs do not return to Croatia or if the Croatian government obstructs their repatriation, 38 Serbs will no longer be guaranteed proportional respresentation in parliament.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1918, Croatia declared independence from Austria–Hungary and co-founded the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.^ Croatia declared independence from communist Yugoslavia in 1991 and gained full independence after the four-year Serbo-Croatian War.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An independent Croatian state briefly existed during World War II, during which Croatia was a dependency of Nazi Germany during 1941–1945. After World War II, Croatia became a founding member of the Second Yugoslavia.^ Allied Prisoners of War in Croatia, 1941-1945 , Croatian information series ; no.8 .
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Allied Prisoners of War in Croatia, 1941-1945, Croatian information series ; no.8.
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Croatian American Times , March 21, 2000.War losses in Croatia.
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 25 June 1991, Croatia declared independence and became a sovereign state.^ Full-scale war between rebel Serbs and Croatian armed forces broke out after Croatia declared its independence from the former SFRJ on June 25, 1991.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

Croatia is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization and CEFTA. .The country is a candidate for European Union membership and is a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean.^ TO THE UNITED STATES AND MEMBERS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION .
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

Croatia is classified as an emerging and developing economy by the International Monetary Fund and a high income economy by the World Bank.

Contents

History

Early history

Oton Iveković, The arrival of the Croats at the shores of Adriatic
The area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period. Fossils of Neanderthals dating to the middle Paleolithic have been unearthed in the area of Krapina and Vindija. More recent (late Mousterian) Neanderthal remains have been discovered in Mujina pećina near the coast.
In the early Neolithic period, the Starčevo, Vučedol and Hvar cultures were scattered around the region. The Iron Age left traces of the Hallstatt culture (early Illyrians) and the La Tène culture (Celts).
Much later the region was settled by Liburnians, Dacians and Illyrians, and Greek colonies were established on the islands of Vis (by Dionysius I of Syracuse) and Hvar.[5] In 9 AD the territory of today's Croatia became part of the Roman Empire. .Emperor Diocletian built a massive palace in Split where he retired from politics in AD 305.[6] During the 5th century the last Roman Emperor Julius Nepos[7] ruled his small empire from Diocletian's Palace before he was killed in AD 480. The early history of Croatia ends with the Avar invasion in the first half of the 7th century and the destruction of almost all Roman towns.^ Candidus relates that after the death of Nepos the Gallo-Romans ( τῶν δυσμικῶν Γαλατῶν ) rejected the rule of Odovacar and sent an embassy to Zeno, but Zeno rather inclined to Odovacar ( fr.
  • J. B. Bury: History of the Later Roman Empire • Vol. I Chap. XII 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For Julius Nepos, who died in that year, was the last legitimate Emperor in the West; Romulus Augustulus was only a usurper.
  • J. B. Bury: History of the Later Roman Empire • Vol. I Chap. XII 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Toward the end of 1993, some local authorities, such as those of the city council of Pula, decided to stop all evictions until the Administrative Court of Croatia ruled on the lawfulness of each individual case.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

Roman survivors retreated to strategically better defended points on the coast, islands and mountains. The modern city of Dubrovnik was founded by those survivors.

Kingdom of Croatia

Baška tablet, oldest evidence of the glagolitic script
.The Croats arrived in what is today Croatia probably in the early 7th century[8].^ In early 1994, a rapprochement between Bosnian Croats and Muslims, on the one hand, and the Republics of Croatia and Bosnia-Hercegovina on the other, decreased tensions between Muslims and Croats in general.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.They organized into two dukedoms; the duchy of Pannonia in the north and the duchy of Littoral Croatia in the south.^ Because they were rationing electricity 61 , he came into the living room with two candles ...
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus wrote that Porga, duke of the Dalmatian Croats, who had been invited into Dalmatia by Byzantine Emperor Heraclius, sent to Heraclius for Christian teachers.^ Those Bosnian Croats who were repatriated were given HVO uniforms and sent to the front.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In mid- and late 1993, Croats born in Bosnia-Hercegovina but who had been long-time residents of Croatia were being drafted into the armed forces and sent to Bosnia to fight in support of Bosnian Croat forces (HVO).
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Ms. P.: They told me I wasn't a good Croat; otherwise I would have sent my son into the Croatian Army.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

According to Constantine, at the request of Heraclius, Pope John IV (640–642) sent Christian teachers and missionaries to the Croatian Provinces.[9] These missionaries converted Porga, and also a great many of the clan that was under his immediate authority, to the Christian faith in 640. The Christianization of the Croats was mostly complete by the 9th century. Both duchies became Frankish vassals in late 8th century, and eventually became independent in the following century.
.The first native Croatian ruler recognized by the Pope was duke Branimir, whom Pope John VIII called dux Croatorum ("duke of Croats") in 879.[10] Duke Tomislav of Littoral Croatia was one of the most prominent members of the House of Trpimirović.^ Currently, the higher house of the Croatian parliament - formed in March 1993 - is the House of Counties ( ñ upanijski dom) which represents Croatia's twenty-one counties ( ñ upanije).
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Law Concerning the Temporary Use of Apartments stipulates that the apartments in question are to be used for the housing of displaced persons, refugees and members of the Croatian armed forces and their families.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ S.F.Call , June 4, 1897.First president of oldest Croatian society in America.
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He united the Croats of Dalmatia and Pannonia into a single Kingdom in 925. Traditionally it is stated that Tomislav's state extended from the Adriatic Sea to the Drava river, and from the Raša river to the Drina river, but the precise borders are unknown. .Under his rule, Croatia became one of the most powerful kingdoms in Medieval Europe.^ Most of those denied citizenship were born in one of the republics of the former SFRJ other than Croatia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Croatia's Constitutional Court ruled that the Interior Ministry had to define the circumstances under which the granting of citizenship to an applicant would be detrimental to the interests of Croatia by defining what it considered to be "the interests of the state."
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The motive for Gundobad's interference is intelligible: he may well have feared the enclosure of his kingdom between a Visigothic power on one side and an Ostrogothic on the other.
  • J. B. Bury: History of the Later Roman Empire • Vol. I Chap. XII 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

[11] Tomislav defeated the invasions of the Arpads in battle and forced them across the Drava. He also annexed a part of Pannonia. This included the area between the rivers Drava, Sava and Kupa, so his Duchy bordered with Bulgaria for a period of time. .This was the first time that the two Croatian Realms were united, and all Croats were in one state.^ Contains all forms of family and state arms with the Croatian checkered arms.
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although V.P. is the daughter of a Croatian mother and a Serbian father, she identified herself as a Croat at the time of our interview.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time an editor-in-chief of a publication has been mobilized into the Croatian Army.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.The union was later recognised by Byzantium, which gave the royal crown to Stjepan Držislav[12] and papal crown to king Zvonimir.^ His wish to be recognised as king by the Emperor shows that he was not of royal descent.
  • J. B. Bury: History of the Later Roman Empire • Vol. I Chap. XII 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

The medieval Croatian kingdom reached its peak during the reign of Kings Petar Krešimir IV (1058–1074) and Zvonimir (1075–1089).
.The Kingdom of Croatia existed from its foundation in 925 until the end of World War I, initially as an independent kingdom and later as a crown in multiethnic empires such as the Kingdom of Hungary, the Habsburg monarchy and Austria-Hungary.^ Serbo-Croatian was the term used in the English speaking world for the Croatian language since the end of World War 1 (1918); prior to the formation of Yugoslavia and the end of WW I, Croatia and Serbia had never been historically united, they were simply Slavic neighbors.
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Croatia was partitioned at the same time for up to 400 years between Austria, Hungary, Venice and Turkey.
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Croatia declared independence from communist Yugoslavia in 1991 and gained full independence after the four-year Serbo-Croatian War.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Personal union with Hungary

Architecture of Medieval Croatia, Zadar
.Following the extinction of the Croatian ruling dynasty in 1091, Ladislaus I of Hungary, the brother of Jelena Lijepa, the last Croatian queen, became the king of Croatia.^ President Tudjman and Croatia's ruling political party, the Croatian Democratic Union (Hrvatska Demokratska Zajednica - HDZ), came to power following multi-party elections in Croatia in April and May 1990.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Zajednicar, April 24, 1970.Croatian Dominis was married to last queen of Hawaii.
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It does not address violations of the rules of war by Croatian troops in Croatia, by Serbian irregular troops in Serbian-controlled parts of Croatia or by Bosnian Croat forces in Bosnia-Hercegovina.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.Croatian nobility of the Littoral opposed this crowning, which led to 10 years of war and the recognition of the Hungarian ruler Coloman as the king of Croatia and Hungary in the treaty of 1102 (often referred to as the Pacta conventa).^ Serbian king fought against Croatian fascists (known as Usta_as) and Tito's communist partisans during World War II. The ,, etniks were known for their brutality against non-Serbs and Serbs opposed to their policies.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Croatia declared independence from communist Yugoslavia in 1991 and gained full independence after the four-year Serbo-Croatian War.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Serbian forces currently fighting in Croatia and Bosnia often are referred to as " ,, etniks" by Croats, Muslims and some Serbs opposed to their policies.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.In return, Coloman promised to maintain Croatia as a separate kingdom, not to settle Croatia with Hungarians, to guarantee Croatia's self-governance under a Ban, and to respect all the rights, laws and privileges of the Croatian Kingdom.^ Article 14 of the Croatian Constitution guarantees equality for all citizens: "Everyone in the Republic of Croatia shall enjoy rights and freedoms, regardless of race, color, gender, language, religion, political or other belief.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the Croatian government has incorporated into domestic law the tenets set forth in international human rights documents, government policies do not always respect those guarantees.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In other cases, human rights advocates such as Nikola Viskovi _ were sued for libel, slander or defamation by Croatian government officials.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.During this union, the Kingdom of Croatia never lost the right to elect its own king, had the ruling dynasty become extinct.^ Human Rights Monitoring · Work with domestic human rights activists in Croatia with a view to strengthening the rule of law and increasing respect for civil and political rights in Croatia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Vjesnik is the major government-owned daily in Croatia and its editorial policies have generally been supportive of the government and ruling party.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This report does not address violations of the rules of war perpetrated by Croatian and Serbian armed forces in Croatia nor does it address the situation of human rights in Serbian-controlled areas of Croatia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1293 and 1403[13] Croatia chose its own king, but in both cases the Kingdom of Hungary declared war and the union was reestablished.^ Croatia declared independence from communist Yugoslavia in 1991 and gained full independence after the four-year Serbo-Croatian War.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For the next four centuries, the Kingdom of Croatia was ruled by the Sabor and Bans appointed by the Hungarian king. .The Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia remained a legally distinct constitutional entity,[14] but the advent of a Hungarian king brought about other consequences such as: the introduction of feudalism and the rise of native noble families such as the Frankopans and the Šubićs.^ Article 14 of the Croatian Constitution guarantees equality for all citizens: "Everyone in the Republic of Croatia shall enjoy rights and freedoms, regardless of race, color, gender, language, religion, political or other belief.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, on March 22, 1995, Croatia's Constitutional Court ruled that there were no legal grounds to justify application of the tax on Feral Tribune and the Court withdrew the tax.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They went only to the Serbs' homes and to the homes of those persons who had left [Croatia] with the JNA [but whose families remained in Split].
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

The 1273 Congregatio Regni tocius Sclavonie Generalis, the oldest surviving document written by the Croatian parliament, dates from this period.[15] .Subsequent kings sought to restore some of their previously lost influence by granting certain privileges to towns.^ He had sought the assistance of the Patrician and king Odovacar in Italy; he had written to the Persian monarch Piroz and to some of the satraps of Roman Armenia.
  • J. B. Bury: History of the Later Roman Empire • Vol. I Chap. XII 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

In the late 15th century the Ottomans conquered Makarska
.The first period of personal union between Croatia and Hungary ended in 1526 with the Battle of Mohács and the defeat of Hungarian forces by the Ottomans.^ It is the first to define ‘trafficking in persons’ as a crime separate from slavery, Now, the penalty for trafficking ranges between one and nine years in prison.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Croatia was partitioned at the same time for up to 400 years between Austria, Hungary, Venice and Turkey.
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Given their precarious residency and socio-economic status, such persons - most frequently non-Croats - are forced to leave Croatia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.After the death of King Louis II, Croatian nobles at the Cetingrad assembly chose the Habsburgs as new rulers of the Kingdom of Croatia, under the condition that they provide the troops and finances required to protect Croatia against the Ottoman Empire.^ At a minimum, the international community must be willing to accept refugees and displaced persons and provide assistance to those who have sought protection in Croatia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Employment Law for Foreigners requires that all non-Croatian citizens obtain a work permit in order to work in Croatia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If, on the death of Honorius, there had been no Valentinian to succeed him, and if Theodosius II had exercised the sovranty over the western provinces, and if no second Augustus had been created again before the western provinces had passed under the sway of Teutonic rulers, no one would have spoken of the "Fall of the Western Empire."
  • J. B. Bury: History of the Later Roman Empire • Vol. I Chap. XII 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

[15][16]

Republic of Ragusa

The city of Dubrovnik/Ragusa was founded in 7th century[17] after Avar and Slavic raiders destroyed the Roman city of Epidaurum. .The surviving Roman population escaped to a small island near the coast where they founded a new settlement.^ The Croatian government then transferred many of the refugees to collective refugee centers in the village of Ga_inci (near Djakovo), to the island of Obonjan (near _ibenik) and other refugee settlements.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.During the Fourth Crusade the city fell under control of the Republic of Venice until the 1358 Zadar treaty when Venice, defeated by the Hungarian kingdom, lost control of Dalmatia and the Republic of Ragusa became a tributary of that kingdom.^ But under the cover of night, Illus introduced into the city an Isaurian force from Chalcedon, and the next day Marcian's party was defeated.
  • J. B. Bury: History of the Later Roman Empire • Vol. I Chap. XII 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Through the next 450 years the Republic of Ragusa would be a tributary Republic protected by Ottomans and Habsburgs until the Napoleon abolished in 1808 when Ragusa, Croatia, Slovenia and Bosnia was briefly the Illyrian Provinces.^ Croatia, Bosnia-Hercegovina, Slovenia and Macedonia have either expressly acceded to most international human rights documents or have acknowledged their applicability.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A third article requiring the uninterrupted residence of at least five years on the territory of the Republic of Croatia was dropped from the revised citizenship law on May 8, 1992.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In early 1994, a rapprochement between Bosnian Croats and Muslims, on the one hand, and the Republics of Croatia and Bosnia-Hercegovina on the other, decreased tensions between Muslims and Croats in general.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

During this time the republic became rich through trade.
.The republic became the most important publisher of Croatian literature during the Renaissance and Baroque periods.^ Most of western Hercegovina is overwhelmingly populated by Croats and many Croats from this area joined the Croatian Army, especially during the war in Croatia in 1991.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.Aside from poets and writers like Marin Držić and Ivan Gundulić, whose works were important for Croat literature development, the most famous person from the Republic of Dubrovnik was the scientist Ruđer Josip Bošković, who was a member of the Royal Society and the Russian Academy of Sciences.^ Most of the attacks against Muslim refugees were due to hostility felt against Muslims who fought Bosnian Croat forces in central Bosnia throughout 1993.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Given their precarious residency and socio-economic status, such persons - most frequently non-Croats - are forced to leave Croatia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Croats whose family members - usually non-Croats - had worked for the Yugoslav Army but had left Croatia also are being evicted from their homes.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

The republic would survive until 1808 when it was annexed by Napoleon. Today the city of Dubrovnik features on the UNESCO World Heritage Site list and is a famous tourist destination.

Ottoman wars

Nikola Šubić Zrinski, a great Croatian hero in the wars against Ottomans
Shortly after the Battle of Mohács, the Habsburgs unsuccessfully sought to stabilise the borders between the Ottoman Empire and the Kingdom of Croatia by creating a captaincy in Bihać. .However, in 1529, the Ottoman army swept through the area and captured Buda and besieged Vienna; an event which brought violence and turmoil to the Croatian border areas (see Ottoman wars in Europe).^ Case #2: Arbitrary violence is frequently used by Croatian Army soldiers or the military police in many illegal evictions.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This report does not address violations of the rules of war perpetrated by Croatian and Serbian armed forces in Croatia nor does it address the situation of human rights in Serbian-controlled areas of Croatia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Following the re-capture of the western Slavonia area in May 1995, Croatian forces harassed, threatened and robbed Serbs who chose to remain in the area.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.After the failure of the first military operations, the Kingdom of Croatia was split into civilian and military units in 1553. The latter became Croatian Krajina and Slavonian Krajina and both eventually became parts of the Croatian Military Frontier which was directly under the control of Vienna.^ Human Rights Watch/Helsinki is concerned that Croatian government authorities have allowed individual military police units in various municipalities - particularly in Split - to take the law into their own hands, thereby weakening the rule of law in the country.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the Croatian legal system provides a civilian convicted by a military court the right to appeal to a civilian court, Human Rights Watch/Helsinki believes that civilians should be tried by civilian courts in the first instance.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Croatian citizenship law does not adequately take into account the fact that Croatia was once part of the SFRJ and that many of Croatia's long-time residents do not qualify for citizenship under the new law because they are neither Croats by ethnicity nor were they born in Croatia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.Ottoman raids on Croatian territory continued until the Battle of Sisak in 1593, after which the borders stabilised for some time.^ But Odovacar seems some time before the battle of the Addua to have courted a formal rupture.
  • J. B. Bury: History of the Later Roman Empire • Vol. I Chap. XII 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On Croatian territory we have Catholics, Moslems (Ethnic Croatians), Jews, Orthdox, Grko Catholics and some Protestants.
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The kingdom of that time became known as the Reliquiae reliquiarum olim inclyti Regni Croatiae ("The remains of the remains of the once famous Kingdom of Croatia"). .An important battle during this time was the Battle of Szigetvár (1566), when 2,300 soldiers under the leadership of ban Nikola Šubić Zrinski held back for two months 100,000 Ottoman soldiers led by Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, fighting to the last man.^ I'm not going to kick out the soldiers who stayed here to fight to accommodate those who left Osijek and spent their time drinking in European cafes during the war and who now want to come back.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Alaska Herald, Oct 1, 1869.Judge decides the value of an eye is $14,000 in fight between two Dalmatians .
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even a Serbian soldier who shot at a Croatian soldier during a battle but did not [otherwise] commit a war crime, can be tried for "armed rebellion."
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

Cardinal Richelieu was reported to have called the event "the battle that saved civilization."[18]
.During the Great Turkish War (1667–1698), Slavonia was regained but hilly western Bosnia, which had been a part of Croatia until the Ottoman conquest, remained outside Croatian control and the current border, which resembles a crescent or a horseshoe, is a remnant of this historical outcome.^ Current estimates indicate that approxiamately 200,000 Serbs fled from western Slavonia and Krajina during the Croatian Army offensives in mid-1995, and those Serbs currently remaining in government-controlled areas of Croatia are believed to comprise only 4 percent of Croatia's population.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The decree, which went into effect on September 4,1995, places under Croatian government control a) all property "abandoned" by displaced persons from the Krajina and western Slavonia areas, b) property owned but "abandoned" by individuals who left Croatia since August 17, 1990 (the day the Serbian rebellion in Croatia began), c) property owned by individuals residing in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) and the Serbian-controlled areas of eastern Slavonia and Bosnia-Hercegovina, and d) property owned by citizens of the FRY. Only Serbs who remained in Croatian government-controlled areas throughout the entire war and who hold title to their property are not affected by the decree.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It punishes all Serbs who remained in "enemy" territory during the war, although they may not have committed any domestic or internationally-recognized crime.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

The southern part of the 'horseshoe' was created by the Venetian conquest following the Siege of Zara and was defined by the 17–18th century wars with the Ottomans. The de jure reason for Venetian expansion was the decision of the king of Croatia, Ladislas of Naples, to sell his rights on Dalmatia to Venice in 1409.[19]
.During more than two centuries of Ottoman wars, Croatia underwent great demographic changes.^ For the purposes of directing military operations during the war in Croatia in 1991, the country was divided into six "operative zones."
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of western Hercegovina is overwhelmingly populated by Croats and many Croats from this area joined the Croatian Army, especially during the war in Croatia in 1991.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Croats left the riverland areas of Gacka, Lika and Krbava, Moslavina in Slavonia, and an area in present day north-western Bosnia to move towards Austria where they remained and the present day Burgenland Croats are direct descendants of these settlers.^ The Bosnian Croat authorities have adopted military structures virtually identical to those in Croatia proper, hence the reference to SIS in Bosnian Croat-controlled areas of Bosnia-Hercegovina.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They went only to the Serbs' homes and to the homes of those persons who had left [Croatia] with the JNA [but whose families remained in Split].
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I don't care who these people [who are returning] happen to be - I don't care if they're Serbs, Hungarians, Croats or whatever.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.To replace the fleeing Croats, the Habsburgs called on the Orthodox populations of Bosnia and Serbia to provide military service in Croatian and Slavonian Krajina.^ The Bosnian Croat authorities have adopted military structures virtually identical to those in Croatia proper, hence the reference to SIS in Bosnian Croat-controlled areas of Bosnia-Hercegovina.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ According to the Croatian Ministry of Defense, there is no specific law exempting journalists and news editors from military service.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Croatian Army soldiers responsible for the targetting of fleeing Serbian refugees from western Slavonia and Krajina must be investigated and held accountable.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

Serbian migration into this region, which had started in the 16th century, peaked during the Great Serb Migrations of 1690 and 1737–39. The rights and obligations of new populace of the Military frontier were decided with the Statuta Valachorum in 1630.[20]

National revival

.National revival in Croatia started in 1813 when the bishop of Zagreb Maksimilijan Vrhovac issued a plea for the collection of "national treasures". At the beginning of the 1830s, a group of young Croatian writers gathered in Zagreb and established the Illyrian movement for national renewal and unity of all South Slavs within the Habsburg Monarchy.^ In March 1993, Tadeusz Mazowiecki, the Special Rapporteur for the Former Yugoslavia of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, established a field office in Zagreb.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To its credit, the Croatian government continues to cooperate with international and to a lesser extent, domestic human rights groups and delegations concerned about human rights in Croatia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The denial of citizenship to long-term residents of Croatia who are not of Croatian nationality arbitrarily strips such persons of rights they had previously enjoyed.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.The most important focus of the Illyrians was the establishment of a standard language as a counter-weight to Hungarian, and the promotion of Croatian literature and official culture.^ London: Hakluyt, 1585.In Istanbul it is customary to speak Croatian, a language which is understood by almost all official, Turks, especially military men.
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Important members of this movement were Count Janko Drašković, who initiated the movement by writing a pamphlet in 1832, Ljudevit Gaj who received permission from the royal government of Habsburg for printing the first newspaper in the Croatian language, Antun Mihanović, who wrote the lyrics for the Croatian national anthem, Vatroslav Lisinski, composer of the first Croatian language opera, "Ljubav i zloba" ("Love and Malice", 1846), and many others.^ Local and national government officials - including high-ranking members of the Croatian government - frequently meet with human rights activists to discuss theirgrievances.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1993 and 1994, the Croatian government took some steps to hold accountable those members of the Croatian police force who had committed crimes or violated or failed to protect a person's human rights in their line of duty.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, in many cases, some members of a family are granted citizenship while others are not.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.Fearful first of Hungarian and then Habsburg (Austrian) pressure of assimilation, the Kingdom of Croatia had always refused to change the status of Latin as its official language until the middle of the 19th century.^ So, a persons name could have been modified to conform to the Italian, Austrian or Hungarian alphabet or language.
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An individual with a desire to study the history, culture and people of Croatia would out of necessity have to read portions of Austrian, Hungarian, Turkish and Italian history.
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Only on 2 May 1843 the Croatian language was first spoken in parliament,[21] finally gaining official status in 1847 due to the popularity of the Illyrian movement.^ London: Hakluyt, 1585.In Istanbul it is customary to speak Croatian, a language which is understood by almost all official, Turks, especially military men.
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In September 1994 it announced that it was revoking the refugee status of all such persons but, due to UNHCR intervention, the Croatian government agreed to limit this to persons arriving after September 1994.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ S.F. Chronicle , June 21, 1894.First Croatian Parade in America .
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even with a large Slavic (Croatian) majority, Dalmatia retained large Italian communities in the coast (in the cities and the islands, largest concentration in Istria).^ The majority of the above Croatians came from Dalmatia and Istria with a strong Venetian-Italian influence.
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A good example would be that in the Italian alphabet there is no K, so those named Kristovic from Dalmatia or Istria would be registered as Christovich on their passport.
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Further, Croatia has a Croatian ethnic majority, a Serbian minority (5%) that migrated to Croatian territory, Hungarians and Italians.
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

According to the 1816 Austro-Hungarian census, 22% of the Dalmatian population was Italian-speaking.[22] .Starting in the 19th century, most Dalmatian Italians and Morlachs with an Istro-Romanian language gradually assimilated to the prevailing Croatian culture and language.^ Croatian language in the 1500th century.
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Feral Tribune was registered as an independent publication in April 1993 with the Croatian government's Ministry of Culture and Education and started publishing on a bi-monthly basis in June 1993.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1972.Croatian Language, Dalmatian dialects .
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Austria–Hungary

Josip Jelačić, ban of Croatia during Revolution of 1848
On January 1, 1527, Croatian noblemen gathered in the Cetin fortress in the city of Cetingrad for the Parliament on Cetin and elected Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria as the new king of the Croatian kingdom. Croatia of that time was carring a name triune kingdom; Kingdom of Croatia, Kingdom of Dalmatia and Kingdom of Slavonia. Kingdom of Croatia and kingdom of Slavonia united in 1868, creating Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia.
.The Croatian answer to the Hungarian revolution of 1848 was a declaration of war.^ Croatia declared independence from communist Yugoslavia in 1991 and gained full independence after the four-year Serbo-Croatian War.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Austrian, Croatian and Russian forces together defeated the Hungarian army in 1849 and the following 17 years were remembered in Croatia and Hungary for the policy of Germanization.^ See following section concerning accountability for human rights abuses and criminal activity perpetrated by members of the Croatian Army and police for an explanation of Human Rights Watch/Helsinki's position regarding amnesties for members of a government's own military and police forces.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On October 22, 1992, in Ka_teli, a member of the police force, Ante Biland ñ i _ , killed Dejan Bo ñ ani _ , a member of the HV (Croatian Army), with a revolver.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cease all efforts to force the closure or compromise the editorial policies of various media forms in Croatia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

The eventual failure of this policy resulted in the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and the creation of a monarchic union between the crowns of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary. The treaty left unanswered the question of the status of Croatia. .The following year the Croatian and Hungarian parliaments created a constitution for union of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia and the Kingdom of Hungary.^ Currently, the higher house of the Croatian parliament - formed in March 1993 - is the House of Counties ( ñ upanijski dom) which represents Croatia's twenty-one counties ( ñ upanije).
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ President Tudjman and Croatia's ruling political party, the Croatian Democratic Union (Hrvatska Demokratska Zajednica - HDZ), came to power following multi-party elections in Croatia in April and May 1990.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Croatia was partitioned at the same time for up to 400 years between Austria, Hungary, Venice and Turkey.
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23]
.After the Ottoman Empire lost military control over Bosnia and Herzegovina, Austria-Hungary abolished Croatian Krajina and Slavonian Krajina, restoring the territories to Croatia in 1881. During the second half of the 19th century pro-Hungarian and pro-Austrian political parties played Croats against Serbs with the aim of controlling the parliament.^ Current estimates indicate that approxiamately 200,000 Serbs fled from western Slavonia and Krajina during the Croatian Army offensives in mid-1995, and those Serbs currently remaining in government-controlled areas of Croatia are believed to comprise only 4 percent of Croatia's population.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Continued tensions between Croatian and Serbian forces in parts of Croatia, rebel Serbian control of one-third of Croatia's territory and fighting between Muslims and Croats in Bosnia in 1993 5 has been accompanied by animosity, harassment and discrimination against Serbs, Muslims and other non-Croats who are law-abiding citizens of Croatia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the Croatian government re-asserted control over the Krajina area in early August 1995, Croats displaced or expelled from Serb-held territory in Bosnia and Croatia and from the FRY are being resettled in homes belonging to Serbs in the Krajina area.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.This policy failed in 1906 when a Croat-Serb coalition won the elections.^ Serbian forces currently fighting in Croatia and Bosnia often are referred to as " ,, etniks" by Croats, Muslims and some Serbs opposed to their policies.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

The newly created political situation remained unchanged until the advent of World War I.

Kingdom of Yugoslavia

.On 29 October 1918, the Croatian Sabor (parliament) declared independence,[24] creating the new State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs.^ Croatian American Times, October 24, 2000.
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In mid-1994, the Croatian government accepted a draft proposal for a law regulating evictions from state-owned housing, but parliament postponed indefinately a vote on the proposal.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He created his son Thela a Caesar, and this was equivalent to denouncing his subordination to the Emperor and declaring Italy independent.
  • J. B. Bury: History of the Later Roman Empire • Vol. I Chap. XII 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Pressured by the Italian army, which was entering its territory from south and west, the National Council (Narodno vijeće) started expedient negotiations with the Kingdom of Serbia and on November 23, 1918, a delegation was sent to Belgrade with the aim of a proclamation of union.^ Two agreements negotiated by the European Union (formerly the European Community - EC) are cited to support this position, i.e., the so-called Brioni Declaration signed by Croatia and Slovenia on July 7, 1991, and a November 1991 agreement signed by the Yugoslav Army and the Croatian government.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, four members of the Croatian Army were arrested and tried but subsequently set free for the murder of Mr. Damjan Zili _ on November 23, 1991, in Zagreb.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It may be wondered whether at Dyrrhachium it entered the mind of Theoderic to ship his people across to the western peninsula and attack the Italian kingdom of Odovacar in the p418 south.
  • J. B. Bury: History of the Later Roman Empire • Vol. I Chap. XII 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

The National Council delegation delivered 11 points which needed to be fulfilled for the creation of a future state.[25] .The most important of these points was the first, which referred to the need of a constitution for the new state, a proposal that was passed with a two thirds majority.^ Vjesnik and Slobodna Dalmacija are the major newspaper publishing houses in Croatia, and both are controlled, directly and indirectly, by the government.The distribution of print media is the monopoly of Tisak, the state-owned chain which controls about two-thirds of the newspaper kiosks in Croatia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ [The decision to restrict these rights is made by] the Parliament of the Republic of Croatia, with a two-thirds vote of all representatives, and, if the parliament cannot meet, the president of the Republic [is empowered to make this decision.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That is, whether it sets out for these people citizenship regulations that are separate from those that apply to other individuals currently seeking to move to the new state.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.Eventually, a constitution for a centralized state was passed with a majority of 50% + 1 vote and caused the end of state autonomy.^ The perpetrator may be held in detention until the cause for detention has ended or up to fifteen days has passed (Article 146(3)).
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 1 December 1918, the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, colloquially known as Kingdom of Yugoslavia, was created.^ Bennett, Linda A. Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in Washington, D.C. A Perspective on Ethnicity.
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mladineo, Ivan D. The National Directory of Croat-Slovene-Serb Organizations, Insitutions, business, Professional and Social Leaders In The U.S. and Canada .
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This decision created public outcry among Croats, which started a political upheaval for the restoration of state autonomy by the leadership of the Croatian Peasant Party.^ Croatian Peasant Party 30th Anniversary.
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Milovan _ibl, director of the Croatian News Agency HINA and a member of the aforementioned committee, said that the committee "will not interfere with the editorial decisions of the respective publications."
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Feral Tribune was registered as an independent publication in April 1993 with the Croatian government's Ministry of Culture and Education and started publishing on a bi-monthly basis in June 1993.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

Brela in Makarska riviera. Organized tourism began here in 1937 when the first hotels were built
The unhealthy political situation in Yugoslavia became much worse after Stjepan Radić, the president of CPP, was killed in the Yugoslav parliament building in 1928 by Serbian ultranationalist Puniša Račić.
The ensuing chaotic period ended the next year when King Alexander abolished the Constitution, prorogued the Parliament and introduced a personal dictatorship. .The next four years of the Yugoslav regime were described by Albert Einstein in 1931 as a "horrible brutality which is being practised upon the Croatian People".[26] During the dictatorship, Vladko Maček, leader of the Croatian Peasant Party, was imprisoned, only becoming free after king Alexander was killed in a plot organized by the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization.^ Croatian Peasant Party 30th Anniversary.
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Croatia declared independence from communist Yugoslavia in 1991 and gained full independence after the four-year Serbo-Croatian War.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Poljana, probably in late 1991 during the war between Serbian insurgents and the Yugoslav Army and Croatian government forces.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.Upon Maček's release, the political situation was restored to that before the murder of Stjepan Radić, continuing Croatian demands for autonomy.^ Human Rights Watch/Helsinki calls upon the Croatian government to abide by its obligations under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR).
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Croatian question was solved only on August 26, 1939 by the Cvetković-Maček Agreement, when Croatia received autonomy and an extension of its borders and Maček became Yugoslav vice-prime minister.^ Two agreements negotiated by the European Union (formerly the European Community - EC) are cited to support this position, i.e., the so-called Brioni Declaration signed by Croatia and Slovenia on July 7, 1991, and a November 1991 agreement signed by the Yugoslav Army and the Croatian government.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Article 26, which may have been intended to address exceptional cases involving national security questions, had been used to deny scores of non-Croats Croatian citizenship.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, following the expulsion of Bosnian Croats and Muslims from their homes in the Bosnian Serb-held city of Banja Luka in August 1995, the Croatian government has reportedly been allowing Croats to enter Croatia but has only accepted a small number of Muslims, most of whom remain on the Croatian-Bosnian border.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

The ensuing peace was terminated by the German invasion of 1941.

World War II

.The German invasion of 6 April 1941 achieved victory over the Royal Yugoslav Army in little more than ten days, ending with the unconditional surrender of the Royal Yugoslav Army on April 17. The territory of Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and the region of Syrmia became a puppet state of Nazi Germany[27][28] called the Independent State of Croatia.^ V.P. and her mother - both Croats - are the daughter and wife of a former Yugoslav Army officer - a Serb - who left Croatia in late August 1991 when the Yugoslav Army was withdrawing from Croatia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Two agreements negotiated by the European Union (formerly the European Community - EC) are cited to support this position, i.e., the so-called Brioni Declaration signed by Croatia and Slovenia on July 7, 1991, and a November 1991 agreement signed by the Yugoslav Army and the Croatian government.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Women from many countries, including Russia , Serbia and Montenegro , Romania , Bosnia and Herzegovina and other Eastern European countries are trafficked by truck or boat to Croatia .
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Istria, the port city of Rijeka, and a portion of Dalmatia up to Split were occupied by Italy.^ The largest number of military apartments in Croatia are located in the cities of Zagreb, Split, Pula, Zadar, Rijeka and Karlovac.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

Baranja and Medjumurje were occupied by Hungary. Although the recently returned exiled Ustashe was in charge of the new regime, the Axis occupiers initially offered the state leadership to Vladko Maček, the leader of the Croatian Peasants' Party (HSS), but he refused. .Only one day after entering Zagreb, on April 17, 1941, Ante Pavelić proclaimed that all people who offended, or tried to offend against the Croatian nation were guilty of treason — a crime punishable by death.^ It punishes all Serbs who remained in "enemy" territory during the war, although they may not have committed any domestic or internationally-recognized crime.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thenext day, then commander of the Croatian armed forces in Slavonia, Branimir Glava_, 151 entered the paper's offices with ten heavily armed Croatian Army soldiers and ordered all those present to leave.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, four members of the Croatian Army were arrested and tried but subsequently set free for the murder of Mr. Damjan Zili _ on November 23, 1991, in Zagreb.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

[29] .The Ustashe regime introduced anti-Semitic Nuremberg-style[citation needed] laws, and also conducted massacres of mostly Serbs and other non-Croats,[30] as well as running concentration camps such as the one at Jasenovac and Stara Gradiska where opponents of the Ustashe regime and other 'undesirables' were held.^ The Bosnian-Croat "friendship agreement" cannot overrule the obligation of non-refoulement, 98 which is customary international law.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Of the 2,516, 1,991 were Serbs, forty-six were Croats, three were Muslims and fifteen were members of other ethnic groups.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1993 and 1994, violence against Serbs in Croatia declined, and the most serious problem facing the Serbs and other minorities in Croatia at that time was the denial of citizenship to some non-Croats and those not born in Croatia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

[31] Catholic priests who were involved in the Ustashe movement, particularly the notorious Father Miroslav Filipović were defrocked. .However, others such as the Archbishop of Zagreb Alojzije Stepinac not only condemned Ustashe crimes in his sermons but also offered refuge and protection to persecuted Serbs and Jews.^ In other cases, the local military housing commissions revoke a tenant's rights to occupy a military apartment, despite the fact that only a court of law can rescind such rights.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Violations of the Geneva Conventions and other rules of war, and accountability for such crimes, have been and will continue to be documented in other Human Rights Watch/Helsinki reports.
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^ However, the "law of forgiveness" has been applied inconsistently and trials of insurgent Serbs and others continue, often in absentia .
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Jewish Virtual Library estimates that between 45,000 and 52,000 Croatian Serbs were killed at Jasenovac and that between 330,000 and 390,000 Serbs were victims of the entire genocide campaign.^ Sisak The field staff of the U.N. Special Rapporteur have received several reports of the killings of Serbs which the Croatian authorities have failed to investigate or prosecute appropriately.
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^ [But] why are there 6,000 apartments with Serbs inside and you, Croatian invalids [i.e., veterans handicapped as a result of the war], haven't got any?"
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[32]
.The remnants of the Royal Yugoslav Army, later reorganized into the predominantly Serbian Chetniks, offered resistance to the Nazi occupation and their Ustashe collaborators, but the Yugoslav Royalist Chetniks soon started collaborating with Nazis and Fascist Italy.^ Poljana, probably in late 1991 during the war between Serbian insurgents and the Yugoslav Army and Croatian government forces.
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^ Because a majority of the Yugoslav Army's officer corps was Serbian and many of those employed by it in Croatia were non-Croats, the residents of Yugoslav Army-owned apartments in Croatia were primarily non-Croats.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.Civil war broke out.^ For example, a defendant - most often a Serb who was born in, and was a citizen of, Croatia - resigned or was dismissed from his or her job after war broke out and travelled to Serbia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

Later, in response to Hitler's surprise "Operation Barbarossa" attack on the Soviet Union, a massive uprising began on June 22, 1941 with the creation of 1st Sisak Partisan Detachment. .The leadership of the Yugoslav partisan movement was in the hands of Croat Josip Broz Tito, whose policy of brotherhood and unity would in the end defeat not only the Axis occupiers, but also their various collaborators in the armed forces of the Independent State of Croatia and other quislings (which could be found in every Yugoslav social and national group).^ Refusal of citizenship, job dismissals and other forms of discrimination have socially, economically and politically marginalized thousands of non-Croats who have lived in Croatia for many years or decades.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In other cases, the local military housing commissions revoke a tenant's rights to occupy a military apartment, despite the fact that only a court of law can rescind such rights.
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^ Article 16 of the Constitution of the Republic of Croatia states: "Freedoms and rights can be restricted only by law in order to protect the freedoms and rights of other people, the rule of law, public morals and [public] health."
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.The victory of Tito's partisans against the Nazi occupiers and their allies resulted in the massacres of those Croatian Domobran (Home Guard) and Ustashe who were repatriated from Austria by the British 8th Army.^ Indeed, Croatian law expressly states that due process must be afforded to those who face eviction.
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^ Those Bosnian Croats who were repatriated were given HVO uniforms and sent to the front.
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^ They went only to the Serbs' homes and to the homes of those persons who had left [Croatia] with the JNA [but whose families remained in Split].
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the decade after World War II, up to 350,000 ethnic Italians left Yugoslavia.^ Roucek, J. S. Foreign-Language Press in World War II. Sociology and Social Research, XXVII, July-August, 1943 1943, 462-471.
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[33]
.The number of World War II victims in Yugoslavia remains a source of much controversy amongst Serb and Croat nationalist academics and historians on the one side, and independent researchers, mostly notably Vladimir Žerjavić (a Croat) and Bogoljub Kočović (a Serb), on the other.^ The amended Law on Foreigners has created the opportunity for victims of trafficking to remain in Croatia with temporary residency status for 90 days to one year.
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^ Of the 2,516, 1,991 were Serbs, forty-six were Croats, three were Muslims and fifteen were members of other ethnic groups.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Of the 133 pardoned, eighty-eight were Serbs, forty-one were Croats and four were members of other ethnic groups.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

[34]

Socialist Yugoslavia

.Modern Croatia was founded on AVNOJ anti-fascist partisans' principles during the second world war, and it became a constitutional federal republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.^ Article 16, Constitution of the Republic of Croatia.
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^ The constitution also allows the country's parliament or president to restrict certain constitutional rights and guarantees during "a state of war or an immediate danger to the independence and unity of the Republic, or in the event of some national disaster."
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^ Article 17 of the Croatian Constitution states: In times of war, immediate danger to the independence and unity of the Republic or during major natural disasters, certain freedoms and laws guarantees by the Constitution can be restricted.
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[35] .A single-party socialist state was established but, because of the Tito-Stalin split, economic and personal freedom were better than in the Eastern Bloc.^ Obligations With Respect to Persons Who May Also Have Links to Another State or Republic Avoidance of statelessness does not exhaust the responsibilities of the new states with respect to persons who may have links to more than one republic or state.
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.From the 1950s, the Socialist Republic of Croatia enjoyed an autonomy under the rule of the local Communist elite, but in 1967 a group of influential Croatian poets and linguists published a Declaration on the Status and Name of the Croatian Standard Language.^ Article 14 of the Croatian Constitution guarantees equality for all citizens: "Everyone in the Republic of Croatia shall enjoy rights and freedoms, regardless of race, color, gender, language, religion, political or other belief.
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^ Prpic, George J. Croatia and the Croatians : an English-language bibliography and reference guide .
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^ Nikola Viskovi _ , a professor at Split's Law School and a former member of Croatia's parliament, has been a vociferous critic of the ruling HDZparty and local and republic governments' tolerance of, or responsibility for, continuing human rights abuses in Croatia.
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.After 1968 the patriotic goals of that document morphed into a generic Croatian movement for more rights for Croatia, greater civil rights and demands for the decentralization of the economy.^ Freedom of expression is guaranteed by Article 19(2) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), which Croatia ratified.
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^ Croatia, Bosnia-Hercegovina, Slovenia and Macedonia have either expressly acceded to most international human rights documents or have acknowledged their applicability.
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^ Human Rights Monitoring · Work with domestic human rights activists in Croatia with a view to strengthening the rule of law and increasing respect for civil and political rights in Croatia.
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.In the end the Yugoslav leadership interpreted the Croatian Spring as a restoration of Croatian nationalism, dismissed the movement as chauvinistic and arrested most of its important leaders.^ The most frequent form of punishment for the commission of crimes or human rights abuses by a Croatian police officer or soldier has been dismissal.
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^ Because of a lack of a Nation-State, Croatians were in most cases identified by the country that ruled them and were not accorded a place in history.
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.In 1974, a new Yugoslav federal constitution was ratified that gave more autonomy to the individual republics, thereby basically fulfilling the main goals of the Croatian Spring.^ Those excluded are individuals who, while the SFRJ was a unified state, took up residence in a former Yugoslav republic that did not coincide with his or her ethno-national identity and now find themselves resident in a new state in which their ethnicity/nationality is not the dominant one.
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^ Indeed, many Serbs point out that the Croatian government continues to prosecute individual Serbs and members of the government of the self-proclaimed "Serbian Republic of Krajina" and its armed forces.
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^ Ethnically they were always Croatians, but in immigration Croatians were identified by America, Canada, South America, South Africa, New Zealand and Australia as above or in recent times as Yugoslavs and were recorded as such.
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Independent Croatia

Nationalistic sentiment, which would bring an end to the Yugoslav federation, had been widespread among various ethnicities for some years. .Albanian demands in 1981 for Kosovo to be removed from Serbia and transformed to a constituent republic within Yugoslavia led to riots,[36] and similar attitudes surfaced among other nations with the Serbian SANU Memorandum in 1986; Croatia and Slovenia also responded negatively in 1989 after Serbia's leader Slobodan Milošević organized coups in Vojvodina, Kosovo and Montenegro to install authorities who would be loyal to his cause.^ If interpreted broadly, the law would allow for the prosecution of Serbian soldiers who, by virtue of their military affiliation with rebel Serbian forces, obstructed the establishment of Croatian government authority in areas under Serbian control and forced non-Serbs from their homes.
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^ In other instances, violations of civil and political rights are associated with Croatia's communist past and its status as a republic of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Socijalisti ...
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Human Rights Watch/Helsinki expresses its appreciation to organizations, groups and individuals active in Croatia's human rights movement, to other non-governmental and refugee organizations, and to members of Croatia's political and ethnic and national communities for their assistance with this report.
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.Under the influence of Slobodan Milošević's propaganda, the importance of who won the first Croatian multi-party elections in 50 years was diminished.^ President Tudjman and Croatia's ruling political party, the Croatian Democratic Union (Hrvatska Demokratska Zajednica - HDZ), came to power following multi-party elections in Croatia in April and May 1990.
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^ Journalists who have written critically about members of the Croatian government have been investigated or charged under the criminal and civil codes.
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^ Memories of a Star who quit 50 years ago.
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Allegedly, Serbs had influenced both Croatian nationalist leader Franjo Tuđman and communist leader Ivica Račan.[37] The electoral win of Franjo Tuđman further inflamed the situation. .Croatian Serbs left the Croatian parliament and created the Association of the Municipalities of Northern Dalmatia and Lika in Knin.^ If a significant number of Serbs do not return to Croatia or if the Croatian government obstructs their repatriation, 38 Serbs will no longer be guaranteed proportional respresentation in parliament.
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^ Eterovich, Adam S. Croatians from Dalmatia and Montenegrin Serbs in the West and South, 1800-1900 .
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This was later to become the Republika Srpska Krajina. .On the events of 1990–92, Milan Babić, president of Republika Srpska Krajina, was later to declare that he had been "strongly influenced and misled by Serbian propaganda".[38] These events culminated in the full scale Croatian War of Independence between 1991 and 1995. The conflict ended with Operation Storm (known in Croatian as Oluja) in the summer of 1995. The events of August 1995 remain the subject of several cases before the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, regarding the conduct of the victorious Croatian Army and the exodus of ethnic Serbs.^ Croatian women were drastically affected by the war, which ended in 1995.
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^ Croatia declared independence from communist Yugoslavia in 1991 and gained full independence after the four-year Serbo-Croatian War.
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^ Full-scale war between rebel Serbs and Croatian armed forces broke out after Croatia declared its independence from the former SFRJ on June 25, 1991.
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[39]
.Croatia was internationally recognized on 15 January 1992 by the European Union and the United Nations.^ As a result of the aggression on the Republic of Croatia, it was not feasible to exercise control over the entire internationally-recognized territory of the Republic of Croatia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Under the January 1992 ceasefire agreement, commonly known as the "Vance plan," troops of the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) were deployed in three regions of Croatia, starting in mid-May.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Independent Railway Union of Croatia, was murdered outside his home in Zagreb on December 17, 1992.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.During that time, Croatia controlled less than two thirds of its legal territory.^ As a result of the aggression on the Republic of Croatia, it was not feasible to exercise control over the entire internationally-recognized territory of the Republic of Croatia.
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^ Vjesnik and Slobodna Dalmacija are the major newspaper publishing houses in Croatia, and both are controlled, directly and indirectly, by the government.The distribution of print media is the monopoly of Tisak, the state-owned chain which controls about two-thirds of the newspaper kiosks in Croatia.
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^ A third article requiring the uninterrupted residence of at least five years on the territory of the Republic of Croatia was dropped from the revised citizenship law on May 8, 1992.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

The first country to recognize Croatia was Iceland on 19 December 1991.[40]

Geography

An old map of Croatia
.Croatia is located between South-Central Europe and Middle Europe.^ Gunyon, R. E. The Wines of Central and South-Eastern Europe.
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^ Gunyon, R. E. The Wines of Central and South-Eastern Europe .
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.Its shape resembles that of a crescent or a horseshoe, which flanks its neighbours Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro.^ Women from many countries, including Russia , Serbia and Montenegro , Romania , Bosnia and Herzegovina and other Eastern European countries are trafficked by truck or boat to Croatia .
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To the north lie Slovenia and Hungary; Italy lies across the Adriatic Sea. Its mainland territory is split in two non-contiguous parts by the short coastline of Bosnia and Herzegovina around Neum.
Its terrain is diverse, including:
Phytogeographically, Croatia belongs to the Boreal Kingdom and is shared between the Central European and Illyrian provinces of the Circumboreal Region and the Adriatic province of the Mediterranean Region. .According to the WWF, the territory of Croatia can be subdivided into three ecoregions: the Pannonian mixed forests, Dinaric Mountains mixed forests and Illyrian deciduous forests.^ The Law on Punishable Acts of Subversive and Terrorist Activity Against the State Sovereignty and Territorial Integrity of the Republic of Croatia went into effect on November 4, 1992.
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The country is famous for its many national parks. Croatia has a mixture of climates. .In the north and east it is continental, Mediterranean along the coast and a semi-highland and highland climate in the south-central region.^ Human Rights in the OSCE Region: The Balkans, the Caucasus, Europe, Central Asia and North America Report, International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights, 2001.
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^ East Central and Southeast Europe, A Handbook of Library and Archival Resources in North America.
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Istra has a temperate climate, while the Palagruža archipelago is home to a subtropical climate.
Island of Mljet
Lučice Bay near Milna, Brač
Trakošćan Castle
Dubrovnik's Old City, a UNESCO World Heritage Site and major tourist attraction
Insular Croatia consists of over one thousand islands varying in size. .The largest islands in Croatia are Cres and Krk which are located in the Adriatic Sea.^ The largest number of military apartments in Croatia are located in the cities of Zagreb, Split, Pula, Zadar, Rijeka and Karlovac.
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The Danube, Europe's second longest river, runs through the city of Vukovar. Dinara, the eponym of the Dinaric Alps, is the highest peak of Croatia at 1,831 metres (6,007 ft) above sea level.[41]
.Karst topography makes up more than 50% of Croatia[42] and is especially obvious in the area south of Karlovac[43].^ Most of western Hercegovina is overwhelmingly populated by Croats and many Croats from this area joined the Croatian Army, especially during the war in Croatia in 1991.
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There are 49 caves deeper than 250 m (820.21 ft) in Croatia, 14 of them are deeper than 500 m (1,640.42 ft) and three deeper than 1,000 m (3,280.84 ft) (the Lukina jama-Trojama, Slovacka jama and Velebita cave systems). The deepest Croatian pits are mostly found in two regions – Mt. Velebit and Mt. Biokovo.[44]

Counties

Croatia is divided into 20 counties (županija) and the capital city of Zagreb:
Anglicized name Native name
1 Zagreb Zagrebačka
2 Krapina-Zagorje Krapinsko-zagorska
3 Sisak-Moslavina Sisačko-moslavačka
4 Karlovac Karlovačka
5 Varaždin Varaždinska
6 Koprivnica-Križevci Koprivničko-križevačka
7 Bjelovar-Bilogora Bjelovarsko-bilogorska
8 Primorje-Gorski Kotar   Primorsko-goranska
9 Lika-Senj Ličko-senjska
10 Virovitica-Podravina Virovitičko-podravska
11 Požega-Slavonia Požeško-slavonska
12 Brod-Posavina Brodsko-posavska
13 Zadar Zadarska
14 Osijek-Baranja Osječko-baranjska
15 Šibenik-Knin Šibensko-kninska
16 Vukovar-Srijem Vukovarsko-srijemska
17 Split-Dalmatia Splitsko-dalmatinska
18 Istria Istarska
19 Dubrovnik-Neretva Dubrovačko-neretvanska
20 Međimurje Međimurska
21 City of Zagreb Grad Zagreb

World Heritage Sites

Government and politics

Banski dvori – 2-story baroque building which was the residence of Croatian bans from 1809 until 1918
.Since the adoption of the 1990 Constitution, Croatia has been a democracy.^ Croatia adopted a new constitution on December 21, 1990, which abolished the death penalty.
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Between 1990 and 2000 it had a semi-presidential system, and since 2000 it has a parliamentary system.
.The President of the Republic (Predsjednik) is the head of state, directly elected to a five-year term and is limited by the Constitution to a maximum of two terms.^ The constitution also allows the country's parliament or president to restrict certain constitutional rights and guarantees during "a state of war or an immediate danger to the independence and unity of the Republic, or in the event of some national disaster."
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^ A third article requiring the uninterrupted residence of at least five years on the territory of the Republic of Croatia was dropped from the revised citizenship law on May 8, 1992.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The lawprovides for the establishment of a Council of Telecommunications, which is in charge of concessions of frequencies and is composed of nine members (four for three-year terms and five for five-year terms).
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.In addition to being the commander in chief of the armed forces, the president has the procedural duty of appointing the Prime minister with the consent of the Parliament, and has some influence on foreign policy.^ Unlike in 1992, however, those Muslims being repatriated to Bosnia were not allowed to travel freely or to join the armed forces of their choice.
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^ Serbian forces currently fighting in Croatia and Bosnia often are referred to as " ,, etniks" by Croats, Muslims and some Serbs opposed to their policies.
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^ The proposed law would protect from slander the country's president, the president of the parliament, the prime minister and the president of the constitutional court.
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His official residence is Predsjednički dvori. Apart from that he has summer residences on the islands of Vanga (Brijuni islands) and the island of Hvar.
.The Croatian Parliament (Sabor) is a unicameral legislative body (a second chamber, the "House of Counties", which was set up by the Constitution of 1990, was abolished in 2001).^ In mid-1994, the Croatian government accepted a draft proposal for a law regulating evictions from state-owned housing, but parliament postponed indefinately a vote on the proposal.
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^ Currently, the higher house of the Croatian parliament - formed in March 1993 - is the House of Counties ( ñ upanijski dom) which represents Croatia's twenty-one counties ( ñ upanije).
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^ Croatia adopted a new constitution on December 21, 1990, which abolished the death penalty.
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.The number of the Sabor's members can vary from 100 to 160; they are all elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms.^ The lawprovides for the establishment of a Council of Telecommunications, which is in charge of concessions of frequencies and is composed of nine members (four for three-year terms and five for five-year terms).
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^ Of the above-listed number of murders between 1992 and July 1, 1993, the criminal offense of murder was committed by thirty-four members of the police force, while the criminal offense of attempted murder was committed by tenmembers.
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The plenary sessions of the Sabor take place from January 15 to July 15, and from September 15 to December 15.
.The Croatian Government (Vlada) is headed by the Prime minister who has two deputy prime ministers and fourteen ministers in charge of particular sectors of activity.^ Journalists who have written critically about members of the Croatian government have been investigated or charged under the criminal and civil codes.
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^ Other state-owned Croatian dailies provided news that primarily focused on government activity.
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^ Non-governmental organizations did not exist openly during the communist era and some segments of society and the government equate "non-governmental" civic activity as "anti-governmental" or "anti-Croatian."
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.The executive branch is responsible for proposing legislation and a budget, executing the laws, and guiding the foreign and internal policies of the republic.^ This policy statement identifies some of the considerations that we urge all ex-republics to take into account in fashioning their laws.
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^ APPENDIX C: Human Rights Watch/Helsinki Policy Statement on Citizenship Legislation in the Republics of the Former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRJ) .
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Government's official residence is at Banski dvori.

Law

.Croatia has a three-tiered judicial system, consisting of the Supreme Court, County courts, and Municipal courts.^ When Croatia was still part of the SFRJ, the republic's parliament consisted of three chambers: 1.
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^ Although Croatia's legal and judicial community generally has strived to develop and maintain its independence and impartiality, the court system is still not free of ethnic bias and political manipulation.
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^ After the military court has rendered its judgment, the defendant has the right to appeal to the Supreme Court of Croatia.
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The Constitutional Court rules on matters regarding the Constitution. Law enforcement in Croatia is the responsibility of the Croatian police force, which is under the control of the Ministry of the Interior.[45][46] In recent years, the force has been undergoing a reform with assistance from international agencies, including the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe since its mission to Croatia began on 18 April 1996.[45]
.Legal system of Croatia is civil law, based on the legal heritage of Austria-Hungary with an influx of communist law.^ Human Rights Monitoring · Work with domestic human rights activists in Croatia with a view to strengthening the rule of law and increasing respect for civil and political rights in Croatia.
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^ Croatia was partitioned at the same time for up to 400 years between Austria, Hungary, Venice and Turkey.
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^ Although President Tudjman regularly proclaims his support for the rule of law and respect for civil and political rights, he has not been steadfast in ensuring that those rights are respected in Croatia.
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[47] Nowadays, it is almost completely harmonised with the one of the European union.

Demographics

.Croatia is inhabited mostly by Croats (89.6%), while minority groups include Serbs (4.5%), Bosniaks, Hungarians, Italians, Slovenes, Germans, Czechs, Romani people and others (5.9%).^ V.P. and her mother - both Croats - are the daughter and wife of a former Yugoslav Army officer - a Serb - who left Croatia in late August 1991 when the Yugoslav Army was withdrawing from Croatia.
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^ Of the 2,516, 1,991 were Serbs, forty-six were Croats, three were Muslims and fifteen were members of other ethnic groups.
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^ Further, Croatia has a Croatian ethnic majority, a Serbian minority (5%) that migrated to Croatian territory, Hungarians and Italians.
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[1] .For most of the 20th century, the population of Croatia has been rising from 3,430,270 in 1931 to 4,784,265 in 1991.[48] The natural growth rate of the population is currently negative[1] with the demographic transition completed in the 1970s.^ Most of western Hercegovina is overwhelmingly populated by Croats and many Croats from this area joined the Croatian Army, especially during the war in Croatia in 1991.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

[49] Average life expectancy is 75.1 years,[1] and the literacy rate is 98.1 percent.[1] .During recent years, the Croatian government is pressured each year to add 40% to work permit quotas for foreign workers[50] and in accordance with its immigration policy it is trying to entice emigrants to return [1].^ Following vociferous protests by the international community, the foreign diplomatic corps in Zagreb and UNHCR officials, the Croatian government stopped arresting and repatriating Bosnian refugees during the summer of 1993.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Employment Law for Foreigners requires that all non-Croatian citizens obtain a work permit in order to work in Croatia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Unfortunately, members of the Croatian government have sought to discredit the work of local human rights activists rather than to work with them to improve civil and political rights in Croatia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.The main religions of Croatia are Roman Catholic 88%, Orthodox 4.4%, other Christian 0.4%, Muslim 1.3%, other and unspecified 0.9%, none 5.2%.^ In numerous letters to the Croatian president and parliamentary president, Croatia's Roman Catholic archbishop, Franjo Kuhari _ , also has protested against evictions of families from state-owned housing.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In early 1994, a rapprochement between Bosnian Croats and Muslims, on the one hand, and the Republics of Croatia and Bosnia-Hercegovina on the other, decreased tensions between Muslims and Croats in general.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Human Rights Watch/Helsinki representatives also interviewed Muslims and a Bosnian Croat who had been arrested in other parts of Croatia and were then forcibly repatriated to Bosnia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.During the last decade of the 20th century the population of Croatia has been stagnating because of the Croatian War of Independence.^ Allied Prisoners of War in Croatia, 1941-1945 , Croatian information series ; no.8 .
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^ It does not address violations of the rules of war by Croatian troops in Croatia, by Serbian irregular troops in Serbian-controlled parts of Croatia or by Bosnian Croat forces in Bosnia-Hercegovina.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This report does not address violations of the rules of war perpetrated by Croatian and Serbian armed forces in Croatia nor does it address the situation of human rights in Serbian-controlled areas of Croatia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.During the war, large sections of the population were displaced and emigration increased.^ Most of western Hercegovina is overwhelmingly populated by Croats and many Croats from this area joined the Croatian Army, especially during the war in Croatia in 1991.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1991, in predominantly Serb areas, more than 400 000 Croats and other non-Serbs were either removed out of their homes by the Croatian Serb forces or fled the violence.^ V.P. and her mother - both Croats - are the daughter and wife of a former Yugoslav Army officer - a Serb - who left Croatia in late August 1991 when the Yugoslav Army was withdrawing from Croatia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Croatian government has defended its decision to deny some non-Croats and those not born in Croatia citizenship.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Treatment of Refugees · Allow Serbs displaced as a result of the Croatian Army offensives in western Slavonia to return to their homes without fear of retribution.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

[51] .During the final days of the war in 1995, more than 120,000 Serbs,[52] and perhaps as many as 200,000[53] fled before the victory by Croatian forces.^ It punishes all Serbs who remained in "enemy" territory during the war, although they may not have committed any domestic or internationally-recognized crime.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A child of Croatian parents who was born and raised in Canada and has never visited Croatia can more easily obtain Croatian citizenship than can a Serb, Muslim or Albanian who was born in a one of the other republics of the former SFRJ but has lived in Croatia for decades.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Current estimates indicate that approxiamately 200,000 Serbs fled from western Slavonia and Krajina during the Croatian Army offensives in mid-1995, and those Serbs currently remaining in government-controlled areas of Croatia are believed to comprise only 4 percent of Croatia's population.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.Only a small fraction of Serbs have returned to their homes since 1995, according to Human Rights Watch.^ Copyright © October 1995 by Human Rights Watch.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Chairman of the Croatian Helsinki Committee for Human Rights, according to Article 7, clauses 1 and 2(m) of the Croatian Criminal Code.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Human Rights Watch/Helsinki spoke to some individuals who, after having been denied citizenship, complained to a higherofficial.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

[54] .Croatia's remaining Serbs do not live in the highlands and inland of Dalmatia but in the Croatian heartland and major cities.^ The majority of the above Croatians came from Dalmatia and Istria with a strong Venetian-Italian influence.
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^ Further, Croatia has a Croatian ethnic majority, a Serbian minority (5%) that migrated to Croatian territory, Hungarians and Italians.
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^ Croatian Arms in Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia .
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Serbs have been only partially re-settled by the Croatian Government in the regions they previously inhabited.^ However, following the re-capture of the so-called Krajina region from rebel Serbian authorities in August 1995, Croatian soldiers have burned Serbian villages and destroyed property belonging to Serbs.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Feral Tribune have written critically and satirically of the Croatian government, members of the ruling HDZ party, and members of the Croatian military, particularly the military units based in Split.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Croatian Army soldiers also are responsible for criminal activity and violations of humanitarian law during and immediately afterthe Croatian government's offensives to re-capture the western Slavonia and Krajina regions in May and August 1995, respectively.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.Many of the towns previously setteled by Serbs were setteled by Croat refugeees from Bosnia and Herzegovina, moustly from Republika Srpska.^ Serbian forces currently fighting in Croatia and Bosnia often are referred to as " ,, etniks" by Croats, Muslims and some Serbs opposed to their policies.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

Economy

.Privatization and the drive toward a market economy had barely begun under the new Croatian Government when war broke out in 1991. As a result of the war, the economic infrastructure sustained massive damage, particularly the revenue-rich tourism industry.^ Feral Tribune have written critically and satirically of the Croatian government, members of the ruling HDZ party, and members of the Croatian military, particularly the military units based in Split.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While taking a number of steps to privatize former state enterprises, including the media, the Croatian government has also used economic pressures to close or obtain control over publications that are critical of the government.
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^ Indeed, many Serbs point out that the Croatian government continues to prosecute individual Serbs and members of the government of the self-proclaimed "Serbian Republic of Krajina" and its armed forces.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

[55] From 1989 to 1993, GDP fell 40.5%.[55] With the end of the war in 1995, tourism and Croatia's economy recovered moderately.[55] However, corruption, cronyism, and a general lack of transparency stymied meaningful economic reform, as well as much-needed foreign investment.[55]
Croatia's economy turned the corner in 2000 as tourism rebounded.[55] The economy expanded in 2002, stimulated by a credit boom led by newly privatized and foreign-capitalized banks, some capital investment, most importantly road construction, further growth in tourism, and gains by small and medium-sized private enterprises.[55]
Croatia has a high-income market economy.[56] International Monetary Fund data shows that Croatian nominal GDP stood at $69.357 billion, or $15,633 per capita.[3], at the same time in 2008 purchasing power parity GDP was $82.407 billion or $18,575 per capita.[3].
According to Eurostat data, Croatian PPS GDP per capita stood at 63.2 per cent of the EU average in 2008.[57] Real GDP growth in 2007 was 6.0 per cent.[58] and at the same time average gross salary of a Croatian worker during the first nine months of 2008 was 7,161 kuna (US$ 1,530) per month[59] In 2007, the International Labour Organization-defined unemployment rate stood at 9.1 per cent, after falling steadily from 14.7 percent in 2002.[60] The registered unemployment rate is higher, though, standing at 13.7 percent in December 2008.[61]
In 2009, economic output was dominated by the service sector which accounted for 73,6% percent of GDP, followed by the industrial sector with 20,5% and agriculture accounting for 5,9% of GDP.[62] According to 2004 data, 2.7 percent of the workforce were employed in agriculture, 32.8 percent by industry and 64.5 in services.[1][63]
The industrial sector is dominated by shipbuilding, food processing, pharmaceuticals, information technology, biochemical and timber industry. Tourism is a notable source of income during the summers, with over 11 million foreign tourists in 2008 generating a revenue of €8 billion.[64] Croatia is ranked as the 18th most popular tourist destination in the world.[64] In 2008 Croatia exported goods to the value of $14.4 billion (FOB) ($26.4 billion including service exports).[64]
.The Croatian state still controls a significant part of the economy, with government expenditure accounting for as much as 40% of GDP.[55] Some large, state-owned industries, such as the country's shipyards, continue to rely on government subsidies but with EU membership looming, Croatia is forced to restructure debt ridden shipyards as it is a prerequisites for Croatia before it joins the EU. Subsidies for loos making industries also reduce needed investments in to education and technology needed to ensure the economy's long-term competitiveness.^ The main source of information in Croatia is the state-owned and controlled Croatian Television company.
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^ Continued tensions between Croatian and Serbian forces in parts of Croatia, rebel Serbian control of one-third of Croatia's territory and fighting between Muslims and Croats in Bosnia in 1993 5 has been accompanied by animosity, harassment and discrimination against Serbs, Muslims and other non-Croats who are law-abiding citizens of Croatia.
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^ When such a defendant returned to territory controlled by the Croatian government, often to be reunited with family members still living in the area, he or she was arrested by the Croatian authorities and charged with violating the territorial integrity of Croatia or with the commission of war crimes.
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[55]
Of particular concern is the backlogged judiciary system, combined with inefficient public administration, especially issues of land ownership and corruption. Another main problem includes the large and growing national debt which has reached over 34 billion euro or 89.1 per cent of the nations gross domestic product.[65] .Because of these problems, studies show that the population of Croatia generally has negative expectations of the country's economic future.^ The general state of war that existed in the territory of the Republic of Croatia helped the perpetrators ofcriminal offenses and prevented the police from discovering the majority of the perpetrators of these criminal offenses.
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[66]
.Croatia has so far weathered the global financial crisis reasonably well, but faces significant challenges in 2010 largely due to Croatia's external imbalances and high foreign debt, which in longer term presents problems for Croatian financial sector due to higher cost of borrowing to cover current account deficit.^ Indeed, Croatian law expressly states that due process must be afforded to those who face eviction.
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^ On November 2-3, 1994, the Croatian Helsinki Committee for Human Rights organized a forum with non-governmental and governmental representatives to discuss the problem of illegal evictions in Croatia.
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^ The denial of citizenship to long-term residents of Croatia who are not of Croatian nationality arbitrarily strips such persons of rights they had previously enjoyed.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

[55]
The country has been preparing for membership in the European Union, its most important trading partner. .In February 2005, the Stabilisation and Association Agreement with the EU officially came into force and by the end of 2009 Croatia has closed 17 EU accessions chapters, with remaining 16 to be completed by the end of first half of 2010. Croatia is expected to join the EU sometimes in 2011 or January first 2012 together with Iceland.^ Under the January 1992 ceasefire agreement, commonly known as the "Vance plan," troops of the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) were deployed in three regions of Croatia, starting in mid-May.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In such cases, the prosecution often claims that the defendant travelled to Serbia to join the Serbian forces operating in Croatia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The efficiency of solving these criminal offenses is reflected in the rate of cases solved which was: · in 1991: 16.2 percent; · in 1992: 17.6 percent; · in the first six months of 1993: 15 percent.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

Infrastructure

A1 highway connecting Zagreb, Split and Dubrovnik
Skradin Bridge
.The highlight of Croatia's recent infrastructure developments is its rapidly growing highway network, of which plans were drawn and work commenced in the 1970s, but was realised only after independence because of the (then) Yugoslav Government plans of road projects of 'national' importance.^ Despite the somewhat independent efforts of the judiciary, Croatia's government and ruling party continue to harass and intimidate journalists because of the content of their writings, either through arrest, financial pressures, or other modes of intimidation.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Human Rights Watch/Helsinki is concerned that Danas was among the first of Vjesnik's publications to be targeted for closure by the government because of its independent and critical editorial policy.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some human rights advocates in Croatia havebeen threatened or harassed by private individuals and, in some cases, by government agents because of their human rights activity.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

Croatia has now over 1,200 km of highways connecting Zagreb to most other regions. .The best known highways are A1, connecting Zagreb to Split and A3, passing east-west through northwest Croatia and Slavonia.^ The largest number of military apartments in Croatia are located in the cities of Zagreb, Split, Pula, Zadar, Rijeka and Karlovac.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In many cases Slavonian was used in the West and South....this became an Americanism and had no relationship to Slavonia in Croatia.
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Most highways are tolled, except the Zagreb bypass and sections of A3, A7, B8 and B9. There is also a smaller and more obscure network of expressways connecting to the highways. One of the most used is the B28 expressway, connecting A4 near Zagreb to Bjelovar, but also serving as the main shunpiking alternative to the A3. The Croatian highway network is considered one of very good overall quality and excellent security, winning several EUROTAP awards.[67][68]
Croatia Airlines is the Croatian national airline
.Croatia has an extensive rail network, although because of historical circumstances, some regions (notably Istria and even more so Dubrovnik) are not accessible by train without passing through neighboring countries.^ Some human rights advocates in Croatia havebeen threatened or harassed by private individuals and, in some cases, by government agents because of their human rights activity.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

Serious investment is needed in the rail network over the coming decades to bring it up to European standards in both speed and operational efficiency. All rail services are operated by Croatian Railways (Croatian: Hrvatske željeznice). The inter-city bus network (operated by private operators) is extensively developed, with higher levels of coverage and timetables than the railways.
.Croatia has three major international airports, located in Zagreb, Split and Dubrovnik.^ Our Articles about Croatia Ports and Chartering in Croatia Sample 7 day sailing itinerary from Dubrovnik to Split .
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^ There are several ports to start your charter from in Croatia, including Dubrovnik , Split , Pula , Biograd and Zadar .
  • Croatia Overview and Charter Yachts 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.boatbookings.com [Source type: General]

^ The largest number of military apartments in Croatia are located in the cities of Zagreb, Split, Pula, Zadar, Rijeka and Karlovac.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.Other important airports include Zadar, Rijeka (on the island of Krk), Osijek, Bol, Lošinj and Pula.^ The largest number of military apartments in Croatia are located in the cities of Zagreb, Split, Pula, Zadar, Rijeka and Karlovac.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

Croatia Airlines is the national airline and flag carrier. .The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has assessed the Government of Croatia’s Civil Aviation Authority as not being in compliance with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for oversight of Croatia’s air carrier operations.^ Freedom of expression is guaranteed by Article 19(2) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), which Croatia ratified.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sixty frequencies are available to Croatia under an international telecommunications agreement but not all have been distributed by the government.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Unfortunately, members of the Croatian government have sought to discredit the work of local human rights activists rather than to work with them to improve civil and political rights in Croatia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

[69]
An extensive system of ferries, operated by Jadrolinija, serves Croatia's many islands and links coastal cities. .Ferry services to Italian cities of Venice, Ancona, Pescara and Bari from around a dozen of Croatian sea ports, most notably Rovinj, Rijeka, Zadar, Split, Korčula and Dubrovnik, is available on a daily or weekly basis.^ The largest number of military apartments in Croatia are located in the cities of Zagreb, Split, Pula, Zadar, Rijeka and Karlovac.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1992, military courts in seven Croatian cities brought charges against 8,000 persons, most of them in absentia .
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

From April to September the schedule is more dense and can include several round trips within a day.

Education

University of Zagreb
Primary education in Croatia starts at the age of six or seven and consists of eight grades. In 2007 a law was passed to increase free but not compulsory education until eighteen years of age. Compulsory education consists of eight grades ( Elementary School ) Secondary education is provided by gymnasiums and vocational schools.
.Croatia has eight universities, the University of Zagreb, University of Split, University of Rijeka, University of Osijek, University of Zadar, University of Dubrovnik the University of Pula and Dubrovnik International University.^ The largest number of military apartments in Croatia are located in the cities of Zagreb, Split, Pula, Zadar, Rijeka and Karlovac.
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^ Another party representing Serbs in Croatia is led by Zagreb University philosophy professor Milorad Pupovac.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Five local television stations with varying degrees of independence operate in Zagreb, Split, Rijeka, Osijek, ,, akovec and Opuzen.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.The University of Zadar, the first University in Croatia, was founded in 1396 and remained active until 1807, when other institutions of higher education took over until the foundation of the renewed University of Zadar in 2002. The University of Zagreb, founded in 1669, is the oldest continuously operating University in Southeastern Europe.^ The largest number of military apartments in Croatia are located in the cities of Zagreb, Split, Pula, Zadar, Rijeka and Karlovac.
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^ Another party representing Serbs in Croatia is led by Zagreb University philosophy professor Milorad Pupovac.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

There are also polytechnic and higher education institutions.
According to a survey ordered by the European commission in 2005, 49% of Croats speak English, 34% speak German, 14% Italian, 4% French and Russian and 2% Spanish language.[70]

Culture

Mediterranian Cuisine in Dalmatia
White Truffles from Istria
Croatian culture is the result of a fourteen century-long history which has seen the development of many cities and monuments. The country includes seven World Heritage sites and eight national parks. Croatia is also the birthplace of a number of historical figures. Included among the notable people are three Nobel prize winners and numerous inventors.
.Some of the world's first fountain pens came from Croatia.^ Many displaced Bosnian Croats came to Croatia as refugees, and some of these refugees attacked Bosnian Muslim refugees currently living in Croatia.
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Croatia also has a place in the history of clothing as the origin of the necktie (kravata). The country has a long artistic, literary and musical tradition. Also of interest is the diverse nature of Croatian cuisine and the famous Croatian Traditional gift Licitar.
Croatians are protective of the their Croatian language from foreign influences, the language was under constant change and threats imposed by previous rulers (i.e. Austrian German, Hungarian, Italian and Turkish words were changed and altered to "Slavic" looking/sounding ones).
.From year 1961 to year 1991, it was known as a dialect of the Serbo-Croatian language, while Croats use the Latin alphabet instead of Cyrillic of the Serbians.^ That he [or she] is familiar with the Croatian language and Latin alphabet.
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^ Serbo-Croatian was the term used in the English speaking world for the Croatian language since the end of World War 1 (1918); prior to the formation of Yugoslavia and the end of WW I, Croatia and Serbia had never been historically united, they were simply Slavic neighbors.
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^ It does not address violations of the rules of war by Croatian troops in Croatia, by Serbian irregular troops in Serbian-controlled parts of Croatia or by Bosnian Croat forces in Bosnia-Hercegovina.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Serbian and Yugoslav nationalist scholars began to impose policies to change or alter Croatian words into "Serbian" or "South Slavic" ones, which have infuriarated Croats over the purity and preservation of their native language.^ It does not address violations of the rules of war by Croatian troops in Croatia, by Serbian irregular troops in Serbian-controlled parts of Croatia or by Bosnian Croat forces in Bosnia-Hercegovina.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although V.P. is the daughter of a Croatian mother and a Serbian father, she identified herself as a Croat at the time of our interview.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Poljana, probably in late 1991 during the war between Serbian insurgents and the Yugoslav Army and Croatian government forces.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.Assumably thousands of pre-modern Croatian words had Iranian/Persian, Illyrian, Greek/Hellenic and Teutonic/Frankish origins in Croatia's ancient history of ethnolinguistic influences.^ Punishment for Subversion and Terrorism The Croatian government has tried, most frequently in absentia , thousands of Serbs accused of "endangering the territorial integrity of Croatia."
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[citation needed]

Sport

The most popular sports in Croatia are football, handball, basketball, water polo, tennis, and skiing.
The Croatian national football team won a bronze medal in the 1998 FIFA World Cup and Davor Šuker won the Golden Boot as the top goal scorer. The national football team has also played in the quarter-finals of the 1996 European Championships and the 2008 European Championships. The team is currently ranked 10th in the FIFA World Rankings (as of November 2009). The most popular football players are Luka Modrić, Darijo Srna, Ivica Olić and Eduardo.
.The Croatia national handball team is a two-time Olympic Champion (1996 and 2004).^ The Serbian National Party (Srpska Narodna Stranka - SNS), is one of two political parties that are devoted specifically to defending Serbian interests in government-controlled areas of Croatia.
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The team also won a gold medal at the 2003 World Men's Handball Championship, and silver medals in the 1995, 2003 and 2009 World Championships. Croatia won bronze medal in 1994 European Championships and silver in 2008. .RK Zagreb was a 1992 and 1993 European champion and 4 times a runner-up (1995, 1997, 1998 and 1999).^ KZ RH TERRORISM 4 1 This report provides an overview of events that occurred in 1992, 1993, and, to a lesser extent, in 1994 and 1995.
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Croatian players Ivano Balić, Igor Vori and Domagoj Duvnjak are currently among the best handball players in the world.
.The Croatian national basketball team won a silver medal at the 1992 Olympic basketball tournament, bronze medal at the 1994 FIBA World Championship and bronze medals at EuroBasket 1993 and EuroBasket 1995.^ KZ RH TERRORISM 4 1 This report provides an overview of events that occurred in 1992, 1993, and, to a lesser extent, in 1994 and 1995.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.Croatian basketball clubs were Euroleague champions 5 times: KK Split three times (in 1989, 1990 and 1991) and KK Cibona in 1985 and 1986. Croatian basketball players such as Dražen Petrović, Krešimir Ćosić and Toni Kukoč were amongst the first foreign players to succeed in the NBA in the United States.^ Ethnically they were always Croatians, but in immigration Croatians were identified by America, Canada, South America, South Africa, New Zealand and Australia as above or in recent times as Yugoslavs and were recorded as such.
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^ Nevertheless, the Croatian government allowed such abuses to continue with impunity during the first weeks following the Croatian Army's victory.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To date, the applicability of the July 1991 decree remains controversial; while some members of the Croatian government cite the decree to justify evictions, others argue that such evictions are illegal.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

The Croatia national water polo team won a gold medal at the 2007 FINA World Championships and bronze medal in 2009. The team also won a silver medal at the 1996 Olympic water polo tournament and silver medals in the 1999 and 2003 European Championships. .Croatian water polo clubs were 13 times LEN Euroleague champions.^ Croatian American Times, June 13, 2000.
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Croatian American Times , November 13, 2001.
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^ Croatian American Times , August 13, 2002.
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

HAVK Mladost from Zagreb was a seven time European Champion (in 1968, 1969, 1970, 1972, 1990, 1991 and 1996) and was awarded the title Best Club of the 20th Century by the LEN. VK Jug from Dubrovnik and VK Jadran from Split were both three time European champions.
The Croatian Davis Cup team (Ivan Ljubičić, Mario Ančić and Ivo Karlović with coach Nikola Pilić) won the 2005 Davis Cup tournament and reached semifinals in 2009 tournament (Marin Čilić and Ivo Karlović with coach Goran Prpić). Goran Ivanišević is one of the country's most popular sportsmen. Ivanišević won the 2001 Wimbledon Men's singles title and reached number 2 spot in ATP Rankings in July 1994. Ivan Ljubičić reached number 3 spot in ATP Rankings in May 2006. Iva Majoli won the 1997 Roland Garros Women's Singles title. Currently the best Croatian tennis player is Marin Čilić ranked 14th as of November 16, 2009.
Janica Kostelić is the most successful female alpine ski racer in the history of the Winter Olympic Games. She is the only woman to win four gold medals in alpine skiing at the Winter Olympics Alpine skiing events (in 2002 and 2006), and the only woman to win three alpine skiing gold medals in one Olympics (2002). She also won two slilver medals in 2006. Janica was the World Cup overall champion in 2001, 2003, and 2006. .On February 5, 2006 Janica became only the second female skier to win all five disciplines in one season.^ If one is to be re-tried at all, the second trial should constitute a whole new trial, not a form of limited review.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

She also holds the record for the highest number of points in one World Cup season. In 2006 she won Laureus World Sports Award for Sportswoman of the Year. .Her elder brother Ivica Kostelić was the 2003 World Champion in slalom and is a three-time Winter Olympic silver medalist himself.^ Ivica Kostelic Skiing World Cup, Olympics; Dario Solman Artist-Film;.
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Blanka Vlašić is the best-known Croatian track and field athlete who specialises in the high jump.^ The high unemployment rate among Croats who have citizenship is a factor in government decisions to grant work permits to non-Croats who do not possess Croatian citizenship.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

She is 2007 and 2009 World Champion. Blanka is also 2008 World Indoor Champion and 2008 Olympic silver medalist. Her personal best is 2.08 m (6 ft 9.89 in) (which is only 1 cm less than the world record) set in Zagreb at August 31, 2009.
Biathlete Jakov Fak won bronze medal in World Championships 2009 in Pyeongchang and another bronze medal in 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver. Before Fak Croatia had no success or tradition in biathlon.
.Other Croatian well-known athletes are Duje Draganja, Gordan Kožulj, Sanja Jovanović and Đurđica Bjedov in swimming, Zoran Primorac, Dragutin Šurbek, Antun Stipančić and Tamara Boroš in table tennis, Filip Ude in gymnastics, Siniša and Nikša Skelin in rowing, Martina Zubčić and Sandra Šarić in taekwondo, Snježana Pejčić in shooting, Matija Ljubek in canoeing, Željko Mavrović and Mate Parlov in boxing, Branko Cikatić and Mirko Filipović "Cro Cop" in kickboxing and UFC fighter Goran Reljic.^ SF Examiner, March 15, 1973.A well known fighter.
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In contrast, Slobodna Dalmacija printed columns and articles by, and interviews with, left-of-center and other opposition figures and columnists as well as by Croatian government supporters.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

International rankings

Organization Survey Rankning
Institute for Economics and Peace [2] Global Peace Index[71] 49 out of 144
Reporters Without Borders Worldwide Press Freedom Index 2009 78 out of 175
The Heritage Foundation/The Wall Street Journal Index of Economic Freedom 2010 92 out of 179
Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2009 66 out of 180
United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index 2009 45 out of 182

See also

References

Bibliography

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Croatia". The World Factbook. CIA. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/hr.html. Retrieved 2009-10-13. 
  2. ^ Frucht, Richard C. (2005). Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture. p. 415. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1576078000.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Croatia". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=960&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=37&pr.y=5. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  4. ^ "Human Development Report 2009". United Nations. Accessed 13 October 2009.
  5. ^ Wilkes, J. J. (1992). The Illyrians. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. p. 114. ISBN 0631198075. "... in the early history of the colony settled in 385 BC on the island Pharos (Hvar) from the Aegean island Paros, famed for its marble. In traditional fashion they accepted the guidance of an oracle, ..." 
  6. ^ Gibbon, Edward. The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Modern Library, New York, p. 335
  7. ^ J. B. Bury, History of the Later Roman Empire, §4, p. 408.
  8. ^ De Administrando Imperio, Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitos,
  9. ^ De Administrando Imperio, Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitos, chap. 31
  10. ^ Stjepan Antoljak, Pregled hrvatske povijesti, Split 1993., str. 43.
  11. ^ Opća enciklopedija JLZ. Zagreb. 1982. 
  12. ^ Recipiebant enim regie dignitatis insignia ab imperatoribus Constantinopolitanis et dicebantur eorum eparchi siue patritii
  13. ^ Kako je Ladislav prodao Dalmaciju
  14. ^ Michigan state university libraries-Steven W. Sowards:25 lectures on modern Balkan history
  15. ^ a b History of Croatian parliament on Croatian
  16. ^ Milan Kruhek: Cetin, grad izbornog sabora Kraljevine Hrvatske 1527, Karlovačka Županija, 1997, Karlovac
  17. ^ Andrew Archibald Paton (1861). Researches on the Danube and the Adriatic; Or Contributions to the Modern History of Hungary and Translvania, Dalmatia and Croatia, Servia and Bulgaria, Brockhaus
  18. ^ Timothy Hughes Rare & Early Newspapers, Item 548456
  19. ^ Zadarski list – Naslovnica
  20. ^ Jean Nouzille: Histoire de frontieres: L'Autriche et l'Empire Ottoman, page 263
  21. ^ Govor Ivana Kukuljevića Sakcinskog u Saboru 2 svibnja 1843
  22. ^ Montani, Carlo. Venezia Giulia, Dalmazia – Sommario Storico – An Historical Outline
  23. ^ Constitution of Union between Croatia-Slavonia and Hungary
  24. ^ Povijest saborovanja
  25. ^ Naputak Narodnog vijeća SHS delegaciji za pregovore i utanačenje ujedinjenja države SHS s Kraljevinom Srbijom
  26. ^ Einstein accuses Yugoslavian rulers in savant's murder, New York Times. May 6, 1931. mirror
  27. ^ Independent State of Croatia – Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  28. ^ Yugoslavia, Holocaust Encyclopedia, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
  29. ^ Independent State of Croatia laws on Croatian
  30. ^ Ustaša – Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  31. ^ Jasenovac, Holocaust Encyclopedia, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
  32. ^ Jasenovac Jewish Virtual Library. Accessed 2008-08-10. "The most reliable figures place the number of Serbs killed by the Ustaša between 330,000 and 390,000, with 45,000 to 52,000 Serbs murdered in Jasenovac."
  33. ^ Election Opens Old Wounds In Trieste. The New York Times. June 6, 1987.
  34. ^ A recent study by Vladimir Žerjavić estimates total war related deaths at 1,027,000. Bogoljub Kočović calculated that the actual war losses were 1,014,000.
  35. ^ Croatian constitution
  36. ^ Kosovo: One year after the riots
  37. ^ Dusan Bilandzic: Hrvatska moderna povijest
  38. ^ ICTY Sentencing Judgement
  39. ^ United Nations
  40. ^ "Važniji datumi iz povijesti saborovanja". Hrvatski Sabor. http://www.sabor.hr/Default.aspx?art=1769&sec=461. Retrieved 2008-04-23. 
  41. ^ "Dinara – Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering". SummitPost. http://www.summitpost.org/mountain/rock/151472/dinara.html. Retrieved 2008-05-16. 
  42. ^ http://bib.irb.hr/datoteka/434986.2009_Mallorca_Bilandzija_et_al.pdf
  43. ^ http://www.underground-istria.org/en/project/what-is-karst/
  44. ^ "Caves in Croatia". The Speleological Committee of the Croatian Mountaineering Association. http://public.carnet.hr/speleo/karta.html. Retrieved 2008-08-22. 
  45. ^ a b OSCE Mission to Croatia retrieved May 19, 2007
  46. ^ Police, Croatia retrieved May 19, 2007
  47. ^ Modernisierung durch Transfer im 19. und frühen 20. Jahrhundert Von Tomasz Giaro. http://books.google.de/books?id=I_roYQzSkVoC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Modernisierung+durch+Transfer+im+19.+und+fr%C3%BChen+20.+Jahrhundert&ei=4HlwS8WFNqa8zgSUiNSJDg&cd=1#v=onepage&q=&f=false. 
  48. ^ Vojska.net
  49. ^ Mrđen, Snježana (1998). "The demographic situation in Croatia". Geoadria 3: 29–56. http://hrcak.srce.hr/file/14991. 
  50. ^ http://www.poslovni.hr/101937.aspx
  51. ^ "Summary of judgement for Milan Martić". United Nations. 2007-06-12. http://www.un.org/icty/pressreal/2007/pr1162e-summary.htm. Retrieved 2008-06-21. 
  52. ^ "For Serbs in Croatia, a Pledge Unkept". nytimes.com. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E00EFD7113AF935A25752C0A9669C8B63. Retrieved 2000-01-16. 
  53. ^ BBC NEWS
  54. ^ "refugee-rights@hrea.org – Croatia: Plight of returning Serb refugees may slow EU bid". Hrea.org. http://www.hrea.org/lists/refugee-rights/markup/msg00610.html. Retrieved 2009-01-03. 
  55. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Background Note: Croatia". U.S. Department of state. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3166.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-04. 
  56. ^ World Bank Country Classifications 2008
  57. ^ "GDP per capita in PPS". Eurostat. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_PUBLIC/2-25062009-BP/EN/2-25062009-BP-EN.PDF. Retrieved 2009-06-25. 
  58. ^ "Real GDP growth rate". Eurostat. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page?_pageid=1996,39140985&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL&screen=detailref&language=en&product=STRIND_ECOBAC&root=STRIND_ECOBAC/ecobac/eb012. Retrieved 2008-05-21. 
  59. ^ "Plaće nominalno veće, ali realno u padu" (in Croatian). Suvremena.hr. 2008-11-06. http://www.suvremena.hr/9044.aspx. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
  60. ^ "Unemployment rate – total". Eurostat. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page?_pageid=1996,39140985&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL&screen=detailref&language=en&product=STRIND_EMPLOI&root=STRIND_EMPLOI/emploi/em071. Retrieved 2008-03-09. 
  61. ^ "Bulletin 134". Croatian National Bank. February 2008. http://www.hnb.hr/publikac/bilten/arhiv/bilten-134/ebilt134.pdf?tsfsg=b65a34caa3a314c04e2cba8c626caa79. Retrieved 2008-03-22. 
  62. ^ "Croatian Chamber of Economy Brochure for year 2009". http://www2.hgk.hr/en/pdf/croatia_bussines_partner_2009.pdf. 
  63. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database". International Monetary Fund. October 2007. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2007/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=27&pr.y=10&sy=2004&ey=2008&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=960&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CPPPSH%2CPPPEX%2CLP&grp=0&a=. Retrieved 2008-03-09. 
  64. ^ a b c "UNWTO World Tourism Barometer". October 2007. http://www.unwto.org/facts/eng/pdf/barometer/UNWTO_Barom07_3_en.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-23. 
  65. ^ Analysis: Despite debt, Croatia "not under financial collapse threat"
  66. ^ Gallup Balkan monitor:2008 Summary of findings
  67. ^ "EuroTest". Eurotestmobility.com. http://www.eurotestmobility.com/news.php?item=25&PHPSESSID=a7d9b4decd981bb3cdc3494656b0104d. Retrieved 2009-01-03. 
  68. ^ "Brinje Tunnel Best European Tunnel – Croatia – Javno". Javno.com. http://www.javno.com/en/croatia/clanak.php?id=38990. Retrieved 2009-01-03. 
  69. ^ U.S. Department of State
  70. ^ "Europeans and their languages – European commission special barometer FEB2006". http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_243_en.pdf. Retrieved 2010-01-05. 
  71. ^ "Vision of Humanity". Vision of Humanity. http://www.visionofhumanity.org/gpi/home.php. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 

Further reading

.
  • Agičić et al., Povijest i zemljopis Hrvatske, priručnik za hrvatske manjinske škole (History and Geography of Croatia, a handbook for Croatian minority schools), Biblioteka Geographica Croatica, 292 pages, Zagreb:2000 (ISBN 953-6235-40-4) (Croatian)
  • Branka Magaš. "Croatia Through History: The Making of a Modern European State" Saqi. November 2007, 680pp.
  • Ivo Banac, The National Question in Yugoslavia: Origins, History, Politics Cornell University Press, 1984.
  • Mirjana Kasapović (ed.^ Matica Zagreb , November 2000.
    • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Matica Zagreb, November 2000.
    • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Berkeley: University of Calif.Press, 1984.
    • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ), Hrvatska politika 1990.-2000. Zagreb: Hrvatska politologija 2001.
  • Pavol Demes and Jörg Forbrig (eds.), .Reclaiming Democracy: Civil Society and Electoral Change in Central and Eastern Europe. German Marshall Fund, 2007. ISBN 978-80-969639-0-4
  • Sharon Fisher, Political Change in Post-Communist Slovakia and Croatia: From Nationalist to Europeanist.^ In other instances, violations of civil and political rights are associated with Croatia's communist past and its status as a republic of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Socijalisti ...
    • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

    New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006 ISBN 1 4039 7286 9

External links

Government
General information
Tourism
Other

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Balkans : Croatia
Cathedral of Saint Jacob in Šibenik
Location
noframe
Flag
Image:Hr-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Zagreb
Government parliamentary democracy
Currency kuna (HRK)
Area 56,542 sq km
Population 4,493,312 (July 2007 est.)
Language Croatian 96%, other 4% (including Serbian, Italian, Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, and German)
Religion Roman Catholic 87.8%, Orthodox 4.4%, Muslim 1.3%, other Christian 0.4%, others and unknown 6.1%
Electricity 230V/50Hz (European plug)
Calling Code +385
Internet TLD .hr
Time Zone UTC +1
.Croatia [1] (Croatian: Hrvatska) is a country in the Balkans on the east side of the Adriatic Sea, to the east of Italy.^ Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits; most Adriatic Sea islands lie off the coast of Croatia - some 1,200 islands, islets, ridges, and rocks .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Croatia 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Traditional Croatian Music Croatia is a country with wealthy cultural heritage which is mostly shown in Croatian folk music.
  • Places in Croatia UNESCO Marked as World Heritage 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Under Croatian law, the Ministry of Sea, Tourism and Transport can only recognize licenses issued by the national authorities of other countries.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is surrounded by Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the north, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the southeast, Serbia in the east, and Montenegro to the south.^ It lies along the east coast of the Adriatic Sea and shares a border with Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Hungary, and Slovenia.
  • Croatia (09/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2008, the Adriatic Charter expanded to include two new countries, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro.
  • Croatia (09/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Orthodox, predominantly ethnic Serbs associated with the Serbian Orthodox Church, primarily live in cities and border areas with Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia and Montenegro.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Map of Croatia
Map of Croatia
.There are three regions of croatia: Lowland Croatia (croatian: "Nizinska Hrvatska"), Littoral Croatia (cr.^ The three centuries of the Ottoman occupation of Croatia represented a devastating disaster for Croatia and the Croatian nation, which had not been experienced by any East European nation before.
  • History of Jihad against the Croats and Slovenes (1389 - 1699) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.historyofjihad.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The culture of Croatia has roots in a long history: the Croatian people have been inhabiting the area for fourteen centuries, but there are important r...
  • Places in Croatia UNESCO Marked as World Heritage 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The flag of the Republic of Croatia consists of three colors: red, white and blue, with the historical Croatian coat-of-arms in the center.
  • THE CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

"Primorska Hrvatska") and Mountainish Croatia (cr. "Gorska Hrvatska").
Littoral Croatia is made of north and south Croatian coastline: Northern coastline consists of:
  • Istria (cr. "Istra") - a peninsula in the northwest, bordering Slovenia
  • Kvarner - seashore and highlands north of Dalmatia
Southern coastline consists of only:
Lowland Croatia consists of:
  • Slavonia (cr. ."Slavonija")- northeastern area of forests and fields, bordering Hungary, Serbia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Central Croatia (cr.^ Its area of operation was northeastern Bosnia, western Serbia, and southern Sirmium.
    • Croatian Volunteers in the German Wehrmacht in WWII 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.feldgrau.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Its area which underwent many changes owing to annexations consisted of what are today the Federative Republic of Croatia and the Federative Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a total of approximately 38,600 square miles (100,000 sq km).
    • Encyclopedia of the Holocaust: Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC emperors-clothes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Bosnia and Herzegovina 932 km, Hungary 329 km, Serbia 241 km, Montenegro 25 km, Slovenia 455 km .
    • CIA - The World Factbook -- Croatia 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    "Središnja Hrvatska") - north central highlands, location of Zagreb and the Croatian part of the Žumberak
  • Zagreb - the capital and largest city.
  • Dubrovnik - historic coastal city and UNESCO World Heritage site.
  • Split- ancient port city with Roman ruins.
  • Pula - biggest town in Istria with the Roman amphitheater (commonly called Arena)
  • Osijek - capital of Slavonia and an important city.
  • Slavonski Brod -
  • Rijeka - Croatia's largest and main port
  • Varaždin - Croatia's former Baroque capital.
  • Zadar - biggest city of north-central Dalmatia with rich history
  • Krka National Park - a river valley near Šibenik
  • Kornati National Park
  • Island of Hvar
  • Island of Brač
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has included the following Croatian sites on its World Heritage List:

Understand

Climate

.Northern Croatia has a temperate continental climate whereas central, semi-mountainous and mountainous regions have a mountainous climate.^ In the north it is continental, Mediterranean along the coast, and a semi-highland and highland climate in the central region.
  • Croatia (09/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the north and east it is continental, Mediterranean along the coast and a semi-highland and highland climate in the south-central region.

.The entire Adriatic coast has a pleasant Mediterranean climate.^ In the north it is continental, Mediterranean along the coast, and a semi-highland and highland climate in the central region.
  • Croatia (09/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Spring and autumn are mild along the coast, while winter is cold and snowy in central and northern regions.^ Rock slides are also possible on roads along the coast, as well as through the mountain regions of Lika and Gorski Kotar.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the north it is continental, Mediterranean along the coast, and a semi-highland and highland climate in the central region.
  • Croatia (09/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are hundreds of new monohull and catamaran bareboats for charter all along the coast, with new marinas springing up yearly.
  • Croatia Yacht Charter Guide - Chartering the Adriatic Coast 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.boatbookings.com [Source type: General]

The average temperature inland in January ranges from -10 to 5°C, August 19 to 39°C. The average temperature at the seaside is higher: January 6 to 11°C, August 21 to 39°C.

Terrain

.Geographically diverse; flat plains along the Hungarian border, low mountains and highlands near the Adriatic coastline and islands.^ Its terrain is diverse, containing rocky coastlines, densely wooded mountains, plains, lakes, and rolling hills.
  • Croatia (09/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It lies along the east coast of the Adriatic Sea and shares a border with Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Hungary, and Slovenia.
  • Croatia (09/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beyond the Kvarner Gulf lies Dalmatia, a dramatic, mountain-fringed stretch of coastline studded with islands.
  • Croatia accommodation, vacations, holidays, hotels 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC seeyouincroatia.com [Source type: News]

There are 1,185 islands; the largest ones are Brač, Krk and Cres. The highest point is Dinara, at 1,830 m.
Croatian National Theatre in Zagreb
Croatian National Theatre in Zagreb
.The Croats settled in the Balkans in the early 7th century and formed two principalities: Dalmatia and Pannonia.^ PEOPLE AND HISTORY The Croats are believed to be a Slavic people who migrated from Ukraine and settled in present-day Croatia during the 6th century.
  • Croatia (09/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The establishment of the Trpimirović dynasty ca 850 brought strengthening to the Dalmatian Croat Duchy, which together with the Pannonian principality became a kingdom in 925 under King Tomislav.^ Following World War I and the demise of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Croatia joined the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes became Yugoslavia in 1929).
  • Croatia (09/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1102, Croatia entered into a personal union with the Hungarian Kingdom.^ Partition of Croat Kingdom into Bosnia and Croatia .
  • History of Jihad against the Croats and Slovenes (1389 - 1699) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.historyofjihad.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Following World War I and the demise of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Croatia joined the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes became Yugoslavia in 1929).
  • Croatia (09/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the 1526 Battle of Mohács the "reliquiae reliquiarum" (remnants of the remnants) of Croatia became a part of the Habsburg Monarchy in 1527. Croatian lands were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the latter's dissolution at the end of World War I. In 1918, the Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes formed a kingdom known after 1929 as Yugoslavia.^ Stretching east from Zagreb, the plains of Slavonia form the richest agricultural parts of Croatia, with seemingly endless corn and sunflower fields fanning out from handsome, Habsburg-era provincial towns such as Osijek and Vukovar.
  • Croatia accommodation, vacations, holidays, hotels 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC seeyouincroatia.com [Source type: News]

^ Yugoslavia changed its name once again after World War II. The new state became the Federal Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia and united Croatia and several other states together under the communistic leadership of Marshall Tito (born Josip Broz).
  • Croatia (09/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Serbo-Croatian was the term used in the English speaking world for the Croatian language since the end of World War 1 (1918); prior to the formation of Yugoslavia and the end of WW I, Croatia and Serbia had never been historically united, they were simply Slavic neighbors.
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Following World War II, Yugoslavia became an independent communist state under the strong hand of Marshal Tito.^ Yugoslavia changed its name once again after World War II. The new state became the Federal Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia and united Croatia and several other states together under the communistic leadership of Marshall Tito (born Josip Broz).
  • Croatia (09/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ECONOMY Following World War II, rapid industrialization and diversification occurred within Croatia.
  • Croatia (09/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Croatia held its first multi-party elections since World War II in 1990.
  • Croatia (09/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When Croatia declared independence in 1991 it took four years of sporadic but bloody war before Yugoslav army left Croatia.^ V.P. and her mother - both Croats - are the daughter and wife of a former Yugoslav Army officer - a Serb - who left Croatia in late August 1991 when the Yugoslav Army was withdrawing from Croatia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Head Public Prosecutor of the Republic of Croatia shall be appointed by the Croatian Parliament at the proposal of the Government of the Republic of Croatia and with a prior opinion of the authorized committee of the Croatian Parliament for a four-year term.
  • ICL - Croatia Constitution 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.servat.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

^ But before they were finally defeated and rolled back from Vienna in 1683, the Ottoman Turkish Jihadis, had left a bloodied trail across the Balkans.
  • History of Jihad against the Croats and Slovenes (1389 - 1699) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.historyofjihad.org [Source type: Original source]

.Under UN supervision the last Serb-held enclave in eastern Slavonia was returned to Croatia in 1998. The conflict resulted in a mass exodus of the native Serbian minority (to Bosnia and Serbia) which had inhabited portions of Croatia for centuries.^ Under UN supervision, the last Serb-held enclave in eastern Slavonia was returned to Croatia in 1998.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Croatia 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By early August 1995, Croatian government forces re-captured most of the rebel Serb-held territory in Croatia, although the eastern Slavonia and Baranja regions remain under rebel Serbian contol.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, a Serb born in Serbia in the 1940s who had emigrated to and lived in Croatia since the 1950s could be denied Croatian citizenship and granted Serbian citizenship, despite the fact that all his or her personal and professional ties are in Croatia, not in Serbia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.Prior to the war of independence, Croatia's Serbian minority made up around 15% of the overall population.^ The Federal Election Commission designated thirteen Serbsto "represent" the Serbian population, some of whom are listed as political independents and other whom are members of political parties.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It does not address violations of the rules of war by Croatian troops in Croatia, by Serbian irregular troops in Serbian-controlled parts of Croatia or by Bosnian Croat forces in Bosnia-Hercegovina.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If the war in Croatia is characterized as an internal conflict, combatants can be tried even for the act of taking up arms against the state.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.Visitors now to Croatia's more popular towns would see little physical evidence of this violence.^ For more information on Croatia ’s growing commitment to human rights, see the website of its Ministry of Foreign Affairs .
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Croatia's coastal areas are especially stunning, and have the hybrid charm of Eastern European and the Mediterranean.^ The Division fought mostly in the northern coastal area of Croatia, with its islands.
  • Croatian Volunteers in the German Wehrmacht in WWII 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.feldgrau.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Women from many countries, including Russia , Serbia and Montenegro , Romania , Bosnia and Herzegovina and other Eastern European countries are trafficked by truck or boat to Croatia .
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a bonus, many of Croatia's coastal towns and cities are living museums of Mediterranean culture, generously endowed with historical remains from Roman times onwards.
  • Croatia accommodation, vacations, holidays, hotels 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC seeyouincroatia.com [Source type: News]

Talk

.Many Croatians speak English as their second language, but German and Italian are very popular too (largely because of the large annual influx of German and Italian tourists).^ During the tourist season, traffic information in English is also available at 98.5 FM on Croatian radio thirty minutes past the hour between 6:30 a.m.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An important regional transit center, the city is a vital link to the numerous surrounding Adriatic islands and the Italian peninsula, as well as a popular tourist destination.

^ To integrate with Austria, the German language (spoken by the Austrians) was introduced as the official language of the Croatian Military Border.
  • History of Jihad against the Croats and Slovenes (1389 - 1699) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.historyofjihad.org [Source type: Original source]

.People in the tourist industry most often speak English quite well, as do the younger generation, especially in the tourist areas of Istria, along the coast down to Dubrovnik, and in the capital, Zagreb.^ Rock slides are also possible on roads along the coast, as well as through the mountain regions of Lika and Gorski Kotar.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tourists in Croatia can be certified at harbormasters' offices in Pula, Rijeka, Senj, Zadar, Sibenik, Split, Ploce and Dubrovnik, as well as at the Ministry in Zagreb.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 392nd Division was assigned an Area of Operation, reaching from southern Slovenia, along the Croatian Adriatic coast, to the city of Knin.
  • Croatian Volunteers in the German Wehrmacht in WWII 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.feldgrau.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Elder people will rarely speak English, but you shouldn't have any problems if you switch to German or Italian.^ A study guide is available and the test can be taken in Croatian, English, German, and Italian.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If you know Czech, you can try it as well, as Czech and Croatian are partially mutually intelligible (but some words are very different) and in many places, Croatian people are used to large number of Czech tourists.^ Croatian American Times , February 6, 2001.Saint Vlaho or San Blas were place names on many early maps.
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Glimpse of few Croatian Soccer players doing very well this weekend, all over Europe .
  • CROWN - Croatian World Network 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatia.org [Source type: General]

^ To help people evaluate this accusation TENC is publishing a number of documents, some of which have been suppressed, or are unavailable on the internet.
  • Encyclopedia of the Holocaust: Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC emperors-clothes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Croatian is not an easy language to learn, but the people like when foreign travelers use it for basic things such as greeting and thanking.^ Croatian Phrasebook Learn the basics of the Croatian language in no time.

^ The Croatian language and the Latin script shall be in official use in the Republic of Croatia.
  • THE CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Article 12  [State Language] (1) The Croatian language and the Latin script shall be in official use in the Republic of Croatia.
  • ICL - Croatia Constitution 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.servat.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

Get in

.North Americans, Australians and many other nationals can enter Croatia with a valid passport and without a visa.^ Special and diplomatic passport holders should verify all visa requirements for this and other destinations, as they may differ from those that apply to regular passport holders.
  • Croatia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ The region was then flooded presumably by mostly Catholic migrants from other regions of Croatia and Hungary, and by Christian refugees from Bosnia, many of whom were Orthodox.
  • http://www.demog.berkeley.edu/~gene/hammel_1-fmt.html 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.demog.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Parts of the Croatian nation in other states shall be guaranteed special concern and protection by the Republic of Croatia.
  • ICL - Croatia Constitution 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.servat.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]
  • THE CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

.Citizens of EU member countries and Bosnia and Herzegovina can even enter the country with a valid identity card.^ In 2008, the Adriatic Charter expanded to include two new countries, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro.
  • Croatia (09/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To implant a Muslim identity in an erstwhile Christian province the Ottomans renamed this province the Vilayet (Turkish for province) of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
  • History of Jihad against the Croats and Slovenes (1389 - 1699) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.historyofjihad.org [Source type: Original source]

.The document of identity must be valid at least three months longer than you plan to stay in Croatia (More information about visa requirement here [2]).^ However, a Croatian driver’s license is required for stays longer than twelve months.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Know before you go: Croatia Visa Requirements .
  • Croatia Hotels - Online hotel reservations for Hotels in Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.agoda.com [Source type: General]

^ More pictures & information about this train...
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.Transport services Whether you arrive in Croatia by air, ferry or a cruise boat and you need transportation to your final destination (hotel, apartment or private accommodation) you can use taxi service by calling 970. Taxi usually comes within 10 to 15 minutes from the call except in busy summer season where it depends on how much business they have.^ Croatia hotels, accommodation, vacation, holidays .
  • Croatia accommodation, vacations, holidays, hotels 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC seeyouincroatia.com [Source type: News]

^ Send a blank email to: join-emperorsclothes@pr2.netatlantic.com Well send you a confirmation; please hit reply to finalize your subscription.
  • Encyclopedia of the Holocaust: Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC emperors-clothes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Or, call us at 1 617 916-1705 (If you get voicemail, please leave your phone number and we will call you back.
  • Encyclopedia of the Holocaust: Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC emperors-clothes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.You can also book the transportation in advance which is great when you are in a hurry or have a larger number of people in need of transportation, or you just want everything organized in advance.^ S pecial fare just 29 euros (25) one-way, 58 euros (50) return 2nd class if you book in advance ( limited availability).
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ If you'd prefer to have someone book it all for you, just click here and a booking form will appear which lists all the trains you need to book.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Among them also a great number of the people known as Iilasi, under the leadership of their headmen and Orthodox priests who went over to the Croatian side.
  • History of Jihad against the Croats and Slovenes (1389 - 1699) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.historyofjihad.org [Source type: Original source]

.
  • Additionally you can use airports in neighboring countries which are within few hours of reach from Zagreb and Rijeka (apart from some of the listed options in Italy):
    • Ljubljana (for EasyJet flights to London Stansted or other Adria Airways flights)
    • Graz and Klagenfurt (for Ryanair flights from London Stansted)
    • Trieste (for Ryanair flights from London Stansted).^ London to Split or Zadar overland by train...
      • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Rijeka : Trains run from Ljubljana to Rijeka two or three times a day.
      • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

      ^ See the London to Zagreb section above for the connection to London.
      • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

      .You can also use Venice Marco Polo (for British Airways flights from the UK) or Venice Treviso (Ryanair from Stanstead).^ Copy in Museo Civico at Venice: The Geneaologies of marco Barbaro Secify 1033 as the year of the migration to Venice of the Polo clan from Sibenik.
      • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .Ancona is also an option (Ryanair from Stanstead) for those who want to take ferry [25] or hydrofoil [26] to Zadar and Split.^ Take a ferry from Split to the islands.
      • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Sail from Ancona to Split or Zadar by ferry.
      • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

      ^ They went only to the Serbs' homes and to the homes of those persons who had left [Croatia] with the JNA [but whose families remained in Split].
      • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

      Ryanair also flies to Pescara which is a short drive away from Ancona.
    • Some may decide to use Tivat Airport (in Montenegro) which is within easy reach from Dubrovnik.

By train

.The rail network connects all major Croatian cities, except Dubrovnik.^ The Government shall assume its duty if the vote of confidence is passed by a majority vote of all members of the Croatian Parliament.
  • ICL - Croatia Constitution 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.servat.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

^ Article 144  [Majority] The decision to amend the Constitution shall be made by a two-thirds majority vote of all the members of the Croatian Parliament.
  • ICL - Croatia Constitution 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.servat.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

^ Any association of the Republic of Croatia shall first be decided upon by the Croatian Parliament by a two-thirds majority vote of all representatives.
  • ICL - Croatia Constitution 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.servat.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

.There are direct lines from Austria, Czech Republic, Switzerland, Germany, Hungary, Slovenia, Italy, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, and Greece.^ Bosnia and Herzegovina 932 km, Hungary 329 km, Serbia 241 km, Montenegro 25 km, Slovenia 455 km .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Croatia 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Italy Kosovo Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Montenegro Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia Scotland Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom .
  • Croatian Basketball, Teams, Scores, Stats, News, Standings - EUROBASKET 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.eurobasket.com [Source type: News]

^ It lies along the east coast of the Adriatic Sea and shares a border with Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Hungary, and Slovenia.
  • Croatia (09/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are indirect lines from almost all other European countries.^ Although Danas indeed had financial difficulties for some time, so too had fifteen of Vjesnik's other publications, almost all of which were feature magazines.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Women from many countries, including Russia , Serbia and Montenegro , Romania , Bosnia and Herzegovina and other Eastern European countries are trafficked by truck or boat to Croatia .
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Tourists coming from or going to neighboring countries should note the following EuroCity and InterCity railway lines:
NB: While Croatia (paired with Slovenia) is covered on some Eurail passes, staff at domestic ticket windows will tend to have no idea about validating the pass on the first day of use. There are recorded instances of staff saying that the conductor would validate the pass, and the conductor simply treating it as a regular ticket. Fortunately, the international ticket staff (particularly in Zagreb) are aware of how to validate the pass, and have been known to validate it retrospectively where necessary. .They even ask for the details of the domestic ticket seller who gave the wrong information.^ It punishes all Serbs who remained in "enemy" territory during the war, although they may not have committed any domestic or internationally-recognized crime.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After they gave their statement to the military police, Ms. P. and her daughter went to the military court, where they also gave a statement to a Mr. B., 63 who promised to accompany them to their apartment the next day.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If you're okay with the price you can give them your credit card details and they'll send you the tickets.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.The traveller is therefore recommended to have already validated their Eurail pass on arrival in Croatia, or to have it validated at an international window even if the first trip on it will be domestic.^ First, travel from London to Zagreb as shown in the London to Zagreb section above , arriving Zagreb early evening.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ It includes recommendations for the dissemination of information about trafficking and methods for preventing trafficking from, through and to Croatia by way of regional and international cooperation.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

By car

.To enter Croatia, a driver's license, an automobile registration card and vehicle insurance documents (including Green Card) are required.^ Foreigners who have been granted temporary residence in the Republic of Croatia and who are in possession of a vehicle registered abroad (with valid registration documents and insurance), may use their car a maximum of three months following the day of entry into Croatia, after which period the vehicle must be re-registered in Croatia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, a Croatian driver’s license is required for stays longer than twelve months.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to Croatian law, U.S. citizens visiting Croatia for tourism or business may use a U.S. driver’s license for up to three months.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

If you need road assistance, you should dial 987. The following speeds are permitted:
  • 50 km/h - within built-up areas
  • 90 km/h - outside built-up areas
  • 110 km/h - on major motor routes
  • 130 km/h - on motorways
  • 80 km/h - for motor vehicles with a caravan trailer
  • 80 km/h - for buses and buses with a light trailer
.When driving in the rain, you should adjust speed to conditions on wet roads.^ You can’t survive without a five speed driving in this terrain.
  • Croatia : Wine Edition 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wineedition.com [Source type: General]

.Driving with headlights is not obligatory during the day (during Daylight Savings Time; it is obligatory during winter months).^ Zagreb geographic coordinates: 45 48 N, 16 00 E time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Croatia 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By law, headlights of vehicles must be used during the winter, during fog, and/or during inclement weather.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During this month-long tour youll have plenty of opportunities for exciting outdoor activities, as well time to soak up the cultural highlights of the region.

.Use of mobile phones while driving is not permitted.^ The use of mobile telephones while driving is prohibited unless they are fitted with a hands-free device – although this remains largely unenforced.
  • Croatia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

Maximum permitted amount of alcohol in blood: 0.5 per ml! .Use of seat belts is obligatory.^ Seat belt use is mandatory, as is the use of car seats for infants.
  • Croatia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ The use of front seat belts is obligatory and passengers in vehicles equipped with rear seat belts are required to use them.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Hrvatski Auto Klub [27] is the Croatian Automobile Club dedicated to assisting drivers and promoting greater traffic security. .Its site offers minute-by-minute updates, status of national traffic, weather, numerous maps and webcams located all over Croatia.^ The status of the National Bank of Croatia shall be regulated by law.
  • THE CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Article 15  [Rights of Foreigners, Cultural Rights] (1) Members of all national minorities shall have equal rights in the Republic of Croatia.
  • ICL - Croatia Constitution 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.servat.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

^ Citizens of the Republic of Croatia shall enjoy all rights and freedoms regardless of race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth, education, social status or other characteristics.
  • THE CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

.Content is available in Croatian, English, German and Italian.^ A study guide is available and the test can be taken in Croatian, English, German, and Italian.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the tourist season, traffic information in English is also available at 98.5 FM on Croatian radio thirty minutes past the hour between 6:30 a.m.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC travel.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nenad Hani-Mateji from Dsseldorf, Germany, created a new Croatian Glagolitic quickscript font called "Croatica" available via his web site, and described in Croatian, German and English languages.
  • CROWN - Croatian World Network 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatia.org [Source type: General]

By bus

Very good network of buses once in the country - cheap and regular.
.If you are coming from Italy there are two buses daily from Venice leaving at 11AM and 1:45PM going to Istria, with a final stop in Pula.^ There are two or three fast modern 'ICN' air-conditioned daytime trains from Zagreb to Split, for Zadar you must change trains at Knin.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Leave Epirus and the cities of this region — we cannot allow such great cities to be occupied by you and their inhabitants to be expelled — and go to Dardania, where there is an extensive territory of rich soil, uninhabited, and sufficient to support your host in plenty."
  • J. B. Bury: History of the Later Roman Empire • Vol. I Chap. XII 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.These are operated by two different bus companies, but you can buy tickets for both buses at the A.T.V.O bus office at the Venice bus station.^ Kottomenes had been appointed Master of Soldiers in praesenti , instead of Theoderic, in 484, and Longinus of Kardala at the same time became Master of Offices; both these men were Isaurians.
  • J. B. Bury: History of the Later Roman Empire • Vol. I Chap. XII 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If you buy your ticket at Zagreb station, the fare by ICN train is about 170 Kuna (17), which includes a complimentary coffee & sandwich.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Seat61 gets a small commission if you buy through these links.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

The office is in the bus station, but located outside on the ground level across from where all the buses park. .Both buses pick up at spot b15. It is roughly a 5 hour bus ride, with stops in Trieste and Rovinj.^ I wake up a few hours later looking to have a couple of drinks before I leave the UK. I stop off at a local pub and indulge in some bitters.
  • Croatia : Wine Edition 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wineedition.com [Source type: General]

.You can also pick up the bus at the bus station in Mestre, fifteen minutes after the scheduled bus leaves Venice.^ Don't expect to pick up anything decent for the trip at Sarajevo station, there are a couple of kiosks nearby but you can only get fluids and chocolate.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

Coming in from Trieste, Italy is popular among Europeans, for Trieste is a Ryanair destination. .You cross the Italian-Slovenian border first, followed by the Slovenian-Croatian border, but they are very close to one another.^ The Brigade's first posting was in the city of Varazdin, in Croatia, where they trained, and awaited the Italians to organize their expeditionary force.
  • Croatian Volunteers in the German Wehrmacht in WWII 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.feldgrau.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I was woken twice during the night by border guards, the first time around 11pm when they hammered on my door , which locked from the inside for security, as the guard had told me.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ But the Master of Soldiers was not at the pass of Mount Sondis, and the Goths when they advanced farther fell in with the army of Strabo, and the antagonists plundered one another's flocks and horses.
  • J. B. Bury: History of the Later Roman Empire • Vol. I Chap. XII 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Border officers will board the bus to see passports, but you do not have to exit the bus.^ You could also travel by train to Split & board the ferry there, see above for trains to Split .
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.Dubrovnik and Split are the main destinations of international buses from Bosnia and Hercegovina or Montenegro, with daily buses traveling to cities such as Sarajevo, Mostar and Kotor (some lines such as Split-Mostar operate every few hours).^ South of Split lies the walled medieval city of Dubrovnik, site of an important arts festival in the summer and a magical place to be whatever the season.
  • Croatia accommodation, vacations, holidays, hotels 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC seeyouincroatia.com [Source type: News]

^ According to Ms. P. and her daughter, _unji _ was originally from Mostar, Bosnia-Hercegovina, but belonged to the fourth battalion of the Croatian Army.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In such cases, the prosecution often claims that the defendant travelled to Serbia to join the Serbian forces operating in Croatia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

Seasonal lines also extend through to Skopje from Dubrovnik. .Border formalities on the buses are extremely efficient, and do not involve leaving the bus (previous services from Dubrovnik to Kotor involved changing buses at the Croatian border).^ Italy - Dubrovnik - Croatian coast ferry service...
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ With the penetration of the Red Army up to the Croatian borders in late 1944, the Division was trasfered to southern Hungary, and became involved in front-line fighting.
  • Croatian Volunteers in the German Wehrmacht in WWII 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.feldgrau.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Osijek is a very big bus hub for international travel to Hungary, Serbia and Bosnia in addition to its local buses, and the station is located conveniently next to the railway station.^ Bosnia and Herzegovina 932 km, Hungary 329 km, Serbia 241 km, Montenegro 25 km, Slovenia 455 km .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Croatia 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It lies along the east coast of the Adriatic Sea and shares a border with Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Hungary, and Slovenia.
  • Croatia (09/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Five local television stations with varying degrees of independence operate in Zagreb, Split, Rijeka, Osijek, ,, akovec and Opuzen.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.Many buses heading from Zagreb north into Hungary or Austria will pass through Varaždin.^ The men who remained contiuned to fight valiantly against overwhelming odds, and were slowly pushed westward out of Hungary into Austria.
  • Croatian Volunteers in the German Wehrmacht in WWII 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.feldgrau.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By November 25th 1942, the lines being held by the Regiment were so thinly manned that Soviet scouts were able to pass through poritions of the front into the Gemran rear.
  • Croatian Volunteers in the German Wehrmacht in WWII 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.feldgrau.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And now with the extension of the Ottoman Empire into Croatia, the Croatian hinderland served as a starting point of further invasions and conquests in Hungary and Austria.
  • History of Jihad against the Croats and Slovenes (1389 - 1699) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.historyofjihad.org [Source type: Original source]

By boat

.Ferries are cheap and go regularly between various places by the coast.^ Several shipping lines run overnight ferries on various days of the week between Ancona & Split, including www.jadrolinija.hr & www.bli-ferry.com .
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.Although they are not fast they are probably the best way to see the beautiful Croatian islands of the Adriatic Sea.^ A great way to see this beautiful countryside.
  • Croatia : Wine Edition 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wineedition.com [Source type: General]

^ Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits; most Adriatic Sea islands lie off the coast of Croatia - some 1,200 islands, islets, ridges, and rocks .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Croatia 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are not afforded the right to due process, although Croatian law guarantees them that right.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.Jadrolinija [28] is the main Croatian passenger shipping line that maintains the largest number of regular international and domestic ferry and shipping lines.^ The largest number of these proceedings (578 or 40 percent) were initiated against soldiers accused of committing criminal acts against the property of Croatian citizens.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Several shipping lines run overnight ferries on various days of the week between Ancona & Split, including www.jadrolinija.hr & www.bli-ferry.com .
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Moreover, ambiguity in the laws is exploited in ways that infringe on the rights guaranteed in international agreements to which Croatia is a party and in domestic Croatian law.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

The following international lines are serviced by car ferries:
Blue Line International [29] also covers the international line:
Venezia Lines [30] has regular catamaran lines between Venice and the Croatian cities of Poreč, Pula, Rovinj and Rabac

Get around

By plane

.National airline company Croatia Airlines [31] connects major cities in Croatia to each other and foreign destinations.^ Parts of the Croatian nation in other states shall be guaranteed special concern and protection by the Republic of Croatia.
  • ICL - Croatia Constitution 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.servat.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

^ Article 15  [Rights of Foreigners, Cultural Rights] (1) Members of all national minorities shall have equal rights in the Republic of Croatia.
  • ICL - Croatia Constitution 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.servat.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

^ Finally, foreign television broadcasts on CNN, SKY and other foreign satellite channels are readily available to the many households in Croatia that have satellite antennas.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.Due to the comparatively short distances and relatively high hassle of air travel - especially when you travel with luggage - domestic air travel is used mostly for getting to end points - e.g., Zagreb to Dubrovnik (see map) and vice-versa.^ As you can see here as I am driving by it, Dubrovnik is a beautiful and scenic town.
  • Croatia : Wine Edition 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wineedition.com [Source type: General]

^ There are two or three fast modern 'ICN' air-conditioned daytime trains from Zagreb to Split, for Zadar you must change trains at Knin.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ You could also travel by train to Split & board the ferry there, see above for trains to Split .
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.Another flight which is popular (available in the summer months only) is between Split and Osijek, saving a long trip back through Croatia, or alternatively through the middle of Bosnia.^ They went only to the Serbs' homes and to the homes of those persons who had left [Croatia] with the JNA [but whose families remained in Split].
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Croatia People Photos *** Note: Only people groups with photos available are displayed here.
  • Joshua Project - Ethnic People Groups of Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.joshuaproject.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Conflict between Serbs and Croats in Croatia escalated, and one month after Croatia declared independence, war erupted.
  • Croatia (09/09) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

By train

.Train travel is definitely improving in Croatia, with money being spent on updating the aging infrastructure and vehicles.^ This is the easiest, cheapest & most time-effective way to travel from the UK to Croatia by train.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia .
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ X Sports will be coming to Croatia this summer to explore possibilities of improving stadium infrastructure with professional sports teams and sports organizations.
  • CROWN - Croatian World Network 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatia.org [Source type: General]

Trains are clean and mostly on time.
.Croatia's rail network connects all major Croatian cities, except Dubrovnik.^ The Croatian Parliament shall call a referendum upon the issues from sections 1 and 2 of this Article when so demanded by ten percent of all voters in the Republic of Croatia.
  • ICL - Croatia Constitution 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.servat.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

^ The Employment Law for Foreigners requires that all non-Croatian citizens obtain a work permit in order to work in Croatia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Government shall assume its duty if the vote of confidence is passed by a majority vote of all members of the Croatian Parliament.
  • ICL - Croatia Constitution 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.servat.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

.If you want to visit Dubrovnik, you will have to travel by train to Split, and then go on the bus for Dubrovnik.^ Then take a bus from Split to Dubrovnik.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ London to Dubrovnik by train+bus or train+ferry .
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ London to Split overland by train, then bus to Dubrovnik...
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

Trains to Pula are actually connected via Slovenia due to historical accident, though there are designated connecting buses from Rijeka.
Rail is still the cheapest connection between inland and coast, though not the most frequent. .As of 2004, the new 160kph "tilting trains" that connect Zagreb with Split and other major cities in Croatia such as Rijeka and Osijek have been progressively introduced, resulting in higher levels of comfort and significantly faster journeys between cities (Zagreb-Split is now 5.5hrs from 9, Osijek is now 3 when other trains take around 4.5hrs).^ The highway between Zagreb and Split is safe and efficient, while the remaining stretch to Dubrovnik is still under construction .
  • Croatia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Alternatively, there is an overnight Zagreb-Sarajevo train, which has seats but now no couchette car so is not the most comfortable or civilised option.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Returning, the overnight train leaves Split at 22:07 as train number 824, arriving Zagreb at 06:31 next morning.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.If you make a reservation early enough you can get a substantial discount, or if you are a holder of an ISIC card etc.^ European Rail will make the reservations and call you back to confirm the cost.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.Information for the trains can be found on the Hrvatske željeznice - Croatian Railways [32] site in Croatian and English has timetable and prices.^ The Thomas Cook European timetable has train & ferry times for every country in Europe plus currency & climate information.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ For additional information, contact the Croatian Mine Action Center (CROMAC) or e-mail hcr@hcr.hr/ (in English only).
  • Croatia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.Tickets are not usually sold on-board, except if you happen to get on the train on one of the few stations/stops without ticket sales.^ If you buy your ticket at Zagreb station, the fare by ICN train is about 170 Kuna (17), which includes a complimentary coffee & sandwich.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ It was not possible to book a couchette for my return journey at the ticket office in Sarajevo train station, and I was prepared to sleep in a seat on the way back to Zagreb.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ If you buy your ticket at Zagreb station, the fare is about 170 Kuna (17), which includes a complimentary coffee & sandwich.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.However, only local trains stop on such stations.^ In other cases, the local military housing commissions revoke a tenant's rights to occupy a military apartment, despite the fact that only a court of law can rescind such rights.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After UNHCR and the international community protested such activity, the repatriations stopped for a period and then resumed, only to be protested by the international community again.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.In all other cases, the ticket you will buy from the conductor will cost considerably more than the one bought outside the train.^ How to buy European train tickets...
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ If you buy your ticket at Zagreb station, the fare is about 170 Kuna (17), which includes a complimentary coffee & sandwich.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ See the London to Italy page for full details, including train times, fares and how to buy tickets.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

By bus

A very comprehensive coach network connects all parts of the country. Bus service between major cities (intercity lines) is quite frequent, as well as regional services. .The most frequent bus terminal in Croatia is Bus Terminal Zagreb (in Croatian "Autobusni kolodvor Zagreb").^ Case #1: Evictions from state-owned housing are most frequent in Zagreb and Split.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Given their precarious residency and socio-economic status, such persons - most frequently non-Croats - are forced to leave Croatia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The most frequent form of punishment for the commission of crimes or human rights abuses by a Croatian police officer or soldier has been dismissal.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.
  • Autobusni kolodvor Zagreb [33] - Bus Terminal Zagreb, timetable information, content in Croatian, English
  • CroatiaBus [34] - bus company - timetable information, prices, content in Croatian and English.
  • Autotrans Rijeka [35] - bus company - timetable informaton, prices, content in Croatian and English.
  • Autobusni promet Varazdin [36] - bus company - timetable informaton, prices, content in Croatian, English and German.
  • Contus [37] - bus company - timetable information, prices, content in Croatian and English.
  • Libertas Dubrovnik [38] - bus terminal and company information in Dubrovnik, with international and domestic information.^ Serbs in the Rijeka area have taken their grievances to the Croatian government in Zagreb and report that they were favorably received and that steps were taken to address some of their concerns.
    • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ To its credit, the Croatian government continues to cooperate with international and to a lesser extent, domestic human rights groups and delegations concerned about human rights in Croatia.
    • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ However, following the re-assertion of Croatian government authority in the Krajina area in August 1995, access to some areas was restricted to international and domestic monitors.
    • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

    Content mostly in Croatian.

By boat

.Croatia is blessed with a beautiful coastline which is best explored by ferry to access the hundreds of islands.^ As we were about to land, the beautiful islands that adorn the Dalmatian coast of Croatia were visible all around.
  • Croatia : Wine Edition 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wineedition.com [Source type: General]

.In many instances, the only way to get to the islands is by ferry or catamaran.^ The next day, it is get up and go from 8am as I am to drive to the other side of the island all the way to the town of Sucaraj where the ferry is that will take me to the mainland.
  • Croatia : Wine Edition 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wineedition.com [Source type: General]

^ S plit - In many ways the center of the Croatia Yacht Charter Business, Split is not only an excellent port to begin a charter, it is also an excellent destination to visit.
  • Croatia Yacht Charter Guide - Chartering the Adriatic Coast 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.boatbookings.com [Source type: General]

.If you plan on using either you should check these web sites because they have the regular ferry and catamaran information.^ Special and diplomatic passport holders should verify all visa requirements for this and other destinations, as they may differ from those that apply to regular passport holders.
  • Croatia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ If you plan to visit forested areas, you should seek advice regarding inoculations before leaving Canada.
  • Croatia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ For more information contact CIC at 1 888 242-2100 (in Canada only), check the CIC Web site or contact your provincial or territorial government.
  • Croatia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.
  • Jadrolinja [39] - Jadrolinija is the Croatian National ferry company, and as well as routes operating from the major cities to the islands, operate a ferry along the Adriatic Coast from Rijeka to Dubrovnik (and then across to Bari, Italy) calling at Split, Hvar, Mljet and Korcula.^ Roads along the Adriatic coast are narrow, congested, and very slippery when wet.
    • Croatia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

    ^ I reach the island and drive to the city of Hvar, located a few miles away from where we docked which is the very west of this long island.
    • Croatia : Wine Edition 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wineedition.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The 392nd Division was assigned an Area of Operation, reaching from southern Slovenia, along the Croatian Adriatic coast, to the city of Knin.
    • Croatian Volunteers in the German Wehrmacht in WWII 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.feldgrau.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Check timetables [40] as the schedules are seasonal. The boats are large and have sleeping facilities as the Rijeka-Split leg goes overnight.
  • SNAV is Italian company connecting Split with Ancona and Pescara. Check timetables [41] as the schedules are seasonal.
  • Azzura lines, is Italian operator connecting Dubrovnik with Bari Check timetables [42] as the schedules are seasonal.
All international ferry offerings (which include all operators) can be found on the trajekti.info [43]

By car

.Roads in Croatia are usually well maintained, but usually vey narrow and full of curves.^ TRAVEL AND CURRENCY Aggressive drivers and narrow, poorly maintained roads pose hazards.
  • Croatia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

.It's difficult to find a true highway with more than one way per direction, the only exceptions being the ones connecting Rijeka, Zagreb, Zadar and Split.^ The highway between Zagreb and Split is safe and efficient, while the remaining stretch to Dubrovnik is still under construction .
  • Croatia Travel Advice and Advisories | Government of Canada 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.voyage.gc.ca [Source type: News]

^ Zagreb; Croatia participates in the Trans-Asia-Europe (TEL) fiber-optic project, which consists of 2 fiber-optic trunk connections with Slovenia and a fiber-optic trunk line from Rijeka to Split and Dubrovnik; the ADRIA-1 submarine cable provides connectivity to Albania and Greece (2007) .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Croatia 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Members of the National Judicial Council shall be elected for a four-year term and no one may be a member of the National Judicial Council for more than two subsequent terms.
  • ICL - Croatia Constitution 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.servat.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

Speed limits are thus low (60 - 90 kmh), and it's not recommended to drive faster (although most locals do), especially at night. Be aware of animals crossing the road.
Renting a car is around the same price as in any other EU country (from around €40). .Most rental agencies in the Balkans allow you to rent a car in one country and drive in the neighboring countries however try to avoid a renting a car in Serbia and driving it into Croatia in order to avoid negative attention from locals.^ For example, a defendant - most often a Serb who was born in, and was a citizen of, Croatia - resigned or was dismissed from his or her job after war broke out and travelled to Serbia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We get back in the car and head to Krka National Park, one of 7 national parks in Croatia.
  • Croatia : Wine Edition 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wineedition.com [Source type: General]

^ This country is full of proud people and I feel honored to have had an amazing glimpse into Croatia, its natural wonders, food, wine and culture.
  • Croatia : Wine Edition 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wineedition.com [Source type: General]

.On the recently built Croatian Motorways [44] toll fees apply, the motorway A6 between Zagreb and Rijeka was finished end of 2008, the main motorway A1 from Zagreb to Dubrovnik is still under construction the current ending point is in Ravča, which is 140 km from Dubrovnik.^ Serbs in the Rijeka area have taken their grievances to the Croatian government in Zagreb and report that they were favorably received and that steps were taken to address some of their concerns.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

By thumb

Hitchhiking is generally good. If you can get to a highway toll stop simply ask people to take you with them as they open their windows to pay the toll. The toll collectors usually won't mind. The tricky part, of course, is to get to the toll stop. .If you are in Zagreb and you are, like most people, heading south, take the bus 111 from the Savski most station in Zagreb and ask the bus driver where to get off to get to the toll stop.^ Like a museum, as you walk you see people working the mills.
  • Croatia : Wine Edition 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wineedition.com [Source type: General]

.Next best place to ask people to pick you up are gas stations.^ Don't expect to pick up anything decent for the trip at Sarajevo station, there are a couple of kiosks nearby but you can only get fluids and chocolate.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Set up in 2005, it's an amazing system and probably the best place to start for booking any hotel online in any country, worldwide.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ The next morning I am up and being picked up by my taxi.
  • Croatia : Wine Edition 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wineedition.com [Source type: General]

And finally, just using the good old thumb will work too if everything else fails.

Do

Cultural heritage

Croatia has an impressive history, a fact that is best explained through the vast array of sites worth visiting. Most towns have an historical center with it's typical architecture. There are differences between the coast and the continental part, so both areas are a must. .The most famous is Dubrovnik, a prime example of the coastal architecture, but by no means the only one worth visiting.^ All I will say is that if you ever get a chance to try this wine, you will understand what I mean when I say “one of the most divine expressions of Merlot I have ever tasted”.
  • Croatia : Wine Edition 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wineedition.com [Source type: General]

.Equally important is the capital and largest city, Zagreb, with a population of about 1 million.^ Status, jurisdiction and organization of the capital city of Zagreb shall be regulated by law.
  • ICL - Croatia Constitution 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.servat.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

^ The largest number of military apartments in Croatia are located in the cities of Zagreb, Split, Pula, Zadar, Rijeka and Karlovac.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The capital city of Zagreb may be attributed the status of a county by law.
  • ICL - Croatia Constitution 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.servat.unibe.ch [Source type: Original source]

.It is a modern city with all the modern features, yet it has a laid back feel.^ I head all the way back to the city of Hvar.
  • Croatia : Wine Edition 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wineedition.com [Source type: General]

In the east, in the region of Slavonija with it's regional capital Osijek and the war torn Vukovar are awe inspiring. .Scattered throughout the region are vineyards and wine cellars, most of which give tours and tastings.^ So we go back down to the cellar to taste some wines from the cellar.
  • Croatia : Wine Edition 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wineedition.com [Source type: General]

^ He will be giving wine tours throughout the region so that one can experience the wine world and culture on the Island of Hvar.
  • Croatia : Wine Edition 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wineedition.com [Source type: General]

^ All I will say is that if you ever get a chance to try this wine, you will understand what I mean when I say “one of the most divine expressions of Merlot I have ever tasted”.
  • Croatia : Wine Edition 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wineedition.com [Source type: General]

Sailing

.Sailing is a good way to see the coastal islands and networks of small archipelagos.^ Ferries sail from Split to Hvar, Vis, Korcula and other nearby islands regularly, see www.jadrolinija.hr for ferry times & information.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.Most charters leave from Split or the surrounding area on the North or the South circuit, each offering its own pros and cons.^ Case #1: Evictions from state-owned housing are most frequent in Zagreb and Split.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.A good way is to book a package with a company at home, but many Croatian companies also offer both bareboat and crewed charters.^ Carolina Press, 1940.Many Croatians served in various companies.
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are two ways to book it, and I'd suggest trying both as prices vary between the two: .
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

Booking of a charter vessel is basically done in two parts. Fifty percent of the charter price is paid right away, after which the booking is confirmed. The other fifty percent of the charter fee is usually paid four weeks before the charter date. .Before the first payment of the charter fee you should request to see the charter contract from the agency where you chartered a boat.^ If you have several couples or families who would like to charter on the same boat, gulets are an excellent option, and are available at great value.
  • Croatia Yacht Charter Guide - Chartering the Adriatic Coast 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.boatbookings.com [Source type: General]

^ Croatia Yacht Charter Guide - Chartering the Adriatic Coast We're searching thousands of charter boats to find you the perfect yacht charter!
  • Croatia Yacht Charter Guide - Chartering the Adriatic Coast 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.boatbookings.com [Source type: General]

^ Click here to see a selection of our Croatia Charter Yachts or simply contact us and we'll recommend the best boat for you.
  • Croatia Yacht Charter Guide - Chartering the Adriatic Coast 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.boatbookings.com [Source type: General]

.Pay close attention to cancellation fees because many times if you cancel your charter vacation you could lose the initial fifty percent you already payed when you booked a charter so take a close look at that in the charter contract.^ Not many tourists around as you might think, the time of year for that would be the summer.
  • Croatia : Wine Edition 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wineedition.com [Source type: General]

^ It takes a couple of hours to walk to the very top where you are looking down on all of the falls.
  • Croatia : Wine Edition 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wineedition.com [Source type: General]

^ You pay by credit card and print out your own tickets in .pdf format.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

After that you are set for a sailing vacation.
When you arrive to marina where your chartered yacht is situated you need to do the check in (usually Saturday around 04:00 PM) and you have to do the shopping for the charter vacation. .Don't neglect the groceries shopping because the sea is unpredictable and you don't want to get stuck on the boat without anything to eat or drink.^ Don't expect to pick up anything decent for the trip at Sarajevo station, there are a couple of kiosks nearby but you can only get fluids and chocolate.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ We don't want to leave the apartment because you never know who'll move in while we've gone to buy milk or run an errand.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.You can do the shopping in a marina (although the prices are much higher there) or you can order from yacht provisioning services who usually deliver the products to your chartered yacht at no extra fee.^ There is no rail link to Dubrovnik, so you will need to reach it either by bus or ferry.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ After spending a little time with Alen in Skradin you’ll see there are not many people who he doesn’t know.
  • Croatia : Wine Edition 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wineedition.com [Source type: General]

^ It is said that Sebastian used to buy for a small amount an office which Zeno bestowed on a friend, and then sell it to some one else for a much higher price, Zeno receiving the profit.
  • J. B. Bury: History of the Later Roman Empire • Vol. I Chap. XII 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.This is convenient because it takes the load of you and the things you must do when you arrive at the marina for your sailing holiday.^ They will call you back with a cost and take your credit card details if you're okay with the price.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

Naturist resorts

Croatia was the first country in Europe to start with the concept of commercial naturist resorts. .According to some estimates about 15% of all tourists that visit the country are naturists or nudists (more than one million each year).^ It spends approximately one and half years in a combination of French, American and Croatian oak, all new.
  • Croatia : Wine Edition 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wineedition.com [Source type: General]

^ A child of Croatian parents who was born and raised in Canada and has never visited Croatia can more easily obtain Croatian citizenship than can a Serb, Muslim or Albanian who was born in a one of the other republics of the former SFRJ but has lived in Croatia for decades.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Damir: At about 5:00 p.m., they stopped questioning us and called all of us who had been questioned [earlier] to get on a bus.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.There are more than 20 official naturist resorts as well as a very large number of the so-called free beaches which are unofficial naturist beaches, sometimes controlled and maintained by local tourist authorities.^ There was only one Roman Empire, which sometimes was governed by two or more Augusti.
  • J. B. Bury: History of the Later Roman Empire • Vol. I Chap. XII 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A very economical option, far better than a seat for just a few euros more...
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ They told me that he [i.e., _unji _ ] had more right to be there than we.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

In fact, you are likely to find nudists on any beach outside of town centers. .Naturist beaches in Croatia are marked as "FKK". The most popular nudist destinations are Pula, Hvar and island Rab.^ Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits; most Adriatic Sea islands lie off the coast of Croatia - some 1,200 islands, islets, ridges, and rocks .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Croatia 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And while Croatia is growing in popularity as a tourist destination, it remains one of Europes best preserved destinations.
  • Croatia Yacht Charter Guide - Chartering the Adriatic Coast 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.boatbookings.com [Source type: General]

^ Kornati National Park - The Kornati National Park is one popular destination, offering more than a hundred beautiful islands in the Damlation Sea.
  • Croatia Yacht Charter Guide - Chartering the Adriatic Coast 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.boatbookings.com [Source type: General]

Health tourism

Increasingly Croatia is becoming a popular place for health tourism. A number of dental surgeries have experience in treating short term visitors to Croatia. .Croatian dentists study for 5 years in Zagreb or Rijeka.^ Serbs in the Rijeka area have taken their grievances to the Croatian government in Zagreb and report that they were favorably received and that steps were taken to address some of their concerns.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Andrea Kulier 17-years-old Croatian in the USA to study cosmology at Princeton .
  • CROWN - Croatian World Network 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatia.org [Source type: General]

.Harmonization of training with EU standards has begun, in preparation for Croatia's accession.^ In January 2008, Croatia assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2008-09 term, and in April 2008 it joined NATO. Croatia is a candidate for eventual EU accession.
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Croatia 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Lighthouses

One of Croatia's more "wild" holiday offers are the lighthouses. Most of them are situated on a deserted coastline or in the open sea. .The specialty of this is that you are able to cut yourself off from the rest of the world and take the time to "smell the roses". Sometimes the best way to relax is to take part in a Robinson Crusoe style holiday.^ By all means take an earlier Eurostar if you'd like to spend some time in Paris, or if it has cheaper seats available.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Use the recommended Eurostar times above as a guide, but by all means book an earlier Eurostar outward or a later Eurostar on the way back if these have cheaper seats available or if you'd like to stop off in Paris.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ By all means book an earlier Eurostar outwards, or a later Eurostar on the way back, if this has cheaper seats available of if you'd like to stop off in Paris for a while.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.Croatia has 11 rent-a-lighthouses along the Adriatic coast: Savudrija, Sv.^ Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits; most Adriatic Sea islands lie off the coast of Croatia - some 1,200 islands, islets, ridges, and rocks .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Croatia 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.cia.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Catamaran Charter - Catamarans are perfect for navigating the Adriatic islands off of the Coast of Croatia, and provide great comfort for families and groups of friends.
  • Croatia Yacht Charter Guide - Chartering the Adriatic Coast 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.boatbookings.com [Source type: General]

^ Croatia Yacht Charter Guide - Chartering the Adriatic Coast We're searching thousands of charter boats to find you the perfect yacht charter!
  • Croatia Yacht Charter Guide - Chartering the Adriatic Coast 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.boatbookings.com [Source type: General]

Ivan, Rt Zub, Porer, Veli Rat, Prisnjak, Sv. Petar, Plocica, Susac, Struga and Palagruza.

Buy

Croatia's official currency is the kuna. In many tourist places prices will be also given in euros. .Although some business owners may even accept euros they will usually not be authorized to do this (Euro is not legal tender in Croatia).^ We were to have an evening visit after they attended to some personal business.
  • Croatia : Wine Edition 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wineedition.com [Source type: General]

^ Croatia has agreed to accept these additional refugees temporarily, provided that the UNHCR take responsibility for their care and ensure that they are eventually resettled in a third country.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although some indepedent broadcasters operate fairly freely in Croatia, others have been denied frequency assignments, apparently for political reasons.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.Use the near-by cash-point or a bureau de change to obtain the needed amount of kuna and note that whatever amount of kuna you have left at the end of your stay you can convert to euros at a local bank or exchange office.^ If you buy your ticket at Zagreb station, the fare by ICN train is about 170 Kuna (17), which includes a complimentary coffee & sandwich.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ If you buy your ticket at Zagreb station, the fare is about 170 Kuna (17), which includes a complimentary coffee & sandwich.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

Prices are around 10% to 20% lower than other EU countries. Touristic destinations and articles shoot prices up, though.

ATMs

.ATMs (in Croatian bankomat) are readily available throughout Croatia.^ The government-owned distribution companies sell the paper, and it is readily available at most kiosks in Croatia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Finally, foreign television broadcasts on CNN, SKY and other foreign satellite channels are readily available to the many households in Croatia that have satellite antennas.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.They will accept various European bank cards, credit cards (Diners Club, Eurocard/Mastercard, Visa, American Express etc.^ If you're okay with the price you can give them your credit card details and they'll send you the tickets.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ They will call you back with a cost and take your credit card details if you're okay with the price.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

) and Croatian debit cards (Cirrus, Maestro, Visa electron etc.). Read the labels/notices on the machine before using.

Tax-free shopping

.If you buy goods worth more than 500 kuna you are entitled to a PDV (VAT) tax return when leaving the country.^ We don't want to leave the apartment because you never know who'll move in while we've gone to buy milk or run an errand.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If you buy your ticket at Zagreb station, the fare by ICN train is about 170 Kuna (17), which includes a complimentary coffee & sandwich.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ If you buy your ticket at Zagreb station, the fare is about 170 Kuna (17), which includes a complimentary coffee & sandwich.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

Note that this applies to all goods except petroleum products. At point of purchase ask the sales person for a PDV-P form. Fill it out and have it stamped on the spot. .On leaving Croatia the receipt will be verified by the Croatian Customs service.^ That it can be assumed from his [or her] behavior that he [or she] respects the laws and customs of the Republic of Croatia and that he [or she] accepts Croatian culture.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.A PDV refund in Kunas can be obtained within six months, either at the same shop where you bought the goods (in that case the tax will be refunded to you immediately), or by posting the verified receipt back to the shop, together with the account number into which the refund should be paid.^ You should take a good guidebook.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Zagreb to Split and back on the overnight train with either a berth in a 2-berth or berth in a 3-berth sleeper, although you may find it cheaper to book this ticket when you reach Zagreb.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ The efficiency of solving these criminal offenses is reflected in the rate of cases solved which was: · in 1991: 16.2 percent; · in 1992: 17.6 percent; · in the first six months of 1993: 15 percent.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.In this case the refund is dealt with within 15 days of receipt of the claim.^ In cases of rejection under Article 8, the rejected applicant can initiate administrative proceedings before the Administrative Court of Croatia within thirty days after receipt of the rejection notice.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

There is another, much easier way to receive the refund. Buy your goods in shops with a "CROATIA TAX-FREE SHOPPING" label. This label is displayed on the shop's entrance, usually next to the labels of credit and debit cards this particular shop accepts. .Using an international coupon, refund is possible in all countries-members of the TAX-FREE international chain.^ We hope you enjoy our FREE International Country Code search service.
  • Croatia Country Code & Croatia Area Codes 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.countrycodes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Conservative members of the ruling HDZ party, President Tudjman and some members of his government are intolerant of a free press which is critical of the country's leaders and their policies.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

In this case the service charge is deducted from the tax refund amount.

Eat

Croatian cuisine is quite diverse so it is hard to say what meal is most typically Croatian. .In the eastern continental regions (Slavonija and Baranja) spicy sausage such as kulen or kulenova seka is a must-try.^ Glava_ currently is the governor ( ñ upan) for the eastern Slavonija, Baranja and western Srijem regions.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

Čobanac ("shepherd's stew") is a mixture of several different kinds of meat with a lot of red spicy paprika. .In Hrvatsko Zagorje and Central Croatia pasta filled with cheese called štrukli is a famous delicacy (it is said that the best štrukli in Croatia is served in the Esplanade Hotel restaurant in Zagreb), as is purica s mlincima (baked turkey with a special kind of pastry).^ Stump's Answers the Call-Class Restaurant Fill Gap on San Jose Scene.
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sir i vrhnje (sour cream with cottage cheese) can be bought fresh on the Zagreb main market Dolac. Croats love a bit of oil and you will find plenty of it in piroška. In mountainous regions of Lika and Gorski Kotar meals made of mushrooms, wild berries and wild meat are very popular. One of typical dishes in Lika is police (oven-baked potatoes covered with bacon) and several kinds of cheese (smoked cheese and škripavac).
The coastal region is well known for truffle delicacies and soup maneštra od bobić (Istria), Dalmatian pršut and paški sir (Pag-island cheese). Dishes made of fresh fish and other products of the sea (calamari, octopus, crabs, scampi) shouldn't be given a miss! Many places serve fish delivered from the local fisherman the night before - find out which ones!
Croatian cuisine has yet to come up with a Croatian fast food representative. The market is dominated by globally ubiquitous hamburgers and pizzas but you will also find "burek" and "ćevapčići" imported from the medieval Ottoman empire which stretched from Turkey to neighboring Bosnia. The latter two dishes are widely popular in the entire South and Eastern Europe. Burek is a type of cheese-pastry whereas ćevapčići are seasoned minced meat shaped in finger-size portions served in bread and often covered with onions. Although definitely not a fast meal (takes several hours to prepare) also foreign in origin is the so-called sarma or sauerkraut rolls filled with minced meat and rice. .For those coming back from nightclubs at 4 or 5AM as is common in Croatia, it is popular to go to the local bakery and get fresh bread, burek or krafne (croatian chocolate filled donuts) straight out of the oven.^ I'm not going to kick out the soldiers who stayed here to fight to accommodate those who left Osijek and spent their time drinking in European cafes during the war and who now want to come back.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Unfortunately, members of the Croatian government have sought to discredit the work of local human rights activists rather than to work with them to improve civil and political rights in Croatia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Croatian law, a work permit can only be issued to a foreigner if he or she retains specific qualifications which cannot otherwise be filled from among Croatia's citizens.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

Delicious! .As far as fast food goes, who needs it when you can buy delicious prsut during the day and warm bread at night to compliment it.^ We don't want to leave the apartment because you never know who'll move in while we've gone to buy milk or run an errand.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Marching during the night he assailed the company of Theodimund at dawn of day.
  • J. B. Bury: History of the Later Roman Empire • Vol. I Chap. XII 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Advance reservation isn't necessary for Ljubljana-Rijeka trains, so you can buy a ticket at Ljubljana on the day & hop on, indeed this is cheaper than buying a through ticket from outside Slovenia.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

Most Croatians generally look down at fast food.
Desserts: What it lacks in the fast food department Croatia makes up with a myriad of desserts. Probably the most famous is its delicious creamy cake called kremšnite but different kinds of gibanica, štrudla and pita (similar to strudel and pie) such as orehnjača (walnut), makovnjača (poppy) or bučnica (pumpkin and cheese) are also highly recommended. Dubrovačka torta od skorupa is delicious but hard to find. .Paprenjaci (pepper cookies) are said to reflect the Croatian tumultuous history because they combine the harshness of the war periods (pepper) with the natural beauties (honey).^ Because of a lack of a Nation-State, Croatians were in most cases identified by the country that ruled them and were not accorded a place in history.
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They can be bought in most souvenir shops though fresh-made are always a better choice. Rapska torta (The Rab island cake) is made with almonds and locally famous cherry liquor Maraschino. It should be noted that this is hardly an exhaustive list and even a casual glimpse in any Croatian cookbook is likely to be worth the effort. .Chocolate candy "Bajadera" is available throughout shops in the country and along with "Griotte" is one of the most famous products of the Croatian chocolate industry.^ Because of a lack of a Nation-State, Croatians were in most cases identified by the country that ruled them and were not accorded a place in history.
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

An unavoidable ingredient in many meals prepared in Croatia is "Vegeta". It is a spice produced by "Podravka".
.Olives: a lot of people claim that Croatian olives and their olive oil are the best in the world, which is not even well known in Croatia and less worldwide.^ The Croatian government, even if it considers the men draft evaders, nevertheless has an obligation to allow them a fair opportunity to claim asylum.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In general, refugees have been treated well by the Croatian government but efforts in 1993 and early 1994 to forcibly repatriate Bosnian males was a serious violation of refugee rights in Croatia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

Many brands exist and some of them have several world awards. .Try to buy olive oil from Istra (although oil from Dalmatia is also excellent) and choose only Croatian brands for olives (most notable sms, few times awarded as the world's best!^ To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time an editor-in-chief of a publication has been mobilized into the Croatian Army.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This excellent train runs daily for most of the year, but only 4 times a week in winter.
  • How to travel by train from London to Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Punishment for Subversion and Terrorism The Croatian government has tried, most frequently in absentia , thousands of Serbs accused of "endangering the territorial integrity of Croatia."
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

). .Try to read the declaration before buying to ensure you are buying Croatian olives and oil, since there are a lot of imports (usually cheap products from Greece).^ [But] why are there 6,000 apartments with Serbs inside and you, Croatian invalids [i.e., veterans handicapped as a result of the war], haven't got any?"
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.All of this can be found in most of the supermarkets, but you should be really aware of the imports, most of the Croatian people aren't experts and prefer cheaper products, so they dominate.^ The most liberal citizenship law is the "zero option," which grants citizenship to all people living in the republic either at the time independence was declared or when the law was adopted.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Graves containing the remains of those killed during the fightinghave yet to be exhumed by independent forensic experts and the identities of all those killed during the offensive have yet to be released by the Croatian government.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Council of Europe has also stated that "citizenship should not be granted arbitrarily and in violation of the principle of non-discrimination, a rule found in most human rights treaties."
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.The olive oil is a irreaplaceable "ingredient" in the coastal cuisine, but you should be aware of the use of cheaper, not Croatian, oil in restaurants because most of the tourists don't notice the difference so the restaurants don't find it profitable to use excellent oil; they rather use cheaper Spanish or Greek.^ We don't want to leave the apartment because you never know who'll move in while we've gone to buy milk or run an errand.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

Usually, asking the waiter for a better oil (and looking like an expert) helps, and soon he gets you a first-class oil from a hidden place.

Drink

Alcoholic: Try many different kinds of wines. Also worth trying is rakija, a type of brandy which can be made of plum (šljivovica), grapes (loza), figs (smokovača) and many other types of fruit and aromatic herbs. Pelinkovac is a bitter herbal liquor popular in Central Croatia, but is said to resemble cough-medicine in flavor. Famous Maraschino, a liquer flavored with Marasca cherries, which are grown around Zadar, Dalmatia. Non-alcoholic: Sometimes although very rarely you may find "sok od bazge" (elderflower juice) in the continental region. Worth trying! On a more general note, Croatia produces a broad palette of high quality wines (up to 700 wines with protected geographic origin) and brandies, fruit juices, beers and mineral water. On the coast people usually serve "bevanda" with meals. Bevanda is heavy, richly flavored red wine mixed with plain water. Its counter-part in northern parts of Croatia is "gemisht". This term designates dry, flavored wines mixed with mineral water.
Two most popular beers are "Karlovačko" and "Ožujsko", but "Velebitsko" and "Tomislav pivo" have received a semi-cult status in the recent years. It is served only in some places in Zagreb and Croatia.

Sleep

In Croatia there are 4 major types of accommodation:
  • Apartments
  • Small private hotels
  • Two- and three-star hotel resorts, for typical mass tourism
  • Five-star luxury hotels

Work

Volunteering

Croatia is the destination of many worldwide volunteer organizations that send groups of volunteers throughout the year to help with agriculture, community development, education, animal welfare, and more. These programs are put together by nonprofits, community groups and volunteers to help locals improve their economy and way of life. .With rich cultural history and stunning coastline, Croatia is truly is the jewel of eastern Europe.^ An individual with a desire to study the history, culture and people of Croatia would out of necessity have to read portions of Austrian, Hungarian, Turkish and Italian history.
  • CROATIA AND CROATIANS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.croatians.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Split is the main city in Dalmatia, is beautifully preserved, and rich in history and culture.
  • Croatia Yacht Charter Guide - Chartering the Adriatic Coast 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.boatbookings.com [Source type: General]

.If you would like to travel to Croatia as a volunteer, visit these websites for volunteer programs, accommodations, travel dates, and tours.^ If you have several couples or families who would like to charter on the same boat, gulets are an excellent option, and are available at great value.
  • Croatia Yacht Charter Guide - Chartering the Adriatic Coast 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.boatbookings.com [Source type: General]

  • Essential Croatia [45]
  • ISV Croatia [46]
  • Volunteers Centre Zagreb [47]

Stay safe

During summer make sure you use adequate SPF to protect yourself from sunburn. .There are no ozone holes over Croatia but it's fairly easy to burn in the sun.^ Finally, on March 22, 1995, Croatia's Constitutional Court ruled that there were no legal grounds to justify application of the tax on Feral Tribune and the Court withdrew the tax.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

If this happens make sure you get out of the sun, drink plenty of fluids and rehydrate your skin. The locals will often advise covering the burnt spot with cold yogurt bought from the supermarket.
.In case of an emergency you can dial 112 - responsible for dispatching all emergency services such as fire departments, police, emergency medical assistance and mountain rescue.^ We have not had many recent cases in which a person was indicted for "armed rebellion," and we are to suspendthe issuing of further indictments for such crimes - you cannot hold such proceedings any more.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The following cases illustrate abuses for which members of the Croatian Army and police responsible for such actions have not, to the best of our knowledge, been punished and which are only some of many examples of impunity.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.Since the hostilities ended in 1995, there remain an estimated 110,000 landmines in Croatia.^ Current estimates indicate that approxiamately 200,000 Serbs fled from western Slavonia and Krajina during the Croatian Army offensives in mid-1995, and those Serbs currently remaining in government-controlled areas of Croatia are believed to comprise only 4 percent of Croatia's population.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Finally, on March 22, 1995, Croatia's Constitutional Court ruled that there were no legal grounds to justify application of the tax on Feral Tribune and the Court withdrew the tax.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

These landmines are spread over the following regions: Brodsko-Posavska, Dubrovacko-Neretvanska, Karlovacka, Licko-Senjska, Osjecko-Branajska, Pozesko-Slavonska, Splitsko-Dalmatinska, Sisacko-Moslovacka, Sibensko-Kninska,Viroviticko-Pordravska, Vukorvarsko-Srijemska, and Zadarska.
Do not stray from marked roads or known safe areas. For further advice refer to Wikitravel's war zone safety section.
Avoid strip clubs at all costs. They are often run by very shady characters, and often overcharge their guests. Recent cases include foreigners that were charged 2000 euros for a bottle of champagne. These clubs overcharge their customers to the extreme, and their bouncers will not have any mercy if you tell them you are unable to pay. You will soon find yourself in a local hospital. Using common sense is essential, but due to the nature of the clubs this may be in short supply, and you may be better advised simply to steer well clear of these clubs.

Stay healthy

.There are no vaccination required to enter Croatia.^ Finally, on March 22, 1995, Croatia's Constitutional Court ruled that there were no legal grounds to justify application of the tax on Feral Tribune and the Court withdrew the tax.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

If you're going camping or hiking in continental Croatia during summer, you should be aware of ticks and tick-carrying diseases such as encephalitis and lyme-disease. Approximately 3 ticks in 1000 carry the virus.
.In Eastern Slavonia (particularly around the Kopacki Rit near Osijek) wear long sleeves and take insect repellent.^ According to a man who had been displaced from his home in eastern Slavonia and was currently living in an apartment from which the tenant had been forcibly evicted in Osijek: 80 We have problems with housing in this city.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.Tap water in Croatia is perfectly safe, and in some areas considered the best in the world.^ While the Croatian government has taken some steps to improve its human rights record in other areas, it has systematically tried to curb freedom of the independent press in Croatia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of Croatia's soldiers are displaced persons who have been "cleansed" from their homes in areas controlled by Serbian forces.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

However, you can still choose from several brands of excellent bottled water (Jamnica being the most popular, and Jana, several times awarded as the world's best bottled water).

Respect

.Keep in mind that 1990s marked with Serbian aggression and Croatian-Serbian bloody and brutal war is still a painful subject, but generally there should be no problem if you approach that topic with respect.^ But Theoderic had no mind to share the peninsula with another king, and there can hardly be a doubt that, when he swore to the treaty, he had the full intention of breaking his oath.
  • J. B. Bury: History of the Later Roman Empire • Vol. I Chap. XII 16 September 2009 12:012 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Croatian authorities should also increase efforts to initiate or complete investigations of military and police personnel accused of committing war crimes during the 1991-92 war with rebel Serbian forcesin Croatia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

^ According to the Croatian Ministry of Defense, there is no specific law exempting journalists and news editors from military service.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

.Visitors will find that domestic politics and European affairs are everyday conversation subjects in Croatia.^ Human Rights Monitoring · Work with domestic human rights activists in Croatia with a view to strengthening the rule of law and increasing respect for civil and political rights in Croatia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

Socially, displays of affection among the younger generation are the same as Western European standards, but the older generation (over 65) still are quite conservative.
When driving on rural roads, particularly where a driver has to pull in to allow you to pass, it is customary to wave a thanks to the other driver, by raising your hand from the steering wheel.
Most Croats will respond to "thank you" with something along the lines of "It was nothing" or "not at all" which is equivalent to English "Don't mention it".

Contact

Telephone

Croatia uses the GSM 900/1800 system for mobile phones. There are three providers, T-Mobile, Vip (also operates the Tomato prepaid brand) and Tele2. Over 98% of the country's area is covered. Since 2006 UMTS (3G) is available as well. If you have an unlocked phone, you can buy a Tele2 prepaid SIM card for 25 kn (3.42 euro). GSM phones (Nokia 1200, Nokia 2610, Motorola F3, LG KG130 or Samsung C170) bundled with T-Mobile or Vip prepaid SIM cards can be found in post offices, Konzum grocery stores and kiosks at prices between 200 and 300 kn (27-41 euro).
Alternative to use of mobile phone is Calling Cards which can be found in postal offices and Kiosks, There are two providers Dencall and Hitme. you can buy cards from 25 kn (3.42 euro)
Area Codes: When calling between cities you must dial specific city area codes: (area code)+(phone number)
Zagreb (01) Split (021) Rijeka (051) Dubrovnik (020) Sibenik/Knin (022) Zadar (023) Osijek (031) Vukovar (032) Varazdin (042) Bjelovar (043) Sisak (044) Karlovac (047) Koprivnica (048) Krapina (049) Istria (052) Lika/Senj (053)

Internet

ADSL is common in Croatia. .A 4 Mbit connection with unlimited downloads costs 178 kn (24 euro) per month via T-Com and just 99 kn with some other providers like Metronet or Iskon.^ Others have applied for citizenship but have not been informed of a decision for months and in some cases over one year, leaving them uncertain about their status in Croatia.
  • Croatia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hrw.org [Source type: Original source]

Internet cafés are available in all major cities. They are relatively cheap and reliable. A free Wi-Fi signal can be found virtually in every city (cafés, hotels, private unsecured networks...)
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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Alternative spellings

  • Croätia

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Croatia
Plural
-
Croatia
  1. Country in Europe. Official name: Republic of Croatia.

Related terms

Translations

See also


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 08, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Croatia, which are similar to those in the above article.








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