Crohn's disease: Wikis

  
  
  

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Crohn's Disease
Classification and external resources
.
The three most common sites of intestinal involvement in Crohn's disease are ileal, ileocolic and colonic.^ Croans disease is a common misspelling of Crohn's disease.
  • Coreg Uses - Cure for Pink Eye Articles 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Crones disease is a common misspelling of Crohn's disease.
  • Coreg Uses - Cure for Pink Eye Articles 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Crons disease is a common misspelling of Crohn's disease.
  • Coreg Uses - Cure for Pink Eye Articles 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

[1]
ICD-10 K50.
ICD-9 555
OMIM 266600
DiseasesDB 3178
MedlinePlus 000249
eMedicine med/477 ped/507 radio/197
MeSH D003424
.Crohn's disease (also known as Crohn-Leśniowski Disease, or morbus Leśniowski-Crohn, granulomatous colitis and regional enteritis) is an inflammatory disease of the intestines that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus, causing a wide variety of symptoms.^ People with Crohn's disease also may have: .
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main symptoms of Crohn's disease include: .
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Crohn's disease may cause blood in stools, but not always.
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It primarily causes abdominal pain, diarrhea (which may be bloody), vomiting, or weight loss,[1][2][3] but may also cause complications outside of the gastrointestinal tract such as skin rashes, arthritis, inflammation of the eye, tiredness, and lack of concentration .^ Ongoing symptoms, such as diarrhea, can lead to weight loss.
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Throwing up, diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, listless, extreme weight loss.
  • Food Recall Alert: Mars Pedigree Dog Food Salmonella Scare 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC dogblog.dogster.com [Source type: General]

^ He had vomiting and severe BLOODY diarrhea for 2 weeks.
  • Food Recall Alert: Mars Pedigree Dog Food Salmonella Scare 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC dogblog.dogster.com [Source type: General]

[1]
.Crohn's disease is an autoimmune disease, in which the body's immune system attacks the gastrointestinal tract, causing inflammation; it is classified as a type of inflammatory bowel disease.^ Most ulcers are caused by the immune system attacking the lining of the stomach.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ What are the types of inflammatory bowel disease?
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Crohn's disease is a Th1 inflammation (T-helper cell type 1).
  • Is Crohn's disease on the rise because we've eliminated hookworm infections? - Boing Boing 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.boingboing.net [Source type: General]

.There has been evidence of a genetic link to Crohn's disease, putting individuals with siblings afflicted with the disease at higher risk.^ Smoking also puts you at a higher risk for the disease.
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (G) linked with an increased risk for Crohn's disease.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ In both cases there was improvement, more so in the Crohn's Disease patients.
  • Is Crohn's disease on the rise because we've eliminated hookworm infections? - Boing Boing 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.boingboing.net [Source type: General]

[4] It is understood to have a large environmental component as evidenced by the higher number of cases in western industrialized nations. Males and females are equally affected. .Smokers are three times more likely to develop Crohn's disease.^ In both cases there was improvement, more so in the Crohn's Disease patients.
  • Is Crohn's disease on the rise because we've eliminated hookworm infections? - Boing Boing 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.boingboing.net [Source type: General]

^ Depending on the severity of your Crohn's disease, your doctor may recommend one or more of the following: .

^ She was diagnosed as bipolar and taking Paxil, she had an ulcer and was taking Aciphix, she was put on Antivert for dizziness, the doctor said that she was developing Crones Disease...she was barely 18 at the time!
  • Battling the MSG Myth: How You Made the MSG Connection 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.msgmyth.com [Source type: General]

[5] .Crohn's disease affects between 400,000 and 600,000 people in North America.^ Crohn's and Colitis affects 7 out of every 100,000 people.
  • treatments on WeAreCrohns.org 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.wearecrohns.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Crohn's disease usually occurs in the lower part of the small intestine, called the ileum, but it can affect any part of the digestive tract, from the mouth to the anus.
  • Crohns Disease - Crohns Treatment 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.iifar.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Another study found 1,000 IU per day of vitamin D prevented bone loss in people with Crohn’s, while an unsupplemented group experienced significant bone loss.
  • Crohns Disease - Crohns Treatment 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.iifar.org [Source type: Academic]

[6] .Prevalence estimates for Northern Europe have ranged from 27–48 per 100,000.[7] Crohn's disease tends to present initially in the teens and twenties, with another peak incidence in the fifties to seventies, although the disease can occur at any age.^ Crohn's disease usually occurs in the lower part of the small intestine, called the ileum, but it can affect any part of the digestive tract, from the mouth to the anus.
  • Crohns Disease - Crohns Treatment 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.iifar.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Another study found 1,000 IU per day of vitamin D prevented bone loss in people with Crohn’s, while an unsupplemented group experienced significant bone loss.
  • Crohns Disease - Crohns Treatment 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.iifar.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Although infections are usually initiated during calfhood, clinical disease does not appear until adulthood.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

[1][8]
.There is no known pharmaceutical or surgical cure for Crohn's disease.^ Children Disease Crohn's Disease Crohn's disease can not be cured.

^ There is no cure for Ebola.
  • Coreg Uses - Cure for Pink Eye Articles 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There is no proven cure for Crohn's disease.
  • Coreg Uses - Cure for Pink Eye Articles 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

[9] .Treatment options are restricted to controlling symptoms, maintaining remission and preventing relapse.^ This eMedTV resource offers a more in-depth look at this condition and its causes, symptoms, and treatment options.
  • Coreg Uses - Cure for Pink Eye Articles 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This section of the eMedTV library provides an overview of this form of heart disease, including information about risk factors, symptoms, treatment options, and prevention strategies.
  • Coreg Uses - Cure for Pink Eye Articles 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ But as this eMedTV page explains, you can take steps to help prevent gout (like maintaining a healthy weight), as well as keep it under control.
  • Coreg Uses - Cure for Pink Eye Articles 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

.The disease was named for American gastroenterologist Burrill Bernard Crohn, who in 1932, along with two colleagues, described a series of patients with inflammation of the terminal ileum, the area most commonly affected by the illness.^ Crohn's disease is characterized by patches of inflammation along the digestive tract.
  • Coreg Uses - Cure for Pink Eye Articles 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It's absorbed in the terminal ileum, a part of the small intestine often affected by Crohn's disease.

^ Crohn's disease is characterized by inflammation along the digestive tract.
  • Coreg Uses - Cure for Pink Eye Articles 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

[10] .For this reason, the disease has also been called regional ileitis[10] or regional enteritis.^ The boy in question was treated for a condition called Ataxia Telangiectasia – a genetic disease that attacks the brain region controlling movement and speech.

.The condition, however, has been independently identified by others in the literature prior, most notably in 1904 by Polish surgeon Antoni Leśniowski for whom the condition is additionally named (Leśniowski-Crohn's disease) in the Polish literature.^ Other diseases can also have the same symptoms as Crohn's disease.
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was a tough disease for other people, like his bosses, to comprehend because most of the suffering takes place behind closed bathroom doors.
  • I have crohn's disease. I shat my pants outside of "Plaid Pantry" because they wouldn't let me use the employee bathroom. : reddit.com 15 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.reddit.com [Source type: General]

^ Crohn's Disease was first discovered and named after Dr. Burrill B. Crohn in 1932.

Contents

Classification

.
Distribution of gastrointestinal Crohn's disease.
^ "Chronic Gastrointestinal Diseases in Dairy Farmers in England and the Welsh Borders: Is there an Association Between Crohn's Disease and Bovine Paratuberculosis?"
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

Based on data from American Gastroenterological Association.
.Crohn's disease is one type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).^ Filed under: Digestive Health Crohn's disease is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

^ Bowel Disease Herbal Treatments for Crohn's Disease There are varied herbal treatments for Crohn's Disease which is also called IBD or inflammatory bowel disease.

^ Crohn's Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Treatment of Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are separate inflammatory bowel diseases, but are generally grouped together and similarly treated because of their similar symptoms.

.It affects the gastrointestinal tract and can be categorized by the area of the gastrointestinal tract which it affects.^ It is a chronic, inflammatory disorder that affects the digestive or gastrointestinal (GI) tract.

.Ileocolic Crohn's disease, which affects both the ileum (the last part of the small intestine that connects to the large intestine) and the large intestine, accounts for fifty percent of cases.^ In both cases there was improvement, more so in the Crohn's Disease patients.
  • Is Crohn's disease on the rise because we've eliminated hookworm infections? - Boing Boing 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.boingboing.net [Source type: General]

^ Crohn's disease is characterized by inflammation that primarily affects the small intestine and colon.
  • Coreg Uses - Cure for Pink Eye Articles 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Crohn's disease usually occurs in the lower part of the small intestine, called the ileum, but it can affect any part of the digestive tract, from the mouth to the anus.
  • Crohns Disease - Crohns Treatment 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.iifar.org [Source type: Academic]

.Crohn's ileitis, affecting the ileum only, accounts for thirty percent of cases, and Crohn's colitis, affecting the large intestine, accounts for the remaining twenty percent of cases and may be particularly difficult to distinguish from ulcerative colitis.^ In rare cases, intestinal transplant is used to treat Crohn's disease.
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over time, parts of the bowel can thicken and narrow, which may block the flow of digestive contents through the affected part of your intestine.

^ Other conditions with symptoms similar to Crohn's disease include diverticulitis and ulcerative colitis .
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gastroduodenal Crohn's disease causes inflammation in the stomach and first part of the small intestine, called the duodenum.^ Crohn's disease is characterized by inflammation that primarily affects the small intestine and colon.
  • Coreg Uses - Cure for Pink Eye Articles 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Crohn’s disease usually is found in the last part of the small intestine and the first part of the large intestine.
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It's absorbed in the terminal ileum, a part of the small intestine often affected by Crohn's disease.

.Jejunoileitis causes spotty patches of inflammation in the top half of the small intestine, called the jejunum (MedlinePlus 2010).^ Because Crohn's disease can cause inflammation in parts of the intestines that absorb nutrients from food, it can cause deficiencies in vitamin B12, folic acid, or other nutrients.
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blockages in the intestines also can be caused by inflammation and swelling, which may improve with medicines.
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Crohn's disease is characterized by inflammation that primarily affects the small intestine and colon.
  • Coreg Uses - Cure for Pink Eye Articles 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

.The disease can attack any part of the digestive tract, from mouth to anus.^ But it can develop anywhere in the digestive tract, from the mouth to the anus.
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory disease occurring in any part of the digestive tract.

^ In addition to inflammation and ulcers in the digestive tract, Crohn's disease can cause problems in other parts of the body, such as arthritis, inflammation of the eyes or skin, clubbing of the fingernails, kidney stones, gallstones and, occasionally, inflammation of the bile ducts.

.However, individuals affected by the disease rarely fall outside these three classifications, being affected in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract such as the stomach and esophagus.^ However, inflammation may also occur in other areas of the gastrointestinal tract, affecting the mouth, esophagus, or stomach.
  • Crohn's Disease - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC health.stateuniversity.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Any part of the gut can be affected in Crohn’s disease.
  • Crohn's disease | General | Patients 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.bsg.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Less commonly, other organ systems outside the gastrointestinal tract may be affected by Crohn’s disease.
  • Crohn's Disease - Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.healthscout.com [Source type: Academic]

[1]
.Crohn's disease may also be categorized by the behavior of disease as it progresses.^ People with Crohn's disease also may have: .
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Depending on the severity of your Crohn's disease, your doctor may recommend one or more of the following: .

^ Crohn's disease is an ongoing (chronic) condition that may flare up throughout your life.
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This was formalized in the Vienna classification of Crohn's disease.^ Crohn's disease Classifications and external resources .

^ This was formalized in the Vienna classification of Crohn's disease.

^ The “Vienna Classification” and its recent “Montreal modification” categorize Crohn's disease into three principal patterns: (1) primarily inflammatory, which after several years commonly evolves into either (2) primarily stenotic or obstructing or (3) primarily penetrating or fistulizing.
  • Crohn's Disease: Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): Merck Manual Professional 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

[11] .There are three categories of disease presentation in Crohn's disease: stricturing, penetrating, and inflammatory.^ Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease.
  • Coreg Uses - Cure for Pink Eye Articles 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Crohn's Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Treatment of Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are separate inflammatory bowel diseases, but are generally grouped together and similarly treated because of their similar symptoms.

^ In both cases there was improvement, more so in the Crohn's Disease patients.
  • Is Crohn's disease on the rise because we've eliminated hookworm infections? - Boing Boing 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.boingboing.net [Source type: General]

.Stricturing disease causes narrowing of the bowel which may lead to bowel obstruction or changes in the caliber of the feces.^ In long-term Crohn's disease, scar tissue may replace some of the inflamed or ulcerated intestines, forming blockages (bowel obstructions) or narrowed areas (strictures) that can prevent stool from passing through the intestines.
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But if you have inflammatory bowel disease, fiber may make diarrhea, pain and gas worse.

^ Some people find it helpful to consult a psychologist or psychiatrist who's familiar with inflammatory bowel disease and the emotional difficulties it can cause.

.Penetrating disease creates abnormal passageways (fistulae) between the bowel and other structures such as the skin.^ Crohn's disease can be difficult to diagnose because its symptoms are similar to other intestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome and to another type of IBD called ulcerative colitis.
  • Crohns Disease - Crohns Treatment 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.iifar.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If sores break through the wall of the intestines, abnormal connections or openings ( fistulas ) may develop between two parts of the intestines, between the intestines and other organs (such as the bladder or vagina), or between the intestines and the skin.
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Antibiotics are also used to treat fistulas , which are abnormal connections or openings between two organs or parts of the body.
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Inflammatory disease (or non-stricturing, non-penetrating disease) causes inflammation without causing strictures or fistulae.^ Some people find it helpful to consult a psychologist or psychiatrist who's familiar with inflammatory bowel disease and the emotional difficulties it can cause.

^ Because Crohn's disease can cause inflammation in parts of the intestines that absorb nutrients from food, it can cause deficiencies in vitamin B12, folic acid, or other nutrients.
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The inflammation caused by Crohn's disease often spreads deep into the layers of affected bowel tissue.

[11][12]

Symptoms

Endoscopy image of colon showing serpiginous ulcer, a classic finding in Crohn's disease
.Many people with Crohn's disease have symptoms for years prior to the diagnosis.^ The most common symptoms of Crohn's disease are: .
  • Crohn's Disease << Types of Illnesses & Disabilities << Illnesses and Disabilities << womenshealth.gov 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ People with Crohn's disease also may have: .
  • Crohn's Disease - Symptoms - Yahoo! Health 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How many people died from crohn's disease so far?
  • WikiAnswers - Crohns Disease Questions including "Does having crohn's make you immunocompromised" 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13] .The usual onset is between 15 and 30 years of age but can occur at any age.^ Most people are diagnosed with Crohn's between the ages of 20 and 30.

^ I am 40 years old and was diagnosed in 1984 @ the age of 15.
  • treatments on WeAreCrohns.org 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.wearecrohns.org [Source type: Academic]

^ So about 1pm I'd close the store for about 30 minutes for my lunch, but I always had a sign up stating when I'd be back, and I was usually only taking a 15 minute lunch anyway.
  • Reasons I No Longer Desire to Work in Retail - The Something Awful Forums 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC forums.somethingawful.com [Source type: General]

[14] .Because of the 'patchy' nature of the gastrointestinal disease and the depth of tissue involvement, initial symptoms can be more vague than with ulcerative colitis.^ Crohn's Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Treatment of Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are separate inflammatory bowel diseases, but are generally grouped together and similarly treated because of their similar symptoms.

^ In Treatment Natural Remedies for Treatment of Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis Often in desperation to get the symptoms under control, Crohn's and ulcerative colitis patients begin to search for non-traditional remedies.

^ Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are thought to be more powerful than ASC because they can become any cell in the body.

.People with Crohn's disease will go through periods of flare-ups and remission.^ People with Crohn's disease will go through periods of flare-ups and remission.

^ Can I prevent flare-ups of Crohn's disease?
  • Crohn's Disease - Topic Overview - Yahoo! Health 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People with Crohn's disease also may have: .
  • Crohn's Disease - Symptoms - Yahoo! Health 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Gastrointestinal symptoms

.Abdominal pain may be the initial symptom of Crohn's disease.^ Other diseases can also have the same symptoms as Crohn's disease.
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People with Crohn's disease also may have: .
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What are the symptoms of Crohn's disease?
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is often accompanied by diarrhea, especially in those who have had surgery. The diarrhea may or may not be bloody. .People who have had surgery or multiple surgeries often end up with short bowel syndrome of the gastrointestinal tract.^ Short bowel syndrome occurs.
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The girls who I carefully planned on asking out ended up either outright rejecting me or went on just a couple of lousy dates.
  • I got a beard like a gOTT... [Mobile/Archive] - Cheap Ass Gamer 15 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.cheapassgamer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some people find it helpful to consult a psychologist or psychiatrist who's familiar with inflammatory bowel disease and the emotional difficulties it can cause.

.The nature of the diarrhea in Crohn's disease depends on the part of the small intestine or colon that is involved.^ The natural history of perianal Crohn's disease.
  • Crohn's disease - MayoClinic.com 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.mayoclinic.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Crohn's disease: Treatments and drugs - MayoClinic.com 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.mayoclinic.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Crohn's disease: Symptoms - MayoClinic.com 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mayoclinic.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the intestines.
  • Information on Crohn's Disease Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment by MedicineNet.com 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Crohn's disease is characterized by inflammation that primarily affects the small intestine and colon.
  • Coreg Uses - Cure for Pink Eye Articles 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

.Ileitis typically results in large-volume watery feces.^ Ileitis typically results in large-volume watery feces.

^ Colitis may result in a smaller volume of feces of higher frequency.

.Colitis may result in a smaller volume of feces of higher frequency.^ Colitis may result in a smaller volume of feces of higher frequency.

^ Ileitis typically results in large-volume watery feces.

^ Visible bleeding in the feces is less common in Crohn's disease than in ulcerative colitis, but may be seen in the setting of Crohn's colitis.

.Fecal consistency may range from solid to watery.^ Fecal consistency may range from solid to watery.

.In severe cases, an individual may have more than 20 bowel movements per day and may need to awaken at night to defecate.^ A 2007 study based on the Icelanders and Dutch concluded that individuals with an rs12821256(C) allele were ~2x fold more likely to have blond than brown hair color.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
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^ Depending on the severity of your Crohn's disease, your doctor may recommend one or more of the following: .

^ But I might try again, just buy it from Costco, it's much cheaper to buy the big cases than the smaller individual ones.
  • I have a chronic disease, unemployed, and medicaid denied me. What do I do? [Archive] - Xbox 360 & Xbox Forums 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC forum.teamxbox.com [Source type: Original source]

[1][8][15][16] .Visible bleeding in the feces is less common in Crohn's disease than in ulcerative colitis, but may be seen in the setting of Crohn's colitis.^ The most common symptoms of Crohn's disease are: .
  • Crohn's Disease << Types of Illnesses & Disabilities << Illnesses and Disabilities << womenshealth.gov 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ People with Crohn's disease also may have: .
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Croans disease is a common misspelling of Crohn's disease.
  • Coreg Uses - Cure for Pink Eye Articles 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

[1] .Bloody bowel movements are typically intermittent, and may be bright or dark red in colour.^ Bloody bowel movements are typically intermittent, and may be bright or dark red in colour.

^ Physical activity can increase bowel motility which may lead to more frequent bowel movements.
  • Magic Bullet for Crohn's management? - alt.support.crohns-colitis | Google Groups 15 September 2009 22:31 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: General]

^ In severe cases, an individual may have more than 20 bowel movements per day and may need to awaken at night to defecate.

.In the setting of severe Crohn's colitis, bleeding may be copious.^ In the setting of severe Crohn's colitis, bleeding may be copious.

^ There are several types of colitis, including ulcerative colitis, Crohn's colitis, diversion colitis, ischemic colitis, infectious colitis, chemical colitis, microscopic colitis, and atypical colitis.
  • Profile: barlights - Rate Your Music 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC rateyourmusic.com [Source type: General]

^ Depending on the severity of your Crohn's disease, your doctor may recommend one or more of the following: .

[8] .Flatulence and bloating may also add to the intestinal discomfort.^ Mild Crohn's disease usually causes slight to moderate intestinal discomfort, but in more-serious cases, the pain may be severe and include nausea and vomiting.

[8]
.Symptoms caused by intestinal stenosis are also common in Crohn's disease.^ Croans disease is a common misspelling of Crohn's disease.
  • Coreg Uses - Cure for Pink Eye Articles 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Crones disease is a common misspelling of Crohn's disease.
  • Coreg Uses - Cure for Pink Eye Articles 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The cause of Crohn's disease remains unknown.

.Abdominal pain is often most severe in areas of the bowel with stenoses.^ The most common symptoms are abdominal pain, often in the lower right area, and diarrhea.
  • Diagnose-Me: Condition: Ankylosing Spondylitis 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.diagnose-me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Abdominal pain is often most severe in areas of the bowel with stenoses.

^ It's often associated with painful bowel movements.

.In the setting of severe stenosis, vomiting and nausea may indicate the beginnings of small bowel obstruction.^ Although small, aThe evidence from our final meta-analysis indicates that the C-521T may account for up to 3% of phenotypic variance.a None rs182549 (C;T) ...more...
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^ Supplemental nutrition may be necessary if you are malnourished because of severe Crohn's disease in the small intestine.
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ciprofloxacin may cause nausea, vomiting, headache and, rarely, tendon problems.

[8] .Although the association is greater in the context of ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease may also be associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis, a type of inflammation of the bile ducts.^ People with Crohn's disease also may have: .
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Crohn's disease is a Th1 inflammation (T-helper cell type 1).
  • Is Crohn's disease on the rise because we've eliminated hookworm infections? - Boing Boing 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.boingboing.net [Source type: General]

^ But the risk of colorectal cancer may be higher with ulcerative colitis than with Crohn's disease.
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17]
.Perianal discomfort may also be prominent in Crohn's disease.^ People with Crohn's disease also may have: .
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Depending on the severity of your Crohn's disease, your doctor may recommend one or more of the following: .

^ Crohn's disease is an ongoing (chronic) condition that may flare up throughout your life.
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Itchiness or pain around the anus may be suggestive of inflammation, fistulization or abscess around the anal area[1] or anal fissure.^ Small tears in the anus ( anal fissures ).
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chronic inflammation can lead to open sores (ulcers) anywhere in your digestive tract, including your mouth and anus, and in the genital area (perineum) and anus.

^ Abscesses or tears (fissures) in the anal area or when abnormal connections ( fistulas ) form between two parts of the intestine or between the intestine and other internal organs.
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Perianal skin tags are also common in Crohn's disease.^ Cornell Superfoods to Control Crohn's Disease Flare-Ups Crohn's disease is a fairly common condition in which a section of the gastrointestinal tract becomes inflamed.

^ Additionally, anemia is common in people with Crohn's disease.

^ Prednisone Crohn's and Colon Cancer: The Risk Crohn's disease is an inflammatory bowel disease with common symptoms such as abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea; it is chronic and incurable at this point.

[18] .Fecal incontinence may accompany peri-anal Crohn's disease.^ People with Crohn's disease also may have: .
  • Crohn's Disease - Symptoms - Yahoo! Health 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fecal incontinence may accompany peri-anal Crohn's disease.

^ Peri-anal discomfort may also be prominent in Crohn's disease.

.At the opposite end of the gastrointestinal tract, the mouth may be affected by non-healing sores (aphthous ulcers).^ You may also have ulcers in your mouth similar to canker sores.

^ The pattern results from the repeated formation and healing of sores (ulcers) in the intestine.
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chronic inflammation can lead to open sores (ulcers) anywhere in your digestive tract, including your mouth and anus, and in the genital area (perineum) and anus.

.Rarely, the esophagus, and stomach may be involved in Crohn's disease.^ People with Crohn's disease also may have: .
  • Crohn's Disease - Symptoms - Yahoo! Health 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rarely, the esophagus, and stomach may be involved in Crohn's disease.

^ Crohn's disease may also involve the skin, blood, and endocrine system.

.These can cause symptoms including difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), upper abdominal pain, and vomiting.^ What's causing these symptoms?

^ These drugs are the most effective for active Crohn's disease, but they can cause serious side effects, including greater susceptibility to infection.
  • Crohns Disease - Crohns Treatment 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.iifar.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Even if your symptoms are mild, gas and abdominal pain can make it difficult to be out in public.

[19]

Systemic symptoms

.Crohn's disease, like many other chronic, inflammatory diseases, can cause a variety of systemic symptoms.^ The main symptoms of Crohn's disease include: .
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Crohn's Disease Crohn's disease is a chronic, recurrent inflammatory disease of the intestinal tract.
  • treatments on WeAreCrohns.org 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.wearecrohns.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Other diseases can also have the same symptoms as Crohn's disease.
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .Among children, growth failure is common.^ Among children, growth failure is common.

^ Chronic intermittent elemental diet improves growth failure in children with Crohn's disease.
  • Crohn's Disease - Nutritional Therapy References 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.scdiet.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an intermittent defined formula diet on growth and disease activity in children with Crohn's disease and growth failure.
  • Crohn's Disease - Nutritional Therapy References 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.scdiet.org [Source type: Academic]

.Many children are first diagnosed with Crohn's disease based on inability to maintain growth.^ Top ] How is Crohn's disease diagnosed?
  • Crohn's Disease Symptoms Signs - Inflammatory Bowel Disease - Natural Treatments - Beta Glucans 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC heartspring.net [Source type: Academic]

^ [Top] How is Crohn's disease diagnosed?

^ How is Crohn’s disease diagnosed?

[20] .As Crohn's disease may manifest at the time of the growth spurt in puberty, up to 30% of children with Crohn's disease may have retardation of growth.^ People with Crohn's disease also may have: .
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What chromosomes make up Crohn's disease?
  • WikiAnswers - Crohns Disease Questions including "Does having crohn's make you immunocompromised" 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Children Disease Crohn's Disease Crohn's disease can not be cured.

[21] .Fever may also be present, though fevers greater than 38.5 ˚C (101.3 ˚F) are uncommon unless there is a complication such as an abscess.^ A high fever may mean that you have a complication involving infection, such as an abscess .
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [Note that there may have been too few minor allele homozygotes to study, though.
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^ Milk may be more dangerous to consume than meat, though, in regards to paratuberculosis.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

[1] .Among older individuals, Crohn's disease may manifest as weight loss.^ People with Crohn's disease also may have: .
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Depending on the severity of your Crohn's disease, your doctor may recommend one or more of the following: .

^ Crohn's disease is an ongoing (chronic) condition that may flare up throughout your life.
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is usually related to decreased food intake, since individuals with intestinal symptoms from Crohn's disease often feel better when they do not eat and might lose their appetite.^ However, symptoms of Crohn's disease are often insidious, and diagnosis can be difficult.
  • Management of Crohn's Disease -- A Practical Approach -- August 15, 2003 - American Family Physician 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Crohn's disease symptoms are horrible.
  • Crohn's sufferers: my ten-year-old son was just diagnosed with Crohn's Disease. Can you give me a first-person view? : AskReddit 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.reddit.com [Source type: General]

^ The main symptoms of Crohn's disease include: .
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20] .People with extensive small intestine disease may also have malabsorption of carbohydrates or lipids, which can further exacerbate weight loss.^ Crohn's disease usually occurs in the lower part of the small intestine, called the ileum, but it can affect any part of the digestive tract, from the mouth to the anus.
  • Crohns Disease - Crohns Treatment 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.iifar.org [Source type: Academic]

^ And as mentioned previously, Crohn's is a poorly delineated disease--20% of people diagnosed with Crohn's may actually have something else.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Celiac disease occurs in genetically pre-disposed individuals and is a digestive disorder characterized by damaging or flattening of the lining in the small intestine.

[22]

Extraintestinal symptoms

Erythema nodosum on the back of a person with Crohn's disease.
Pyoderma gangrenosum on the leg of a person with Crohn's disease.
.In addition to systemic and gastrointestinal involvement, Crohn's disease can affect many other organ systems.^ Other diseases can also have the same symptoms as Crohn's disease.
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Who is most affected by Crohn's disease?
  • WikiAnswers - Crohns Disease Questions including "Does having crohn's make you immunocompromised" 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How will Crohn's disease affect pregnancy?
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] .Inflammation of the interior portion of the eye, known as uveitis, can cause eye pain, especially when exposed to light (photophobia).^ Inflammation of the interior portion of the eye, known as uveitis, can cause eye pain, especially when exposed to light (photophobia).

^ Inflammation of the interior portion of the eye, known as uveitis, can cause eye pain, especially when exposed to light ( photophobia).

^ Crohn's disease can also cause complications outside of the gastrointestinal tract such as skin rashes, arthritis, and inflammation of the eye.

.Inflammation may also involve the white part of the eye (sclera), a condition called episcleritis.^ The problem…common in young athletes, is that it involves a tear in what is called the “white zone” on the knee where there is no blood supply.

.Both episcleritis and uveitis can lead to loss of vision if untreated.^ Both episcleritis and uveitis can lead to loss of vision if untreated.

.Crohn's disease is associated with a type of rheumatologic disease known as seronegative spondyloarthropathy.^ If you have Crohn's disease, you have what's known as an invisible disability.

^ SNP in the SLC22A4 gene known as L503F, has been associated with an autoimmune disease, in this case, Crohn's disease, odds ratio = 2.1 (CI = 1.31a3.39, p = 0.002), based on a study of 203 cases and 200 controls.
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^ Crohns Disease New Cornell Study Pinpoints Link Between Bacteria and Crohn's Disease It's been called a mystery disease with no known cause and no known cure.

.This group of diseases is characterized by inflammation of one or more joints (arthritis) or muscle insertions (enthesitis).^ Depending on the severity of your Crohn's disease, your doctor may recommend one or more of the following: .

^ Call a doctor immediately if you have been diagnosed with Crohn's disease and you have one or more of the following: .
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Educate yourself, and connect One of the best ways to feel more in control is to find out as much as possible about Crohn's disease.

.The arthritis can affect larger joints such as the knee or shoulder or may exclusively involve the small joints of the hand and feet.^ The arthritis can affect larger joints such as the knee or shoulder or may exclusively involve the small joints of the hand and feet.

^ Other joints such as the hips, shoulders, knees, or ankles also may become involved.
  • Diagnose-Me: Condition: Ankylosing Spondylitis 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.diagnose-me.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though any portion of the gastrointestinal tract may be involved with Crohn's disease, the small intestine--and the terminal ileum in particular--is most likely to be involved.
  • Crohn's Disease, El Salvador Atlas of Gastrointestinal Video Endoscopy 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.gastrointestinalatlas.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The arthritis may also involve the spine, leading to ankylosing spondylitis if the entire spine is involved or simply sacroiliitis if only the lower spine is involved.^ In the best cases, this may lead not only to symptom relief but also to long-term remission.

^ A complex pattern of mutations involving rs17158558(T) and other mutations simultaneously occurring may - or with greater odds, actually, may not - lead to Hirschsprung disease.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
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^ Entocort EC is effective only in Crohn's disease that involves the lower small intestine and the first part of the large intestine .

.The symptoms of arthritis include painful, warm, swollen, stiff joints and loss of joint mobility or function.^ Added discomforts associated with Crohn's disease include severe joint pains, weight loss and lack of energy.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The symptoms include slurred speech, poor balance, impaired immune function, and the appearance of red spider veins called telangiectasias in the eyes, ears or cheeks.

^ Inflammatory Bowel Disease From Diarrhea to Joint Pain - Dealing With the Worst Symptoms of Crohn's Disease Crohn's disease has many symptoms, but each Crohn's patient probably has a different symptom at the top of their own list of worst ones.

[citation needed]
.Crohn's disease may also involve the skin, blood, and endocrine system.^ People with Crohn's disease also may have: .
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Crohn's disease may cause blood in stools, but not always.
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rarely, the esophagus, and stomach may be involved in Crohn's disease.

.One type of skin manifestation, erythema nodosum, presents as red nodules usually appearing on the shins.^ The reprogramming of skin cells into iPS cells, which have the potential to become any type of cell in the body, is one of the hottest areas of biological research.

Erythema nodosum is due to inflammation of the underlying subcutaneous tissue and is characterized by septal panniculitis. Another skin lesion, pyoderma gangrenosum, is typically a painful ulcerating nodule. .Crohn's disease also increases the risk of blood clots; painful swelling of the lower legs can be a sign of deep venous thrombosis, while difficulty breathing may be a result of pulmonary embolism.^ Risk factors Risk factors for Crohn's disease may include: .

^ (G) linked with an increased risk for Crohn's disease.
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^ As a result, they had difficulty and/or pain when walking.

.Autoimmune hemolytic anemia, a condition in which the immune system attacks the red blood cells, is also more common in Crohn's disease and may cause fatigue, pallor, and other symptoms common in anemia.^ Most ulcers are caused by the immune system attacking the lining of the stomach.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The cause of Crohn's disease remains unknown.

^ Remission from Crohn's disease may be more likely if patients get immune-suppressing drugs, not .
  • treatments on WeAreCrohns.org 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.wearecrohns.org [Source type: Academic]

.Clubbing, a deformity of the ends of the fingers, may also be a result of Crohn's disease.^ Results of research to track the relationship between flares of Crohn's disease and seasonal changes have been unremarkable.

^ "Treatment of Severe Crohn's Disease(CD) Using Rifabutin-Macrolide-Clofazamine Comnibation: Results at 30-37 months."
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ And as mentioned previously, Crohn's is a poorly delineated disease--20% of people diagnosed with Crohn's may actually have something else.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

.Finally, Crohn's disease may cause osteoporosis, or thinning of the bones.^ Crohn’s disease is not caused by emotional distress.

^ Active Crohn's disease may cause other problems such as: .
  • Crohn's disease - symptoms, treatment and causes 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC hcd2.bupa.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People with Crohn's disease also may have: .
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Individuals with osteoporosis are at increased risk of bone fractures.^ Bone mineral density variations, lower for carriers of the A allele rs7524102 increases susceptibility to Osteoporotic fractures 1.12 times for carriers of the A allele 74.6 rs9288410 (G;G) ...more...
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Bone mineral density variations, lower for carriers of the T allele 51.7 rs9642880 (G;T) 1.2x increased bladder cancer risk ...more...
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^ A study of ~500 Japanese prostate cancer patients found that individuals with a rs351855(T;T) genotype had a 2.2- and 1.9-fold increased risk of prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), and a 1.8-fold increased risk of metastatic prostate cancer compared to the (C;C) genotype.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

[7]
.Crohn's disease can also cause neurological complications (reportedly in up to 15% of patients).^ Crohn's disease is not caused by emotional distress.
  • Crohns Disease - Crohns Treatment 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.iifar.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These drugs are the most effective for active Crohn's disease, but they can cause serious side effects, including greater susceptibility to infection.
  • Crohns Disease - Crohns Treatment 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.iifar.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Many Crohn's disease patients require surgery, either to relieve symptoms that do not respond to medical therapy or to correct complications such as blockage, perforation, abscess, or bleeding in the intestine.
  • Crohns Disease - Crohns Treatment 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.iifar.org [Source type: Academic]

[24] The most common of these are seizures, stroke, myopathy, peripheral neuropathy, headache and depression.[24]
.Crohn's patients often also have issues with small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome, which has similar symptoms.^ Crohn's Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Treatment of Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are separate inflammatory bowel diseases, but are generally grouped together and similarly treated because of their similar symptoms.

^ Crohn's disease can be difficult to diagnose because its symptoms are similar to other intestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome and to another type of IBD called ulcerative colitis.
  • Crohns Disease - Crohns Treatment 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.iifar.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In Treatment Natural Remedies for Treatment of Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis Often in desperation to get the symptoms under control, Crohn's and ulcerative colitis patients begin to search for non-traditional remedies.

[25]

Complications

Endoscopic image of colon cancer identified in the sigmoid colon on screening colonoscopy for Crohn's disease.
.Crohn's disease can lead to several mechanical complications within the intestines, including obstruction, fistulae, and abscesses.^ "Treatment of Severe Crohn's Disease(CD) Using Rifabutin-Macrolide-Clofazamine Comnibation: Results at 30-37 months."
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Regardless of how this resolves, several phenotypic associations have been reported for this SNP, including: * A 10 fold higher risk for heart disease in hereditary hemochrom...
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^ Complicating attempts to culture the bug in Crohn's, there seem to be very few MAP actually involved in the disease process.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

.Obstruction typically occurs from strictures or adhesions which narrow the lumen, blocking the passage of the intestinal contents.^ Long-term use of Questran can lead to deficiencies of the fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) and it can cause intestinal blockages if you have stenoses (lengths of narrowed intestine) or strictures (rings of narrowed intestine).
  • Magic Bullet for Crohn's management? - alt.support.crohns-colitis | Google Groups 15 September 2009 22:31 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: General]

^ Long-term use of Questran can lead to deficiencies of the > fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) and it can cause intestinal blockages if > you have stenoses (lengths of narrowed intestine) or strictures (rings of > narrowed intestine).
  • Magic Bullet for Crohn's management? - alt.support.crohns-colitis | Google Groups 15 September 2009 22:31 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: General]

^ Long-term use of Questran can lead to deficiencies of the > > fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) and it can cause intestinal blockages if > > you have stenoses (lengths of narrowed intestine) or strictures (rings of > > narrowed intestine).
  • Magic Bullet for Crohn's management? - alt.support.crohns-colitis | Google Groups 15 September 2009 22:31 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: General]

.Fistulae can develop between two loops of bowel, between the bowel and bladder, between the bowel and vagina, and between the bowel and skin.^ Fistulae can develop between two loops of bowel, between the bowel and bladder, between the bowel and vagina, and between the bowel and skin.

^ These connections can happen between the intestinal loops, the intestines, and the bladder or between the intestines and the skin.

^ Patients with a fistula (false passage) connecting the diseased intestine with the skin on the front of the abdomen or connecting with an internal organ such as the bladder or another piece of bowel, will also benefit from a surgical approach.
  • Leaflets 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.ccsg.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Abscesses are walled off collections of infection, which can occur in the abdomen or in the perianal area in Crohn's disease sufferers.^ These drugs are the most effective for active Crohn's disease, but they can cause serious side effects, including greater susceptibility to infection.
  • Crohns Disease - Crohns Treatment 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.iifar.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Crohn's disease usually occurs in the lower part of the small intestine, called the ileum, but it can affect any part of the digestive tract, from the mouth to the anus.
  • Crohns Disease - Crohns Treatment 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.iifar.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Evening Primrose Oil When Crohn's Disease and Green Living Clash Sometimes reconciling Crohn's and green living are impossible, but in other areas it is possible.

.Crohn's disease also increases the risk of cancer in the area of inflammation.^ IBD and colon cancer Having Crohn's disease increases your risk of colon cancer.

^ Are you at risk for Crohn's disease?

^ However, the complications and risks of Crohn's disease tend to increase over time.
  • Crohn's Disease - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prognosis 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC health.stateuniversity.com [Source type: Academic]

.For example, individuals with Crohn's disease involving the small bowel are at higher risk for small intestinal cancer.^ This medication is generally ineffective for disease involving the small intestine.

^ A prime example of this problem is Crohn's disease.

^ (G) linked with an increased risk for Crohn's disease.
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.Similarly, people with Crohn's colitis have a relative risk of 5.6 for developing colon cancer.^ Crohn's Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Treatment of Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are separate inflammatory bowel diseases, but are generally grouped together and similarly treated because of their similar symptoms.

^ Stomach cancer appears to be a greater risk for older people as 66% of people diagnosed with stomach cancer are over 65 years old.

^ People don't develop cancer overnight, nor do alzheimers and parkinsons show up as soon as the damage starts.
  • Battling the MSG Myth: How You Made the MSG Connection 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.msgmyth.com [Source type: General]

[26] .Screening for colon cancer with colonoscopy is recommended for anyone who has had Crohn's colitis for at least eight years.^ Colon cancer 55.0 rs6983267 (G;T) 1.26x risk for prostate cancer; also colon cancer The most interesting thing about this genotype is who has it.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Hermon-Taylor, one of the principal investigators of the original trial, is currently recommending patients take RMAT regimen for at least 2 years.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, it's been shown that at least 20% of people diagnosed with Crohn's actually have a different disease, such as ulcerative colitis.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

[27] .Some studies suggest that there is a role for chemoprotection in the prevention of colorectal cancer in Crohn's involving the colon; two agents have been suggested, folate and mesalamine preparations.^ Two case-control studies including colorectal cancer patients and controls were conducted; the first case involving 441 patients and 658 controls, all of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry, and the second including 199 patients and 199 matched (sex, age and ethnicity) controls.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ The change was not based on science--in fact there is a suggestion that some paraTB can survive pasteurization temperatures for 9 minutes [246] or longer.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There are some factors which complicate any trial, even if the agents are chosen and used appropriately.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

[28]
.Individuals with Crohn's disease are at risk of malnutrition for many reasons, including decreased food intake and malabsorption.^ (G) linked with an increased risk for Crohn's disease.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ These convergent findings are consistent with the function of NPY as an anxiolytic peptide and help to explain inter-individual variation in resiliency to stress, a risk factor for many diseases.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ While there are many different SNPs that can influence one's risk for Parkinson's disease, rs34637584 is an especially common cause of the dise...
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

The risk increases following resection of the small bowel. .Such individuals may require oral supplements to increase their caloric intake, or in severe cases, total parenteral nutrition (TPN).^ Total energy, total fat, and total protein intake were all significantly higher in (C;C) individuals.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ The doctor may recommend nutritional supplements, especially for children whose growth has been slowed.
  • Crohns Disease - Crohns Treatment 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.iifar.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Severe caloric restriction with or without exercise in the FEMAL half of the population may lead to amenorrhea (cessation of the menstrual cycle) which causes bone loss and increases heart disease risk.
  • Sign In Stranger Archives 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.banyantrees.net [Source type: General]

.Most people with moderate or severe Crohn's disease are referred to a dietitian for assistance in nutrition.^ It was a tough disease for other people, like his bosses, to comprehend because most of the suffering takes place behind closed bathroom doors.
  • I have crohn's disease. I shat my pants outside of "Plaid Pantry" because they wouldn't let me use the employee bathroom. : reddit.com 15 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.reddit.com [Source type: General]

^ Depending on the severity of your Crohn's disease, your doctor may recommend one or more of the following: .

^ "Treatment of Severe Crohn's Disease(CD) Using Rifabutin-Macrolide-Clofazamine Comnibation: Results at 30-37 months."
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

[29]
.Crohn's disease can cause significant complications including bowel obstruction, abscesses, free perforation and hemorrhage.^ The cause of Crohn's disease remains unknown.

^ Crohn's Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Treatment of Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are separate inflammatory bowel diseases, but are generally grouped together and similarly treated because of their similar symptoms.

^ This is significant because it was the first definitive proof that paratuberculosis could infect human beings and cause disease.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

[30]
.Crohn's disease can be problematic during pregnancy, and some medications can cause adverse outcomes for the fetus or mother.^ The cause of Crohn's disease remains unknown.

^ This drug, which improves symptoms in some people with Crohn's disease, is now generally preferred to metronidazole.

^ Some people find it helpful to consult a psychologist or psychiatrist who's familiar with inflammatory bowel disease and the emotional difficulties it can cause.

.Consultation with an obstetrician and gastroenterologist about Crohn's disease and all medications allows preventative measures to be taken.^ Obviously, everyone who's exposed to paraTB doesn't come down with Crohn's disease, as is the case in virtually all infectious diseases.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Additionally, theses medications can make existing Crohn's disease worse.

^ "If MAP is ultimately shown not to be the cause of Crohn's disease," Chiodini argues, "then the industries have taken the appropriate position of 'lip-service,' to give an image of concern."
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

.In some cases, remission can occur during pregnancy.^ I was in remission for my first pregnancy, but flaired during my 2nd, and have been on prednisone for the last 15 months.
  • Magic Bullet for Crohn's management? - alt.support.crohns-colitis | Google Groups 15 September 2009 22:31 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: General]

^ I was in remission for my first pregnancy, but > flaired during my 2nd, and have been on prednisone for the last 15 > months.
  • Magic Bullet for Crohn's management? - alt.support.crohns-colitis | Google Groups 15 September 2009 22:31 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: General]

^ I was in remission for my first pregnancy, but > > flaired during my 2nd, and have been on prednisone for the last 15 > > months.
  • Magic Bullet for Crohn's management? - alt.support.crohns-colitis | Google Groups 15 September 2009 22:31 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: General]

.Certain medications can also impact sperm count or may otherwise adversely affect a man's ability to conceive.^ SNPs in ABCB1 may thus influence the intracerebral concentrations of certain drugs and thus their efficacy or potential for adverse side effects.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Prolonged use CAN affect brain waves and cognition, though the impact may or may not be permanent.
  • Sign In Stranger Archives 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.banyantrees.net [Source type: General]

[31]

Cause

.Although the exact cause of Crohn's disease is still unknown, a combination of environmental factors and genetic predisposition seems to cause the disease.^ Genetic and environmental factors facilitate establishment, persistence, and production of disease.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Crohn's disease is not caused by emotional distress.
  • Crohns Disease - Crohns Treatment 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.iifar.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These drugs are the most effective for active Crohn's disease, but they can cause serious side effects, including greater susceptibility to infection.
  • Crohns Disease - Crohns Treatment 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.iifar.org [Source type: Academic]

[32] .The genetic risk factors have now more or less been comprehensively elucidated, making Crohn's disease the first genetically complex disease of which the genetic background has been resolved.^ (G) linked with an increased risk for Crohn's disease.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ G less likely to go bald before age 40 *A more likely to go bald before age 40 Behcet's disease ...more...
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ CFH variations appear to contribute to ARMD in Caucasians, but not in Japanese 43.3 rs3900940 (C;T) increased risk of coronary heart disease; better response to statins ...more...
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

[33] .The relative risks of contracting the disease when one has a mutation in one of the risk genes, however, are actually very low (approximately 1:200).^ On its own, rs669 was not seen to reproducibly and independently increase risk for Alzheimer's disease in several studies of ~200 Italian patients.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ I've actually had five surgeries related to Crohn's disease yet consider myself very fortunate.

^ I4399M, is a SNP in the apolipoprotein(A) LPA gene that has been reported to be associated with elevated plasma lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] and increased cardiovascular risk, and in particular, coronary artery disease.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

.Broadly speaking, the genetic data indicate that innate immune systems in patients with Crohn's disease malfunction, and direct assessment of patient immunity confirms this notion.^ They cause tumors, and the adult cells derived from them may be rejected by the patient’s immune system.

^ Not everyone was meant to be thin, but everyone can have good health (generally speaking, genetic abnormalities and disease aside).
  • Sign In Stranger Archives 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.banyantrees.net [Source type: General]

^ Thought to be an incurable disease, doctors seem to have been able to induce profound long-term remissions in the majority of patients with Crohn's disease.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

[34] .This had led to the notion that Crohn's disease should be viewed as innate immune deficiency, chronic inflammation being caused by adaptive immunity trying to compensate for the reduced function of the innate immune system.^ The cause of Crohn's disease remains unknown.

^ Since you have Crohn's disease, what should you avoid?

^ They cause tumors, and the adult cells derived from them may be rejected by the patient’s immune system.

[35]

Genetics

Schematic of NOD2 CARD15 gene, which is associated with certain disease patterns in Crohn's disease.
.Some research has indicated that Crohn's disease may have a genetic link.^ (G) linked with an increased risk for Crohn's disease.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Creating a replacement heart for some of the sickest patients may be one step closer, if new research in rats pans out in humans.

^ Possible links between Crohn's Disease and Paratuberculosis .
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

[36] .The disease runs in families and those with a sibling with the disease are 30 times more likely to develop it than the general population.^ She was diagnosed as bipolar and taking Paxil, she had an ulcer and was taking Aciphix, she was put on Antivert for dizziness, the doctor said that she was developing Crones Disease...she was barely 18 at the time!
  • Battling the MSG Myth: How You Made the MSG Connection 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.msgmyth.com [Source type: General]

^ But I'm going to ask for more time because what I'm doing now has given me better results than all the drugs put together!
  • Battling the MSG Myth: How You Made the MSG Connection 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.msgmyth.com [Source type: General]

^ Well, time I've got more than enough of, but I'm not sure how to use it.
  • The Official NW/SO Thread [Archive] - Page 2 - The Long Hair Community Discussion Boards 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC forums.longhaircommunity.com [Source type: Original source]

.Mutations in the CARD15 gene (also known as the NOD2 gene) are associated with Crohn's disease[37] and with susceptibility to certain phenotypes of disease location and activity.^ SNP in the NOD2 gene, has been linked to Crohn's disease.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ SNP of the NOD2 gene found in a genome-wide association study to be associated with Crohn's disease.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ "Treatment of Severe Crohn's Disease(CD) Using Rifabutin-Macrolide-Clofazamine Comnibation: Results at 30-37 months."
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

[38] .In earlier studies, only two genes were linked to Crohn's, but scientists now believe there are over thirty genes that show genetics play a role in the disease, either directly through causation or indirectly as with a mediator variable.^ SNP in the NOD2 gene, has been linked to Crohn's disease.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ (G) linked with an increased risk for Crohn's disease.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ A linked SNP also in the A5A3B4 gene, rs8023462, showed similiar association.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

.Anomalies in the XBP1 gene have recently been identified as a factor, pointing towards a role for the unfolded protein response pathway of the endoplasmatic reticulum in inflammatory bowel diseases.^ Inflammatory Bowel Disease 1997:-131.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Inflammatory Bowel Disease 1994.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Two dramatically different demographics of Inflammatory Bowel Disease describe the majority of our patient .
  • treatments on WeAreCrohns.org 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.wearecrohns.org [Source type: Academic]

[39][40]

Environmental factors

Diet is believed to be linked to its higher prevalence in industrialized parts of the world. .Smoking has been shown to increase the risk of the return of active disease, or "flares".[5] The introduction of hormonal contraception in the United States in the 1960s is linked with a dramatic increase in the incidence rate of Crohn's disease.^ (G) linked with an increased risk for Crohn's disease.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ The virus has been linked to an increase in cancer risk.

^ The paper states that, 'Homozygosity of the risk allele, as compared with absence of the allele, was associated with a more than doubled risk for lupus and a 60% increased risk for rheumatoid arthritis.'
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

.Although a causal linkage has not been effectively shown, there remain fears that these drugs work on the digestive system in ways similar to smoking.^ But Crohn's is thought to be caused by the spheroplast form of MAP which doesn't have a cell wall; it's therefore no wonder these earlier drugs didn't work.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I was part of the drug trial I don't know maybe 5 or 6 > > > years ago for Humira, and it worked well for me for about 9 months, > > > but then it was less effective for the remainder of the trial year.
  • Magic Bullet for Crohn's management? - alt.support.crohns-colitis | Google Groups 15 September 2009 22:31 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: General]

^ I was part of the drug trial I don't know maybe 5 or 6 > > years ago for Humira, and it worked well for me for about 9 months, > > but then it was less effective for the remainder of the trial year.
  • Magic Bullet for Crohn's management? - alt.support.crohns-colitis | Google Groups 15 September 2009 22:31 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: General]

[41]

Immune system

.Abnormalities in the immune system have often been invoked as being causes of Crohn's disease.^ They cause tumors, and the adult cells derived from them may be rejected by the patient’s immune system.

^ The reason being that when in > > a severe/fulminant flare many Crohn's patients develop a secondary lactose > > intolerance - this usually goes away when the disease settles down.
  • Magic Bullet for Crohn's management? - alt.support.crohns-colitis | Google Groups 15 September 2009 22:31 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: General]

^ Donor-derived cells might have been able to spark tumours in this patient because people with Ataxia Telangiectasia often have a weakened immune system, say the researchers.

.Crohn's disease is thought to be an autoimmune disease, with inflammation stimulated by an over-active Th1 cytokine response.^ These drugs are the most effective for active Crohn's disease, but they can cause serious side effects, including greater susceptibility to infection.
  • Crohns Disease - Crohns Treatment 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.iifar.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Thought to be an incurable disease, doctors seem to have been able to induce profound long-term remissions in the majority of patients with Crohn's disease.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I just looked up Crohn's on Wikipedia, it also seems to be 'autoimmune disease' & it would make sense to me that nutrition & reducing toxics in the food & environment could be helpful..
  • The Official NW/SO Thread [Archive] - Page 2 - The Long Hair Community Discussion Boards 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC forums.longhaircommunity.com [Source type: Original source]

[42] .However, more recent evidence has shown that Th17 is of greater importance in the disease.^ More recently, this SNP has been related to long-term memory with (A;A) and (A;G) individuals recalling 17% more words than (G;G) individuals at 24h following learning.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ However, before heart disease patients start celebrating, keep in mind that this will take at least 5 more years.

^ Although there is recent evidence that living MAP bacteria cause Crohn's, [408] even dead MAP may be able to trigger disease.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

[43] .The most recent gene to be implicated in Crohn's disease is ATG16L1, which may induce autophagy and hinder the body's ability to attack invasive bacteria.^ And as mentioned previously, Crohn's is a poorly delineated disease--20% of people diagnosed with Crohn's may actually have something else.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Often touted as the Pulitzer Prize of alternative journalism, a Project Censored Award was given to what was considered one of the most censored stories of 1999--the connection between Crohn's Disease and paratuberculosis bacteria in milk.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Induce Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSC) are the ADULT stem cells that mimic the ability of embryonic stem cells to become any cell in the body without any of the controversy of embryonic stem cells.

[44]
.Contrary to the prevailing view that Crohn's disease is a primary T cell autoimmune disorder, there is an increasing body of evidence in favour of the hypothesis that Crohn's disease results from an impaired innate immunity.^ (G) linked with an increased risk for Crohn's disease.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
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^ There is evidence that stem cells taken from a patient’s nose could produce dopamine-producing brain cells when transplanted into the brain.

^ In Dr. Hermon-Taylor's view, "There is overwhelming evidence that we are sitting on a public health disaster of tragic proportions."
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

[45] .The immunodeficiency, which has been shown to be due to (at least in part) impaired cytokine secretion by macrophages, is thought to lead to a sustained microbial-induced inflammatory response, particularly in the colon where the bacterial load is especially high.^ A> G SNP due to its position in the promoter of the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 MCP-1 CCL2 gene, influences the production of its corresponding protein, a chemokine involved in inflammatory responses.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
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^ It is thought that this cell-wall deficient form is responsible for triggering the abnormal immune response which leads to Crohn's disease.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

[34][46]

Microbes

.A variety of pathogenic bacteria were initially suspected of being causative agents of Crohn's disease.^ Crohn's disease is not caused by emotional distress.
  • Crohns Disease - Crohns Treatment 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.iifar.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These drugs are the most effective for active Crohn's disease, but they can cause serious side effects, including greater susceptibility to infection.
  • Crohns Disease - Crohns Treatment 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.iifar.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The gastrointestinal community maintains a healthy skepticism regarding new pathogens as the cause of Crohn's disease, because different pathogens suspected in the past, such as chlamydia and measles, have since been disproven.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

[47] .However, most health care professionals now believe that a variety of microorganisms are taking advantage of their host's weakened mucosal layer and inability to clear bacteria from the intestinal walls, both symptoms of the disease.^ However, the T-C-A haplotype of rs12316150-rs1050283-rs669 was associated with both early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Health care people could care less now what my hair is doing - so long as I'm taking care of it myself.
  • The Official NW/SO Thread [Archive] - Page 2 - The Long Hair Community Discussion Boards 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC forums.longhaircommunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If we did I think most redditors would slam the US health care system and not the NHS. .
  • I have crohn's disease. I shat my pants outside of "Plaid Pantry" because they wouldn't let me use the employee bathroom. : reddit.com 15 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.reddit.com [Source type: General]

[48] .Some studies have suggested that Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis plays a role in Crohn's disease, in part because it causes a very similar disease, Johne's disease, in cattle.^ It is known that M. paratuberculosis--MAP--causes Johne's disease in cattle, but does it cause Crohn's disease in people?
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis from Breast Milk of Crohn's Disease Patients."
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Mycobacterium paratuberculosis: Does it contribute to Crohn's Disease?
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

[49] The mannose bearing antigens (mannins) from yeast may also elicit an antibody response.[50] .Other studies have linked specific strains of enteroadherent E. coli to the disease.^ A study of 507 CD patients, 475 UC patients and 576 controls from New Zealand Caucasians found that rs4958847, a SNP in the IRGM gene, was associated specifically with ileal Crohn's disease but not with other forms of inflammatory bowel disease.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ However, neither it (nor the other 13) appeared to be associated with Parkinson's disease in an independent study of 663 Caucasian patients.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ A study of 507 CD patients, 475 UC patients and 576 controls from New Zealand Caucasians found that rs4821544, a SNP in the NCF4 gene, was associated specifically with ileal Crohn's disease but not with other forms of inflammatory bowel disease.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

[51] .Still, this relationship between specific types of bacteria and Crohn's disease remains unclear.^ Often touted as the Pulitzer Prize of alternative journalism, a Project Censored Award was given to what was considered one of the most censored stories of 1999--the connection between Crohn's Disease and paratuberculosis bacteria in milk.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1986, a different lab fed infant goats a human strain of paratuberculosis and also found that the bacteria induced a Crohn's-like intestinal disease in the goats.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The authors speculate that earlier studies may have reported associations between this SNP and type-1 diabetes that were actually primarily based on the association with autoimmune thyroid disease.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

[52][53]
.Some studies have suggested that some symptoms of Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome have the same underlying cause.^ The holder of this card has Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis.
  • I have crohn's disease. I shat my pants outside of "Plaid Pantry" because they wouldn't let me use the employee bathroom. : reddit.com 15 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.reddit.com [Source type: General]

^ Crohn's disease symptoms .
  • treatments on WeAreCrohns.org 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.wearecrohns.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Posted in Crohn's Disease, Colitis and IBD Stories's Journal on August 17, 2009 .
  • treatments on WeAreCrohns.org 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.wearecrohns.org [Source type: Academic]

.Biopsy samples taken from the colons of all three patient groups were found to produce elevated levels of a serine protease.^ There is evidence that stem cells taken from a patient’s nose could produce dopamine-producing brain cells when transplanted into the brain.

^ In California, where all kinds of stem cell research are allowed and funded, several levels of regulation protect patients and society at all stages of research and therapy.

[54] .Experimental introduction of the serine protease into mice has been found to produce widespread pain associated with irritable bowel syndrome as well as colitis, which is associated with all three diseases.^ In combined analysis, including all seven independent cohorts from the three studies so far, robust and consistent associations of the rs2004640 T allele with SLE were observed.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ SNP found to be associated with heart disease by the German MI (Myocardial infarction) Family Study group, over several populations.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Sixty-five percent of bowel samples from Crohn's patients came up positive, compared to only 4% of those with the similar but different disease ulcerative colitis.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

[55] .The authors of that study were unable to identify the source of the protease, but a separate review noted that regional and temporal variations in those illnesses follow those associated with infection with a poorly understood protozoan, Blastocystis.^ SNP located in the ITGAV gene, was identified in a European study to be associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ In a highly experimental procedure that was presumably unavailable in their home country, those doctors injected fetal stem cells into various regions of his brain.

^ A study of 1139 Norwegian women with one or more pre-eclamptic pregnancies and 2269 controls (women with normal pregnancies) identified four SNPs in this region (rs1424941, rs1014064, rs2161983 and rs3768687) as associated with higher risk for pre-eclampsia.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

[56]
A study in 2003 put forth the "cold-chain" hypothesis, that psychrotrophic bacteria such as Yersinia spp and Listeria spp contribute to the disease. .A statistical correlation was found between the advent of the use of refrigeration in the United States and various parts of Europe and the rise of the disease.^ When I returned to the United States , in fact, I found myself longing for Bumrungrad.

^ The trial involves the first use in the United States of a unique injection catheter to deliver stem cells.

^ "But it's seen only in milk-drinking areas--Australia, southern Africa, Europe, the United States, Canada, New Zealand.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

[57][58] Later studies have provided support for this hypothesis.[59]
.Studies done at the University of Liverpool have offered ideas that would explain the apparent connection between Crohn's disease, Mycobacterium, other pathogenic bacteria, and genetic markers.^ Often touted as the Pulitzer Prize of alternative journalism, a Project Censored Award was given to what was considered one of the most censored stories of 1999--the connection between Crohn's Disease and paratuberculosis bacteria in milk.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ One would expect that if paratuberculosis was causing Crohn's disease, then the regions in which there is a high prevalence of Crohn's should overlap with the regions with a high prevalence of paratuberculosis.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Professor Hermon-Taylor, internationally known expert on Crohn's and MAP genetics, who has researched the illness for 20 years, said: "If there were no MAP I believe there would be almost no Crohn's disease.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

[60][61] .In many individuals genetic factors predispose individuals to Mycobacterium avium subsp.^ "Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis from Breast Milk of Crohn's Disease Patients."
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium subsp silvaticum in Long Term Cultures from Crohn's Disease and Control Tissues."
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "T-Cellular Immune Reactions (in Macrophage Inhibition Factor Assay) Against Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, Mycobacterium Kansassii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium in Patients with Chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease."
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

paratuberculosis infection. This bacteria then produce mannins which protect both itself and various bacteria from phagocytosis, which causes a variety of secondary infections.[62] .Other mycobacterial diseases, such as leprosy and Tuberculosis could be considered similar in that they have strong genetic components, but are not genetic per se.^ Symptoms often get worse before they get better, as in the drug treatment of other chronic mycobacterial diseases such as leprosy.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ How many other companies out there are "spiking" their products...lots, as long as they think they can get away with it...so where is our freedom to choose in such cases?
  • Battling the MSG Myth: How You Made the MSG Connection 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.msgmyth.com [Source type: General]

^ DNA probe detection of other low abundance bacterial pathogens, particularly in chronically inflamed tissues--diseases like tuberculosis, Lyme disease, brucellosis and lymphocytic leprosy--have similarly been fraught with difficulty.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

Pathophysiology

Section of colectomy showing transmural inflammation
During a colonoscopy, biopsies of the colon are often taken in order to confirm the diagnosis. .There are certain characteristic features of the pathology seen that point toward Crohn's disease.^ There are certain characteristic features of the pathology seen that point toward Crohn's disease.

^ There is no cure for Crohn's disease.
  • Crohn's Disease: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD): Merck Manual Home Edition 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cause of Crohn's disease is not known for certain, but many researchers believe that a dysfunction of the immune system results in the intestine overreacting to an environmental, dietary, or infectious agent.
  • Crohn's Disease: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD): Merck Manual Home Edition 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Crohn's disease shows a transmural pattern of inflammation, meaning that the inflammation may span the entire depth of the intestinal wall.^ TNF may be responsible for the inflammation of Crohn's disease.
  • Thomas Jefferson University Hospital - Crohn's Disease 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.jeffersonhospital.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Crohn's Disease - Keep Kids Healthy 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.keepkidshealthy.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Crohn's Disease Symptoms Signs - Inflammatory Bowel Disease - Natural Treatments - Beta Glucans 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC heartspring.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The effect of elemental diet on intestinal permeability and inflammation in Crohn's disease.
  • Crohn's Disease - Nutritional Therapy References 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.scdiet.org [Source type: Academic]

^ People with Crohn's disease also may have: .
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] Grossly, ulceration is an outcome seen in highly active disease. .There is usually an abrupt transition between unaffected tissue and the ulcer.^ There is usually an abrupt transition between unaffected tissue and the ulcer.

^ Usually there is a transition period, like with WO=water only, not sure if you have any experience with that?
  • The Official NW/SO Thread [Archive] - Page 2 - The Long Hair Community Discussion Boards 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC forums.longhaircommunity.com [Source type: Original source]

Under a microscope, biopsies of the affected colon may show mucosal inflammation. .This inflammation is characterized by focal infiltration of neutrophils, a type of inflammatory cell, into the epithelium.^ Stem cells are undifferentiated cells – lacking qualities that make them different or unique – which are capable of developing into any of the 200 different types of cell in the human body.

^ Most recently: researchers at the Whitehead Institute in Cambridge, Mass., have converted skin cells from people with Parkinson’s disease into the general type of neuron that the disease destroys.

^ What is required for repair are cells already differentiated into the tissue type requiring repair.

This typically occurs in the area overlying lymphoid aggregates. .These neutrophils, along with mononuclear cells, may infiltrate into the crypts leading to inflammation (crypititis) or abscess (crypt abscess).^ Voters may get a chance to decide whether to take money from the state’s anti-smoking effort and use it for research into adult stem cell therapies.

^ Please join us in our cause to increase exposure of these therapies and rush research into Stateside acceptance of adult stem cell therapy today.

^ These pus cells may facilitate the transmission of paraTB. [188] .
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

.Granulomas, aggregates of macrophage derivatives known as giant cells, are found in 50% of cases and are most specific for Crohn's disease.^ Obviously, everyone who's exposed to paraTB doesn't come down with Crohn's disease, as is the case in virtually all infectious diseases.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ SNP in the SLC22A4 gene known as L503F, has been associated with an autoimmune disease, in this case, Crohn's disease, odds ratio = 2.1 (CI = 1.31a3.39, p = 0.002), based on a study of 203 cases and 200 controls.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Most recently: researchers at the Whitehead Institute in Cambridge, Mass., have converted skin cells from people with Parkinson’s disease into the general type of neuron that the disease destroys.

.The granulomas of Crohn's disease do not show "caseation", a cheese-like appearance on microscopic examination that is characteristic of granulomas associated with infections such as tuberculosis.^ What does crohn's disease look like?
  • WikiAnswers - Crohns Disease Questions including "Does having crohn's make you immunocompromised" 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The granulomas of Crohn's disease do not show "caseation", a cheese-like appearance on microscopic examination that is characteristic of granulomas associated with infections such as tuberculosis .

^ Crohn's disease may also be associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis, a type of inflammation of the bile ducts.

.Biopsies may also show chronic mucosal damage as evidenced by blunting of the intestinal villi, atypical branching of the crypts, and change in the tissue type (metaplasia).^ The lining of the intestine is made up of peaks known as villi and valleys called crypts.

^ Not only do patients stop having symptoms, but their intestines actually show evidence of healing, an unprecedented achievement.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

.One example of such metaplasia, Paneth cell metaplasia, involves development of Paneth cells (typically found in the small intestine) in other parts of the gastrointestinal system.^ One example of such metaplasia, Paneth cell metaplasia , involves development of Paneth cells (typically found in the small intestine) in other parts of the gastrointestinal system.

^ If sores break through the wall of the intestines, abnormal connections or openings ( fistulas ) may develop between two parts of the intestines, between the intestines and other organs (such as the bladder or vagina), or between the intestines and the skin.
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The nature of the diarrhea in Crohn's disease depends on the part of the small intestine or colon that is involved.

[63]

Diagnosis

Endoscopic image of Crohn's colitis showing deep ulceration
CT scan showing Crohn's disease in the fundus of the stomach
.
Crohn's disease can mimic ulcerative colitis on endoscopy.
^ Crohn's disease can be difficult to diagnose because its symptoms are similar to other intestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome and to another type of IBD called ulcerative colitis.
  • Crohns Disease - Crohns Treatment 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.iifar.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Posted in Crohn's Disease, Colitis and IBD Stories's Journal on August 17, 2009 .
  • treatments on WeAreCrohns.org 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.wearecrohns.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Published by WebMD Treatment for ulcerative colitis depends mainly on the severity of the disease and .
  • treatments on WeAreCrohns.org 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.wearecrohns.org [Source type: Academic]

This endoscopic image is of Crohn's colitis showing diffuse loss of mucosal architecture, friability of mucosa in sigmoid colon and exudate on wall, all of which can be found with ulcerative colitis.
.The diagnosis of Crohn's disease can sometimes be challenging,[13] and a number of tests are often required to assist the physician in making the diagnosis.^ Days like today make me think long and hard about my journey with Crohn's disease.
  • treatments on WeAreCrohns.org 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.wearecrohns.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I just looked up Crohn's on Wikipedia, it also seems to be 'autoimmune disease' & it would make sense to me that nutrition & reducing toxics in the food & environment could be helpful..
  • The Official NW/SO Thread [Archive] - Page 2 - The Long Hair Community Discussion Boards 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC forums.longhaircommunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Crohn's may be more of a catchall syndrome describing a number of different conditions, some of which may not be caused by MAP. [78] Either way, this makes it difficult to interpret data that show that not all of those we consider to have Crohn's disease test positive for MAP. .
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

[8] .Even with a full battery of tests it may not be possible to diagnose Crohn's with complete certainty; a colonoscopy is approximately 70% effective in diagnosing the disease with further tests being less effective.^ And as mentioned previously, Crohn's is a poorly delineated disease--20% of people diagnosed with Crohn's may actually have something else.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ My sister was diagnosed with Crohn's Disease a few years ago and I'd say it affects her in some way almost every day.
  • I have a chronic disease, unemployed, and medicaid denied me. What do I do? [Archive] - Xbox 360 & Xbox Forums 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC forum.teamxbox.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Clinical trials for SmartPill began in March of 2005, SmartPill, which successfully completed the first phase of its clinical trials last summer, expects the current phase of testing to be completed by May.

.Disease in the small bowel is particularly difficult to diagnose as a traditional colonoscopy only allows access to the colon and lower portions of the small intestines; introduction of the capsule endoscopy[64] aids in endoscopic diagnosis.^ There's no particularly good reason to allow general access to store rooms, and that's just how some buildings are built--with the restroom in the storage area.
  • I have crohn's disease. I shat my pants outside of "Plaid Pantry" because they wouldn't let me use the employee bathroom. : reddit.com 15 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.reddit.com [Source type: General]

^ Celiac disease occurs in genetically pre-disposed individuals and is a digestive disorder characterized by damaging or flattening of the lining in the small intestine.

^ Designed to detect abnormalities in the small intestines, Given’s PillCam purports to retain all the advantages of traditional endoscopy while providing the patient with a painless and effective experience.

Endoscopy

.A colonoscopy is the best test for making the diagnosis of Crohn's disease as it allows direct visualization of the colon and the terminal ileum, identifying the pattern of disease involvement.^ Crohn's disease usually occurs in the lower part of the small intestine, called the ileum, but it can affect any part of the digestive tract, from the mouth to the anus.
  • Crohns Disease - Crohns Treatment 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.iifar.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the words of one colon-rectal surgeon, "Crohn's is a surgical disease.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Days like today make me think long and hard about my journey with Crohn's disease.
  • treatments on WeAreCrohns.org 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.wearecrohns.org [Source type: Academic]

.Occasionally, the colonoscope can travel past the terminal ileum but it varies from patient to patient.^ Occasionally, the colonoscope can travel past the terminal ileum but it varies from patient to patient.

^ In 1932, Crohn and two colleagues first described a series of patients with inflammation of the terminal ileum, the area most commonly affected in Crohn's disease.

^ Sometime, on a patient to patient basis, the colonoscope, the instrument used in the examination, can travel past the terminal ileum into other parts of the small intestines.

.During the procedure, the gastroenterologist can also perform a biopsy, taking small samples of tissue for laboratory analysis which may help confirm a diagnosis.^ Although small, aThe evidence from our final meta-analysis indicates that the C-521T may account for up to 3% of phenotypic variance.a None rs182549 (C;T) ...more...
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ This section will provide an overview of organizations that are performing research on optical biopsy-related technology as well as a brief analysis of the existing market for such technology.

^ In so doing, the analysis focuses on specifics concerning the mechanics of implementing the optical biopsy pill, as well as examines the perspective from a gastroenterologist in the medical profession.

.As 30% of Crohn's disease involves only the ileum,[1] cannulation of the terminal ileum is required in making the diagnosis.^ "Treatment of Severe Crohn's Disease(CD) Using Rifabutin-Macrolide-Clofazamine Comnibation: Results at 30-37 months."
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ (My best friend of 20 years whom I love dearly has Crohn's disease, so I have an understanding of what living with it involves.
  • I have crohn's disease. I shat my pants outside of "Plaid Pantry" because they wouldn't let me use the employee bathroom. : reddit.com 15 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.reddit.com [Source type: General]

^ Sixty-five percent of bowel samples from Crohn's patients came up positive, compared to only 4% of those with the similar but different disease ulcerative colitis.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

.Finding a patchy distribution of disease, with involvement of the colon or ileum but not the rectum, is suggestive of Crohn's disease, as are other endoscopic stigmata.^ Other diseases can also have the same symptoms as Crohn's disease.
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finding a patchy distribution of disease, with involvement of the colon or ileum but not the rectum, is suggestive of Crohn's disease, as are other endoscopic stigmata.

^ Distribution of gastrointestinal Crohn's disease.

[65]The utility of capsule endoscopy for this, however, is still uncertain.[66]

Radiologic tests

.A small bowel follow-through may suggest the diagnosis of Crohn's disease and is useful when the disease involves only the small intestine.^ "Treatment of Severe Crohn's Disease(CD) Using Rifabutin-Macrolide-Clofazamine Comnibation: Results at 30-37 months."
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They may prove useful for a family that has a medical history of diseases that are usually treated using bone marrow transplants.

^ And as mentioned previously, Crohn's is a poorly delineated disease--20% of people diagnosed with Crohn's may actually have something else.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

.Because colonoscopy and gastroscopy allow direct visualization of only the terminal ileum and beginning of the duodenum, they cannot be used to evaluate the remainder of the small intestine.^ Crohn's disease usually occurs in the lower part of the small intestine, called the ileum, but it can affect any part of the digestive tract, from the mouth to the anus.
  • Crohns Disease - Crohns Treatment 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.iifar.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Doctors often balk at treating complications from overseas surgeries because they are unfamiliar with the procedures or prosthetics used or are worried about liability.

^ In my state (Michigan), the restroom access bill identifies persons with eligible disorders so that they can be allowed to use the facility, while also giving the establishment tort protections.
  • I have crohn's disease. I shat my pants outside of "Plaid Pantry" because they wouldn't let me use the employee bathroom. : reddit.com 15 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.reddit.com [Source type: General]

.As a result, a barium follow-through x-ray, wherein barium sulfate suspension is ingested and fluoroscopic images of the bowel are taken over time, is useful for looking for inflammation and narrowing of the small bowel.^ If you've got nothing to lose why not look into worm therapy- ingesting helminth worms has been shown to dramatically reduce GIT inflammation.
  • I have a chronic disease, unemployed, and medicaid denied me. What do I do? [Archive] - Xbox 360 & Xbox Forums 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC forum.teamxbox.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Can the number of power cells, or their size, be reduced as a result of only having to operate for the short time frame that it takes for the pill to travel through the gastrointestinal tract?

^ At that time, OCT was used to provide images of the retina in order to produce a more accurate diagnosis for diseases such as glaucoma and macular edema.

[65][67] .Barium enemas, in which barium is inserted into the rectum and fluoroscopy used to image the bowel, are rarely used in the work-up of Crohn's disease due to the advent of colonoscopy.^ In rare cases, intestinal transplant is used to treat Crohn's disease.
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How can a colonoscopy be used to diagnose Crohn's disease?
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has been used in the search for Crohn's disease in the small bowel, which cannot be reached with colonoscopy or gastroscopy.

.They remain useful for identifying anatomical abnormalities when strictures of the colon are too small for a colonoscope to pass through, or in the detection of colonic fistulae.^ They remain useful for identifying anatomical abnormalities when strictures of the colon are too small for a colonoscope to pass through, or in the detection of colonic fistulae.

^ Antibiotics are also used to treat fistulas , which are abnormal connections or openings between two organs or parts of the body.
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sometime, on a patient to patient basis, the colonoscope, the instrument used in the examination, can travel past the terminal ileum into other parts of the small intestines.

[68]
CT and MRI scans are useful for evaluating the small bowel with enteroclysis protocols.[69]They are additionally useful for looking for intra-abdominal complications of .Crohn's disease such as abscesses, small bowel obstruction, or fistulae.^ Sixty-five percent of bowel samples from Crohn's patients came up positive, compared to only 4% of those with the similar but different disease ulcerative colitis.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, it's been shown that at least 20% of people diagnosed with Crohn's actually have a different disease, such as ulcerative colitis.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Powerful nutrient cocktail can put kids with Crohn's into remission Treating children with inflammatory bowel disease .
  • treatments on WeAreCrohns.org 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.wearecrohns.org [Source type: Academic]

[70] Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are another option for imaging the small bowel as well as looking for complications, though it is more expensive and less readily available[71]

Blood tests

A complete blood count may reveal anemia, which may be caused either by blood loss or vitamin B12 deficiency. The latter may be seen with ileitis because vitamin B12 is absorbed in the ileum.[72] Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, or ESR, and C-reactive protein measurements can also be useful to gauge the degree of inflammation.[73] It is also true in patient with ilectomy done in response to the complication. .Another cause of anaemia is anaemia of chronic disease, characterized by its microcytic and hypochromic anaemia.^ The argument is that there is a current plague of modern chronic diseases caused by inactivity.
  • Sign In Stranger Archives 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.banyantrees.net [Source type: General]

^ About two decades earlier in 1895, German doctor H. A. Johne was the first to describe the cause of a disease in cattle characterized by chronic or intermittent profuse intractable diarrhea.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Every few hours, another child in this country is diagnosed with Crohn's disease and may be condemned to a life of chronic suffering.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

.There can be various reasons for anaemia, including medication used in treatment of inflammatory bowel disease like azathioprine which can lead to cytopenia and sulfasalazine which can also result in folate malabsorption, etc.^ Inflammatory Bowel Disease 1997:-131.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Inflammatory Bowel Disease 1994.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "Treatment of Severe Crohn's Disease(CD) Using Rifabutin-Macrolide-Clofazamine Comnibation: Results at 30-37 months."
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

.Testing for anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) has been evaluated to identify inflammatory diseases of the intestine[74] and to differentiate Crohn's disease from ulcerative colitis.^ The holder of this card has Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis.
  • I have crohn's disease. I shat my pants outside of "Plaid Pantry" because they wouldn't let me use the employee bathroom. : reddit.com 15 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.reddit.com [Source type: General]

^ Crohn's Disease Crohn's disease is a chronic, recurrent inflammatory disease of the intestinal tract.
  • treatments on WeAreCrohns.org 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.wearecrohns.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Posted in Crohn's Disease, Colitis and IBD Stories's Journal on August 17, 2009 .
  • treatments on WeAreCrohns.org 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.wearecrohns.org [Source type: Academic]

[75] .Furthermore, increasing amounts and levels of serological antibodies such as ASCA, anti-laminaribioside [Glc(β1,3)Glb(β); ALCA], anti-chitobioside (GlcNAc(β1,4)GlcNAc(β); ACCA], anti-mannobioside [Man(α1,3)Man(α)AMCA], anti-Laminarin [Glc(β1,3))3n(Glc(β1,6))n; anti-L] and anti-Chitin [(GlcNAc(β1,4)n; anti-C] associate with disease behavior and surgery, and may aid in the prognosis of Crohn's disease.^ (T) is associated with higher plasma angiotensinogen levels, and therefore the increased risk of essential hypertension.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ And as mentioned previously, Crohn's is a poorly delineated disease--20% of people diagnosed with Crohn's may actually have something else.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ (A) odds ratio of 0.81 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69-0.96) 65.0 rs1050152 (C;T) 2.1x increased risk of Crohn's disease ...more...
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

[76][77][78][79]

Comparison with ulcerative colitis

.The most common disease that mimics the symptoms of Crohn's disease is ulcerative colitis, as both are inflammatory bowel diseases that can affect the colon with similar symptoms.^ The holder of this card has Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis.
  • I have crohn's disease. I shat my pants outside of "Plaid Pantry" because they wouldn't let me use the employee bathroom. : reddit.com 15 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.reddit.com [Source type: General]

^ I have crohn's disease as well, and I have several similar stories that mimic yours.
  • I have crohn's disease. I shat my pants outside of "Plaid Pantry" because they wouldn't let me use the employee bathroom. : reddit.com 15 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.reddit.com [Source type: General]

^ Crohn's disease symptoms .
  • treatments on WeAreCrohns.org 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.wearecrohns.org [Source type: Academic]

.It is important to differentiate these diseases, since the course of the diseases and treatments may be different.^ It is important to differentiate these diseases, since the course of the diseases and treatments may be different.

^ In many patients with severe disease that haven't responded to other treatments, these blocking antibody drugs are proving to be very effective in the short run.
  • Crones Disease: Side Effects of Medication, An Alternative. 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Increasing numbers or size of these lesions may herald worsening of more proximal Crohn disease, as in our patient.

.In some cases, however, it may not be possible to tell the difference, in which case the disease is classified as indeterminate colitis.^ In some cases, however, it may not be possible to tell the difference, in which case the disease is classified as indeterminate colitis.

^ Not to say it may not be necessary in some cases.
  • Boxer Colitis anyone? [Archive] - BoxerHub 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC forums.boxerhub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I'm not sure about fasting, in some cases it may not be a good thing..
  • The Official NW/SO Thread [Archive] - Page 2 - The Long Hair Community Discussion Boards 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC forums.longhaircommunity.com [Source type: Original source]

[1][8][15]
Comparisons of various factors in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis
Crohn's disease Ulcerative colitis
Terminal ileum involvement Commonly Seldom
Colon involvement Usually Always
Rectum involvement Seldom Usually[80]
Involvement around the anus Common[81] Seldom
Bile duct involvement No increase in rate of primary sclerosing cholangitis Higher rate[82]
Distribution of Disease Patchy areas of inflammation (Skip lesions) Continuous area of inflammation[80]
Endoscopy Deep geographic and serpiginous (snake-like) ulcers Continuous ulcer
Depth of inflammation May be transmural, deep into tissues[1][81] Shallow, mucosal
Fistulae Common[81] Seldom
Stenosis Common Seldom
Autoimmune disease Widely regarded as an autoimmune disease No consensus
Cytokine response Associated with Th17 [43] Vaguely associated with Th2
Granulomas on biopsy May have non-necrotizing non-peri-intestinal crypt granulomas[81][83][84] Non-peri-intestinal crypt granulomas not seen[80]
Surgical cure Often returns following removal of affected part Usually cured by removal of colon
Smoking Higher risk for smokers Lower risk for smokers[80]

Treatment

.Currently there is no cure for Crohn's disease and remission may not be possible or prolonged if achieved.^ And as mentioned previously, Crohn's is a poorly delineated disease--20% of people diagnosed with Crohn's may actually have something else.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Because the current standard for determining response of Crohn’s patients to therapy is largely subjective, there may have been response bias to meet the eligibility requirements for continuation of therapy in the longer-term maintenance trial.

^ One would expect that if paratuberculosis was causing Crohn's disease, then the regions in which there is a high prevalence of Crohn's should overlap with the regions with a high prevalence of paratuberculosis.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

[85] .In cases where remission is possible, relapse can be prevented and symptoms controlled with medication, lifestyle changes and in some cases, surgery.^ The majority of patients in whom a clinical remission was initially induced remained symptom free off of all their previous medications.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

.Adequately controlled, Crohn's disease may not significantly restrict daily living.^ And as mentioned previously, Crohn's is a poorly delineated disease--20% of people diagnosed with Crohn's may actually have something else.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If you suffer from Crohn's disease, you may be familiar with .
  • treatments on WeAreCrohns.org 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.wearecrohns.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Remission from Crohn's disease may be more likely if patients get immune-suppressing drugs, not .
  • treatments on WeAreCrohns.org 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.wearecrohns.org [Source type: Academic]

[86] .Treatment for Crohn's disease is only when symptoms are active and involve first treating the acute problem, then maintaining remission.^ Naltrexone for the treatment of Crohn's Disease?
  • treatments on WeAreCrohns.org 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.wearecrohns.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Crohn's disease symptoms .
  • treatments on WeAreCrohns.org 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.wearecrohns.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These drugs are the most effective for active Crohn's disease, but they can cause serious side effects, including greater susceptibility to infection.
  • Crohns Disease - Crohns Treatment 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.iifar.org [Source type: Academic]

Medication

.Acute treatment uses medications to treat any infection (normally antibiotics) and to reduce inflammation (normally aminosalicylate anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids).^ They may prove useful for a family that has a medical history of diseases that are usually treated using bone marrow transplants.

^ Methadone is a substrate of this protein, so variants may affect the efficacy and optimal dosage of this drug as used for treating opiate dependence.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ This SNP, located in an intron of the GRIK2 gene, has been linked in one study to increased thoughts of suicide in patients using the anti-depressant drug citalopram.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

.When symptoms are in remission, treatment enters maintenance with a goal of avoiding the recurrence of symptoms.^ The goals of treatment are to control inflammation, correct nutritional deficiencies, and relieve symptoms like abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding.
  • Crohns Disease - Crohns Treatment 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.iifar.org [Source type: Academic]

.Prolonged use of corticosteroids has significant side-effects; as a result they are generally not used for long-term treatment.^ "Treatment of Severe Crohn's Disease(CD) Using Rifabutin-Macrolide-Clofazamine Comnibation: Results at 30-37 months."
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ That is the reason these children in the video had to go to China for a safe and effective treatment with little to no side effects.

^ I haven't been paying attention to long-term effects of misting, like in the shower!
  • The Official NW/SO Thread [Archive] - Page 2 - The Long Hair Community Discussion Boards 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC forums.longhaircommunity.com [Source type: Original source]

.Alternatives include aminosalicylates alone, though only a minority are able to maintain the treatment, and many require immunosuppressive drugs.^ There are many treatments out there for Crohn's and Colitis, including prescription medication, complimentary therapies, and alternative .
  • treatments on WeAreCrohns.org 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.wearecrohns.org [Source type: Academic]

^ ESC also require immunosuppressive drugs, which one of the most common forms of ASC (autologous) used in treatment do not.

^ Published by the MayoClinic Treatments and drugs Many cases of collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis get better .
  • treatments on WeAreCrohns.org 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.wearecrohns.org [Source type: Academic]

[81]
.Medications used to treat the symptoms of Crohn's disease include 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) formulations, prednisone, immunomodulators such as azathioprine, mercaptopurine, methotrexate, infliximab, adalimumab[15], certolizumab[87] and natalizumab.^ Crohn's disease symptoms .
  • treatments on WeAreCrohns.org 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.wearecrohns.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A friend of mine, who suffers from Crohn's disease, was recently turned away from one of your stores when he needed to use the restroom facilities.
  • I have crohn's disease. I shat my pants outside of "Plaid Pantry" because they wouldn't let me use the employee bathroom. : reddit.com 15 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.reddit.com [Source type: General]

^ Added discomforts associated with Crohn's disease include severe joint pains, weight loss and lack of energy.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

[88][89] .Hydrocortisone should be used in severe attacks of Crohn's disease.^ "Treatment of Severe Crohn's Disease(CD) Using Rifabutin-Macrolide-Clofazamine Comnibation: Results at 30-37 months."
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ One would expect that if paratuberculosis was causing Crohn's disease, then the regions in which there is a high prevalence of Crohn's should overlap with the regions with a high prevalence of paratuberculosis.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Disease Severity Every person experiences Crohn's disease differently.
  • treatments on WeAreCrohns.org 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.wearecrohns.org [Source type: Academic]

[90]
.Low doses of the opiate receptor antagonist Naltrexone (also Low dose naltrexone) have been found to be effective in inducing remission in 67% of patients with Crohn's disease in a small study conducted at Pennsylvania State University.^ Naltrexone for the treatment of Crohn's Disease?
  • treatments on WeAreCrohns.org 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.wearecrohns.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I'm in the process of qualifying for the Penn State LDN study for Crohn's disease.
  • treatments on WeAreCrohns.org 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.wearecrohns.org [Source type: Academic]

^ On its own, rs669 was not seen to reproducibly and independently increase risk for Alzheimer's disease in several studies of ~200 Italian patients.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

Dr. Jill Smith, Professor of Gastroenterology at Pennsylvania State University's College of Medicine concluded that "LDN therapy appears effective and safe in subjects with active Crohn’s disease."[91] .Smith and her colleagues have since received a NIH grant and are proceeding with a definitive Phase II placebo-controlled clinical trial.^ Cardio3 Biosciences recently launched a Phase II/III clinical study of C-Cure, its new cardiac disease treatment, in Belgium and Germany.

^ Clinical trials for SmartPill began in March of 2005, SmartPill, which successfully completed the first phase of its clinical trials last summer, expects the current phase of testing to be completed by May.

^ The most promising is a phase III clinical trial of RMAT in Australia which has been designed as a double-blind, multi-center, controlled clinical trial involving over 200 patients with Crohn's in at least seven major cities across the continent.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

Lifestyle changes

.Certain lifestyle changes can reduce symptoms, including dietary adjustments, proper hydration and smoking cessation.^ This allele (rs1800497(T)) is associated with a reduced number of dopamine binding sites in the brain , and has been postulated to play a role in alcoholism, smoking, and certain neuropsychiatric disorders.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

Eating small meals frequently instead of big meals may also help with a low appetite. To manage symptoms have a balanced diet with proper portion control. Fatigue can be helped with regular exercise, a healthy diet and enough sleep. A food diary may help with identifying foods that trigger symptoms. .Some patients should follow a low dietary fiber diet to control symptoms especially if fiberous foods cause symptoms.^ Only when I deleted the junk foods from my diet in a last ditch attempt to feel better, did I suspect that something I was eating was causing my trouble.
  • Battling the MSG Myth: How You Made the MSG Connection 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.msgmyth.com [Source type: General]

^ In an expanded follow-up study of > 6,000 controls and 6,000 patients, the heterozygote odds ratio for this SNP was recalculated to be 1.22 (CI 1.15a1.28).
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ In an expanded follow-up study of > 6,000 controls and 6,000 patients, the heterozygote odds ratio for this SNP was recalculated to be 1.09 (CI 1.04a1.15).
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

[86]

Surgery

.Crohn's cannot be cured by surgery, though it is used when partial or a full blockage of the intestine occurs.^ There a periods of remission, but everytime there's a flare-up, a person gets intestinal scarring which can cause blockage in the intestines and lead to surgery.
  • I have a chronic disease, unemployed, and medicaid denied me. What do I do? [Archive] - Xbox 360 & Xbox Forums 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC forum.teamxbox.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Long-term use of Questran can lead to deficiencies of the fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) and it can cause intestinal blockages if you have stenoses (lengths of narrowed intestine) or strictures (rings of narrowed intestine).
  • Magic Bullet for Crohn's management? - alt.support.crohns-colitis | Google Groups 15 September 2009 22:31 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: General]

^ This “now constitutes a treatment option to cure an intestinal disease that sometimes does not successfully respond to drugs and requires highly complex surgery that does not provide a cure.” .

.Surgery may also be required for complications such as obstructions, fistulas and/or abscesses, or if the disease does not respond to drugs.^ Many Crohn's disease patients require surgery, either to relieve symptoms that do not respond to medical therapy or to correct complications such as blockage, perforation, abscess, or bleeding in the intestine.
  • Crohns Disease - Crohns Treatment 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.iifar.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Remission from Crohn's disease may be more likely if patients get immune-suppressing drugs, not .
  • treatments on WeAreCrohns.org 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.wearecrohns.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Such cells may be used to study the disease and screen for new drugs, and could one day lead to the creation of cellular therapies for the disease that robs people of the ability to control movement and balance.

.After the first surgery, Crohn's usually shows up at the site of the resection though it can appear in other locations.^ Though the preliminary results of this and other pilot studies are encouraging, Hermon-Taylor is the first to point out the limitations of the study--it was too small and there were no controls.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ That's pretty much the first line drug for Crohns, if you have a flare up you need steroids (do not use steroids for long term control) Both these drugs are cheap.
  • I have a chronic disease, unemployed, and medicaid denied me. What do I do? [Archive] - Xbox 360 & Xbox Forums 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC forum.teamxbox.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Well, it was the first drug I took and, though I'm not proud to say, I've tried every other recreational drug known to man except heroin.
  • Sign In Stranger Archives 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.banyantrees.net [Source type: General]

.After a resection, scar tissue builds up which can cause strictures.^ There a periods of remission, but everytime there's a flare-up, a person gets intestinal scarring which can cause blockage in the intestines and lead to surgery.
  • I have a chronic disease, unemployed, and medicaid denied me. What do I do? [Archive] - Xbox 360 & Xbox Forums 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC forum.teamxbox.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It would be nice if the exercise helped build up my arms and some stamina; it would not be nice if it is ripping more of the tissue around my spine in so doing!
  • The Official NW/SO Thread [Archive] - Page 2 - The Long Hair Community Discussion Boards 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC forums.longhaircommunity.com [Source type: Original source]

.A stricture is when the intestines become too small to allow excrement to pass through easily which can lead to a blockage.^ There a periods of remission, but everytime there's a flare-up, a person gets intestinal scarring which can cause blockage in the intestines and lead to surgery.
  • I have a chronic disease, unemployed, and medicaid denied me. What do I do? [Archive] - Xbox 360 & Xbox Forums 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC forum.teamxbox.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The common technologies used in pill casings are focused not on material but on shape, as it seems that a designing the pill to have an oblong shape allows for the preservation of orientation as the pill passes through the body.

^ The Given system compiles these images to produce a continuous video image of the pill’s passage through the small intestine.

.After the first resection, another resection may be necessary within five years.^ The patient’s motor skills improved by over 80 percent in the first five years after the procedure.

^ Now, 20 years later and after travelling to the other side of the world to undergo dangerous pioneering surgery, his dreams of walking may be within his grasp.

[92] .For patients with an obstruction due to a stricture, two options for treatment are strictureplasty and resection of that portion of bowel.^ Early detection of problem cells benefits patients, doctors, and the healthcare industry by reducing costs and making effective treatment options available sooner.

^ As a treatment option, they are considered extremely safe because they are also autologous, coming directly from the patient’s own blood, bone marrow, skin or fat.

^ Patients have the right to know all available treatment options.

.There is no statistical significance between strictureplasty alone versus strictureplasty and resection in cases of duodenal involvement.^ A key statistic that has been identified by John Holloszy of the Washington University Medical School in St. Louis is that there are NO differences in caloric intake between people in the year 2000 vs. The major difference is Caloric Expenditure.
  • Sign In Stranger Archives 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.banyantrees.net [Source type: General]

^ There was no significant difference in RA risk between those carrying one or two (C) alleles.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ The important point is that there has consistently been a highly significant specific association between Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and Crohn's disease.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

.In these cases, re-operation rates were 31% and 27%, respectively, indicating that strictureplasty is a safe and effective treatment for selected patients with duodenal involvement.^ Early detection of problem cells benefits patients, doctors, and the healthcare industry by reducing costs and making effective treatment options available sooner.

^ As a treatment option, they are considered extremely safe because they are also autologous, coming directly from the patient’s own blood, bone marrow, skin or fat.

^ We are a body of patients who have chosen to make this journey and receive these treatments.

[93]
.Short bowel syndrome (SBS, also short gut syndrome or simply short gut) can be caused by the surgical removal of the small intestines.^ I'd like to see him make that same so-called joke when he gets a large section of his small intestine surgically removed, or when he suffers the effects of being on prednisone for decades.
  • I have crohn's disease. I shat my pants outside of "Plaid Pantry" because they wouldn't let me use the employee bathroom. : reddit.com 15 September 2009 22:31 UTC www.reddit.com [Source type: General]

^ I have no colon with 4 ileal resections and now have short bowel syndrome (aka intestinal failure).
  • Magic Bullet for Crohn's management? - alt.support.crohns-colitis | Google Groups 15 September 2009 22:31 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: General]

^ With severe/fulminant Crohn's you end up with (reversible when the flare > > dies down) intestinal failure (aka short bowel syndrome) and this paper > > deals with the treatment of said.
  • Magic Bullet for Crohn's management? - alt.support.crohns-colitis | Google Groups 15 September 2009 22:31 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: General]

.It usually develops if a person has had half or more of their small intestines removed.^ The interview also indicated that future development of the pill could consider the ability to monitor the small intestine as well as the upper GI tract.

[94] .Diarrhea is the main symptom of short bowel syndrome though other symptoms may include cramping, bloating and heartburn.^ Crohn's disease can be difficult to diagnose because its symptoms are similar to other intestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome and to another type of IBD called ulcerative colitis.
  • Crohns Disease - Crohns Treatment 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.iifar.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Possible side effects of mesalamine preparations include nausea, vomiting, heartburn, diarrhea, and headache.
  • Crohns Disease - Crohns Treatment 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.iifar.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I have > > no colon with 4 ileal resections and now have short bowel syndrome (aka > > intestinal failure).
  • Magic Bullet for Crohn's management? - alt.support.crohns-colitis | Google Groups 15 September 2009 22:31 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: General]

.Short bowel syndrome is treated with changes in diet, intravenous feeding, vitamin and mineral supplements and treatment with medications.^ Please discuss all new > treatments or changes in medication regime with your doctor prior to > implementing the changes.
  • Magic Bullet for Crohn's management? - alt.support.crohns-colitis | Google Groups 15 September 2009 22:31 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: General]

^ I have no colon with 4 ileal resections and now have short bowel syndrome (aka intestinal failure).
  • Magic Bullet for Crohn's management? - alt.support.crohns-colitis | Google Groups 15 September 2009 22:31 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: General]

^ With severe/fulminant Crohn's you end up with (reversible when the flare > > dies down) intestinal failure (aka short bowel syndrome) and this paper > > deals with the treatment of said.
  • Magic Bullet for Crohn's management? - alt.support.crohns-colitis | Google Groups 15 September 2009 22:31 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: General]

.Another complication following surgery for Crohn's disease where the terminal ileum has been removed is the development of excessive watery diarrhea.^ Complicating attempts to culture the bug in Crohn's, there seem to be very few MAP actually involved in the disease process.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Every few hours, another child in this country is diagnosed with Crohn's disease and may be condemned to a life of chronic suffering.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The reason being that when in > > a severe/fulminant flare many Crohn's patients develop a secondary lactose > > intolerance - this usually goes away when the disease settles down.
  • Magic Bullet for Crohn's management? - alt.support.crohns-colitis | Google Groups 15 September 2009 22:31 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: General]

This is due to an inability to reabsorb bile acids after resection of the terminal ileum.[citation needed]
.In some cases of SBS, intestinal transplant surgery may be considered; though the number of transplant centres offering this procedure is quite small and it comes with a high risk due to the chance of infection and rejection of the transplanted intestine.^ A small number of patients may need periods of feeding by vein.
  • Crohns Disease - Crohns Treatment 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.iifar.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I'm not sure about fasting, in some cases it may not be a good thing..
  • The Official NW/SO Thread [Archive] - Page 2 - The Long Hair Community Discussion Boards 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC forums.longhaircommunity.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A team of scientists believe they may be able to transplant a voice box in such a way that the patient would not need to take anti-rejection drugs.

[95]

Prospective treatments

.Researchers at University College London have questioned the wisdom of suppressing the immune system in Crohn's, as the problem may be an under-active rather than an over-active immune system: their study found that Crohn's patients showed an abnormally low response to an introduced infection, marked by a poor flow of blood to the wound, and the response improved when the patients were given sildenafil citrate.^ Remission from Crohn's disease may be more likely if patients get immune-suppressing drugs, not .
  • treatments on WeAreCrohns.org 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.wearecrohns.org [Source type: Academic]

^ We also found that patient quality of life improved.

^ They cause tumors, and the adult cells derived from them may be rejected by the patient’s immune system.

[34]
.Recent studies using helminthic therapy or hookworms to treat Crohn's Disease and other (non-viral) auto-immune diseases seem to yield promising results.^ RESULTS: Current marijuana use was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) in a dose-related fashion with a decline in IQ over the ages studied.
  • Sign In Stranger Archives 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.banyantrees.net [Source type: General]

^ "Treatment of Severe Crohn's Disease(CD) Using Rifabutin-Macrolide-Clofazamine Comnibation: Results at 30-37 months."
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They may prove useful for a family that has a medical history of diseases that are usually treated using bone marrow transplants.

[96]

Complementary and alternative medicine

.More than half of Crohn's disease sufferers have tried complementary or alternative therapy.^ Around 500,000 Americans are believed to be suffering from Crohn's disease, a chronic condition that .
  • treatments on WeAreCrohns.org 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.wearecrohns.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Raziel Kayne 05-01-09, 09:46 PM I've been suffering with Crohn's Disease for 8 1/2 years (since I was 16).
  • I have a chronic disease, unemployed, and medicaid denied me. What do I do? [Archive] - Xbox 360 & Xbox Forums 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC forum.teamxbox.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The problem seems more fundamental than trying over and over again.

[97] These include diets, probiotics, fish oil and other herbal and nutritional supplements. The benefit of these medications is uncertain.
.
  • Acupuncture is used to treat inflammatory bowel disease in China, and is being used more frequently in Western society.^ Inflammatory Bowel Disease 1997:-131.
    • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Inflammatory Bowel Disease 1994.
    • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Two dramatically different demographics of Inflammatory Bowel Disease describe the majority of our patient .
    • treatments on WeAreCrohns.org 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.wearecrohns.org [Source type: Academic]

    [98] .However, there is no evidence that acupuncture has benefits beyond the placebo effect.^ However, if there is no sebum on my fingertips from massage and scritching, then I don't preen because there is no sebum to move.
    • The Official NW/SO Thread [Archive] - Page 2 - The Long Hair Community Discussion Boards 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC forums.longhaircommunity.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ However, a subsequent study based on over 2,000 parent-child trios (ie families) failed to find any evidence of either effect.
    • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
    • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

    [98]
  • .
  • Methotrexate is a folate anti-metabolite drug which is also used for chemotherapy.^ Eighty million Americans have used marijuana and most have shown no inclination to move on to harder drugs or to act in anti-social ways.
    • Sign In Stranger Archives 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.banyantrees.net [Source type: General]

    ^ This SNP, located in an intron of the GRIK2 gene, has been linked in one study to increased thoughts of suicide in patients using the anti-depressant drug citalopram.
    • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
    • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

    .It is useful in maintenance of remission for those no longer taking corticosteroids.^ With no courier, though, it can take longer.
    • Reasons I No Longer Desire to Work in Retail - The Something Awful Forums 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC forums.somethingawful.com [Source type: General]

    ^ So, I am free from my hives, my son is free from his migraines and low platelet problem, my husband is no longer requiring a nap in the middle of the day or using pills for allergies.
    • Battling the MSG Myth: How You Made the MSG Connection 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.msgmyth.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I do still take a high dose of anti depressants, but am beginning to see the light of the day when I no longer need them.
    • Battling the MSG Myth: How You Made the MSG Connection 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.msgmyth.com [Source type: General]

    [99]
  • .
  • Metronidazole and ciprofloxacin are antibiotics which are used to treat Crohn's that have colonic or perianal involvement, although, in the United States, this use has not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration.^ Even with the expected lifting of a ban on federal funding, the fledgling field of embryonic stem cell research may not produce a product in the United States for many years, given current Food and Drug Administration safety requirements, according to Aastrom CEO George Dunbar.

    ^ Methadone is a substrate of this protein, so variants may affect the efficacy and optimal dosage of this drug as used for treating opiate dependence.
    • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The trial involves the first use in the United States of a unique injection catheter to deliver stem cells.

    [100] .They are also used for treatment of complications, including abscesses and other infections accompanying Crohn's disease.^ Naltrexone for the treatment of Crohn's Disease?
    • treatments on WeAreCrohns.org 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.wearecrohns.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "Treatment of Severe Crohn's Disease(CD) Using Rifabutin-Macrolide-Clofazamine Comnibation: Results at 30-37 months."
    • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ They may prove useful for a family that has a medical history of diseases that are usually treated using bone marrow transplants.

    [8]
  • Thalidomide has shown response in reversing endoscopic evidence of disease.[101]
  • .
  • Cannabis-derived drugs may be used to treat Crohn's Disease with its anti-inflammatory properties.^ Voters may get a chance to decide whether to take money from the state’s anti-smoking effort and use it for research into adult stem cell therapies.

    ^ "Treatment of Severe Crohn's Disease(CD) Using Rifabutin-Macrolide-Clofazamine Comnibation: Results at 30-37 months."
    • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The advance, reported today in the journal Nature, may provide an alternative way to generate powerful stem cells that might be used to repair or replace damaged tissue in male patients with hard-to-treat diseases.

    Cannabis-derived drugs may also help to heal the gut lining.[102]
  • .
  • Soluble Fiber has been used by some to treat symptoms.^ a b c Tungland BC, Meyer D, Nondigestible oligo- and polysaccharides (dietary fiber): their physiology and role in human health and food, Comp Rev Food Sci Food Safety, 3:73-92, 2002 (Table 3)[1]
  • Probiotics include Sacchromyces boulardii[103] and E. coli Nissle 1917.[104]
  • Boswellia is an ayurvedic (Indian traditional medicine) herb, used as a natural alternative to drugs.^ Some people use drugs to get high.
    • Sign In Stranger Archives 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.banyantrees.net [Source type: General]

    ^ Some useful information in one article (American Journal of Industrial Medicine.
    • Sign In Stranger Archives 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.banyantrees.net [Source type: General]

    ^ AND I bought some nice hair treats a few weeks ago that I want to use (i.e.
    • The Official NW/SO Thread [Archive] - Page 2 - The Long Hair Community Discussion Boards 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC forums.longhaircommunity.com [Source type: Original source]

    .One study has found that the effectiveness of H-15 extract is not inferior to mesalazine, and suggests it that its safety makes it superior in benefit-risk evaluations.^ The risk allele in the US/UK Caucasian populations studied is (C), and it is indicative of a risk haplotype found in ~18% of the general population but up to ~28% of severely dyslexic individuals.
    • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

    ^ SNP associated with the TNRC9 gene, was one of the four strongest associating SNPs found in a genome-wide association study of over 4,000 breast cancer samples.
    • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
    • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Early detection of problem cells benefits patients, doctors, and the healthcare industry by reducing costs and making effective treatment options available sooner.

    [105]

Prognosis

.Crohn's disease is a chronic condition for which there is currently no cure.^ There is no proven cure for Crohn's disease.
  • Coreg Uses - Cure for Pink Eye Articles 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ No cure for hepatitis C is currently available.
  • Coreg Uses - Cure for Pink Eye Articles 12 September 2009 8:13 UTC www.emedtv.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Crohn's disease is a chronic condition for which there is currently no cure.

.It is characterised by periods of improvement followed by episodes when symptoms flare up.^ There a periods of remission, but everytime there's a flare-up, a person gets intestinal scarring which can cause blockage in the intestines and lead to surgery.
  • I have a chronic disease, unemployed, and medicaid denied me. What do I do? [Archive] - Xbox 360 & Xbox Forums 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC forum.teamxbox.com [Source type: Original source]

.With treatment, most people achieve a healthy height and weight, and the mortality rate for the disease is relatively low.^ It doesn't help that most people are fat so companies are making everything low calorie and healthy which doesn't help the percentage of people that needs those calories.
  • I have a chronic disease, unemployed, and medicaid denied me. What do I do? [Archive] - Xbox 360 & Xbox Forums 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC forum.teamxbox.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most recently: researchers at the Whitehead Institute in Cambridge, Mass., have converted skin cells from people with Parkinson’s disease into the general type of neuron that the disease destroys.

^ I tried to joke about it most of the time, but it does get annoying when people would continuously tell me I need to gain weight.
  • I have a chronic disease, unemployed, and medicaid denied me. What do I do? [Archive] - Xbox 360 & Xbox Forums 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC forum.teamxbox.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, Crohn's disease is associated with an increased risk of small bowel and colorectal carcinoma, including bowel cancer.^ This SNP was not associated, however, with risk for prostate, breast, or colon cancer.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Associated with increased risk for Crohn's disease in a study of 380 Korean patients.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ (G) linked with an increased risk for Crohn's disease.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

[106]

Epidemiology

.The incidence of Crohn's disease has been ascertained from population studies in Norway and the United States and is similar at 6 to 7.1:100,000.[107][108] Crohn's disease is more common in northern countries, and shows a higher preponderance in northern areas of the same country.^ The (A) allele is more common in all populations studied.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ I'm in the process of qualifying for the Penn State LDN study for Crohn's disease.
  • treatments on WeAreCrohns.org 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.wearecrohns.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Note that some studies, however, have not observed any association between this SNP and asthma in certain populations , or even more paradoxically, have obser...
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

[109] .The incidence of Crohn's disease is thought to be similar in Europe but lower in Asia and Africa.^ Thought to be an incurable disease, doctors seem to have been able to induce profound long-term remissions in the majority of patients with Crohn's disease.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sixty-five percent of bowel samples from Crohn's patients came up positive, compared to only 4% of those with the similar but different disease ulcerative colitis.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is thought that this cell-wall deficient form is responsible for triggering the abnormal immune response which leads to Crohn's disease.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

[107] It also has a higher incidence in Ashkenazi Jews.[15]
.Crohn's disease has a bimodal distribution in incidence as a function of age: the disease tends to strike people in their teens and 20s, and people in their 50s through to their 70s, and ages in between due to not being diagnosed with Crohn's and being diagnosed instead with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).^ I was diagnosed with crohns disease at the age of 22 in october of 2006.
  • treatments on WeAreCrohns.org 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.wearecrohns.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Instead, SmartPill focuses on diagnosing possible motility disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or gastroparesis, which refers to situations where the stomach is unable to empty itself.

^ And as mentioned previously, Crohn's is a poorly delineated disease--20% of people diagnosed with Crohn's may actually have something else.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

[1][8] It is rarely diagnosed in early childhood. .It usually strikes females who are pediatric patients more severely than males.^ Individuals with one or more rs2279744(G) alleles who are also carriers of the TP53 rs1042522(C) (arg at aa72) SNP tend to develop cancers earlier than rs2279744(T;T) homozygo...
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ In 630 patients with essential hypertension (EHT) among males significant differences in rs5351 and rs5333 influencing atherosclerosis 66.1 rs5333 (T;T) ...more...
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\deCODE SNPs\deCODEme_scan.csv 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ This March, I returned to Bumrungrad, which has become internationally famous for medical tourism and now treats more than 400,000 foreign patients each year.

[110] .However, only slightly more women than men have Crohn's disease.^ Sixty-five percent of bowel samples from Crohn's patients came up positive, compared to only 4% of those with the similar but different disease ulcerative colitis.
  • Paratuberculosis And Crohn's Disease: Got Milk? 18 September 2009 6:33 UTC www.mad-cow.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Oral Budesonide (aka Entocort) has fewer side-effects than > > > Prednisolone, but is only useful for Crohn's of the small intestine and the > > > ascending colon.
  • Magic Bullet for Crohn's management? - alt.support.crohns-colitis | Google Groups 15 September 2009 22:31 UTC groups.google.com [Source type: General]

^ This risk was due to subtle increases in risk for all of the individual endpoints, and was only seen in women without obstructive coronary artery disease.
  • Promethease report for C:\Users\mspear\Documents\Unzipped\23andME SNPs\genome_Mike_Spear_20080527130859.txt 11 September 2009 4:54 UTC www.genomealberta.ca [Source type: Academic]
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[111] .Parents, siblings or children of people with Crohn's disease are 3 to 20 times more likely to develop the disease.^ People with Crohn's disease also may have: .
  • HealthWise | NYU Medical Center 20 September 2009 8:49 UTC www.med.nyu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Children Disease Crohn's Disease Crohn's disease can not be cured.

^ Smokers are three times more likely to get Crohn's disease.

[112] .Twin studies show a concordance of greater than 55% for Crohn's disease.^ Twin studies show a concordance of greater than 55% for Crohn's disease.

^ Recent studies using Helminthic therapy or Hookworms to treat Crohn's Disease and other (non-viral) auto-immune diseases seem to yield promising results.

^ Mate J, Castanos R, Garcia-Samaniego J, Pajares JM. Does dietary fish oil maintain the remission of Crohn’s disease: a case control study.
  • Crohns Disease - Crohns Treatment 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC www.iifar.org [Source type: Academic]

[113]

History

Inflammatory bowel diseases were described by Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682–1771), by Polish surgeon Antoni Leśniowski in 1904 (leading to the use of the eponym "Leśniowski-Crohn disease" in Poland) and by Scottish physician T. Kennedy Dalziel in 1913.[114]
Burrill Bernard Crohn, an American gastroenterologist at New York City's Mount Sinai Hospital, described fourteen cases in 1932, and submitted them to the American Medical Association under the rubric of "Terminal ileitis: A new clinical entity". Later that year, he, along with colleagues Leon Ginzburg and Gordon Oppenheimer published the case series as "Regional ileitis: a pathologic and clinical entity".[10]

References

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  2. ^ Mayo Clinic: Crohn's Disease
  3. ^ National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse
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  6. ^ a b Bernstein, Charles N.; Wajda, A; Svenson, LW; Mackenzie, A; Koehoorn, M; Jackson, M; Fedorak, R; Israel, D et al. (July 2006). "The epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in Canada: a population-based study". The American Journal of Gastroenterology 101 (7): 1559–68. doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2006.00603.x. PMID 16863561. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Wu, George Y; Marcy L Coash, Senthil Nachimuthu (Jan 20, 2009). [emedicine.medscape.com/article/172940-overview "Crohn Disease"]. eMedicine. emedicine.medscape.com/article/172940-overview. Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
  8. ^ Le, Tri H (Aug 7, 2008). [emedicine.medscape.com/article/183084-overview "Ulcerative colitis"]. eMedicine. emedicine.medscape.com/article/183084-overview. Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
  9. ^ a b c Crohn BB, Ginzburg L, Oppenheimer GD (2000). "Regional ileitis: a pathologic and clinical entity. 1932". Mt. Sinai J. Med. 67 (3): 263–8. PMID 10828911. 
  10. ^ a b Gasche C, Scholmerich J, Brynskov J, D'Haens G, Hanauer S, Irvine E, Jewell D, Rachmilewitz D, Sachar D, Sandborn W, Sutherland L (2000). "A simple classification of Crohn's disease: report of the Working Party for the World Congresses of Gastroenterology, Vienna 1998". Inflamm Bowel Dis 6 (1): 8–15. PMID 10701144. 
  11. ^ Dubinsky MC, Fleshner PP. (2003). "Treatment of Crohn's Disease of Inflammatory, Stenotic, and Fistulizing Phenotypes". Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol 6 (3): 183–200. doi:10.1007/s11938-003-0001-1. PMID 12744819. 
  12. ^ a b Pimentel, Mark; Michael Chang, Evelyn J. Chow, Siamak Tabibzadeh, Viorelia Kirit-Kiriak, Stephan R. Targan, Henry C. Lin (2000). "Identification of a prodromal period in Crohn's disease but not ulcerative colitis". American Journal of Gastroenterology 95 (12): 3458–62. doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2000.03361.x. PMID 11151877. 
  13. ^ Crohn's Disease Overview
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  16. ^ Kumar, Vinay; Abul K. Abbas, Nelson Fausto (July 30, 2004). "Ch 17: The Gastrointestinal Tract". Robbins and Cotran: Pathologic Basis of Disease (7th ed.). Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Elsevier Saunders. pp. 847. ISBN 0-7216-0187-1. 
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  18. ^ Fix, Oren K.; Jorge A. Soto, Charles W. Andrews and Francis A. Farraye (2004). "Gastroduodenal Crohn's disease". Gastrointestinel Endoscopy 60 (6): 985. doi:10.1016/S0016-5107(04)02200-X. PMID 15605018. 
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External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Etymology

.Eponym, Burrill Bernard Crohn.^ Crohn's disease was named after the American gastroenterologist Burril Bernard Cronhn, who described fourteen disease's cases in 1932.
  • Crohns Disease and AMP FLORACEL - Original Molo Cure Formula 12 September 2009 10:010 UTC ampfloracel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The disease was independently described in 1904 by Polish surgeon Antoni Lesniowski and in 1932 by American gastroenterologist Burrill Bernard Crohn , for whom the disease was named.
  • Crohn’s Disease | Find Me A Cure 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC findmeacure.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The disease was named after Burrill Bernard Crohn, an American gastroenterologist.

Noun

Singular
Crohn’s disease
Crohn’s disease (uncountable)
  1. (pathology) Crohn’s regional enteritis, a chronic inflammatory disease that can involve any part of the digestive tract from the mouth to the anus.

Translations

See also


Simple English

Crohn's disease, Crohn disease, or Leśniowski-Crohn disease is an illness that causes the intestines, or other parts of the digestive tract (the parts of the body food goes through), to become swollen, and sometimes develop ulcers (holes). People with Crohn's disease often have pain in the gut, diarrhea, vomiting, and weight loss. Crohn's can also cause skin rashes, arthritis, and swollen eyes.

Nobody knows exactly what causes Crohn's disease. In the disease, the person's body attacks itself. The immune system attacks healthy parts of the digestive tract. This causes inflammation, or swelling, in the digestive tract. Therefore, Crohn's disease is one of two inflammatory bowel diseases and one of many autoimmune diseases.

Like many other autoimmune diseases, Crohn's disease seems to be connected to the person's genes. People whose brothers or sisters have the disease are the most likely to get it. Men and women are both just as likely to get Crohn's disease.

Other pages

  • Ulcerative colitis the other inflammatory bowel disease
  • Irritable bowel syndrome

Other websites



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 15, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Crohn's disease, which are similar to those in the above article.








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