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Cronus
Former King of the gods
Titan of Farming
Abode Earth
Symbol Sickle
Consort Rhea
Parents Uranus and Gaia
Siblings Rhea, Oceanus, Hyperion, Theia, Coeus, Phoebe, Iapetus, Crius, Mnemosyne
Children Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Hades, Hestia, Demeter
Roman equivalent Saturn
.Cronus or Kronos[1] (Ancient Greek Κρόνος, Krónos) was the leader and the youngest of the first generation of Titans, divine descendants of Gaia, the earth, and Uranus, the sky.^ CRONUS (Kronos), a son of Uranus and Ge, and the youngest among the Titans.
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^ Cronus supplanted Uranus as the god of the sky.

^ According to Hesiod, Cronus was the youngest and boldest of the Titans, was their leader.

.He overthrew his father and ruled during the mythological Golden Age, until he was overthrown by his own sons, Zeus, Hades, and Poseidon, and imprisoned in Tartarus.^ Cronus refused to release his mother's other children from prison, so she foretold that Cronus would fall from power from his own son, as Cronus had deposed his own father.

^ Like his brothers who had fought against Zeus, he was imprisoned in Tartarus.

^ Cronus married his sister Rhea and was the father of Hestia , Poseidon , Hades , Demeter , Hera and Zeus .

.Cronus was usually depicted with a sickle, which was also the weapon he used to castrate and depose Uranus.^ The Titans then deposed Uranus, liberated their brothers who had been cast into Tartarus, and raised Cronus to the throne.
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^ Cronus became the supreme ruler of the universe, when he deposed his father Uranus.

^ CRONUS & THE CASTRATION OF URANUS .
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.In Athens, on the twelfth day of the Attic month of Hekatombaion, a festival called Kronia was held in honor of Cronus to celebrate the harvest, suggesting that, as a result of his association with the virtuous Golden Age, Cronus continued to preside as a patron of harvest.^ Cronus was the one who created the Golden Age of Man.

^ During his reign, Cronus created mankind, which was marked as an era of the Golden Age, the most peaceful time of mankind (See Five Ages of Man ).

^ He ruled the cosmos during the so-called Golden Age, after castrating and deposing his father Ouranos (the Sky).
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.Cronus was also identified in classical antiquity with the Roman deity Saturn.^ The Romans had identified as Saturn , the Roman god of agriculture.

^ The Romans identified their Saturnus with the Cronus of the Greeks.
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^ CRONUS IDENTIFIED WITH SATURN (ITALIAN) .
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Contents

Name

In the Alexandrian and Renaissance periods, Cronus was conflated with the name of Chronos, the personification of "Father Time",[2] wielding the harvesting scythe.
.H. J. Rose, A Handbook of Greek Mythology,[3] observes that attempts to give Kronos a Greek etymology have failed.^ CRONUS : Greek Titan king of heaven, god of time ; mythology ; pictures : KRONOS, SATURN .
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A theory debated in the 19th century, and still offered somewhat apologetically,[4] holds that Kronos is related to "horned", assuming a Semitic derivation from qrn/krn.[5] Robert Brown made the assertion in The Great Dionysiak Myth, 1877.[6] "Kronos signifies 'the Horned one'", the Rev. Alexander Hislop had previously asserted in The Two Babylons; or, The papal worship proved to be the worship of Nimrod and his wife,[7] with the note "From krn, a horn. The epithet Carneus applied to Apollo is just a different form of the same word." In the Orphic Hymns, Apollo is addressed as 'the Two-Horned God'".</ref> Andrew Lang's objection, that Cronus was never represented horned in Hellenic art,[8] was addressed by Robert Brown,[9] demonstrating that in Semitic usage, as in the Hebrew Bible qeren was a signifier of "power". When Greek writers encountered the Levantine deity El, they rendered his name as Kronos.[10]

In Greek mythology and early myths

Painting by Peter Paul Rubens of Cronus devouring one of his children, Poseidon
.In ancient myth recorded by Hesiod's Theogony, Cronus envied the power of his father, the ruler of the universe, Uranus.^ Hesiod, Theogony 53 ff : "And he [Zeus] was reigning in heaven, himself holding the lightning and glowing thunderbolt, when he had overcome by might his father Kronos."
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.Uranus drew the enmity of Cronus' mother, Gaia, when he hid the gigantic youngest children of Gaia, the hundred-armed Hecatonchires and one-eyed Cyclopes, in Tartarus, so that they would not see the light.^ Cronus refused to release his mother's other children from prison, so she foretold that Cronus would fall from power from his own son, as Cronus had deposed his own father.

^ The Titans then deposed Uranus, liberated their brothers who had been cast into Tartarus, and raised Cronus to the throne.
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^ Cronus was the youngest son of Uranus and Gaea ; though, according to Diodorus Siculus, he was the eldest child.

.Gaia created a great stone sickle and gathered together Cronus and his brothers to persuade them to castrate Uranus.^ But vast Gaia (Earth) groaned within, being straitened, and she made the element of grey flint and shaped a great sickle, and told her plan to her dear sons.
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^ The Titans then deposed Uranus, liberated their brothers who had been cast into Tartarus, and raised Cronus to the throne.
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^ Gaea, indignant at this, persuaded the Titans to rise against their father, and gave to Cronus an adamantine sickle (harpê).
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.Only Cronus was willing to do the deed, so Gaia gave him the sickle and placed him in ambush.^ So he said: and vast Gaia (Earth) rejoiced greatly in spirit, and set and hid him in an ambush, and put in his hands a jagged sickle, and revealed to him the whole plot.
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^ Gaea, indignant at this, persuaded the Titans to rise against their father, and gave to Cronus an adamantine sickle (harpê).
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^ So he said : and vast Gaia (Earth) rejoiced greatly in spirit, and set and hid him in an ambush, and put in his hands a jagged sickle, and revealed to him the whole plot.
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.When Uranus met with Gaia, Cronus attacked him with the sickle by cutting off his genitals, castrating him and casting the severed member into the sea.^ Cronus severed his father's genitals with a sickle and threw them in the sea.

^ The Titans then deposed Uranus, liberated their brothers who had been cast into Tartarus, and raised Cronus to the throne.
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^ Zeus chased Phoebe, but she escaped him when she threw herself off the cliff and was turned into a quail.

From the blood (or, by a few accounts, semen) that spilled out from Uranus and fell upon the earth, the Gigantes, Erinyes, and Meliae were produced. .From the member that was cast into the sea, Aphrodite later emerged.^ And so soon as he had cut off the members with flint and cast them from the land into the surging sea, they were swept away over the main a long time: and a white foam spread around them from the immortal flesh, and in it there grew a maiden [Aphrodite] .
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[11] .For this, Uranus threatened vengeance and called his sons titenes (according to Hesiod meaning "straining ones," the source of the word "titan", but this etymology is disputed) for overstepping their boundaries and daring to commit such an act.^ Those about the sanctuary say that Despoine was brought up by Anytos, who was one of the Titanes, as they are called."
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^ According to Homer and Apollonius of Rhodes, Oceanus wasn't a Titan, like in Hesiod's Theogony .

^ According to the Orphic myth , Gaea and Uranus were not mother and son.

.In an alternate version of this myth, a more benevolent Cronus overthrew the wicked serpentine Titan Ophion.^ The Titans rebelled against their rule, where Cronus and Rhea threw Ophion and Eurynome out of heaven, into the river Oceanus.

^ Eurynome with her consort, Ophion, were the first to rule at Olympus, before they were displaced by the Titans, Rhea and Cronus.

^ Ophion , Oceanus (or Titans, Oceanus ), Cronus , Rhea .

In doing so, he released the world from bondage and for a time ruled it justly.
.After dispatching Uranus, Cronus re-imprisoned the Hecatonchires, the Gigantes, and the Cyclopes and set the dragon Campe to guard them.^ [N.B. Kampe was the dragon set by Kronos to guard the the Hekatonkheires and Kyklopes locked away in Tartaros]."
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^ When the Cyclopes were delivered from Tartarus, the government of the world was taken from Uranus and given to Cronus, who in his turn lost it through Zeus, as was predicted to him by Ge and Uranus.
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^ When her husband/son imprisoned her children the Hundred-handed and the Cyclopes under earth, because of their size and hideous looks, Gaea conspired with her son Cronus to remove Uranus from power.

He and his sister Rhea took the throne of the world as king and queen. .This period of Cronus' rule was called the Golden Age, as the people of the time had no need for laws or rules; everyone did the right thing, and immorality was absent.^ Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : "The Golden Age ( Aetas Aurea ) was that first age [of mankind] which unconstrained, with heart and soul, obedient to no law, gave honour to good faith and righteousness.
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^ Everyone in the Odyssey will die of old-age if we remain in this time zone.

^ In the Cretan tradition, the Titanes were portrayed as agrarian gods who lived in the vicinity of Knossos in Krete where they ruled over mankind during the Golden Age.
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.Cronus learned from Gaia and Uranus that he was destined to be overcome by his own son, just as he had overthrown his father.^ Cronus refused to release his mother's other children from prison, so she foretold that Cronus would fall from power from his own son, as Cronus had deposed his own father.

^ Cronus was the youngest son of Uranus and Gaea ; though, according to Diodorus Siculus, he was the eldest child.

^ Overthrowing his father (Uranus), Cronus became supreme ruler of the universe.

.As a result, although he sired the gods Demeter, Hera, Hades, Hestia, and Poseidon by Rhea, he devoured them all as soon as they were born to preempt the prophecy.^ He swallowed his first-born daughter Hestia, then Demeter and Hera, and after them Plouton and Poseidon.
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^ Cronus married his sister Rhea and was the father of Hestia , Poseidon , Hades , Demeter , Hera and Zeus .

^ Rhea married her brother, Cronus and was the mother of Olympians: Hestia , Poseidon , Hades , Demeter , Hera and Zeus .

.When the sixth child, Zeus, was born Rhea sought Gaia to devise a plan to save them and to eventually get retribution on Cronus for his acts against his father and children.^ Cronus refused to release his mother's other children from prison, so she foretold that Cronus would fall from power from his own son, as Cronus had deposed his own father.

^ As Rhea gave birth to each child, Cronus would take the infant and swallow the child.

^ When her youngest son, Zeus was born, fearing that she would lose all her children, Rhea wrapped swaddling cloth around a stone and gave it to her husband.

.Rhea secretly gave birth to Zeus in Crete, and handed Cronus a stone wrapped in swaddling clothes, also known as the Omphalos Stone, which he promptly swallowed, thinking that it was his son.^ Cronus swallowed the stone.

^ As Rhea gave birth to each child, Cronus would take the infant and swallow the child.

^ Kronos at the hands of his son [Zeus].
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.Rhea kept Zeus hidden in a cave on Mount Ida, Crete.^ When Zeus was born, Rhea entrusted the guardianship of her son to the Daktyloi of Ida, who are the same as those called Kouretes."
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^ When the Titans attempted to destroy the infant Zeus, Gaia and Rhea hid him away in a cave on Mount Ida from where he later returned to destroy them.
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^ Terrified by it, the Titanes begged Terra [Gaia the Earth] to hide her body, and Terra is said to have hidden her in a cave in the island of Crete.
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.According to some versions of the story, he was then raised by a goat named Amalthea, while a company of Kouretes, armored male dancers, shouted and clapped their hands to make enough noise to mask the baby's cries from Cronus.^ And lest the cries of the baby be heard, she summoned youths and gave them small brazen shields and spears, and bade them go around the tree making a noise.
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.Other versions of the myth have Zeus raised by the nymph Adamanthea, who hid Zeus by dangling him by a rope from a tree so that he was suspended between the earth, the sea, and the sky, all of which were ruled by his father, Cronus.^ The only one who survived was Zeus; his mother, Rhea, the earth goddess, hid him away at birth, and tricked Cronus with a large stone wrapped in infant's clothes."
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^ Cronus refused to release his mother's other children from prison, so she foretold that Cronus would fall from power from his own son, as Cronus had deposed his own father.

^ The Titans then deposed Uranus, liberated their brothers who had been cast into Tartarus, and raised Cronus to the throne.
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.Still other versions of the tale say that Zeus was raised by his grandmother, Gaia.^ Now some say that Zeus wrestled here with Kronos himself for the throne, while others say that he held the games in honor of his victory over Kronos."
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^ Now some say that Zeus wrestled here with Kronos himself for the throne, while others say that he held the games in honor of his victory over Kronos.
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^ Others say that the Hesperides may have been daughters of Erebus and Nyx, or of Phorcys and Ceto, or of Zeus and Themis.

.Once he had grown up, Zeus used a poison given to him by Gaia to force Cronus to disgorge the contents of his stomach in reverse order: first the stone, which was set down at Pytho under the glens of Mount Parnassus to be a sign to mortal men, then the goat, and then his two brothers and three sisters.^ And Zeus set it fast in the wide-pathed earth at goodly Pytho under the glens of Parnassos, to be a sign thenceforth and a marvel to mortal men.
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^ We've got to wake up Cronus and send him down to the Alamo.
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^ The only one who survived was Zeus; his mother, Rhea, the earth goddess, hid him away at birth, and tricked Cronus with a large stone wrapped in infant's clothes."
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.In other versions of the tale, Metis gave Cronus an emetic to force him to disgorge the children, or Zeus cut Cronus' stomach open.^ Cronus refused to release his mother's other children from prison, so she foretold that Cronus would fall from power from his own son, as Cronus had deposed his own father.

^ When Zeus had grown up he availed himself of the assistance of Metis, the daughter of Oceanus who gave to Cronus a potion which caused him to bring up the stone and the children he had swallowed.
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^ With the help of Gaea and the Oceanid Metis , Zeus caused Cronus to disgorge Zeus' siblings, when Cronus was given emetic to drink.

.After freeing his siblings, Zeus released the Gigantes, the Hecatonchires, and the Cyclopes, who forged for him his thunderbolts.^ Prometheus was later punished by Zeus, who had him bound in Cascausia.

^ HOPLODAMOS A Titan, Kourete or Gigante who led his brothers in the protection of Rhea after Kronos learned of her deception over the birth of Zeus.
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^ Cronus and the other Titans were defeated when Zeus released the Hundred-Handed and the Cyclops from Tartarus.

.In a vast war called the Titanomachy, Zeus and his brothers and sisters, with the help of the Gigantes, Hecatonchires, and Cyclopes, overthrew Cronus and the other Titans.^ When Zeus overthrew Cronus and other Titans, Crius was confined with them in Tartarus.

^ Cronus and the other Titans were defeated when Zeus released the Hundred-Handed and the Cyclops from Tartarus.

^ So when Zeus overthrew Cronus and other Titans, Iapetus was confined with them in Tartarus.

.Afterwards, many of the Titans were confined in Tartarus.^ When Zeus overthrew Cronus and other Titans, Crius was confined with them in Tartarus.

^ So when Zeus overthrew Cronus and other Titans, Iapetus was confined with them in Tartarus.

^ When Zeus overthrew Cronus and other male Titans, Coeüs was confined with his brothers and nephews in Tartarus.

Some Titans were not banished to Tartarus. .Atlas, Epimetheus, Menoetius, Oceanus and Prometheus are examples of Titans who were not imprisoned in Tartarus following the Titanomachy.^ Prometheus was the brother of Atlas , Menoetius and Epimetheus .

^ Most of the male Titans were imprisoned in Tartarus.

^ Like his brothers who had fought against Zeus, he was imprisoned in Tartarus.

.Gaia bore the monster Typhon to claim revenge for the imprisoned Titans, though Zeus was victorious.^ A long while now have we, who are sprung from Kronos [Zeus, Poseidon, Haides] and the Titan gods, fought with each other every day to get victory and to prevail.
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^ Gaia] teemed of old and bore a son Azeios, who grew to manhood amid the mighty battles of the Titanes.
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^ Perses was probably imprisoned with the other Titans, for participating in the war against Zeus and the Olympians.

Accounts of the fate of Cronus after the Titanomachy differ. .In Homeric and other texts he is imprisoned with the other Titans in Tartarus.^ Most of the male Titans were imprisoned in Tartarus.

^ When Zeus overthrew Cronus and other Titans, Crius was confined with them in Tartarus.

^ Perses was probably imprisoned with the other Titans, for participating in the war against Zeus and the Olympians.

In Orphic poems, he is imprisoned for eternity in the cave of Nyx. .Pindar describes his release from Tartarus, where he is made King of Elysium by Zeus.^ Cronus and the other Titans were defeated when Zeus released the Hundred-Handed and the Cyclops from Tartarus.

^ Many human generations later, Zeus released Kronos and his brothers from this prison, and made the old Titan king of the Elysian Islands, home of the blessed dead.
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^ According to some, Kronos, the former king of the Golden Age, was released by Zeus from Tartaros and made king of the islands of the Blessed, where the heroes were sent to dwell in paradise after death.
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.In another version, the Titans released the Cyclopes from Tartarus, and Cronus was awarded the kingship among them, beginning a Golden Age.^ Cronus and the other Titans were defeated when Zeus released the Hundred-Handed and the Cyclops from Tartarus.

^ The Titans then deposed Uranus, liberated their brothers who had been cast into Tartarus, and raised Cronus to the throne.
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^ When Zeus overthrew Cronus and other Titans, Crius was confined with them in Tartarus.

.Other children Cronus is reputed to have fathered include Chiron, by Philyra.^ Cronus refused to release his mother's other children from prison, so she foretold that Cronus would fall from power from his own son, as Cronus had deposed his own father.

^ When Zeus reached adulthood, Rhea tricked Cronus into drinking an emetic, that Cronus disgorged their other children.

^ At the instigation of his mother, Cronus unmanned his father for having thrown the Cyclopes, who were likewise his children by Ge, into Tartarus.
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.Cronus is again mentioned in the Sibylline Oracles, particularly book three, which makes Cronus, 'Titan' and Iapetus, the three sons of Uranus and Gaia, each to receive a third division of the Earth, and Cronus is made king over all.^ CRONUS (Kronos), a son of Uranus and Ge, and the youngest among the Titans.
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^ Iapetus was the son of Uranus and Gaea .

^ The Titans then deposed Uranus, liberated their brothers who had been cast into Tartarus, and raised Cronus to the throne.
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.After the death of Uranus, Titan's sons attempt to destroy Cronus' and Rhea's male offspring as soon as they are born, but at Dodona, Rhea secretly bears her sons Zeus, Poseidon and Hades and sends them to Phrygia to be raised in the care of three Cretans.^ CRONUS (Kronos), a son of Uranus and Ge, and the youngest among the Titans.
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^ So they sent her to Lyetos, to the rich land of Krete, when she was ready to bear great Zeus, the youngest of her children.
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^ Eurynome with her consort, Ophion, were the first to rule at Olympus, before they were displaced by the Titans, Rhea and Cronus.

.Upon learning this, sixty of Titan's men then imprison Cronus and Rhea, causing the sons of Cronus to declare and fight the first of all wars against them.^ With them Zeus fought a war against Kronos and the Titanes.
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^ United with his brothers and sisters, Zeus now began the contest against Cronus and the ruling Titans.
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^ When her youngest son, Zeus was born, fearing that she would lose all her children, Rhea wrapped swaddling cloth around a stone and gave it to her husband.

.This account mentions nothing about Cronus either killing his father or attempting to kill any of his children.^ Cronus refused to release his mother's other children from prison, so she foretold that Cronus would fall from power from his own son, as Cronus had deposed his own father.

^ At the instigation of his mother, Cronus unmanned his father for having thrown the Cyclopes, who were likewise his children by Ge, into Tartarus.
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El, the Phoenician Cronus

.When Hellenes encountered Phoenicians and later, Hebrews, they identified the Semitic El, by interpretatio graeca, with Cronus.^ Kronos was identified by the Greeks with the Phoenician god of time El Olam (El of Eternal Time), spelt Oulomos in Greek.
  • CRONUS : Greek Titan king of heaven, god of time ; mythology ; pictures : KRONOS, SATURN 18 September 2009 7:16 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ CRONUS IDENTIFIED WITH EL OLAM (PHOENICIAN) .
  • CRONUS : Greek Titan king of heaven, god of time ; mythology ; pictures : KRONOS, SATURN 18 September 2009 7:16 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

The association was recorded as late as Philo of Byblos' Phoenician history, reported in Eusebius' Præparatio Evangelica I.10.16, as Peter Walcot observed.[12] Philo's account, ascribed by Eusebius to the semi-legendary pre-Trojan War Phoenician historian Sanchuniathon, indicates that Cronus was originally a Canaanite ruler who founded Byblos and was subsequently deified. .This version gives his alternate name as Elus or Ilus, and states that in the 32nd year of his reign, he emasculated, slew and deified his father Epigeius or Autochthon "whom they afterwards called Uranus". It further states that after ships were invented, Cronus, visiting the 'inhabitable world', bequeathed Attica to his own daughter Athena, and Egypt to Thoth the son of Misor and inventor of writing.^ Also she bare Asteria of happy name, whom Perses once led to his great house to be called his dear wife.
  • TITANS : Greek elder gods ; mythology ; pictures : TITANES 18 September 2009 7:16 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But these sons whom be begot himself great Ouranos (Sky) used to call Titanes (Strainers) in reproach, for he said that they strained and did presumptuously a fearful deed, and that vengeance for it would come afterwards."
  • CRONUS : Greek Titan king of heaven, god of time ; mythology ; pictures : KRONOS, SATURN 18 September 2009 7:16 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the Cyclopes were delivered from Tartarus, the government of the world was taken from Uranus and given to Cronus, who in his turn lost it through Zeus, as was predicted to him by Ge and Uranus.
  • CRONUS : Greek Titan king of heaven, god of time ; mythology ; pictures : KRONOS, SATURN 18 September 2009 7:16 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

[13]

In Roman mythology and later culture

Giorgio Vasari: The Mutilation of Uranus by Saturn (Cronus)
Temple of god Saturn in the Roman Forum
.While the Greeks considered Cronus a force of chaos along with disorder, believing that the Olympian gods had brought an era of peace and order by seizing power from the crude and malicious Titans, the Romans took a more positive view of the deity by conflating their indigenous deity Saturn with Cronus.^ During the war between the Titans and Olympians, Prometheus sided with Zeus, knowing that the war would end with the younger gods winning the war.

^ Titan Anytus, who was believed to have brought up the Arcadian Despoena.
  • TITANS : Greek elder gods ; mythology ; pictures : TITANES 18 September 2009 7:16 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ CRONUS : Greek Titan king of heaven, god of time ; mythology ; pictures : KRONOS, SATURN .
  • CRONUS : Greek Titan king of heaven, god of time ; mythology ; pictures : KRONOS, SATURN 18 September 2009 7:16 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

.Consequently the Romans venerated Saturn much more than the Greeks did Cronus.^ CRONUS : Greek Titan king of heaven, god of time ; mythology ; pictures : KRONOS, SATURN .
  • CRONUS : Greek Titan king of heaven, god of time ; mythology ; pictures : KRONOS, SATURN 18 September 2009 7:16 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Romans identified their Saturnus with the Cronus of the Greeks.
  • CRONUS : Greek Titan king of heaven, god of time ; mythology ; pictures : KRONOS, SATURN 18 September 2009 7:16 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

In Roman religion the Saturnalia was a festival dedicated in his honor, and at least one temple to Saturn already existed in the archaic Roman Kingdom.
.While Cronus was considered a cruel and tempestuous deity to the Greeks, his nature under Roman influence became more innocuous, with his association with the "Saturnian" Golden Age eventually causing him to become the god of "human time", i.e., calendars, seasons, and harvests — not to be confused with Chronos, the unrelated embodiment of time in general.^ [N.B. Plato associates the name of Rhea with the verb "to flow" and Kronos with "time" and connects the pair with the gods of the world-river, Okeanos and Tethys.
  • CRONUS : Greek Titan king of heaven, god of time ; mythology ; pictures : KRONOS, SATURN 18 September 2009 7:16 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By Saturnus [Kronos] again they denoted that being who maintains the course and revolution of the seasons and periods of time, the deity so designated in Greek, for Saturnus’ Greek name is Kronos, which is the same as khronos, a space of time.
  • CRONUS : Greek Titan king of heaven, god of time ; mythology ; pictures : KRONOS, SATURN 18 September 2009 7:16 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Kronos was identified by the Greeks with the Phoenician god of time El Olam (El of Eternal Time), spelt Oulomos in Greek.
  • CRONUS : Greek Titan king of heaven, god of time ; mythology ; pictures : KRONOS, SATURN 18 September 2009 7:16 UTC www.theoi.com [Source type: Original source]

.While the Greeks largely neglected Cronus, considering him a mere intermediary stage between Uranus and Zeus, he was a larger aspect of Roman mythology and Owing to the abundance of isolated cities in ancient and classic times, numerous myths were developed and adopted to the local regions.^ Zeus: We will consider your proposal, Cronus.

^ Cronus: Throw him in prison and lock the children up in the time lock at once.

^ Though, Nyx had freely given away power to Uranus, she gave advice to three successive rulers: Uranus , Cronus and Zeus .

As technology allowed cultures of common descent to rejoin, people made accommodations to create a unified pantheon or understanding of the universe.
As a result of Cronus' importance to the Romans, his Roman variant, Saturn, has had a large influence on Western culture. In accordance with the Near Eastern tradition, the seventh day of the Judaeo-Christian week was also called in Latin Dies Saturni ("Day of Saturn"), which in turn was adapted and became the source of the English word Saturday. .In astronomy, the planet Saturn is named after the Roman deity.^ In astronomy, Saturn is the 6th planet in the solar system.

.It is the seventh and outermost of the seven planets that are visible with the naked eye.^ Before the telescope was invented, it was the last planet that can be seen with the naked eye, so in much of history Saturn was the outermost planet in the solar system.

Argive genealogy in Greek mythology

Argive genealogy in Greek mythology
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Uranus
 
Gaia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cronus
 
Rhea
 
Oceanus
 
Tethys
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Memphis
 
 
Libya
 
Poseidon
 
 
 
Nilus
 
Inachus
 
Melia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Belus
 
Agenor
 
 
 
Telephassa
 
 
Phoroneus
 
Io
 
Zeus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cadmus
 
Cilix
 
Europa
 
Phoenix
 
Achiroe
 
 
 
Epaphus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Harmonia
 
 
Danaus
 
Aegyptus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Polydorus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Agave
 
 
Hypermnestra
 
Lynceus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Autonoë
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ino
 
 
 
 
Abas
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Semele
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Proetus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

References

  1. ^ Andrew Lang habitually called him Cronus, a form neither Greek nor Latin, as Robert Brown observed in Semitic Influence in Hellenic Mythology, 1898:112-13.
  2. ^ LSJ entry Κρόνος
  3. ^ Rose, A Handbook of Greek Mythology 1928:43.
  4. ^ "We would like to consider whether the Semitic stem q r nmight be connected with the name Kronos," suggests A. P. Bos, as late as 1989, in Cosmic and Meta-cosmic Theology in Aristotle's Lost Dialogues, 1989:11 note 26.
  5. ^ As in H. Lewy, Die semitischen Fremdwörter in Griechischen, 1895:216.
  6. ^ Brown 1877:ii.127.
  7. ^ Hislop, 2nd ed. 1862 (p.46).
  8. ^ Lang, Modern Mythology 1897:35.
  9. ^ Brown, Semitic Influence in Hellenic Mythology, 1898:112ff.
  10. ^ "Philôn, who of course regarded Kronos as an Hellenic divinity, which indeed he became, always renders the name of the Semitic god Îl or Êl ('the Powerful') by 'Kronos', in which usage we have a lingering feeling of the real meaning of the name" (Brown 1898:116
  11. ^ Hesiod, Theogony. 188ff.
  12. ^ Walcot, "Five or Seven Recesses?" The Classical Quarterly, New Series, 15.1 (May 1965), p. 79. The quote stands as Philo Fr. 2.
  13. ^ Eusebius of Caesarea: Praeparatio Evangelica Book 1, Chapter 10.

External links

  • TheoiProject: Kronos in classical literature, a collection of translated source texts confirming most of the statements in this article.
Preceded by
Uranus
King of the Gods Succeeded by
Zeus
Preceded by
Gaea
Leader of the Titans Succeeded by
Atlas

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Etymology

Possibly from the Greek kreno, (to reign over or govern).

Proper noun

Cronus
.
  1. (Greek mythology) The youngest of the twelve Titans, son of Uranus and Gaia; father to Zeus, Hades, and Poseidon (formerly known to the gods as “The Big Three”).^ Helios , in Greek mythology, the sun god; son of the Titan s Hyperion and Theia; father of Phaëthon.
    • MOTHER GODDESS 10 February 2010 13:51 UTC deoxy.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Hephaestus , in Greek mythology, Olympian god; son of Hera and Zeus ; husband of Aphrodite .
    • MOTHER GODDESS 10 February 2010 13:51 UTC deoxy.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Legend tells that Zeus was the youngest son of the Titans, Cronus and Rhea.

    Dethroned his father and was subsequently dethroned by his son.

Translations

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Gaming

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

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Cronus
Type Private
Founded
Headquarters Japan
Products
Parent Company Riddlesoft
Website [1]

Contents

Games Developed

2006

2005

2004

  • Fruit Punch

2003

  • Inukko PuniPuni
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2002

2001

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2000



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