Cross County, Arkansas: Wikis

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Cross County, Arkansas
Map of Arkansas highlighting Cross County
Location in the state of Arkansas
Map of the U.S. highlighting Arkansas
Arkansas's location in the U.S.
Seat Wynne
Area
 - Total
 - Land
 - Water

622 sq mi (1,611 km²)
616 sq mi (1,595 km²)
6 sq mi (16 km²), 1.04%
Population
 - (2000)
 - Density

19,526
31/sq mi (12/km²)
Founded November 15, 1862
Congressional district 1st

Cross County is a county located in the U.S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2000 census, the population was 19,526. The county seat is Wynne.[1] Cross County is Arkansas's 53rd county, formed on 15 November 1862 and named for Confederate Colonel David C. Cross, a political leader in the area.

Contents

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 622 square miles (1,612 km²), of which, 616 square miles (1,595 km²) of it is land and 6 square miles (17 km²) of it (1.04%) is water.

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Major Highways

Adjacent counties

Demographics

Age pyramid Cross County[2]

As of the census[3] of 2000, there were 19,526 people, 7,391 households, and 5,447 families residing in the county. The population density was 32 people per square mile (12/km²). There were 8,030 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile (5/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 74.80% White, 23.70% Black or African American, 0.23% Native American, 0.31% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.21% from other races, and 0.74% from two or more races. 0.93% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 7,391 households out of which 34.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.20% were married couples living together, 14.10% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.30% were non-families. 23.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.10% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.07.

In the county the population was spread out with 27.80% under the age of 18, 8.50% from 18 to 24, 27.40% from 25 to 44, 22.60% from 45 to 64, and 13.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 94.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.40 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $29,362, and the median income for a family was $34,044. Males had a median income of $27,880 versus $20,133 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,726. About 16.40% of families and 19.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.90% of those under age 18 and 17.50% of those age 65 or over.


Peaches are grown throughout the state of Arkansas with the highest concentrations being in central Arkansas (Pope and Faulkner counties), western Arkansas (Johnson and Franklin counties), southwest Arkansas (Howard and Clark counties), northern Arkansas (Boone, Benton, and Washington counties), and Crowley’s Ridge in eastern Arkansas (Cross and St. Francis counties). Peaches are most successfully produced on light, sandy soils with at least thirty-six inches of soil depth. Orchards are usually placed on locations with raised elevations to avoid or lessen the impact of incidents of low temperature such as frosts.

Peaches were introduced as a crop in Arkansas after the Civil War, as were many other fruits and vegetables, during the New South Diversification movement in agriculture. This movement was brought on by the need to diversify crop varieties to avoid the economic risk of a single crop economy, as evidenced by the overproduction of cotton prior to the war.

The 1879 development of the yellow-fleshed Elberta peach variety in Marshallville, Georgia, by Samuel Rumph made peach growing possible as a viable industry. The Elberta, named for Rumph’s wife, softened more slowly than other varieties. Because of this advantage and the development of refrigerated railroad transportation, peach transport became possible. As railroad spurs spread westward and into the countryside, commercial peach production first reached Arkansas in areas such as Crowley’s Ridge in northeast Arkansas, Clarksville (Johnson County), and Nashville (Howard County).

Elbertas were first planted commercially in Arkansas in the late nineteenth century. As the first trees were planted with grubbing hoes or crowbars, early growers’ methods were primitive and inconsistent. Growers soon formed associations to help one another and to share successful methods and practices in peach farming. They held daylong meetings and invited members of the University of Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service (UACES) to make presentations. Eventually, full-time, university-trained county agents replaced the ad hoc method of improving the orchards. In 1948, UA opened agricultural branch substations in Johnson and Howard counties. The Johnson county substation specialized in fruit, while the Howard County substation focused on peaches.

One of the more prominent peach producers was the Highland Orchard, and many of the orchards in the state have a similar history. In 1904, Bert Johnson, a producer and buyer for the Kansas City Southern railroad, planted one hundred acres of Elbertas on his farm at Highland (Pike County). By 1904, the Highland orchard, operating as the Arkansas Orchard Planting Company and later as Bert Johnson Orchards Inc., was the largest peach orchard in the country with 4,600 acres producing 240,000 bushels of the fruit in a good year.

Cultivation consisted of plowing with mules twice each fall and winter, plowing one direction in the fall and another in the winter. Johnson used a shallow plow near the trees and a deeper plow in the middles. He used spring-tooth harrows for weeds during the growing season and mowed the orchard to facilitate the harvest. For several years, no spray was needed, but in time, a disease called peach scale invaded. At first, the only defense was to pull out the infected trees, but eventually he sprayed a home-mixed insecticide of lime and sulfur on the trees. Next, curculio and brown rot invaded. Dusters applied lead arsenate and lime-sulfur dust to the trees.

At harvest time, workers camped near the orchard or stayed in temporary housing provided by the company. They placed peaches in boxes on mule-drawn wagons, which transported the fruit to one of four large sheds, for each of the four divisions of the orchard. In the sheds, peaches were graded, sized, and packed for rail shipment.

There were two railroads into Highland: the Missouri Pacific and the Prescott and Northwestern. The lines were tied together at the north end of each line so shipments could move in either direction. Storage facilities and icehouses were built at Nashville and Prescott (Nevada County) for shipments. Up to 175 boxcars, each carrying 396 bushel baskets, were shipped from Nashville each day during peak production years.

During the Depression, the orchard went bankrupt. The lien holders broke it into smaller tracts. Glen Wallace of the Missouri Pacific Railroad bought the largest tract and raised peaches into the 1950s. As peach farming became less profitable, the trees were eventually removed, and the land was used for cattle farming.

Other areas shared a similar history. By 1901, Johnson County shipped up to ten boxcar loads of peaches a year. The season lasted only two weeks, typically mid-July to the first of August. From 1912 to 1915, growers produced big crops, but the price per bushel remained low. The peak year for the Nashville area was 1950, when 425 orchards collected more than 400,000 bushels. The year 1925 was also a productive year—250,000 bushels were shipped, and the price hit two dollars a bushel. The peak production year for the state was 1940, when nearly 2.3 million bushels were produced, but the best year for profit may have been 1944, when the federal government set a price ceiling of $4.50 a bushel.

In 1952 and again in 1953, disaster struck Arkansas growers as late freezes followed early warm spells. Two-thirds of the crops were destroyed, and production sank to 150,000 bushels, hurting both producers and brokers. Brokers contracted with growers in California, Florida, and southern Texas—places without late frost. The Arkansas growers lost the market, and the impact was devastating. For Howard County growers, the only option was to pull up the trees and convert the land for other purposes, often pasture for cattle, or to raise chickens. Johnson County fared little better; growers learned to expect a full crop in only three out of five years, while others reported that profits had ceased as far back as 1950.

While Arkansas is currently not a major producer of peaches, the substation in Clarksville continues to be successful in creating new varieties of the fruit. Most recently, professors John N. Clark and James N. Moore were recognized by the 2005 Arkansas General Assembly, along with the UA Horticulture Department and the fruit substation at Clarksville, for the creation of three new varieties of peaches in 2004. The White River, White Rock, and White County varieties are white-fleshed peaches that were developed for growing in the Arkansas climate.

Today, most commercially produced peaches are grown in more temperate climates, such as California, but local producers in Arkansas still grow peaches, selling them at local farmers markets, at roadside stands, and by allowing buyers to pick their own fruit on site.

Cities and towns

References

  1. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/Template.cfm?Section=Find_a_County&Template=/cffiles/counties/usamap.cfm. Retrieved 2008-01-31.  
  2. ^ Based on 2000 census data
  3. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31.  

External links

Coordinates: 35°17′30″N 90°46′24″W / 35.29167°N 90.77333°W / 35.29167; -90.77333


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

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Cross County, Arkansas
Map
File:Map of Arkansas highlighting Cross County.png
Location in the state of Arkansas
Map of the USA highlighting Arkansas
Arkansas's location in the USA
Statistics
Founded November 15, 1862
Seat Wynne
Area
 - Total
 - Land
 - Water

 sq mikm²)
 sq mi ( km²)
 sq mi ( km²), 1.04%
wikipedia:Population
 - (2000)
 - Density

19526

Cross County is a county located in the U.S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2000 census, the population was 19,526. The county seat is Wynne. Cross County is Arkansas's 53rd county, formed on 15 November 1862 and named for Confederate Colonel David C. Cross, a political leader in the area.

Contents

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,612 km² (622 sq mi). 1,595 km² (616 sq mi) of it is land and 17 km² (6 sq mi) of it (1.04%) is water.

Major Highways

Adjacent counties

Demographics

Age pyramid Cross County[1]

As of the census2 of 2000, there were 19,526 people, 7,391 households, and 5,447 families residing in the county. The population density was 12/km² (32/sq mi). There were 8,030 housing units at an average density of 5/km² (13/sq mi). The racial makeup of the county was 74.80% White, 23.70% Black or African American, 0.23% Native American, 0.31% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.21% from other races, and 0.74% from two or more races. 0.93% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 7,391 households out of which 34.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.20% were married couples living together, 14.10% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.30% were non-families. 23.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.10% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.07.

In the county the population was spread out with 27.80% under the age of 18, 8.50% from 18 to 24, 27.40% from 25 to 44, 22.60% from 45 to 64, and 13.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 94.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.40 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $29,362, and the median income for a family was $34,044. Males had a median income of $27,880 versus $20,133 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,726. About 16.40% of families and 19.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.90% of those under age 18 and 17.50% of those age 65 or over.

Cities and towns

References

  1. ^ Based on 2000 census data

External links

CoordinatesImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: 35°17′30″N, 90°46′24″WLatitude: 35°17′30″N
Longitude: 90°46′24″W

This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Cross County, Arkansas. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.
Facts about Cross County, ArkansasRDF feed
Coord 35°17′30″N, 90°46′24″W  +info.pngGoogle Earth
County of country United States  +
County of subdivision1 Arkansas  +
Short name Cross County  +

This article uses material from the "Cross County, Arkansas" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

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