The Full Wiki

More info on Cuba

Cuba: Wikis

  
  
  
  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Cuba

Include this on your site/blog:
















































































































Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Republic of Cuba
República de Cuba  (Spanish)
Five horizontal stripes: three blue and two white. A red equilateral triangle at the left of the flag, partly covering the stripes, with a white five pointed star in the centre of the triangle. A shield in front of a fasces crowned by the Phrygian Cap, all supported by an oak branch and a laurel wreath
Flag Coat of arms
MottoPatria o Muerte(Spanish)
"Homeland or Death"
[1]
AnthemLa Bayamesa  ("The Bayamo Song")[2]
Political map of the Caribbean region with Cuba in red. An inset shows a world map with the main map's edges outlined.
Capital
(and largest city)
Havana
23°8′N 82°23′W / 23.133°N 82.383°W / 23.133; -82.383
Official language(s) Spanish
Ethnic groups  65.05% European (Spanish, others), 10.08% African (Igbo, other), 23.84% Mulatto and Mestizo[3]
Demonym Cuban
Government One-party socialist republic[4]
(Communist state)
 -  President Raúl Castro
 -  First Vice President J. R. M. Ventura
Independence from Spain 
 -  Declared October 10, 1868 
 -  Republic declared May 20, 1902
from United States 
 -  Cuban Revolution January 1, 1959 
Area
 -  Total 110,861 km2 (105th)
42,803 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) negligible
Population
 -  2008 estimate 11,451,652 (July 2009 est.)[5] (73rd)
 -  2002 census 11,177,743 
 -  Density 102/km2 (97th)
264/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $108.2 billion[5] (64th)
 -  Per capita $9,500 (107th)
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $55.18 billion[5] (70th)
 -  Per capita $4819 (calculated) (86th)
HDI (2007) 0.863[6] (high) (51st)
Currency Cuban peso(CUP)
Cuban convertible peso[7] (CUC)
Time zone (UTC-5)
 -  Summer (DST) (March 11 to November 4) (UTC-4)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .cu
Calling code +53
.The Republic of Cuba (pronounced /ˈkjuːbə/ ( listen); Spanish: República de Cuba, pronounced [reˈpuβlika ðe ˈkuβa]  ( listen)) is an island country in the Caribbean.^ Cuba now has diplomatic or commercial relations with most countries in Latin American and the Caribbean.

^ Cuba was one of the last countries in the New World to still be a Spanish colony.

^ President Carter reaffirms that troops from Cuba would not be permitted to move against neighboring countries and establishes a Caribbean Joint Task Force Headquarters in Florida.

It consists of the island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud, and several archipelagos. .Havana is the largest city in Cuba and the country's capital.^ In 1607, Havana became Cuba's capital.

^ City of Havana, November 1997 Department of International Affairs Communist Party of Cuba Central Committee Castro Speech Data Base .

^ Cities: Capital --Havana (pop.

.Santiago de Cuba is the second largest city.^ Other major cities --Santiago de Cuba, Camaguey, Santa Clara, Holguin, Guantanamo, Matanzas, Cienfuegos, Pinar del Rio.

^ Castro had established the movement in Mexico, where he was exiled after the failed July 26, 1953, attack on the Moncada army barracks at Santiago de Cuba.

[8][9]
.Cuba is home to over 11 million people and is the most populous insular nation in the Caribbean.^ Cuba's reserves were third in Latin America, behind only Venezuela and Brazil, which was impressive for a small economy with a population of fewer than 7 million people.

^ PEOPLE Cuba is a multiracial society with a population of mainly Spanish and African origins.

^ Cuba's imports totaled $2.8 billion, yet only $46 million--only 1.5% of overall foreign purchases--was spent on medical imports for its 11 million people.

.Its people, culture, and customs draw from diverse sources, including the aboriginal Taíno and Ciboney peoples; the period of Spanish colonialism; the introduction of African slaves; and its proximity to the United States.^ PEOPLE Cuba is a multiracial society with a population of mainly Spanish and African origins.

^ The United States stands ready to assist the Cuban people make the transition to democracy and a market system.

Contents

Etymology

The name "Cuba" comes from the Taíno language and though the exact meaning is unclear, it may be translated either as "where fertile land is abundant" (cubao),[10] or as "great place" (coabana).[11] It is also said that Cuba shares the same Arabic root word "Ka'bah." meaning "Shrine".[12] Another claim states that the name "Cuba" was given by Columbus after the ancient town of Cuba in the district of Beja in Portugal.[13]

History

Pre-Columbian Era

Sketch of an Arawak woman; the Arawaks, including the Ciboneys and Taínos, were the original inhabitants of Cuba
.Before the arrival of the Spanish, the island was inhabited by Native American peoples known as the Taíno and Ciboney whose ancestors migrated from the mainland of North, Central and South America several centuries earlier.^ Key countries in Europe and, increasingly, Central and South America have made clear that they are no longer conducting "business as usual" with the Castro government.

^ Cuba History Before Columbus' voyage to Cuba, the island was inhabited by Indians.

^ Home The Classroom The Library The Caribbean Mexico & Central America South America International Treaties .

[14] The Taíno were farmers and the Ciboney were farmers and hunter-gatherers; some have suggested that copper trade was significant, and mainland artifacts have been found.[15]

Spanish colonization

Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, conquistador of Cuba
.On October 12, 1492, Christopher Columbus landed near what is now Baracoa, claimed the island for the new Kingdom of Spain,[16] and named Isla Juana after Juan, Prince of Asturias.^ In 1492, Christopher Columbus and his ships arrived at the island.

^ President Clinton has made this a priority, initiating measures in October 1995 to permit groups in the U.S. to begin developing new kinds of contacts on the island.

[17] .In 1511, the first Spanish settlement was founded by Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar at Baracoa; other towns soon followed including the future capital, San Cristobal de la Habana, founded in 1515. The Spanish enslaved the approximately 100,000 indigenous people who resisted conversion to Christianity, setting them primarily to the task of searching for gold, and within a century European infectious diseases had virtually wiped out the indigenous people.^ Many were murdered by Spanish troops, while others were enslaved in mines to search for gold.

^ Cuba's 128 physicians and dentists per 100,000 people in 1957 was the same as the Netherlands, and ahead of the United Kingdom (122 per 100,000 people) and Finland (96).

^ Fierce opposition to the colonialist Spanish, who always wanted a piece of the peoples' profits, ultimately resulted in Cuba's freedom.

[18][19]
.Cuba remained a Spanish possession for almost 400 years (1511–1898), with an economy based on plantations agriculture, mining and the export of sugar, coffee and tobacco to Europe and later to North America.^ This foreign exchange shortage has severely limited Cuba's ability to purchase readily-available food supplies from Canada, Latin America, and Europe.

^ The major sectors of the Cuban economy are tourism, nickel mining, and agriculture, especially sugar and tobacco.

^ Cuba was the last major Spanish colony to gain independence, following a 50-year struggle begun in 1850.

.The work was done primarily by African slaves brought to the island when Britain owned it in 1762. The small land-owning elite of Spanish settlers held social and economic power, supported by a population of Spaniards born on the island (Criollos), other Europeans, and African-descended slaves.^ On the other hand, many economic and social indicators have declined since the 1959 revolution.

^ European NGOs have made pathbreaking strides to increase international support for change in Cuba and provided unprecedented support to prodemocracy activists on the island.

^ As the native Indian population died out, African slaves were imported to work the plantations.

Independence wars

.In the 1820s, when the rest of Spain's empire in Latin America rebelled and formed independent states, Cuba remained loyal, although there was some agitation for independence, leading the Spanish Crown to give it the motto "La Siempre Fidelísima Isla" ("The Always Most Faithful Island").^ Cuba had 45 television sets per 1,000 inhabitants in 1957, by far the most in Latin America and fifth in the world, behind only Monaco, the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom.

^ Cuba's infant mortality rate of 32 per 1,000 live births in 1957 was the lowest in Latin America and the 13th lowest in the world, according to UN data.

^ Pre-Castro Cuba ranked third in Latin America in per capita food consumption; today, it ranks last.

.This loyalty was due partly to Cuban settlers' dependence on Spain for trade, protection from pirates, protection against a slave rebellion, and partly because they feared the rising power of the United States more than they disliked Spanish rule.^ The more dependent people are on the state, the more they are controlled.

^ My Administration has already begun to notify several foreign nationals that they could no longer enter the United States.

^ A group of Cuban doctors who recently arrived in the United States said they were "mystified" by claims in a recent report of the American Association for World Health (AAWH) that the United States embargo is to be blamed for the public health situation in the country.

[citation needed]

The Ten Years' War

.Independence from Spain was the motive for a rebellion in 1868 led by Carlos Manuel de Céspedes, resulting in a prolonged conflict known as the Ten Years' War.^ On October 10, 1868, Carlos Manuel de Céspedes began the 10 Years' War .

.The U.S. declined to recognize the new Cuban government, though many European and Latin American nations had done so.^ The United States recognizes the new Cuban government.

^ Many businesses, including many run by the Cuban Government, and individuals do not accept Cuban pesos.

^ The Cuban Government specifically targeted and took properties owned by U.S. nationals.

[20] In 1878, the Pact of Zanjón ended the conflict, with Spain promising greater autonomy to Cuba. In 1879–1880, Cuban patriot Calixto Garcia attempted to start another war, known as the Little War, but received little support.[21]

The period between wars

.Slavery was abolished in 1886, although the African-descended minority remained socially and economically oppressed.^ Slavery was abolished in 1886.

.August 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] During this period, rural poverty in Spain provoked by the Spanish Revolution of 1868 and its aftermath led to increased Spanish emigration to Cuba.^ The major difference between Cuba and other Spanish colonies during this time was that Cuba's economic production largely remained on the island and was put towards developing it, rather than being returned to Spain.

^ During that period, my Administration will work to build support from the international community on a series of steps to promote democracy in Cuba.

^ Increasing the flow of information to, from and within Cuba is essential to fostering this dynamic, as is outside support and advice to independent groups trying to carve out space for their activities.

[citation needed]
.During the 1890s, pro-independence agitation was revived in part by resentment of the restrictions imposed on Cuban trade by Spain and hostility to Spain's increasingly oppressive and incompetent administration of Cuba.^ Congress passes the Cuban Democracy Act, which prohibits foreign-based subsidiaries of U.S. companies from trading with Cuba, travel to Cuba by U.S. citizens, and family remittances to Cuba.

^ Cubans do not have the right to change their government, to freedom of expression, or freedom to travel to and from Cuba without restriction.

^ Many Cubans were beginning to feel separate from Spain, and some pressed for Cuban independence.

[citation needed] Few of Spain's promises for economic reform in the Pact of Zanjón were kept.[citation needed]

The War of '95

.In 1892, an exiled dissident, José Martí, founded the Cuban Revolutionary Party in New York, with the aim of achieving Cuban independence.^ Talks on migration open in New York City between Cuban and U.S. officials.

^ Assistant Secretary of State William Rogers and Assistant to the Secretary of State Lawrence Eagleburger conduct secret normalization talks with Cuban officials in Washington and New York.

^ Important leaders like José Martí and Antonio Maceo were killed, but the Cuban rebels fought on.

[22] In January 1895, Martí travelled to Montecristi, Santo Domingo to join the efforts of Máximo Gómez.[22] Martí wrote down his political views in the Manifesto of Montecristi.[23] .Fighting against the Spanish army began in Cuba on 24 February 1895, but Martí was unable to reach Cuba until 11 April 1895.[22] Martí was killed on 19 May 1895, in the battle of Dos Rios.^ The final push for independence began in 1895, when Jose Marti, Cuba's national hero, announced the "Grito de Baire" ("Call to arms from Baire").

^ Under Secretary Eizenstat reached an "Understanding" with the EU in April 1997 under which the EU agreed to suspend its WTO case and step up its efforts to promote democracy in Cuba.

[22] .His death immortalized him and he has become Cuba's national hero.^ The final push for independence began in 1895, when Jose Marti, Cuba's national hero, announced the "Grito de Baire" ("Call to arms from Baire").

[23]
Around 200,000 Spanish troops outnumbered the much smaller rebel army which relied mostly on guerrilla and sabotage tactics. The Spaniards began a campaign of suppression. .General Valeriano Weyler, military governor of Cuba, herded the rural population into what he called reconcentrados, described by international observers as "fortified towns". These are often considered the prototype for 20th-century concentration camps.^ Until 1959, Cuba was often ruled by military figures, who either obtained or remained in power by force.

^ And I called on the international community to condemn Cuba's actions.

^ In this report, we describe the kinds of assistance that a democratizing Cuba is likely to need and the ways in which the U.S. and the international community can help.

[24] .Between 200,000 and 400,000 Cuban civilians died from starvation and disease in the camps, numbers verified by the Red Cross and U.S. Senator (and former Secretary of War) Redfield Proctor.^ Former Soviet military personnel in Cuba--numbering around 15,000 in 1990--were withdrawn by 1993.

U.S. and European protests against Spanish conduct on the island followed.[25]

The Spanish-American War

.The U.S. battleship Maine arrived in Havana on 25 January 1898 to offer protection to the 8,000 American residents on the island; but the Spanish saw this as intimidation.^ In 1898, after the USS Maine sunk in Havana Harbor on February 15 due to an explosion of undetermined origin, the United States entered the conflict.

.On the evening of 15 February 1898, the Maine blew up in the harbor, killing 252 crew that night; another 8 died of their wounds in hospital over the next few days.^ In 1898, after the USS Maine sunk in Havana Harbor on February 15 due to an explosion of undetermined origin, the United States entered the conflict.

[26] A Naval Board of Inquiry, headed by Captain William Sampson, was appointed to investigate the cause of the explosion on the Maine. Having examined the wreck and taken testimony from eyewitnesses and experts, the board reported on 21 March 1898, that the Maine had been destroyed by "a double magazine set off from the exterior of the ship, which could only have been produced by a mine".[26]
The facts remain disputed today, although an investigation by Admiral Hyman G. Rickover in 1976 established that the blast was most likely a large internal explosion, caused by spontaneous combustion in inadequately ventilated bituminous coal which ignited gunpowder in an adjacent magazine.[27][28] The board was unable to fix the responsibility for the disaster, but a furious American populace, fueled by an active press—notably the newspapers of William Randolph Hearst—concluded that the Spanish were to blame and demanded action.[26] The U.S. Congress passed a resolution calling for intervention, and President William McKinley complied.[29] Spain and the U.S. declared war on each other in late April.

Modern history

.After the Spanish-American War, Spain and the United States signed the Treaty of Paris (1898), by which Spain ceded Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and Guam to the U.S. for the sum of $20 million.^ In December of that year Spain relinquished control of Cuba to the United States with the Treaty of Paris.

^ In 1898, the United States launched a war on Spain.

^ The treaty remains in force and can only be terminated by mutual agreement or abandonment by the United States.

[30] .Under the same treaty, Spain relinquished all claim of sovereignty over the title to Cuba.^ In December of that year Spain relinquished control of Cuba to the United States with the Treaty of Paris.

^ He would return with others to colonize Cuba and claim it for Spain.

^ Under the Cuba claims program in the 1960s, the U.S. Foreign Claims Settlement Commission (FCSC) certified 5,911 valid claims by U.S. nationals against the Government of Cuba.

.Theodore Roosevelt, who had fought in the Spanish-American War and had some sympathies with the independence movement, succeeded McKinley as U.S. President in 1901 and abandoned the 20-year treaty proposal.^ President Ford declares that Cuban involvement in Angola and support of the Puerto Rican independence movement ends efforts to improve relations.

^ Some Indians, led by Hatuey, fought against the Spanish.

^ The measures the President announced March 20 are designed to support the Cuban people and to assist in the development of independent civil society.

.Instead, Cuba gained formal independence from the U.S. on May 20, 1902 as the Republic of Cuba.^ Independence: May 20, 1902.

^ On May 20, 1902, the United States granted Cuba its independence, but retained the right to intervene to preserve Cuban independence and stability under the Platt Amendment.

^ Cuba was the last major Spanish colony to gain independence, following a 50-year struggle begun in 1850.

.But under Cuba's new constitution, the U.S. retained the right to intervene in Cuban affairs and to supervise its finances and foreign relations.^ The U.S. does not have the right to impose liability to nationals of third States for the use of expropriated property in Cuba when such use conforms to Cuban law.

^ FOREIGN RELATIONS Cuba's once-ambitious foreign policy has been scaled back and redirected as a result of economic hardship and the end of the Cold War.

^ The international community is committed to seeing freedom reach Cuba's shores and the Cuban people assume their rightful place in the family of democratic nations.

.Under the Platt Amendment, the U.S. leased the Guantánamo Bay naval base from Cuba.^ On May 20, 1902, the United States granted Cuba its independence, but retained the right to intervene to preserve Cuban independence and stability under the Platt Amendment.

^ Under this accord, Cubans interdicted at sea or who enter the Guantanamo Naval Base illegally are returned to Cuba provided that they do not have any protection concerns.

^ Under a May 1995 agreement, the United States began returning Cubans interdicted at sea or entering the U.S. Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay, and Cuba agreed to reintegrate the returnees into Cuban society, with no action to be taken against the returned migrants as a consequence of their attempt to immigrate illegally.

.In 1906, following disputed elections, the first president, Tomás Estrada Palma, faced an armed revolt by independence war veterans who defeated the meager government forces.^ GOVERNMENT Cuba is a totalitarian state controlled by President Fidel Castro, who is Chief of State, Head of Government, First Secretary of the Communist Party (PCC), and commander in chief of the armed forces.

^ Under a new constitution, Castro becomes head of the government as of President of the Council of Ministers, commander of the armed forces, and First Secretary of the communist party.

[31] The U.S. intervened by occupying Cuba and named Charles Edward Magoon as Governor for three years. .For many years afterwards, Cuban historians attributed Magoon's governorship as having introduced political and social corruption.^ In 1997, the Cuban Government introduced heavy taxes on this sector which forced many out of business.

^ Therefore, Mexico concludes that the Cuban people have the exclusive right to decide the nature of their economic, social, and political regime.

^ For many years, the Cuban parties often fought and cheated their way into office.

[32] .In 1908, self-government was restored when José Miguel Gómez was elected President, but the U.S. continued intervening in Cuban affairs.^ While continuing to limit private investment by Cuban citizens, the Cuban Government is actively courting international investment.

^ The Cuban Government continues to be one of the most repressive regimes in the world.

^ President Carter demands that the Cuban government impose an orderly departure and orders a blockade to prevent private boats from traveling to Cuba to pick up refugees.

In 1912, the Partido Independiente de Color attempted to establish a separate black republic in Oriente Province,[33] but was suppressed by General Monteagudo with considerable bloodshed.
The Gran Teatro (left) and Hotel Inglaterra, on the Prado, facing Parque Central in Havana
.During World War I, Cuba shipped considerable quantities of sugar to Britain, avoiding U-boat attack, by the subterfuge of shipping sugar to Sweden.^ But during all those years that the United States was not, and has not been trading with Cuba, much of the entire world has been.

^ Cuba sends 500 tank drivers to aid Syria during the Yom Kippur War.

The Menocal government declared war on Germany very soon after the U.S. did.
.Despite frequent outbreaks of disorder, constitutional government was maintained until 1930, when Gerardo Machado y Morales suspended the constitution.^ The U.S. Government is committed to maintaining close contacts with human rights and dissident communities to lend our moral and political support to their legitimate aspirations.

.During Machado's tenure, a nationalistic economic program was pursued with several major national development projects undertaken, including Carretera Central and El Capitolio.^ As I understand it, the term "emerging markets" refers to less developed countries which have undertaken market-oriented reforms and are reaping the benefits of economic growth and greater social mobility.

^ The major difference between Cuba and other Spanish colonies during this time was that Cuba's economic production largely remained on the island and was put towards developing it, rather than being returned to Spain.

Machado's hold on power was weakened following a decline in demand for exported agricultural produce due to the Great Depression, and to attacks first by independence war veterans, and later by covert terrorist organizations, principally the ABC.[citation needed]
.During a general strike in which the Communist Party sided with Machado,[34] the senior elements of the Cuban army forced Machado into exile and installed Carlos Manuel de Céspedes y Quesada, son of Cuba's founding father (Carlos Manuel de Céspedes), as President.^ Political party: Cuban Communist Party (PCC).

^ Principal Government Officials President, Council of State and Council of Ministers, First Secretary of the Communist Party, and Commander in Chief--Fidel Castro First Vice President, Council of State and Council of Ministers, Second Secretary of the Communist Party, General of the Army and Minister of the Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR)--Raul Castro Minister of Foreign Relations--Roberto Robaina Ambassador to the United Nations--Bruno Rodriguez ECONOMY Under the slogan "Socialism or Death," the Cuban Government continues to proclaim Cuba a socialist or communist nation with an economy organized under Marxist-Leninist precepts.

^ The deployment of Cuban troops to Ethiopia and the discovery of Soviet troops in Cuba in 1979 led President Carter to establish the Caribbean Joint Task Force Headquarters in Florida and warned that Cuban troops would not be allowed to move against neighboring countries.

.During September 4–5, 1933 a second coup overthrew Céspedes, leading to the formation of the first Ramón Grau government.^ During the first few years of the 1900s, an American military government ruled Cuba.

Notable events in this violent period include the separate sieges of Hotel Nacional de Cuba and Atares Castle. .This government lasted 100 days but engineered radical socialist changes in Cuban society and a rejection of the Platt amendment.^ I want to emphasize, as the Secretary said, that the measures "do not reflect a change in policy toward the Cuban Government.

^ We must, however, do an even better job of sending a concerted message to the Cuban people, and the governing elites, that change is in their interest.

^ The official designation of the Cuban government is changed from "atheist" to "secular."

In 1934, Fulgencio Batista and the army replaced Grau with Carlos Mendieta.
Batista was finally elected as President democratically in the elections of 1940,[35][36][37] and his administration carried out major social reforms. .Several members of the Communist Party held office under his administration.^ The Fourth Communist Party Congress resolves to allow members of religious groups to join the party.

^ Under a new constitution, Castro becomes head of the government as of President of the Council of Ministers, commander of the armed forces, and First Secretary of the communist party.

Batista's administration formally took Cuba to the Allies of World War II camp in the World War II, declaring war on Japan on December 9, 1941, then on Germany and Italy on December 11, 1941. Cuba was not greatly involved in combat during World War II.
Many so-called yank tanks remain in use from pre-revolutionary days
Ramón Grau won the 1944 elections. Carlos Prío Socarrás won the 1948 elections. .The influx of investment fueled a boom which did much to raise living standards across the board and create a prosperous middle class in most urban areas, although the gap between rich and poor became wider and more obvious.^ The wealthy Cuban elite became even richer, but the poor continued to live in poverty.

[38]
The 1952 election was a three-way race. .Roberto Agramonte of the Ortodoxos party led in all the polls, followed by Dr Aurelio Hevia of the Auténtico party, and Batista as a distant third, seeking a return to office.^ In an international economic-association contract, the party which carries out an act of management which benefits all parties is fully responsible to third parties, but among the parties each one is responsible to the extent or proportion stipulated in the contract.

^ The party monopolizes all government positions, including judicial offices.

Both Agramonte and Hevia had decided to name Col. Ramón Barquín to head the Cuban armed forces after the elections. Barquín, then a diplomat in Washington, DC, was a top officer, respected by the professional army, and had promised to eliminate corruption in the ranks. .Batista feared that Barquín would oust him and his followers, and when it became apparent that Batista had little chance of winning, he staged a coup on March 10, 1952 and held power with the backing of a nationalist section of the army as a "provisional president" for the next two years.^ A coup in 1952 brought back Batista.

^ For many years, he would run the country, usually through puppet presidents.

.Justo Carrillo told Barquín in Washington in March 1952 that the inner circles knew that Batista had aimed the coup at him; they immediately began to conspire to oust Batista and restore democracy and civilian government in what was later dubbed La Conspiracion de los Puros de 1956 (Agrupacion Montecristi).^ A coup in 1952 brought back Batista.

In 1954, Batista agreed to elections. The Partido Auténtico put forward ex-President Grau as their candidate, but he withdrew amid allegations that Batista was rigging the elections in advance.
In April 1956, Batista ordered Barquín to become General and chief of the army. But Barquín decided to move forward with his coup to secure total power. On April 4, 1956, a coup by hundreds of career officers led by Barquín was frustrated by Rios Morejon. The coup broke the backbone of the Cuban armed forces. The officers were sentenced to the maximum terms allowed by Cuban Martial Law. Barquín was sentenced to solitary confinement for eight years. .La Conspiración de los Puros resulted in the imprisonment of the commanders of the armed forces and the closing of the military academies.^ Under a new constitution, Castro becomes head of the government as of President of the Council of Ministers, commander of the armed forces, and First Secretary of the communist party.

Cuba had Latin America's highest per capita consumption rates of meat, vegetables, cereals, automobiles, telephones and radios.[39] .In 1958, Cuba was a relatively well-advanced country, certainly by Latin American standards, and in some cases by world standards.^ Today, Cuba ranks just above average for Latin American countries.

^ In fact, according to readily-available historical data, Cuba was a relatively advanced country in 1958, certainly by Latin American standards and, in some areas, by world standards.

^ Although Cuba has never been a regional leader in public electricity production per capita, its relative ranking among 20 Latin American countries has fallen from eighth to 11th during the Castro era.

[40] Cuban workers enjoyed some of the highest wages in the world. .Cuba attracted more immigrants, primarily from Europe, as a percentage of population than the US. The United Nations noted Cuba for its large middle class.^ From then on, US power over Cuba was no more.

^ Special Note Regarding Cuba : This page contains articles published by the governments of the United States and Cuba which are reproduced without alteration.

^ Cuba has relations with over 160 countries and has civilian assistance workers--principally medical--in more than 20 nations.

.On the other hand, Cuba was affected by perhaps the largest labor union privileges in Latin America, including bans on dismissals and mechanization.^ Perhaps the most important of these is the European Union's Common Position, which links improved relations with Cuba to fundamental democratic changes.

^ Cuba's infant mortality rate of 32 per 1,000 live births in 1957 was the lowest in Latin America and the 13th lowest in the world, according to UN data.

^ Pre-Castro Cuba ranked third in Latin America in per capita food consumption; today, it ranks last.

They were obtained in large measure "at the cost of the unemployed and the peasants", leading to disparities.[41]
.Between 1933 and 1958, Cuba extended economic regulations enormously, causing economic problems.^ The grave economic problems in Cuba were exacerbated by the demise of the Soviet Union and the ending of the $5 billion in subsidies that the U.S.S.R. gave annually to the Cuban Government.

[37][42] Unemployment became relatively large; graduates entering the workforce could not find jobs.[37] The middle class, which compared Cuba to the United States, became increasingly dissatisfied with the unemployment, while labor unions supported Batista until the very end.[35][37]

Cuban Revolution

.On December 2, 1956 a party of 82 people, led by Fidel Castro in a small boat, the Granma, landed on the shore of Cuba with the intention of establishing an armed resistance movement in the Sierra Maestra.^ Castro had established the movement in Mexico, where he was exiled after the failed July 26, 1953, attack on the Moncada army barracks at Santiago de Cuba.

^ Sadly, Fidel Castro has made clear that he has no intention of allowing Cuba to undertake the kind of fundamental, systematic change needed to put Cuba on the road to true economic and political development.

^ In addition to Fidel Castro and his brother Raul Castro, the center of party power is the 24-member Politburo.

.While facing armed resistance from these rebels in the mountains, the Batista regime was weakened and crippled by a United States arms embargo imposed on March 14, 1958. By late 1958, the rebels broke out of the Sierra Maestra and launched a general, popular insurrection.^ The Charters of the OAS and Resolution 2625 (XXV) of the UN's General Assembly forbid the imposition of economic or political measures intended to force another state's will, and the Mexican position employs these to denounce the economic embargo the U.S. has placed on Cuba.

^ In 1898, the United States launched a war on Spain.

^ As of 1958, the value of U.S. foreign direct investment in Cuba was $861 million, according to United States government figures published in 1959.

.After the fighters captured Santa Clara, Batista dramatically fled from Havana on January 1, 1959 to exile in Portugal.^ Fulgencio Batista, an army sergeant who established himself as Cuba's dominant leader for more than 25 years, fled on January 1, 1959, as Castro's "26th of July Movement" gained control.

.Barquín negotiated the symbolic change of command between Camilo Cienfuegos, Che Guevara, Raúl Castro and his brother Fidel Castro after the Supreme Court decided that the Revolution was the source of law and its representative should assume command.^ Fidel Castro is president of the Council of State, and his brother, Raul Castro, is first vice president, which places him first in the line of succession.

^ In addition to Fidel Castro and his brother Raul Castro, the center of party power is the 24-member Politburo.

^ Cuba's Foreign Investment Law Presentation of the Draft of a Law on Foreign Investment Ernesto Meléndez Bachs 5th Ordinary Period of Sessions National Assembly of the Peoples Power September 4, 1995 Commander-in-Chief Fidel Castro.

.Castro's forces entered the capital on January 8, 1959. Shortly afterwards, a liberal lawyer, Dr Manuel Urrutia Lleó became president.^ Canada and Mexico called for consultations under the provisions of NAFTA. The President allowed the Title III lawsuit provisions to enter into force on August 1, 1996.

^ From January 1959 until December 1976, Castro ruled by decree.

^ Under a new constitution, Castro becomes head of the government as of President of the Council of Ministers, commander of the armed forces, and First Secretary of the communist party.

.He was backed by Castro's 26th of July Movement because they believed his appointment would be welcomed by the United States.^ Castro had established the movement in Mexico, where he was exiled after the failed July 26, 1953, attack on the Moncada army barracks at Santiago de Cuba.

^ My Administration has already begun to notify several foreign nationals that they could no longer enter the United States.

^ Often, the United States has stood alone in that struggle, because our allies and friends believed that pressuring Cuba to change was the wrong way to go.

.December 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Disagreements within the government culminated in Urrutia's resignation in July 1959. He was replaced by Osvaldo Dorticós who served as president until 1976. Castro became prime minister in February 1959, succeeding José Miró in that post.^ From January 1959 until December 1976, Castro ruled by decree.

^ Until 1959, Cuba was often ruled by military figures, who either obtained or remained in power by force.

^ GOVERNMENT Cuba is a totalitarian state controlled by President Fidel Castro, who is Chief of State, Head of Government, First Secretary of the Communist Party (PCC), and commander in chief of the armed forces.

Fidel Castro and members of the East German Politburo in 1972
.In its first year, the new revolutionary government expropriated private property with little or no compensation, nationalised public utilities, tightened controls on the private sector and closed down the mafia-controlled gambling industry.^ The Great Revolutionary Offensive is launched, culminating in the nationalization of the remaining private sector and mobilization of manpower for agricultural production.

^ No commercial assistance will be provided by EU Member States to investors in expropriated property in Cuba.

^ One of the major reasons for the imposition of the embargo was the Cuban Government's failure to compensate thousands of U.S. companies and individuals whose properties, large and small, were confiscated after the revolution.

The CIA conspired with the Chicago mafia in 1960 and 1961 to assassinate Fidel Castro, according to documents declassified in 2007.[43][44]
.Some of these measures were undertaken by Fidel Castro's government in the name of the program outlined in the Manifesto of the Sierra Maestra,[45] while in the Sierra Maestra.^ QUESTION: Do you expect that over time these measures will have the effect of eroding support for the Cuban Government?

^ The Castro Government also took property from thousands of Cubans, some of whom have since become U.S. citizens.

^ We are taking these steps now not because of anything the Castro regime has done; nor are we doing it to improve official relations with the Government of Cuba.

The government nationalized private property totaling about $25 billion US dollars,[46] of which American property made up only over US $1.0 billions.[46][47]
.By the end of 1960, all opposition newspapers had been closed down, and all radio and television stations were in state control.^ Castro exercises control over all aspects of Cuban life through the Communist Party and its affiliated mass organizations, the government bureaucracy, and the state security apparatus.

^ Finally, the Castro government shut down what was a remarkably vibrant media sector in the 1950's, when the relatively small country had 58 daily newspapers of differing political hues and ranked eighth in the world in number of radio stations.

^ Spain put this down, and set up a company to control all Cuban trade.

[39] Moderates, teachers and professors were purged.[39] .In any year, about 20,000 dissenters were held and tortured under inhumane prison conditions.^ The U.S. agrees that total legal migration to the U.S. will be a minimum of 20,000 per year.

^ Criminal penalties for violating the sanctions range up to 10 years in prison, $1,000,000 in corporate and $250,000 in individual fines.

^ The U.S. committed itself to admit a minimum of 20,000 Cuban immigrants each year, and Cuba pledged to discourage irregular and unsafe departures.

[39] .Homosexuals and other unfortunates were locked up in internment camps in the 1960s, where they were subject to medical-political "re-education".[48] One estimate is that 15,000 to 17,000 people were executed.^ Instead, their leaders are pressing for the release of political prisoners, free elections, economic reform, and other measures that will help the Cuban people achieve the fundamental political and economic freedoms they deserve.

[49]
.The Communist Party strengthened its one-party rule, with Castro as supreme leader.^ However, bilateral relations deteriorated rapidly as the regime expropriated U.S. properties and moved toward adoption of a one-party Communist system.

^ Castro exercises control over all aspects of Cuban life through the Communist Party and its affiliated mass organizations, the government bureaucracy, and the state security apparatus.

^ Under a new constitution, Castro becomes head of the government as of President of the Council of Ministers, commander of the armed forces, and First Secretary of the communist party.

[39] .Fidel's brother, Raúl Castro, became the army chief.^ Fidel Castro is president of the Council of State, and his brother, Raul Castro, is first vice president, which places him first in the line of succession.

^ In addition to Fidel Castro and his brother Raul Castro, the center of party power is the 24-member Politburo.

[39] Loyalty to Castro became the primary criterion for all appointments.[50] In September 1960, the regime created a system known as Committees for the Defense of the Revolution (CDR), which provided neighborhood spying.[39]
.In the 1961 New Year's Day parade, the administration exhibited Soviet tanks and other weapons.^ During 1993 and 1994 and the early months of this year, we have seen an increase in the influx of foreign capital and in the establishment of new joint ventures and other forms of association.

^ Lack of spare parts and new material has resulted in the mothballing of planes, tanks, and other military equipment.

[50] Eventually, the tiny island nation built up the second largest armed forces in Latin America, second only to Brazil.[51] Cuba became a privileged client-state of the Soviet Union.[52]
By 1961, hundreds of thousands of Cubans had left for the United States.[53] The 1961 Bay of Pigs Invasion (La Batalla de Girón) was an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow the Cuban government by a U.S.-trained force of Cuban exiles with U.S. military support. The plan was launched in April 1961, less than three months after John F. Kennedy became the U.S. President. The Cuban armed forces, trained and equipped by Eastern Bloc nations, defeated the exiles in three days. The bad Cuban-American relations were exacerbated the following year by the Cuban Missile Crisis, when the Kennedy administration demanded the immediate withdrawal of Soviet missiles placed in Cuba, which was a response to U.S. nuclear missiles in Turkey and the Middle East.
The Soviets and Americans soon agreed on the removal of Soviet missiles from Cuba and American missiles secretly from Turkey and the Middle East within a few months. Kennedy also agreed not to invade Cuba in the future. Cuban exiles captured during the Bay of Pigs Invasion were exchanged for a shipment of supplies from America.[35] By 1963, Cuba was moving towards a full-fledged Communist system modeled on the USSR.[54] The U.S. imposed a complete diplomatic and commercial embargo on Cuba and began Operation Mongoose.
In 1965, Castro merged his revolutionary organizations with the Communist Party, of which he became First Secretary, and Blas Roca became Second Secretary. Roca was succeeded by Raúl Castro, who, as Defense Minister and Fidel's closest confidant, became and has remained the second most powerful figure in Cuba. Raúl's position was strengthened by the departure of Che Guevara to launch unsuccessful insurrections in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and then Bolivia, where he was killed in 1967.
.During the 1970s, Castro dispatched tens of thousands troops in support of Soviet-supported wars in Africa, particularly the MPLA in Angola and Mengistu Haile Mariam in Ethiopia.^ In Angola, Cuban troops, supported logistically by the U.S.S.R., backed the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) in its effort to take power after Portugal granted Angola its independence.

^ Castro declares continued support for revolutionary movements in Angola and Puerto Rico.

^ Cuba begins deployment of 35,000 combat troops to support the Marxist regime in Angola.

[55] The standard of living in 1970s was "extremely spartan" and discontent was rife.[56] Fidel Castro admitted the failures of economic policies in a 1970 speech.[56] By the mid-1970s, Castro started economic reforms.
Cuba was expelled from the Organization of American States (OAS) in 1962 in support of the U.S. embargo, but in 1975 the OAS lifted all sanctions against Cubas, with approval of 16 countries, including the US.[57] On 3 June 2009, the OAS adopted a resolution to end the 47-year exclusion of Cuba. The meetings were contentious, with the U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton walking out at one point, however in the end the U.S. delegation agreed with the other members and approved the resolution. Cuban leaders have repeatedly announced they are not interested in rejoining the OAS.[58]
.As of 2002, some 1.2 million persons of Cuban background (about 10% of the current population of Cuba) reside in the U.S.,[59][60] Many of them left the island for the U.S., often by sea in small boats and fragile rafts.^ The persons working for the parties to international economic-association contracts are contracted by the Cuban party, in accordance with current legal provisions in the field of employment.

^ Cuba's reserves were third in Latin America, behind only Venezuela and Brazil, which was impressive for a small economy with a population of fewer than 7 million people.

^ With increased fertilizers and management attention, the 1995-1996 harvest improved, according to official Cuban estimates, to about 4.4 million tons.

.On 6 April 1980, 10,000 Cubans stormed the Peruvian embassy in Havana seeking political asylum.^ Cubans storm the Peruvian embassy in Havana seeking political asylum.

^ In April 1980, 10,000 Cubans stormed the Peruvian embassy in Havana seeking political asylum.

^ Currently, the U.S. interests section in Havana and the Cuban interests section in Washington, DC, are under the protection of the Swiss embassy.

The following day, the Cuban government granted permission for the emigration of Cubans seeking refuge in the Peruvian embassy.[citation needed] On 16 April, 500 Cubans left the Peruvian Embassy for Costa Rica. On 21 April, many of those Cubans started arriving in Miami via private boats and were halted by the U.S. State Department, but the emigration continued, because Castro allowed anyone who desired to leave the country to do so through the port of Mariel. Over 125,000 Cubans emigrated to the U.S. before the flow of vessels ended on 15 June.[citation needed]
Raúl Castro and President Medvedev of Russia
Castro's rule was severely tested in the aftermath of the Soviet collapse (known in Cuba as the Special Period). The food shortages were similar to North Korea; priority was given to the elite classes and the military, while ordinary people had little to eat.[61][62] The regime did not accept American donations of food, medicines and cash until 1993.[61] On 5 August 1994, state security dispersed protesters in a spontaneous popular uprising in Havana.[63]
Cuba has found a new source of aid and support in the People's Republic of China, and new allies in Hugo Chávez, President of Venezuela and Evo Morales, President of Bolivia, both major oil and gas exporters. In 2003, the regime arrested and imprisoned a large number of civil activists, a period known as the "Black Spring".[64][65]
On July 31, 2006 Fidel Castro temporarily delegated his major duties to his brother, First Vice President, Raúl Castro, while Fidel recovered from surgery for an "acute intestinal crisis with sustained bleeding".[citation needed] On 2 December 2006, Fidel was too ill to attend the 50th anniversary commemoration of the Granma boat landing, fuelling speculation that he had stomach cancer,[66] although there was evidence his illness was a digestive problem and not terminal.[67]
In January 2008, footage was released of Fidel meeting Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez, in which Castro "appeared frail but stronger than three months ago".[citation needed] In February 2008, Fidel announced his resignation as President of Cuba,[68] and on 24 February Raúl was elected as the new President.[69] In his acceptance speech, Raúl promised that some of the restrictions that limit Cubans' daily lives would be removed.[70] In March 2009, Raúl Castro removed some of Fidel's officials.[71]

Government and politics

Revolution Square: José Martí Monument designed by Enrique Luis Varela, sculpture by Juan José Sicre and finished in 1958.[72]
The Constitution of 1976, which defined Cuba as a socialist republic, was replaced by the Constitution of 1992, which is guided by the ideas of José Martí, Marx, Engels and Lenin.[4] The constitution describes the Communist Party of Cuba as the "leading force of society and of the state".[4] The first secretary of the Communist Party, is concurrently President of the Council of State (President of Cuba) and President of the Council of Ministers (sometimes referred to as Prime Minister of Cuba).[73] Members of both councils are elected by the National Assembly of People's Power.[4] The President of Cuba, who is also elected by the Assembly, serves for five years and there is no limit to the number of terms of office.[4]
The Supreme Court of Cuba serves as the nation's highest judicial branch of government. It is also the court of last resort for all appeals against the decisions of provincial courts.
Cuba's national legislature, the National Assembly of People's Power (Asamblea Nacional de Poder Popular), is the supreme organ of power; 609 members serve five-year terms.[4] The assembly meets twice a year, between sessions legislative power is held by the 31 member Council of Ministers. Candidates for the Assembly are approved by public referendum. All Cuban citizens over 16 who have not been convicted of a criminal offense can vote. Article 131 of the Constitution states that voting shall be "through free, equal and secret vote".[4] Article 136 states: "In order for deputies or delegates to be considered elected they must get more than half the number of valid votes cast in the electoral districts".[4] Votes are cast by secret ballot and counted in public view. Nominees are chosen at local gatherings from multiple candidates before gaining approval from election committees. In the subsequent election, there is only one candidate for each seat, who must gain a majority to be elected.
No political party is permitted to nominate candidates or campaign on the island, though the Communist Party of Cuba has held five party congress meetings since 1975. In 1997 the party claimed 780,000 members, and representatives generally constitute at least half of the Councils of state and the National Assembly. The remaining positions are filled by candidates nominally without party affiliation. Other political parties campaign and raise finances internationally, while activity within Cuba by opposition groups is minimal and illegal.
The country is subdivided into 14 provinces and one special municipality (Isla de la Juventud). These were formerly part of six larger historical provinces: Pinar del Río, Habana, Matanzas, Las Villas, Camagüey and Oriente. The present subdivisions closely resemble those of Spanish military provinces during the Cuban Wars of Independence, when the most troublesome areas were subdivided. The provinces are divided into municipalities.
  1. Isla de la Juventud
  2. Pinar del Río
  3. Havana Province
  4. Havana City
  5. Matanzas
  6. Cienfuegos
  7. Villa Clara
  8. Sancti Spíritus
  1. Ciego de Ávila
  2. Camagüey
  3. Las Tunas
  4. Granma
  5. Holguín
  6. Santiago de Cuba
  7. Guantánamo
CubaSubdivisions.png

Military of Cuba

Cuban MiG-29UB
Castro's Cuba had a high degree of militarization and devoted a large share of its national resources to support its military establishment and activities.[74] Castro built up the second largest armed forces in Latin America; only Brazil's were larger.[51] From 1975 until the late 1980s, Soviet military assistance enabled Cuba to upgrade its military capabilities. Since the loss of Soviet subsidies Cuba has scaled down the numbers of military personnel, from 235,000 in 1994 to about 60,000 in 2003.[75] Cuba is secretive about its military spending.[74]
The military has long been the most powerful, influential, and competent official institution in Cuba, and high-ranking generals are believed to play crucial roles in all conceivable succession scenarios.[76]

Foreign relations

From its inception, the Cuban Revolution defined itself as internationalist, joining Comecon in 1972. Cuba was a major contributor to Soviet-supported wars in Africa, Central America and Asia. In Africa, the largest war was in Angola, where Cuba sent tens of thousands of troops. Cuba was a friend of the Ethiopian leader Mengistu Haile Mariam.[77] In Africa, Cuba supported 17 leftist governments. In some countries it suffered setbacks, such as in eastern Zaire, but in others Cuba had significant success. Major engagements took place in Algeria, Zaire, Yemen,[78] Ethiopia, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique.
The Cuban government's military involvement in Latin America—mostly with the aim of overthrowing U.S. backed right wing regimes, many of them dictatorial—has been extensive. One of the earliest interventions was the Marxist militia led by Che Guevara in Bolivia in 1967, though a modicum of funds and troops were sent. Lesser known actions include the 1959 missions to the Dominican Republic[79] and Panama.[citation needed] In the former, the Cuban government provided military assistance to a group of Dominican exiles with the intention of overthrowing the tyrannical dictator Rafael Trujillo. Although the expedition failed and most of its members were murdered by the regime, today they are recognized as heroes and a prominent monument was erected in their memory in Santo Domingo by the Dominican government. The Museo Memorial de la Resistencia Dominicana ("Memorial Museum of the Dominican Resistance,") where the heroes of 1959 feature prominently, is being built by the Dominican Government.[80] The socialist government in Nicaragua was openly supported by Cuba and can be considered its greatest success in Latin America.[citation needed] Cuba is a founding member of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas. More than 30,000 Cuban doctors currently work abroad, in countries such as Venezuela and Zimbabwe.[81] The membership of Cuba in the United Nations Human Rights Council has received criticism.[82]
The European Union in 2003 accused the Castro regime of "continuing flagrant violation of human rights and fundamental freedoms".[83] In 2008, the EU and Cuba agreed to resume full relations and cooperation activities.[84] The United States continues an embargo against Cuba "so long as it continues to refuse to move toward democratization and greater respect for human rights".[85] United States President Barack Obama stated on April 17, 2009 in Trinidad and Tobago that "the United States seeks a new beginning with Cuba",[86] and reversed the Bush Administration's prohibition on travel and remittances by Cuban-Americans from the United States to Cuba.[87]

Human rights

The Cuban government has been accused of numerous human rights abuses including torture, arbitrary imprisonment, unfair trials, and extrajudicial executions (a.k.a. "El Paredón").[88] The Human Rights Watch alleges that the government "represses nearly all forms of political dissent" and that "Cubans are systematically denied basic rights to free expression, association, assembly, privacy, movement, and due process of law".[89]
Cuba was the second biggest prison in the world for journalists in 2008, second only to the People's Republic of China, according to the Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ), an international NGO.[90] As a result of computer ownership bans, computer ownership rates are among the world's lowest.[91] Right to use Internet is granted only to selected people and these selected people are monitored.[91][92] Connecting to the Internet illegally can lead to a five-year prison sentence.
Cuban dissidents face arrests and imprisonment. In the 1990s, Human Rights reported that Cuba's extensive prison system, one of the largest in Latin America, consists of some 40 maximum-security prisons, 30 minimum-security prisons, and over 200 work camps.[93] According to Human Rights Watch, political prisoners, along with the rest of Cuba's prison population, are confined to jails with substandard and unhealthy conditions.[93] Other dissident thinkers such as Yoani Sánchez are under tight surveillance.
Citizens cannot leave or return to Cuba without first obtaining official permission, which is often denied.[89]

Geography

Cuba is an archipelago of islands located in the northern Caribbean Sea at the confluence with the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. The United States lies to the north-west, the Bahamas to the north, Haiti to the east, Jamaica and the Cayman Islands to the south, and Mexico to the west. Cuba is the principal island, surrounded by four smaller groups of islands: the Colorados Archipelago on the northwestern coast, the Sabana-Camagüey Archipelago on the north-central Atlantic coast, the Jardines de la Reina on the south-central coast and the Canarreos Archipelago on the southwestern coast.
The main island is 1,199 km (745 mi) long, constituting most of the nation's land area (105,006 km2 (40,543 sq mi)) and is the 16th-largest island in the world by land area. The main island consists mostly of flat to rolling plains apart from the Sierra Maestra mountains in the southeast, whose highest point is Pico Turquino (1,975 m (6,480 ft)). The second-largest island is Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth) in the Canarreos archipelago, with an area of 3,056 km2 (1,180 sq mi). Cuba has a total land area of 110,860 km2 (42,803 sq mi).
Beach on Cayo Largo del Sur in the Canarreos archipelago
The local climate is tropical, though moderated by northeasterly trade winds that blow year-round. In general (with local variations), there is a drier season from November to April, and a rainier season from May to October. The average temperature is 21 °C (70 °F) in January and 27 °C (81 °F) in July. The warm temperatures of the Caribbean Sea and the fact that Cuba sits across the entrance to the Gulf of Mexico combine to make the country prone to frequent hurricanes. These are most common in September and October.
The most important mineral resource is nickel, of which Cuba has the world's second largest reserves after Russia.[94] A Canadian energy company operates a large nickel mining facility in Moa. Cuba is also the world's fifth-largest producer of refined cobalt, a byproduct of nickel mining operations.[94] Recent oil exploration has revealed that the North Cuba Basin could produce approximately 4.6 billion barrels (730,000,000 m3) to 9.3 billion barrels (1.48×109 m3) of oil. In 2006, Cuba started to test-drill these locations for possible exploitation.[95]

Demographics

Official 1899–2002 Cuba Census [3][96][97]
Race % 1899 1907 1919 1931 1943 1953 1981 2002
White 66.9 69.7 72.2 72.1 74.3 72.8 66.0 65.05
Black 14.9 13.4 11.2 11.0 9.7 12.4 12.0 10.08
Mulatto 17.2 16.3 16.0 16.2 15.6 14.5 21.9 24.86
Asian 1.0 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.4 0.3 0.1 1.0

Immigration to Cuba

Between 1882 and 1898, a total of 508,455 people left Spain, and more than 750,000 Spanish immigrants left for Cuba between 1899 and 1923, with many returning back to Spain.[98]

Current demographics

According to the census of 2002, the population was 11,177,743,[3] including 5,597,233 men and 5,580,510 women. The racial make-up was 7,271,926 whites, 1,126,894 blacks and 2,778,923 mulattoes (or mestizos).[99] The population of Cuba has very complex origins and intermarriage between diverse groups is general. There is disagreement about racial statistics. The Institute for Cuban and Cuban-American Studies at the University of Miami says that 62% is black[100], whereas statistics from the Cuban census state that 65.05% of the population was white in 2002. The Minority Rights Group International says that "An objective assessment of the situation of Afro-Cubans remains problematic due to scant records and a paucity of systematic studies both pre- and post-revolution. Estimates of the percentage of people of African descent in the Cuban population vary enormously, ranging from 33.9 per cent to 62 per cent".[101]
Immigration and emigration have played a prominent part in the demographic profile of Cuba during the 20th century. During the 18th, 19th and early part of the 20th century large waves of Canarian, Catalan, Andalusian, Galician and other Spanish people immigrated to Cuba. Between 1900 and 1930 close to a million Spaniards arrived from Spain. Other foreign immigrants include: French[102], Portuguese, Italian, Russian, Dutch, Greek, British, Irish, and other ethnic groups, including a small number of descendants of U.S. citizens who arrived in Cuba in the late 19th/early 20th century.
Cuba has a sizable number of Asian people who comprise 1% of the population. They are primarily of Chinese descent (see Chinese Cubans), followed by Japanese, Filipino, Koreans and Vietnamese people. They are descendants of farm laborers brought into the island by Spanish and American contractors during the 19th and early 20th century.[citation needed] Afro-Cubans are descended primarily from the Kongo people.[citation needed], as well as several thousand North African refugees, most notably the Sahrawi Arabs of Western Sahara under Moroccan occupation since 1976.[103]
Cuba's birth rate (9.88 births per thousand population in 2006)[104] is one of the lowest in the Western Hemisphere. Its overall population has increased continuously from around 7 million in 1961 to over 11 million now, but the increase has stopped in the last few decades, and a decrease began in 2006, with a fertility rate of 1.43 children per woman.[105] This drop in fertility is among the largest in the Western Hemisphere.[106] Cuba has unrestricted access to legal abortion and an abortion rate of 58.6 per 1000 pregnancies in 1996, compared to an average of 35 in the Caribbean, 27 in Latin America overall, and 48 in Europe. Contraceptive use is estimated at 79% (in the upper third of countries in the Western Hemisphere).[107]
Cuba is officially an atheist state; however, it has many faiths representing the widely varying culture. Catholicism was brought to the island by the Spanish and remains the dominant faith,[108] with 11 dioceses, 56 orders of nuns and 24 orders of priests. In January 1998, Pope John Paul II paid a historic visit to the island, invited by the Cuban government and Catholic Church. The religious landscape of Cuba is also strongly marked by syncretisms of various kinds. Catholicism is often practiced in tandem with Santería, a mixture of Catholicism and other, mainly African, faiths that include a number of cults. La Virgen de la Caridad del Cobre (the Virgin of Cobre) is the Catholic patroness of Cuba, and a symbol of Cuban culture. In Santería, She has been syncretized with the goddess Oshun.
Official Cuban migration to the U.S [96][97]
Year of
Immigration
White Black Other Asian Number
1959–64 93.3 1.2 5.3 0.2 144,732
1965–74 87.7 2.0 9.1 0.2 247,726
1975–79 82.6 4.0 13.3 0.1 29,508
1980 80.9 5.3 13.7 0.1 94,095
1981–89 85.7 3.1 10.9 0.3 77,835
1990–93 84.7 3.2 11.9 0.2 60,244
1994–2000 85.8 3.7 10.4 0.7 174,437
Total 87.2 2.9 10.7 0.2 828,577
Three hundred thousand Cubans belong to the island's 54 Protestant denominations. Pentecostalism has grown rapidly in recent years, and the Assemblies of God alone claims a membership of over 100,000 people. Cuba has small communities of Jews, Muslims and members of the Bahá'í Faith.[109] Most Jewish Cubans are descendants of Polish and Russian Ashkenazi Jews who fled pogroms at the beginning of the 20th century. There is, however, a sizeable number of Sephardic Jews in Cuba, who trace their origin to Turkey. Most of these Sephardic Jews live in the provinces, although they maintain a synagogue in Havana.

Cuban migration

In the last half-century, several hundred thousand Cubans of all social classes have emigrated to the United States,[110] Spain, the United Kingdom, Canada, Mexico and other countries. On 9 September 1994, the U.S. and Cuban governments agreed that the U.S. would grant at least 20,000 visas annually in exchange for Cuba’s pledge to prevent further unlawful departures by rafters.[111]

Education

University of Havana, founded in 1728
Cuba has a long history in education. The University of Havana was founded in 1728 and there are a number of other well-established colleges and universities. In 1957, just before the Castro regime came to power, the literacy was fourth in the region at almost 80% according to the United Nations, higher than in Spain.[40][112] Castro created an entirely state-operated system and banned non-Communist institutions. School attendance is compulsory from ages six to the end of basic secondary education (normally at age 15), and all students, regardless of age or gender, wear school uniforms with the color denoting grade level. Primary education lasts for six years, secondary education is divided into basic and pre-university education. Higher education is provided by universities, higher institutes, higher pedagogical institutes, and higher polytechnic institutes. The Cuban Ministry of Higher Education also operates a scheme of distance education which provides regular afternoon and evening courses in rural areas for agricultural workers. Education has a strong political and ideological emphasis, and students progressing to higher education are expected to have a commitment to the goals of the Cuban government.[113] Cuba has also provided state subsidized education to a limited number of foreign nationals at the Latin American School of Medicine.[114][115] Internet access is limited.[116] The sale of computer equipment is strictly regulated, Internet access is controlled, and e-mail is closely monitored.[92]
Strong ideological content is present. Educational and cultural policy is based on Marxist ideology. A file is kept on children's "revolutionary integration" and it accompanies the child for life.[117] A person's university options depend on how well the person is integrated to Marxist ideology[117] as well as a permission from the "Committee for the Defense of the Revolution".[118] The Code for Children, Youth and Family states that a parent who teaches ideas contrary to communism can be sentenced to three years in prison.[117]

Health

Historically, Cuba has ranked high in numbers of medical personnel and has made significant contributions to world health since the 19th century.[40] Today, Cuba has universal free health care and although shortages of medical supplies persist, there is no shortage of medical personnel.[119] Primary care is available throughout the island and infant and maternal mortality rates compare favorably with those in developed nations.[119]
Post-Revolution Cuba initially experienced an overall worsening in terms of disease and infant mortality rates in the 1960s when half its 6,000 doctors left the country.[120] Recovery occurred by the 1980s.[35] The Communist government asserted that universal healthcare was to become a priority of state planning and progress was made in rural areas.[121] Like the rest of the Cuban economy, Cuban medical care suffered from severe material shortages following the end of Soviet subsidies in 1991 followed by a tightening of the U.S. embargo in 1992.[122]
Challenges include low pay of doctors (only 15 dollars a month[123]), poor facilities, poor provision of equipment, and frequent absence of essential drugs.[124] Nevertheless, Cuba has the highest doctor-to-population ratio in the world and has sent thousands of doctors to more than 40 countries around the world.[125]
According to the UN, the life expectancy in Cuba is 78.3 years (76.2 for males and 80.4 for females). This ranks Cuba 37th in the world and 3rd in the Americas, behind only Canada and Chile, and just ahead of the United States. Infant mortality in Cuba declined from 32 (infant deaths per 1,000 live births) in 1957, to 10 in 1990–95 [126]. Infant mortality in 2000–2005 was 6.1 per 1,000 live births (compared to 6.8 in the USA).

Culture

A local musical house, Casa de la Trova in Santiago de Cuba
A traditional meal of ropa vieja (shredded flank steak in a tomato sauce base), black beans, yellow rice, plantains and fried yuca with beer
Cuban culture is much influenced by its melting pot of cultures, primarily those of Spain and Africa. Sport is Cuba's national passion. Due to historical associations with the United States, many Cubans participate in sports which are popular in North America, rather than sports traditionally promoted in other Spanish-speaking nations. Baseball is by far the most popular; other sports and pastimes include basketball, volleyball, cricket, and athletics. Cuba is a dominant force in amateur boxing, consistently achieving high medal tallies in major international competitions.
Cuban music is very rich and is the most commonly known expression of culture. The "central form" of this music is Son, which has been the basis of many other musical styles like salsa, rumba and mambo and an upbeat derivation of the rumba, the cha-cha-cha. Rumba music originated in early Afro-Cuban culture. The Tres was also invented in Cuba, but other traditional Cuban instruments are of African and/or Taíno origin such as the maracas, güiro, marimba and various wooden drums including the mayohuacan. Popular Cuban music of all styles has been enjoyed and praised widely across the world. Cuban classical music, which includes music with strong African and European influences, and features symphonic works as well as music for soloists, has also received international acclaim thanks to composers like Ernesto Lecuona. Havana was the heart of the rap scene in Cuba when it began in the 1990s. During that time, reggaetón was also growing in popularity. Dance in Cuba has taken a major boost over the 1990s.
Cuba has produced more than its fair share of literature, including the output of non-Cubans Stephen Crane, Graham Greene and Ernest Hemingway. Cuban literature began to find its voice in the early 19th century. Dominant themes of independence and freedom were exemplified by José Martí, who led the Modernist movement in Cuban literature. Writers such as Nicolás Guillén and Jose Z. Tallet focused on literature as social protest. The poetry and novels of José Lezama Lima have also been influential. While romanticist Miguel Barnet, who once wrote "Everyone dreamed of Cuba", reflects a more melancholy Cuba.[127] "Writers such as Reinaldo Arenas, Guillermo Cabrera Infante, and more recently Daína Chaviano, Pedro Juan Gutiérrez, Zoé Valdés, Guillermo Rosales and Leonardo Padura have earned international recognition in the post-revolutionary era, though many of these writers have felt compelled to continue their work in exile due to ideological control of media by the Cuban authorities.
Cuban cuisine is a fusion of Spanish and Caribbean cuisines. Cuban recipes share spices and techniques with Spanish cooking, with some Caribbean influence in spice and flavor. Now food rationing, which has been the norm in Cuba for the last four decades, restricts the common availability of these dishes.[128] Traditional Cuban meal would not be served in courses; rather all food items would be served at the same time. The typical meal could consist of plantains, black beans and rice, ropa vieja (shredded beef), Cuban bread, pork with onions, and tropical fruits. Black beans and rice, referred to as Platillo Moros y Cristianos (or moros for short), and plantains are staples of the Cuban diet. Many of the meat dishes are cooked slowly with light sauces. Garlic, cumin, oregano and bay leaves are the dominant spices.

Economy

Tobacco plantation, Pinar del Río.
The Cuban state adheres to socialist principles in organizing its largely state-controlled planned economy. Most of the means of production are owned and run by the government and most of the labor force is employed by the state. Recent years have seen a trend towards more private sector employment. By the year 2006, public sector employment was 78% and private sector 22%, compared to 91.8% to 8.2% in 1981.[129] Capital investment is restricted and requires approval by the government. The Cuban government sets most prices and rations goods. Moreover, any firm wishing to hire a Cuban must pay the Cuban government, which in turn will pay the company's employee in Cuban pesos according to Human Rights Watch.[130] Cubans can not change jobs without government permission.[37] The average wage at the end of 2005 was 334 regular pesos per month ($16.70 per month) and the average pension was $9 per month.[131]
Cuba relied heavily on trade with the Soviet Union. From the late 1980s, Soviet subsidies for Cuba started to dry up. Before the collapse of the Soviet Union, Cuba depended on Moscow for sheltered markets for its exports and substantial aid. The removal of these subsidies sent the Cuban economy into a rapid depression known in Cuba as the Special Period. In 1992 the United States tightened the trade embargo, hoping to see democratization of the sort that took place in Eastern Europe.
Like some other Communist and post-Communist states following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Cuba took limited free market-oriented measures to alleviate severe shortages of food, consumer goods, and services. These steps included allowing some self-employment in certain retail and light manufacturing sectors, the legalization of the use of the US dollar in business, and the encouragement of tourism. Cuba has developed a unique urban farm system (the organopónicos) to compensate for the end of food imports from the Soviet Union. In recent years, Cuba has rolled back some of the market oriented measures undertaken in the 1990s. In 2004 Cuban officials publicly backed the Euro as a "global counter-balance to the US dollar", and eliminated the US currency from circulation in its stores and businesses.[citation needed]
Tourism was initially restricted to enclave resorts where tourists would be segregated from Cuban society, referred to as "enclave tourism" and "tourism apartheid".[132] Contacts between foreign visitors and ordinary Cubans were de facto illegal until 1997.[133][134] In 1996 tourism surpassed the sugar industry as the largest source of hard currency for Cuba. Cuba has tripled its market share of Caribbean tourism in the last decade; as a result of significant investment in tourism infrastructure, this growth rate is predicted to continue.[135] 1.9 million tourists visited Cuba in 2003, predominantly from Canada and the European Union, generating revenue of $2.1 billion.[136] The rapid growth of tourism during the Special Period had widespread social and economic repercussions in Cuba, and led to speculation of the emergence of a two-tier economy[137]. Medical tourism sector caters to thousands of European, Latin American, Canadian and American consumers every year.
The communist agricultural production system was ridiculed by Raúl Castro in 2008.[138] Cuba now imports up to 80% of its food.[138] Before 1959, Cuba boasted as many cattle as people.
For some time, Cuba has been experiencing a housing shortage because of the state's failure to keep pace with increasing demand.[139] Moreover, the government instituted food rationing policies in 1962, which were exacerbated following the collapse of the Soviet Union and the tightening of the US embargo. Studies have shown that, as late as 2001, the average Cuban's standard of living was lower than before the downturn of the post-Soviet period. Paramount issues have been state salaries failing to meet personal needs under the state rationing system chronically plagued with shortages. As the variety and quantity of available rationed goods declined.
Under Venezuela's Mission Barrio Adentro, Hugo Chávez has supplied Cuba up to 80,000 barrels (13,000 m3) of oil per day in exchange for 30,000 doctors and teachers.
In 2005 Cuba had exports of $2.4 billion, ranking 114 of 226 world countries, and imports of $6.9 billion, ranking 87 of 226 countries.[140] Its major export partners are China 27.5%, Canada 26.9%, Netherlands 11.1%, Spain 4.7% (2007).[5] Cuba's major exports are sugar, nickel, tobacco, fish, medical products, citrus, and coffee;[5] imports include food, fuel, clothing, and machinery. Cuba presently holds debt in an amount estimated to be $13 billion,[141] approximately 38% of GDP.[142] According to the Heritage Foundation, Cuba is dependent on credit accounts that rotate from country to country.[108] Cuba's prior 35% supply of the world's export market for sugar has declined to 10% due to a variety of factors, including a global sugar commodity price drop making Cuba less competitive on world markets.[143] At one time, Cuba was the world's most important sugar producer and exporter. As a result of diversification, underinvestment and natural disasters, however, Cuba's sugar production has seen a drastic decline. In 2002 more than half of Cuba's sugar mills were shut down. Cuba holds 6.4% of the global market for nickel[144] which constitutes about 25% of total Cuban exports.[145] Recently, large reserves of oil have been found in the North Cuba Basin.[146]

International rankings

Organization Survey Ranking
Institute for Economics and Peace[1] Global Peace Index[147] 68 out of 144
United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index 51 out of 182
Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 61 out of 180

See also

References

  1. ^ "Cuban Peso Bills". Central Bank of Cuba. http://www.bc.gov.cu/English/cuban_bills.asp. Retrieved 2009-09-07. 
  2. ^ "National symbols". Government of Cuba. http://mipais.cuba.cu/cat_en.php?idcat=91&idpadre=83&nivel=2. Retrieved 2009-09-07. 
  3. ^ a b c "Census of population and homes" (in Spanish). Government of Cuba. 16 September 2002. http://www.cubagob.cu/otras_info/censo/tablas_html/ii_3.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-07. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h "The Constitution of the Republic of Cuba". National Assembly of People's Power. http://www.parlamentocubano.cu/ingles/constitution.html. Retrieved 2007-01-29. 
  5. ^ a b c d e "Cuba". The World Factbook. CIA. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cu.html. Retrieved 2009-04-06. 
  6. ^ "Human Development Report 2009: Cuba". United Nations Development Programme. 2007/2008. http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/countries/country_fact_sheets/cty_fs_CUB.html. Retrieved 2009-10-09. 
  7. ^ From 1993 to 2004 the United States dollar was used alongside the peso until the dollar was replaced by the convertible peso
  8. ^ Thomas, Hugh (March 1971). Cuba; the Pursuit of Freedom. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 0060142596. 
  9. ^ Thomas, Hugh (1997). The slave trade : the story of the Atlantic slave trade, 1440 – 1870. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. 
  10. ^ Alfred Carrada, The Dictionary of the Taino Language (plate 8)
  11. ^ Dictionary – Taino indigenous peoples of the Caribbean Dictionary --
  12. ^ http://www.latinodawah.org/newsletter/jan-mar2k2.html#4
  13. ^ da Silva, Manuel L. and Silvia Jorge da Silva. (2008). Christopher Columbus was Portuguese, Express Printing, 396pp. ISBN 9781607028246.
  14. ^ Ramón Dacal Moure, Manuel Rivero de la Calle (1996). Art and archaeology of pre-Columbian Cuba. University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 22. ISBN 082293955X. http://books.google.com/books?id=PEE9oipDYksC&pg=PA22. 
  15. ^ "File: Greenstone zoomorphic amulet in form of Condor of the Andes". University of Cambridge. http://museum.archanth.cam.ac.uk/IACA.WWW/amulet.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-18. 
  16. ^ Gott, Richard (2004). Cuba : a new history. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. p. 13. 
  17. ^ Andrea, Alfred J.; Overfield, James H. (2005). "Letter by Christopher Columbus concerning recently discovered islands". The Human Record. 1. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 8. ISBN 0618370404. 
  18. ^ Koplow, David A.. "Smallpox: The Fight to Eradicate a Global Scourge". University of California Press. http://www.ucpress.edu/books/pages/9968/9968.ch01.php. 
  19. ^ Diamond, Jared M. (1998). Guns, germs, and steel : the fates of human societies. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Co.. http://www.pbs.org/gunsgermssteel/variables/smallpox.html. 
  20. ^ "Historia de las Guerras de Liberación de Cuba". http://www.cubagenweb.org/mil/e-war-hist.htm. 
  21. ^ "The Little War (La Guerra Chiquita)". http://www.historyofcuba.com/history/funfacts/lilwar.htm. 
  22. ^ a b c d Stanley Sandler, ed (2002). Ground warfare: an international encyclopedia. Part 25, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 549. ISBN 1576073440. http://books.google.com/books?id=L_xxOM85bD8C&pg=PP1. Retrieved 2009-09-06. 
  23. ^ a b David Arias (2005). Spanish-americans: Lives And Faces. Victoria, BC, Canada: Trafford Publishing. p. 171. ISBN 141204717X. http://books.google.com/books?id=7AlqghmzQVUC&pg=PA171. Retrieved 2009-09-06. 
  24. ^ Robert K. Home (1997). Of planting and planning: the making of British colonial cities. Chapman and Hall. p. 195. ISBN 0419202307. http://books.google.com/books?id=1ovC4TylXNkC&pg=PA195. Retrieved 2009-09-06. 
  25. ^ The Spanish-American War. "Cuban Reconcentration Policy and its Effects". http://www.spanamwar.com/proctorspeech.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-29. 
  26. ^ a b c Morison, Samuel Loring; Morison, Samuel Eliot; Polmar, Norman Polmar (2003). The American Battleship. St. Paul, Minn.: MBI Publishing Company. p. 18. ISBN 0760309892. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=SYurkGIlgLMC&pg=PA18. Retrieved 2009-09-15. 
  27. ^ Rickover, Hyman George (1994). How the battleship Maine was destroyed. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1557507171. 
  28. ^ Potter, Elmer Belmont; Fredland, Roger; Adams, Henry Hitch (1981). Sea power: a naval history. Annapolis, Md.: United States Naval Institute. p. 176. ISBN 0870216074. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=zql2rWh6QAsC&pg=PA176. Retrieved 2009-09-15. 
  29. ^ Macdonald, William (1908). Documentary source book of American history, 1606–1898. New York, NY: Macmillan Co.. p. 597. http://books.google.com/books?id=zaUmd7uAuFsC&pg=PA597. Retrieved 2009-09-14. 
  30. ^ "Treaty of Peace Between the United States and Spain". The Avalon Project. Yale Law School. December 10, 1898. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/19th_century/sp1898.asp. 
  31. ^ Diaz-Briquets, Sergio; Jorge F Pérez-López (2006). Corruption in Cuba: Castro and beyond. Austin: University of Texas Press. p. 63. ISBN 0292713215. http://books.google.com/books?id=Fiquofr8LSoC&pg=PA63. Retrieved 2009-09-06. 
  32. ^ Thomas, Hugh (March 1971). Cuba; the Pursuit of Freedom. New York: Harper & Row. pp. 283–287. ISBN 0060142596. 
  33. ^ Benjamin Beede, ed (1994). The War of 1898, and U.S. interventions, 1898–1934: an encyclopedia. New York: Garland. p. 134. ISBN 0824056248. http://books.google.com/books?id=48g116X9IIwC&pg=PA134. Retrieved 2009-09-06. 
  34. ^ Argote-Freyre, Frank (2006). Fulgencio Batista. 1. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press. p. 50. ISBN 0813537010. 
  35. ^ a b c d Bethell, Leslie (1993). Cuba. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521436823. 
  36. ^ Julia E. Sweig (2004). Inside the Cuban Revolution. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674016125. 
  37. ^ a b c d e Horowitz, Irving Louis (1988). Cuban communism. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Books. p. 662. ISBN 0887386725. http://books.google.com/books?id=hx2_y7Vu-PUC&pg=PA463. 
  38. ^ José Alvarez (2004). "Cuba's Agricultural Sector". University Press of Florida. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/FE/FE48000.pdf. Retrieved 2008-01-08. 
  39. ^ a b c d e f g Paul H. Lewis (2006). Authoritarian regimes in Latin America. Oxford, UK: Rowman and Littlefield. p. 186. ISBN 0742537390. http://books.google.com/books?id=LAvw-YXm4TsC&pg=PA186. Retrieved 2009-09-14. 
  40. ^ a b c Smith, Kirby; Llorens, Hugo (6–8 August 1998). "Renaissance and decay: A comparison of socioeconomic indicators in pre-Castro and current-day Cuba". Cuba in Transition (Miami, Florida: Association for the Study of the Cuban Economy, University of Texas at Austin) 8. http://lanic.utexas.edu/la/ca/cuba/asce/cuba8/30smith.pdf. Retrieved 2009-09-14. 
  41. ^ Eric N. Baklanoff. "Cuba on the eve of the socialist transition: A reassessment of the backwardness-stagnation thesis". Cuba in Transition. http://lanic.utexas.edu/la/ca/cuba/asce/cuba8/31baklanoff.pdf. 
  42. ^ Thomas, Hugh (March 1971). Cuba; the Pursuit of Freedom. New York: Harper & Row. p. 1173. ISBN 0060142596. 
  43. ^ "CIA conspired with mafia to kill Castro". Guardian News and Media. 27 June 2007. http://www.guardian.co.uk/cuba/story/0,,2112303,00.html. Retrieved 2009-09-07. 
  44. ^ Batista gave mafia boss Meyer Lansky a monopoly on gambling in Havana in return for half the profits. Meyer Lansky
  45. ^ Familia Chibás > Raul Antonio Chibás > Manifiesto Sierra Maestra
  46. ^ a b Lazo, Mario (1970). American Policy Failures in Cuba—Dagger in the Heart. New York, NY: Twin Circle Publishing. pp. 198–200, 240. 
  47. ^ Faria, Miguel A. Cuba in Revolution—Escape from a Lost Paradise, 2002, Hacienda Publishing, Macon, Georgia, pp.105,182,248
  48. ^ Katherine Hirschfeld. Health, politics, and revolution in Cuba since 1898. 
  49. ^ Black Book of Communism. p. 664.
  50. ^ a b Clifford L. Staten. The history of Cuba. 
  51. ^ a b "Cuban armed forces and the Soviet military presence". http://www.disam.dsca.mil/pubs/Vol%205-2/Cuban.pdf. 
  52. ^ Edward Gonzalez, Kevin F. McCarthy (2004). "Cuba After Castro: Legacies, Challenges, and Impediments". http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2004/RAND_MG111.pdf. 
  53. ^ Ted Henken. Cuba. 
  54. ^ Faria, Miguel A. Cuba in Revolution – Escape From a Lost Paradise, 2002, Hacienda Publishing, Inc., Macon, Georgia, pp. 163–228
  55. ^ Jorge I. Domínguez, Harvard University. Center for International Affairs. To make a world safe for revolution. 
  56. ^ a b Bethell,Leslie. The Cambridge History of Latin America. 
  57. ^ Case Studies in Sanctions and Terrorism : Case 60-3, US v. Cuba, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
  58. ^ Cuba's Fidel Castro calls OAS a "U.S. Trojan horse", China View, June 4, 2009.
  59. ^ Census 2000 Paints Statistical Portrait of the Nation's Hispanic Population, U.S. Census Bureau, May 10, 2001.
  60. ^ Hispanic Heritage Month 2002, U.S. Census Bureau, September 3, 2002.
  61. ^ a b "Health consequences of Cuba's Special Period". Canadian Medical Association Journal. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2474886. 
  62. ^ "Cuba’s Food & Agriculture Situation Report". http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/cuba/CubaSituation0308.pdf. 
  63. ^ Carl Gershman and Orlando Gutierrez. "Can Cuba Change?". Journal of Democracy January 2009, Volume 20, Number 1. http://www.journalofdemocracy.org/articles/gratis/Gutierrez-20-1.pdf. 
  64. ^ Carlos Lauria, Monica Campbell, and María Salazar (March 18, 2008). "Cuba's Long Black Spring". The Committee to Protect Journalists. http://cpj.org/reports/2008/03/cuba-press-crackdown.php. 
  65. ^ "Cuba – No surrender by independent journalists, five years on from “black spring”". Reporters Without Borders. March 2008. http://www.rsf.org/IMG/pdf/Cuba_report.pdf. 
  66. ^ "Castro not dying, US envoys told". BBC News. 18 December 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/6188591.stm. Retrieved 2009-09-07. 
  67. ^ "Castro does not have cancer, says Spanish doctor". London: Times Online. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,11069-2519372,00.html. Retrieved 2006-12-26. 
  68. ^ "Castro resigns as Cuban president: official media". Agence France-Presse. 2008-02-19. http://www.afp.com/english/news/stories/newsmlmmd.fce074e0275fae2a0c16383ec4973c96.191.html. Retrieved 2008-02-19. 
  69. ^ "Raul Castro named Cuban president". BBC News. 2008-02-24. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7261204.stm. Retrieved 2008-02-24. 
  70. ^ "Byte by byte". The Economist. 2008-03-19. http://www.economist.com/world/la/displaystory.cfm?story_id=10881009. Retrieved 2008-04-04. 
  71. ^ "Raúl Castro replaces top Cuban officials". Guardian News and Media. 2 March 2009. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/mar/02/raul-castro-fidel-cuba-officials. Retrieved 2009-09-15. 
  72. ^ "José Martí and Juan José Sicre: The Model and the Artist". The LatinAmericanist (University of Florida, Center for Latin American Studies) 37 (2). Fall/Winter 2006. http://www.latam.ufl.edu/News/content/fall2006.pdf. Retrieved 2009-09-13. 
  73. ^ "Country profile: Cuba". BBC News. 20 August 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/country_profiles/1203299.stm. Retrieved 2009-09-07. 
  74. ^ a b "Cuban Military Expenditures: Concepts, Data and Burden Measures". http://lanic.utexas.edu/la/cb/cuba/asce/cuba6/23perlopez.fm.pdf. 
  75. ^ Cuban army called key in any post-Castro scenario Anthony Boadle Reuters 2006
  76. ^ "The Cuban military and transition dynamics". http://ctp.iccas.miami.edu/Research_Studies/BLatell.pdf. 
  77. ^ Samuel M. Makinda (1987). Superpower diplomacy in the Horn of Africa. Beckenham, Kent: Croom Helm Ltd. p. 207. ISBN 0709946627. http://books.google.com/books?id=5cYOAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA207&lpg=PA207. Retrieved 2009-09-06. 
  78. ^ Ramazani, Rouhollah K. (1975). The Persian Gulf and the Strait of Hormuz. 3. Netherlands: Sijthoff & Noordhoof. ISBN 9028600698. 
  79. ^ "AP 1950 Invasion Wiped Out Says Trujillo". Waterloo, Iowa: Waterloo Daily Courier. 1959-06-24. p. 7. 
  80. ^ http://www.museodelaresistencia.org/museo/federaciones/cmh.html
  81. ^ Christopher P. Baker (2006). Moon Cuba. Avalon Travel Publishing. p. 636. 
  82. ^ "Human Rights Council is now on UN agenda". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/02/03/world/americas/03iht-rights.html. Retrieved 2009-09-06. 
  83. ^ "EU-Cuba relations". European Communities. 2003-09-04. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C:2004:076E:0384:0386:EN:PDF. Retrieved 2009-09-06. 
  84. ^ "Joint declarations concerning areas and modalities provisionally identified for cooperation". European Commission. 2008-11-26. http://ec.europa.eu/development/icenter/repository/EU-Cuba-Joint%20declaration-261108_EN.pdf. Retrieved 2009-09-06. 
  85. ^ "Cuban Democracy Act". U.S. Department of State. 1992. http://www.state.gov/www/regions/wha/cuba/democ_act_1992.html. Retrieved 2009-09-06. 
  86. ^ "Obama Says U.S., Cuba Taking Critical Steps Toward a New Day". Bureau of International Information Programs, U.S. Department of State. 2009-04-21. http://www.america.gov/st/peacesec-english/2009/April/20090421102201dmslahrellek0.4116632.html?CP.rss=true. Retrieved 2009-09-06. 
  87. ^ "U.S. Administration Announcement on U.S. Policy Toward Cuba". Bureau of International Information Programs, U.S. Department of State. 2009-04-13. http://www.america.gov/st/texttrans-english/2009/April/20090413170610eaifas0.2033502.html. Retrieved 2009-09-06. 
  88. ^ "Information about human rights in Cuba" (in español). Comision Interamericana de Derechos Humanos. April 7 1967. http://www.cidh.org/countryrep/Cuba67sp/indice.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-09. 
  89. ^ a b "Cuba". Human Rights Watch. 2006. http://hrw.org/english/docs/2006/01/18/cuba12207.htm. 
  90. ^ "CPJ's 2008 prison census: Online and in jail". Committee to Protect Journalists. http://cpj.org/reports/2008/12/cpjs-2008-prison-census-online-and-in-jail.php. 
  91. ^ a b "Going online in Cuba: Internet under surveillance". Reporters Without Borders. 2006. http://www.rsf.org/IMG/pdf/rapport_gb_md_1.pdf. 
  92. ^ a b "Internet in Cuba". Reporters Without Borders. http://arabia.reporters-sans-frontieres.org/article.php3?id_article=10611. 
  93. ^ a b "Cuba's Repressive Machinery: Human Rights Forty Years After the Revolution". Human Rights Watch. http://www.hrw.org/reports/1999/cuba/Cuba996-05.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-18. 
  94. ^ a b Ivette E. Torres (1997). "The Mineral Industry of Cuba". U.S. Geological Survey. http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/1997/9509097.pdf. Retrieved 2009-09-06. 
  95. ^ Wayne S. Smith (1 November 2006). "After 46 years of failure, we must change course on Cuba". Guardian News and Media. http://www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,,1936186,00.html. Retrieved 2009-09-06. 
  96. ^ a b Cuba 1953 UN Statistics; Ethnic composition. Page: 260.May take time to load page
  97. ^ a b Pedraza, Silvia (2007). Political disaffection in Cuba's revolution and exodus. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. p. 156. ISBN 9780521867870. http://books.google.com/books?id=QCSJ61F4j34C&pg=PA156. Retrieved 2009-09-14. 
  98. ^ La inmigración entre 1902 y 1920
  99. ^ DePalma, Anthony (July 5 1998). "Cuban Site Casts Light on an Extinct People". New York Times. http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/41/310.html. Retrieved 2006-07-09. 
  100. ^ "A barrier for Cuba's blacks". Miami Herald. http://www.miamiherald.com/multimedia/news/afrolatin/part4/index.html. 
  101. ^ "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Cuba : Afro-Cubans". http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/49749d342c.html. 
  102. ^ Etat des propriétés rurales appartenant à des Français dans l'île de Cuba from http://www.cubagenweb.org Cuban Genealogy Center]
  103. ^ "Sahrawi children inhumanely treated in Cuba, former Cuban official". MoroccoTimes.com. 31 March 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20061125161820/http://www.moroccotimes.com/Paper/article.asp?idr=2&id=13816. Retrieved 2006-07-09.  (archived from the original on 2006-11-25)
  104. ^ thepeninsulaqatar.com
  105. ^ Population Decrease Must be Reverted
  106. ^ "United Nations World Fertility Patterns 1997". United Nations. 1997. http://www.un.org/esa/population/pubsarchive/fer/ffer.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-09. 
  107. ^ Stanley K. Henshaw, Susheela Singh and Taylor Haas. "The Incidence of Abortion Worldwide". International Family Planning Perspectives, 1999, 25(Supplement):S30 – S38. http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/journals/25s3099.html. Retrieved May 11, 2006. 
  108. ^ a b David Einhorn (31 March 2006). "Catholic church in Cuba strives to re-establish the faith". National Catholic Reporter. http://natcath.org/NCR_Online/archives2/2006a/033106/033106o.php. Retrieved 2009-09-07. 
  109. ^ "Government officials visit Baha'i center". Baha'iWorldNewsService.com. June 13 2005. http://news.bahai.org/story.cfm?storyid=377. 
  110. ^ Pedraza, Silvia (2007). Political disaffection in Cuba's revolution and exodus. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. p. 5. ISBN 9780521867870. http://books.google.com/books?id=QCSJ61F4j34C&pg=PA5. Retrieved 2009-09-14. 
  111. ^ "CUBA: U.S. Response to the 1994 Cuban Migration Crisis". U.S. General Accounting Office. September 1995. http://www.gao.gov/archive/1995/ns95211.pdf. Retrieved 2009-09-14. 
  112. ^ "Still Stuck on Castro – How the press handled a tyrant's farewell". http://www.reason.com/news/show/125095.html. 
  113. ^ The Cuban Education System: Lessons and Dilemmas. Human Development Network Education. World Bank.
  114. ^ Students graduate from Cuban school – Americas – MSNBC.com
  115. ^ "Cuba-trained US doctors graduate". BBC News. 25 July 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/6914265.stm. Retrieved 2009-09-07. 
  116. ^ Resolución 120 del 2007 del Ministro del MIC la cual está vigente desde el ·0 de Septiembre de 2007
  117. ^ a b c Armando Valladares. "A Firsthand Account Of Child Abuse, Castro Style". http://capmag.com/article.asp?ID=563. 
  118. ^ "Vigilancia y Orden Público". cubaverdad.net. http://www.cubaverdad.net/cdr.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-08. 
  119. ^ a b Whiteford, Linda M.; Branch, Laurence G. (2008). Primary health care in Cuba: the other revolution. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 2. ISBN 0742559947. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=lJe7uc7X3pYC&pg=PA2. Retrieved 2009-09-14. 
  120. ^ Cuba: A Different America, By Wilber A. Chaffee, Gary Prevost, Rowland and Littlefield, 1992, p. 106
  121. ^ Lundy, Karen Saucier. Community Health Nursing: Caring for the Public's Health. Jones and Bartlett: 2005, p. 377.
  122. ^ Whiteford, Linda M.; Manderson, Lenore, eds (2000). Global health policy, local realities: the fallacy of the level playing field. Boulder, Col.: Lynne Rienner Publishers. p. 69. ISBN 1555878741. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=gYc_LgzsRDMC&pg=PA69. Retrieved 2009-09-14. 
  123. ^ Jacob Laksin. "Castro’s Doctors Plot". http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/Read.aspx?GUID=C2F78A4B-8F88-4E8C-97CE-16C9CFE35473. 
  124. ^ Cuban Health Care Systems and its implications for the NHS Plan. Select Committee on Health.
  125. ^ Mignonne Breier; Angelique Wildschut (2007). Doctors in a Divided Society: The Profession and Education of Medical Practitioners in South Africa. HSRC Press. pp. 16, 81. ISBN 9780796921536. http://books.google.com/books?id=WtuiTYThR7sC&pg=PP1. 
  126. ^ World population Prospects : The 2006 Revision : Highlights, United Nations.
  127. ^ Costa Rica – Journey into the Tropical Garden of Eden, Tobias Hauser.
  128. ^ José Alvarez (2001). "Rationed Products and Something Else: Food Availability and Distribution in 2000 Cuba". Cuba in Transition. University of Texas at Austin. pp. 305–322. http://lanic.utexas.edu/project/asce/pdfs/volume11/alvarez.pdf. Retrieved 2009-09-06. 
  129. ^ "Social Policy at the crossroads" (PDF). oxfamamerica.org. http://www.oxfamamerica.org/newsandpublications/publications/research_reports/art3670.html/OA-Cuba_Social_Policy_at_Crossroads-en.pdf. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  130. ^ "Cuba's repressive machinery: Summary and recommendations". Human Rights Watch. 1999. http://www.hrw.org/legacy/reports/1999/cuba/Cuba996-01.htm#P392_35421. 
  131. ^ Mesa-Lago, Carmelo (September 22, 2006). "The end of rationing?". http://www.allbusiness.com/public-administration/national-security-international/3974438-1.html. 
  132. ^ Espino, María Dolores (3–5 August 2000). "Cuban Tourism During the Special Period". Cuba in Transition (Miami, Florida: Association for the Study of the Cuban Economy, University of Texas at Austin) 10. http://lanic.utexas.edu/la/cb/cuba/asce/cuba10/espino.pdf. Retrieved 2009-09-14. 
  133. ^ David Rennie (8 June 2002). "Cuba 'apartheid' as Castro pulls in the tourists". The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/centralamericaandthecaribbean/cuba/1396643/Cuba-apartheid-as-Castro-pulls-in-the-tourists.html. 
  134. ^ Corbett, Ben (2004). This Is Cuba: An Outlaw Culture Survives. Westview Press. p. 33. ISBN 0813338263. 
  135. ^ Crespo, Nicolás; Negrón, Santos (7–9 August 1997). "Cuban tourism in 2007: economic impact". Cuba in Transition (Miami, Florida: Association for the Study of the Cuban Economy, University of Texas at Austin) 7. http://lanic.utexas.edu/la/cb/cuba/asce/cuba7/crespo.pdf. Retrieved 2009-09-14. 
  136. ^ "Background Note: Cuba". U.S. Department of State. December 2005. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2886.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-09. 
  137. ^ Facio, Elisa; Maura Toro-Morn, and Anne R. Roschelle (Spring 2004). "Tourism in Cuba During the Special Period". Transnational Law & Contemporary Problems (University of Iowa College of Law) 14: 119. http://www.uiowa.edu/ifdebook/conferences/cuba/TLCP/Volume%201/Facio.pdf. 
  138. ^ a b "Cuban leader looks to boost food production". CNN. 17 April 2008. http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/americas/04/16/cuba.farming/index.html. Retrieved 2009-09-14. 
  139. ^ Eric Driggs (14 October 2004). "Deteriorating living conditions in Cuba". Focus on Cuba. Institute for Cuban and Cuban-American Studies, University of Miami. http://ctp.iccas.miami.edu/FOCUS_Web/Issue59.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-13. 
  140. ^ "Rank Order Exports". The World Factbook. CIA. June 29 2006. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2078rank.html. Retrieved 2006-07-09. 
  141. ^ Calzon, Frank (13 March 2005). "Cuba makes poor trade partner for Louisiana". Center for a Free Cuba. http://www.cubacenter.org/media/calzon/cuba_makes_poor_trade.html. Retrieved 2009-09-07. 
  142. ^ "Rank Order – GDP (purchasing power parity)". CIA Fact Book. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2001rank.html. Retrieved 2006-07-09. 
  143. ^ "Cuba's Sugar Industry and the Impact of Hurricane Michele". International Agricultural Trade Report. 6 December 2001. http://www.fas.usda.gov/htp/highlights/2001/IATR/cubaiatr.pdf. Retrieved 2006-07-09. 
  144. ^ "Global Nickel Mine Production 2002". 2002. http://web.archive.org/web/20060823090044/http://www.em.csiro.au/em/commodities/nickel/nickel_production/images/global_mine_prod.gif. Retrieved 2006-08-23. 
  145. ^ Frank, Marc (December 18 2002). "Cuba's 2002 nickel exports top 70,000 tonnes". Center for International Policy. http://www.ciponline.org/cuba/cubainthenews/newsarticles/rt121802frank.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-09. 
  146. ^ "Cuba oil prospects cloud US horizon". BBC News. 11 September 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/5321594.stm. Retrieved 2006-12-09. 
  147. ^ "Vision of Humanity". Vision of Humanity. http://www.visionofhumanity.org/gpi/home.php. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 

External links



Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

.Cuba officially the Republic of Cuba, consists of the island of Cuba (the largest of the Greater Antilles), the Isle of Youth and adjacent small islands.^ OFFICIAL NAME: Republic of Cuba PROFILE Geography Area: 110,860 sq.

Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean at the confluence of the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. .Cuba is south of the eastern United States and the Bahamas, west of the Turks and Caicos Islands and Haiti and east of Mexico.^ The United States and Cuba conclude a migration pact under which Cuba agrees to accept the return of Marielitos .

^ BUYING FROM CUBA - Goods or services of Cuban origin may not be imported into the United States either directly or through third countries, such as Canada or Mexico.

^ The United States and Cuba sign agreements on fishing rights and maritime boundaries.

The Cayman Islands and Jamaica are to the south.

Sourced

.
  • In Cuba it is illegal to change jobs, to change houses, to travel abroad, and to read books or magazines without the express approval of the state.^ Cubans do not have the right to change their government, to freedom of expression, or freedom to travel to and from Cuba without restriction.

    ^ Special Note Regarding Cuba : This page contains articles published by the governments of the United States and Cuba which are reproduced without alteration.

    ^ As senior Administration officials have stated, if there is fundamental change is Cuba, the U.S. will respond.

    .It is against the law for more than three Cubans to meet without permission.^ The country has at its disposal an economic and social infrastructure as well as human and natural resources and resources of scientific and technological development, an infrastructure created throughout more than three decades.

    ^ The Cuban people and the Castro regime hear the message more clearly than ever.

    ^ Foreign investments are equally protected against third party reclamations which comply with the law and are in accordance with Cuban laws and rulings of national courts of justice.

    Neighborhood Watch programs do not look out for criminals. Instead, they monitor their fellow citizens -- keeping track of neighbors' comings and goings, who visits them, and what radio stations they listen to. The sense of community and the simple trust between human beings is gone. .
    • President Bush Discusses Cuba Policy.^ STATEMENT BY THE PRESIDENT From the outset of my Administration, I have been committed to a bipartisan policy that promotes a peaceful transition to democracy in Cuba.

      ^ Today, I want to discuss with you four actions the President has decided to take to reach out to the people of Cuba to make their lives more tolerable.

      ^ Rather, the President has made forging a multilateral effort to promote democracy in Cuba the central thrust of U.S. policy.

      The White House (October 24, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-10-25.
  • Warfare is a means and not an end. Warfare is a tool of revolutionaries. The important thing is the revolution. The important thing is the revolutionary cause, revolutionary ideas, revolutionary objectives, revolutionary sentiments, revolutionary virtues!

Unsourced

  • This country is heaven, in the spiritual sense of the word. And I say, we prefer to die in heaven than survive in hell.
    • Speech made by Castro on February 2, 2005

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Location
noframe
Flag
Image:cu-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Havana
Government Communist state
Currency Cuban peso (CUP), Cuban convertible peso (CUC)
Area 110,860 km2
Population 11,382,820 (July 2006 est.)
Language Spanish, Castilian
Religion Nominally 85% Roman Catholic prior to Castro assuming power; Protestants, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jews, Muslims, and Santería are also represented
Electricity 110V/60Hz or 220V/60Hz (North American, European, or Italian plug)
Calling Code +53
Internet TLD .cu
Time Zone UTC -5
For other places with the same name, see Cuba (disambiguation).
Cuba [1] is the largest Caribbean island, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean. It lies 145 km (90 miles) south of Key West, Florida, between the Cayman Islands and the Bahamas, to the west of Haiti, and northwest of Jamaica.

Understand

.Before the 1959 Revolution, Cuba was a popular tourist destination for United States citizens, mainly due to the large number of casinos catering to gamblers put up by the American mafia with the cooperation of the corrupt Batista government, a government that neglected many of its own citizens health and welfare in order to get US dollars.^ In its desire to destroy the revolution, the United States government took advantage of such an occasion in order to intensify the economic blockade imposed against Cuba since more than 37 years ago and whose cost to our economy is calculated at some 60,000 million dollars.

^ On the other hand, many economic and social indicators have declined since the 1959 revolution.

^ The health care system is often touted by many analysts as one of the Castro government's greatest achievements.

.Many Americans had beach homes during the summer and rich American companies owned large factories and land with the cooperation of Fulgenicio Batista, the ruling military dictator.^ American companies also prospered during this period.

^ Title III allows U.S. nationals to sue foreign companies that profit from American-owned property confiscated by the Cuban regime.

^ US companies owned 75% of the sugar industry and 60% of Cuba's land.

.Since the Revolution, Cuba has been subjected to a trade and travel embargo by the United States.^ The United States and Cuba conclude a migration pact under which Cuba agrees to accept the return of Marielitos .

^ The United States and Cuba sign agreements on fishing rights and maritime boundaries.

^ But during all those years that the United States was not, and has not been trading with Cuba, much of the entire world has been.

.While travel between the two neighbors is restricted, it is still possible, though illegal for most US citizens.^ There are a number of possible explanations, but I find two most persuasive.

^ The Kennedy administration prohibits travel to Cuba and makes financial and commercial transactions with Cuba illegal for U.S. citizens.

.Since 2009 US citizens with relatives living in Cuba are allowed to visit Cuba for a period of time, but only once every year.^ Persons who are traveling to visit close relatives in Cuba in circumstances of extreme humanitarian need.

^ The report is not a blueprint for Cuba's future, since only the Cuban people and its democratically elected leaders can chart the country's future course.

^ The number of automobiles in Cuba has fallen since the 1950's -- the only country in Latin America for which this is the case.

.After 1959, Cuban tourism was mostly for Cubans only, and the facilities were not renewed until the 1990s, when Cuba lost financial backing from the defunct Soviet Union and opened its doors to foreign tourism.^ FOREIGN RELATIONS Cuba's once-ambitious foreign policy has been scaled back and redirected as a result of economic hardship and the end of the Cold War.

^ The report is not a blueprint for Cuba's future, since only the Cuban people and its democratically elected leaders can chart the country's future course.

^ The Cuban Missile Crisis begins when U.S. reconnaissance aircraft photograph Soviet construction of intermediate-range missile sites in Cuba.

.Now many European, Canadian, and even American visitors come to the island.^ The Cuban Government is stressing its beaches and has actively encouraged sex tourism to attract Europeans, Canadians, and Latin Americans.

In the typical tourist regions like Varadero and Holguin a lot of modern 3-star to 5-star hotels are available, while in less popular tourist regions visitors are still able to rent rooms in many Cuban homes (called casas particulares).
Due to several long-standing factors (e.g. bureaucratic ineffectiveness, the .U.S. embargo, lack of resources, and the loss of Soviet subsidies) much of the country's infrastructure is in need of repair.^ Cuban military power has been sharply reduced by the loss of Soviet subsidies.

^ The country has at its disposal an economic and social infrastructure as well as human and natural resources and resources of scientific and technological development, an infrastructure created throughout more than three decades.

^ The Cuban economy suffered a 35% decline in gross domestic product between 1989 and 1993 because of the loss of Soviet subsidies.

In major tourist destinations there will generally be few problems with either power or water, although such outages may occur. .Electricity outages have been common in Cuba, except in tourist facilities that have a generator.^ Cuba's rate of development of electrical power since the 1950's ranks behind every other country in Latin America except Haiti.

.2006 was designated the Year of the Energy Revolution in Cuba, and many small generators have been installed in an attempt to avoid blackouts.^ But there is agreement that the Popes visit generated huge currents of energy and excitement within Cuba.

Since Venezuela began providing Cuba with cheap oil and the refinery in Cienfuegos relaunched, the energy situation has improved. Many tourist accommodations offer 220V as well as 110V power sources.
Western Cuba (Pinar del Rio, Havana, Matanzas, Isla de la Juventud)
The capitol, the rolling hills of Pinar del Rio and an off-the-beaten-path island with good scuba diving add up to an exciting region
Central Cuba (Villa Clara, Cienfuegos, Santi Spíritus, Ciego de Avila)
Eastern Cuba (Camaguey, Las Tunas, Holguín, Santiago de Cuba, Granma, Guantánamo)
Statue of Che Guevara above his mausoleum, Santa Clara.
.
Statue of Che Guevara above his mausoleum, Santa Clara.
  • Havana – cosmopolitan capital with a swinging nightlife
  • Baracoa – a quaint beach-side town, and Cuba's first capitol, said to be the setting for the town in Gabriel Garcia Marquez's A Hundred Years of Solitude.
  • Santa Clara – Home of Ernesto "Che" Guevara's most successful battle during the Revolution.^ In 1607, Havana became Cuba's capital.

    ^ The assembly also paid posthumous tribute to the heroic guerrilla Commander Ernesto Che Guevara and his comrades who fell in Bolivia 30 years ago and whose remains were honored by the people at the end of the congress in the José Martí Memorial in Revolution Square and accompanied to the city of Santa Clara, the setting of one of the greatest military victories of our liberation war, which was led by the unforgettable internationalist hero.

    ^ Other major cities --Santiago de Cuba, Camaguey, Santa Clara, Holguin, Guantanamo, Matanzas, Cienfuegos, Pinar del Rio.

    A mausoleum is erected in the centre of town and now holds what are said to be his remains, recovered from Bolivia in the 1990s.
  • Trinidad – World Heritage Site with charming, colonial-era buildings
  • Varadero – popular beach area, east of Havana, filled mostly with tourists.
  • Cayo Largo – a small island with nudist facilities
  • Maria la Gorda – a tiny village with some snorkeling and diving options
  • Varadero Beach – 20-kilometer-long beach of fine white sand and waters
Viñales National Park
.
Viñales National Park
  • Viñales – A national park in Pinar del Rio province, with mountains and caves.^ Other major cities --Santiago de Cuba, Camaguey, Santa Clara, Holguin, Guantanamo, Matanzas, Cienfuegos, Pinar del Rio.

    .It has the best-developed tourist facilities of Cuba's national parks.
  • Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra del Rosario – A UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in the Sierra del Rosario mountains of Pinar del Rio province.^ Other major cities --Santiago de Cuba, Camaguey, Santa Clara, Holguin, Guantanamo, Matanzas, Cienfuegos, Pinar del Rio.

    ^ The final push for independence began in 1895, when Jose Marti, Cuba's national hero, announced the "Grito de Baire" ("Call to arms from Baire").

    ^ The data appear to show that Cuba has at best maintained what were already high levels of development in health and education, but at an extraordinary cost to the overall welfare of the Cuban people.

    The principal sites are Soroa and Las Terazzas.
  • Parque Nacional Ciénaga de Zapata (Ciénaga de Zapata National Park) – A national park in Mantanzas province, similar to Florida's Everglades National Park, with vast swamps and world-famous birdwatching, scuba diving, and beaches; and the site of the 1961 American Bay of Pigs invasion.
  • Gran Parque Natural Topes de Collantes (Topes de Collantes National Park) – A national park in the Sierra del Emcambray mountains, straddling Cienfuegos, Villa Clara, and Sancti Spiritus provinces.
  • Parque Allejandro de Humboldt (Guantanamo privince) approx 40km from baracoa, offeres walking, and conservation movements
For information specific to U.S. citizens see Americans in Cuba

Visa and legal issues

A tourist visa card (visa de tarjeta del turista) is necessary for travellers from most nations. .This visa, which is really little more than a piece of paper on which you list your vital statistics, costs between 15-25 CUC (or 15-25 Euro), depending on where purchased.^ Such third country transactions only cost an estimated 2-3% more than purchases from the U.S. as a result of higher shipping costs.

^ Press reports indicate that during 1996 more than 7,000 "health tourists" paid Cuba $25 million for medical services.

^ I mean, it has been more than 30 years since you applied the embargo and Castro is still in power; so how long are we going to wait until the embargo is going to have an effect?

.It can be purchased at the Airport in Cuba on arrival, however it should be noted that many airlines will require a valid tourist visa card before boarding flights.^ Should Cuba choose not to purchase from the U.S., it can purchase medicine or medical equipment from other countries.

^ Please note that the Regulations require those dealing with Cuba to maintain records, and, upon request from the U.S. Treasury Department, to furnish information regarding such dealings.

^ However, it should be noted that in 1957, Cuba had more television stations (23) than any other country in Latin America, easily outdistancing larger countries such as Mexico (12 television stations) and Venezuela (10).

It can be purchased at Cancun airport if departing from here. .It is usually valid for 30 days and can be extended once for another 30 days at any immigration office in Cuba (for 25 CUC) - beyond this you would need a flight out of Cuba within the extended visa period.^ Today, I want to discuss with you four actions the President has decided to take to reach out to the people of Cuba to make their lives more tolerable.

^ In order for Cuba to become a member of the EU's tome Convention, Cuba would need to agree to more "political dialogue."

^ The decision denying or approving the foreign investment is handed down within a period of sixty (60) days from the date on which the request was presented, and it must be notified to the applicants.

Canadians are the exception, getting 90 days on arrival and can apply for a 90 day extension. Your passport needs to be valid at least six months past the end of your planned return.
.Please note that if departing from the UK at least (this may apply to other countries), you will require to have the visa before boarding the plane.^ Cuba's abortion rate is at least twice the rate for the other countries in the table below for which data are available.

^ Information on travel conditions, visa requirements, currency and customs regulations, legal holidays, and other items of interest to travelers also may be obtained before your departure from a country's embassy and/or consulates in the U.S. (for this country, see "Principal Government Officials" listing in this publication).

^ Please note that the Regulations require those dealing with Cuba to maintain records, and, upon request from the U.S. Treasury Department, to furnish information regarding such dealings.

Boarding may be denied (this is because the airline will then get a $1,000 fine from the immigration authorities) and airplane ticket lost. .Applying for the visa is a very simple process and can be done by post or in person at the Cuban embassy in London.^ So it's a very simple, very straightforward process.

If you apply in person, you get the visa straight away.
.Regular tourists who renew their 30 day visa are eligible to depart the country (to any destination) and return immediately enjoying a further 60 days (30 days plus a 30 day extension).^ Interdicted Cubans who can demonstrate a well-founded fear of persecution in Cuba are resettled in third countries, rather than returned to Cuba.

You are only allowed two consecutive stays in this manner.
.If you want to stay with friends or family in Cuba you have to go with your intended host within two days after arrival to a migration office and pay 40 CUC for a 30 days family visa.^ Often, the United States has stood alone in that struggle, because our allies and friends believed that pressuring Cuba to change was the wrong way to go.

^ Over the past two decades, the Americas have been transformed from a hemisphere dense with dictators to one in which every single country, except for Cuba, has an elected government, if you will look at your maps.

^ The U.S. and Cuba issue a joint communique agreeing to take measures to ensure that migration between the two countries is safe, legal, and orderly.

Citizens of Antigua and Barbuda (28 days), Barbados (28 days), Benin, Bosnia and Herzegovina, CIS (except Ukraine and Uzbekistan), Dominica, Grenada (60 days), Liechtenstein (90 days), Macedonia, Malaysia (90 days), Mongolia, Montenegro (90 days), Namibia, Singapore, Slovakia, Saint Kitts & Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Serbia (90 days), Turkmenistan who can stay 30 days without visa.
.It is important to note that there is also a departure tax of CUC 25, to be paid in cash when departing Cuba by airplane; this is not required for boat departures.^ President Carter demands that the Cuban government impose an orderly departure and orders a blockade to prevent private boats from traveling to Cuba to pick up refugees.

^ The EU also reported that the EU Human Rights Working Group in Havana ~~~~had been in touch with dissidents and noted that "there has been no substantive change in the political and economic situation in Cuba."

^ Press reports indicate that during 1996 more than 7,000 "health tourists" paid Cuba $25 million for medical services.

This tax is not well publicised but it is essential to remember it. You will run into significant difficulties if you do not have enough cash to pay this tax when leaving the country. .An ATM is available at the airport but these facilities are not as reliable in Cuba as in other places.^ AMB. DAVIDOW: I think what will happen over time -- and indeed we have already seen this -- is that these measures will help create in Cuba other centers of activity.

^ Cuba's abortion rate is at least twice the rate for the other countries in the table below for which data are available.

^ Cuba had made significant advances in the quality of healthcare available to average citizens as a result of these subsidies.

Cuban customs [2] can be strict, though they sometimes go easy on tourists.
Jose Marti International Airport
Jose Marti International Airport
.Jose Martí International Airport outside Havana is the main gateway and is served by major airlines from points in Canada, Mexico, and Europe.^ These seek to serve international visitors, but are subject to rules limiting employment of anyone outside of the owner's immediate family and forbidding sales of lobster or shrimp.

There are also regional flights from other Caribbean islands. .Cuba's national carrier is Cubana de Aviacion [3], connecting the island to a handful of destinations in Mexico, South and Central America, Canada and Europe.^ No vessel carrying goods or passengers to or from Cuba or carrying goods in which Cuba or a Cuban national has any interest may enter a U.S. port.

^ The final push for independence began in 1895, when Jose Marti, Cuba's national hero, announced the "Grito de Baire" ("Call to arms from Baire").

^ SPECIALLY DESIGNATED NATIONALS - The Regulations prohibit buying from or selling to Cuban nationals whether they are physically located on the island of Cuba or doing business elsewhere on behalf of Cuba.

You can book online flights to Cuba in The H Travel [4].
An official taxi to Havana center costs 25 CUC but you can find cheaper (illegal) ones. The cost is roughly 1 CUC per kilometer. There is a new bus service from the Terminal One (domestic flights) to La Habana Centro. So if you arrive in Cuba before 8PM you can ask the Taxi driver to bring you there and wait for the bus (1 CUC for the Taxi and a few cents for the bus).
There are also regular holiday charter flights to resorts such as Varadero, and these can sometimes be less expensive than those going to Havana.
.The airports are all fully-air-conditioned and quite modern, compared to other destinations in the Caribbean, offer good medical care in case of problems, and are usually relatively hassle free.^ The contracting parties are free to stipulate all the pacts and clauses that they deem to be in accordance with their interests, as long as they do not infringe on the authorized objective, the conditions of the authorization or current legislation.

Your checked luggage, though, is at great risk. It is increasingly common for your luggage to be opened and anything of value removed. .This used to be a problem at Jose Marti International (Havana) only, now it seems to have spread to all airports.^ The Europeans now acknowledge that one of the primary tools that the Castro regime used to expropriate property from U.S. citizens appears to have been contrary to international law.

Packing valuables in checked luggage is extremely risky - if not foolish.
.CTSCHARTERS.COM Cuba Travel Services operates non-stop flights for authorized travelers from Miami to Cuba.^ Purchases of services unrelated to travel, such as non-emergency medical services, are prohibited.

^ U.S. travel service providers, such as travel agents and tour operators, who handle travel arrangements to, from, or within Cuba must hold special authorizations from the U.S. Treasury Department to engage in such activities.

^ A traveler should not use any travel service provider that does not hold valid Treasury authorization.

[5]

By boat

.There are no regular ferries or boats to Cuba from foreign ports, although some cruise liners do visit.^ Some foreign banks have begun limited operations in Cuba.

^ No vessel carrying goods or passengers to or from Cuba or carrying goods in which Cuba or a Cuban national has any interest may enter a U.S. port.

^ However, that said, there is a regular shipping line that runs to Cuba through third countries.

Yachters are expected to anchor at the public marinas. Most ports are closed and tourists are not permitted to walk around them. .Private vessels may enter at Marina Hemingway in Havana or Marina Acua in Varadero.^ No vessel carrying goods or passengers to or from Cuba or carrying goods in which Cuba or a Cuban national has any interest may enter a U.S. port.

There are no visa requirements. Expect to hand out several $10 bills to facilitate your entry.

Get around

By bus

Víazul [6] is Cuba's hard currency bus line and is by far the best choice of public transportation to tour the island. They run comfortable air-conditioned long-distance coaches with washrooms and televisions to most places of interest to tourists. The buses are getting a bit grubby, but they are reliable and punctual. .Complete schedules can be found on the Viazul website [7] (the Varadero - Santa Clara - Cienfuegos - Trinidad and return service is missing from the website but runs daily).^ Other major cities --Santiago de Cuba, Camaguey, Santa Clara, Holguin, Guantanamo, Matanzas, Cienfuegos, Pinar del Rio.

.The buses can be used theoretically by anyone, including Cubans, but in reality, few Cubans can afford the convertable peso fares.^ Many businesses, including many run by the Cuban Government, and individuals do not accept Cuban pesos.

Reservations can be made in advance, but are usually unnecessary except at peak travel times. Do not waste your time making an on-line reservation on the website -- that feature rarely works. Refreshments are not served, despite what the website says, but the buses stop for meal breaks at highway restaurants with bad food. (Bring your own food!) The buses are often over air conditioned, so bring along something warm to wear. .Note that most westbound buses from Santiago de Cuba run overnight.^ Other major cities --Santiago de Cuba, Camaguey, Santa Clara, Holguin, Guantanamo, Matanzas, Cienfuegos, Pinar del Rio.

^ Castro had established the movement in Mexico, where he was exiled after the failed July 26, 1953, attack on the Moncada army barracks at Santiago de Cuba.

Astro is the bus line that most Cubans use. Astro recently renewed their fleet with 300 new Chinese coaches that are as comfortable as Viazul (without the washroom). Although the new buses have proven to be unreliable and often break down, they are still better than the old buses that Astro used to run. .Astro has a much more extensive network than Viazul, and contrary to popular belief depending upon the vendor and your ability to speak Spanish, especially if your destination is not covered by Viazul, it is possible to purchase tickets.^ Such third country transactions only cost an estimated 2-3% more than purchases from the U.S. as a result of higher shipping costs.

In La Habana routes are covered by newer YuTong Chinese buses throughout the city, and are a welcome respite from the extornationate taxi fares. Each fare costs 0.40 CUP however far one travels. .This is particularly useful in getting to the airport, where the official rate is 20-25 CUC from Centro or Vieja via taxi; any bus to Santiago de Las Vegas such as P-2, P-12 and P-16, which run from Parque Fraternidad next to the Capitolio and anywhere along Avendida de la Indepencia, can take you near the airport to Boyeros (again for 0.40 CUP).^ I think on the embargo, I'm not sure a prolonged argument about whether or not it's good is particularly useful; we can rehearse it if you'd like.

.From Boyeros outside the Psychiatric Hospital, or a few stops before, or one after, one can walk, flag a taxi down, or if going to Terminal 3 take the 'Connexions' bus.^ MR. FOLEY: We're going to take one more question in English, and then start taking some questions in Spanish.

.People will be helpful when asking for advice about this whilst on the bus, even without Spanish skills.^ And that we should explore ways to help the Cuban people without helping the government.

To reiterate at the time of writing this option will cost you from 0.02GBP as opposed to 20GBP.
There are also local provincial buses, consisting of overcrowded old beat-up eastern European buses that may or may not be running but they are very very cheap. Each town will have a "terminal terrestre" where buses or trucks (large pre 1960s vehicles) serve local destinations and usually neighbouring provinces (for example from Santiago you can get to Bayamo or Guantanamo). They are usually quite easy to find - in La Habana it is found in the Lido, in the Marianao (the P-9, P-5 or P-14 will get you close), whilst in Santiago it is found on Calle 4 (along from La Plaza de la Revolucion).
It is important to note that queues will be lengthy (it is best to arrive in the early hours of the morning, or alternatively give the chauffeur a tip to allow you to jump the queue) and you should always say that you are a student, as tourists are theoretically forbidden from using this transport. .You may occasionally need to pay a little extra by virtue of being a tourist, but this should never be more than 1-2 CUC for long journeys (as opposed to 5-10 CUP for locals).^ Press reports indicate that during 1996 more than 7,000 "health tourists" paid Cuba $25 million for medical services.

^ Moreover, the U.S. embargo on Cuba affects only U.S. companies and their subsidiaries and other companies whose products contain more than 10% U.S. content.

^ However, it should be noted that in 1957, Cuba had more television stations (23) than any other country in Latin America, easily outdistancing larger countries such as Mexico (12 television stations) and Venezuela (10).

It is also possible to travel between some popular tourist destinations, such as Havana and Varadero, on special tourist minibuses carrying 4-5 people. The cost is a few dollars more but highly recommended if you are not planning to sleep the whole distance - plus you can ask the driver to stop along the way!
Alternatively there are some collectivos which might acutally be cheaper then the official bus. The advantages of these collectivos is that they bring you exactly where you want, they can be cheaper and they run and stop for a snack when you want them to. .Example Santa Clara - La Habana: Viazul costs 18 CUC and leave at 3:15AM and 5PM, the collectivo costs 40 - 50 CUC (if you fill it up with 4 people it is 10 to 12 CUC each or alternatively you can wait for the driver to look for other passengers).^ Other major cities --Santiago de Cuba, Camaguey, Santa Clara, Holguin, Guantanamo, Matanzas, Cienfuegos, Pinar del Rio.

While this transport (like many things in Cuba!) is illegal in theory, remember that the money goes directly to the owner .(as opposed to the Cuban government) and the chances of any problems are minimal.^ The grave economic problems in Cuba were exacerbated by the demise of the Soviet Union and the ending of the $5 billion in subsidies that the U.S.S.R. gave annually to the Cuban Government.

^ These problems, coupled with the continuing embargo, forced the Cuban Government to undertake very limited economic reforms to enable it to survive.

^ The Cuban Government is finding it more difficult to obtain financing, and potential investors face the same problem.

By taxi

Official taxis are pretty expensive for long distances. .Between Havana and Viñales, for example, will run about CUC 90-100, although this can work out cheaper than traveling by bus or train if you split the fare between several people.^ Among these, what stood out in first place was the heroic conduct of the people, their identification and confidence in the Party and the unity between revolutionaries as the architects of this victory.

.If you're up for a little adventure, you can find some enterprising locals willing to (illegally) play "taxi" with their old car for a little less money.^ QUESTION: And can you take up the broader question of why so little, in a sense, after 39 years of this embargo?

Be aware that if they get caught, you will have to get out of the car. Although you will not be in any trouble with the authorities, you may find yourself in the middle of nowhere with no transportation.
Taxis are the most convenient way to get around within the big cities. There are several types of taxis, including the official government taxis, the private and potentially unlicensed "yank tanks", and the small three-wheeled coco-taxis. They're fairly abundant and not hard to find - they tend to group in front of large hotels, but it will usually be cheaper to find one elsewhere.
Yank Tanks
Classic car maintenance on the streets of Havana.
You will find an unusually large number of old U.S.-made cars on the street. Popularly known as "Yank Tanks," these are pre-revolution imports from the 1950s that have been nursed along for half a century, because the Soviet-made cars available during the Cold War were too scarcely allocated for most Cubans to buy (and other cars remain too expensive today).
In Cuba, all vehicles drive on the right hand side of the road.
Car rental starts from CUC 65 per day (including insurance) plus the cost of a full tank of gasoline. The refundable deposits start around CUC 200. Rental cars are for the most part fairly new, imported European or Asian models. Any traffic tickets received are noted on a rental car sheet and are deducted from your rental deposit. Note that if you are involved in a serious traffic accident involving injury or death, you will be detained in Cuba until the legal process sorts things out, which can take months. For this reason, many countries advise their citizens not to rent cars in Cuba.
Busier roads and city streets are generally of fair (drivable) quality and should not pose much trouble if due care is exercised, however some quiet rural roads are in need of serious repair.
Generally traffic is light, especially away from Havana. Outside of towns and cities traffic is usually very light, with no cars for miles on some rural roads. Be warned - you also share the highways with local salespeople selling cheese, snacks and onions(!), cyclists (sometimes going the wrong way, and at night usually without lights) and horse-drawn vehicles. Also note that the Autopista (the main highway running down the center of the country) is crossed at occasional intervals by railway tracks - take care to slow down before going over to avoid damage to the tires or suspension. Many of these have a stop sign ("PARE" in Spanish) which you should carefully heed - or risk a fine of CUC 30, even if no train is coming.
Roads are poorly signposted (and frequently not at all), so if you do plan to do serious driving, it would be well-advised to get a detailed map and ask for directions when not sure.
Be aware that many traffic lights, especially in cities, are placed on the FAR corner of the crossing,, not where you are supposed to stop, thus inviting you to stop in the middle of the intersection! Something that you obviously don't want... Also most of them have light as weak as a glow-worm.
Expect to encounter checkpoints when traveling in the interior of the country. These usually require you to slow down to 40. Respect this or get fined 10 CUC!
Gasoline costs CUC 0.85/Regular, CUC 0.95/Special and 1.10/Super per litre. Tourist rental cars are not supposed to use regular.

Hitchhiking and the "Amarillo"

.The Cuban government's system for facilitating hitchhiking is by far the most economical way for foreigners to travel in Cuba, though a flexible schedule and good Spanish are a must.^ Cuba's economy is a disaster because of the economic policies of the Cuban Government.

^ In order for the Ministry of Foreign Investment and Economic Cooperation to accept the request, it must be presented with the formalities described in the present Article.

^ FOREIGN RELATIONS Cuba's once-ambitious foreign policy has been scaled back and redirected as a result of economic hardship and the end of the Cold War.

Known as "El Amarillo" ("the yellow guy") for the yellowy-beige uniforms of its administrators, the system consists of points along main routes where certain vehicles are required to stop and pick up hitchhikers. Amarillo points ("el punto amarillo") along major highways are often full service rest stops for hitchhikers, with water, peso-priced food, and a 24 hour indoor waiting area.
To use the system within cities, just keep your eyes peeled for a man or woman in a yellow / beige uniform standing along the road near a line of people. Tell the official where you need to go, and wait. To travel long distances, you need to get to the "punto amarillo" on the edge of the city in the direction you're going. Ask a local for help on the best way to do that. Then as you pass through cities, ask what bus or taxi to take to get to the "punto amarillo" on the outgoing road at the opposite extreme of the city. This can be tricky, and it's often worth it to take a local taxi. If you can find a Cuban to accompany you on your journey, their help will be invaluable.
In daytime hours, when the amarillo is present, you pay a nominal amount of money (approx. 20 pesos from one city to the next) to the official when you find a ride. The money all goes to the government; drivers don't get any. As a result, it's much easier to travel long distances at night, when the amarillo has gone home and drivers can make some money picking up hitchhikers.
Of course, it's always possible to hitchhike just by sticking out your thumb to passing cars, but be prepared to give the driver 20-50 pesos for a long ride.
Most of the rides you get will be in the back of large trucks, open to the weather. This is an exciting and beautiful way to travel the Cuban countryside. Though an accident would obviously be very dangerous for passengers, school kids, older adults, and parents with small children use this system every day. Make sure to bring protection against sun and rain and, if traveling at night, wind and cold.
.Hitchhiking is the only system where you can travel for Cuban prices without paying a tourist premium.^ While not providing basic medical needs to its people, the Cuban Government has developed a closed, parallel healthcare system for the Communist Party elite, foreign "health tourists," and others who can pay for services in hard currency.

^ Cubans do not have the right to change their government, to freedom of expression, or freedom to travel to and from Cuba without restriction.

Given that transportation is one of a tourist's biggest expenses in Cuba, this can make your money go much farther. Tell folks you're a student (not a tourist) to avoid funny looks and price gouging.

By train

The main train line in the country runs between Havana and Santiago de Cuba, with major stops at Santa Clara and Camagüey. .Trains also run to other cities such as Cienfuegos, Manzanillo, Morón, Sancti Spiritus, and Pinar del Rio.^ Other major cities --Santiago de Cuba, Camaguey, Santa Clara, Holguin, Guantanamo, Matanzas, Cienfuegos, Pinar del Rio.

.There is one reliable train in Cuba: the overnight Tren Francés between Havana and Santiago de Cuba, which runs on alternate days.^ Other major cities --Santiago de Cuba, Camaguey, Santa Clara, Holguin, Guantanamo, Matanzas, Cienfuegos, Pinar del Rio.

^ Castro had established the movement in Mexico, where he was exiled after the failed July 26, 1953, attack on the Moncada army barracks at Santiago de Cuba.

^ However, that said, there is a regular shipping line that runs to Cuba through third countries.

.It uses equipment that was formerly operated on the Trans-Europe Express, and donated to Cuba by France a few years ago (hence the name).^ French Cooperation Minister Josselin said on May 5, "Europe and France want the initiation of a process of democratization and human rights in Cuba."

^ The U.S. Government has licensed more than $227 million in humanitarian donations of medicines and medical supplies to Cuba over the last four years.

^ The results of those policies were in some measure masked during the years that Cuba was receiving billions -- thousands of millions of dollars of assistance every year from Eastern Europe.

There are first class and special first class seats on this train (the special seats are better and more expensive), but no sleepers. If only one train in Cuba is running, this will be it.
.All other trains in Cuba are unreliable.^ The U.S. government bans all Cuban imports and re-export of U.S. products to Cuba from other countries.

^ Our report on "Support for a Democratic Transition in Cuba" incorporates ideas for training and including leaders in all segments of society in transition efforts.

The equipment is often in poor condition, breakdowns are common, and when they occur, you can be stuck for the better part of the day (or night) waiting for a replacement engine. There are no services on the trains, so bring plenty of food and water with you. Trains are frequently cancelled. Some trains offer first class seats (don't expect too much); others have second class seats, which can be very uncomfortable. Schedules are at best optimistic and should always be checked in advance of travel. There are no sleepers on overnight routes.
If you are still thinking of taking a train, other than the Tren Francès, you should know that many Cubans prefer to hitchhike than take the train.
If you are still determined to take a train, approximate schedules are given under the different city descriptions. Foreigners must pay much higher fares (which is still very cheap) than the locals. Tickets are roughly two-thirds what Viazul charges. Theft is a problem so watch your luggage!
The following services can be expected to run (special first class: air-conditioned, reservation required, meals and drinks available; regular first class: more comfortable seats, otherwise like second class):
  • 3/4, every second day, Habana Central - Santiago de Cuba, "Tren Francés", train, special first class, punctual running guaranteed
  • 5/6, every second day, Habana Central - Santiago de Cuba, train, regular first class
  • 7/8, every second day, Habana Central - Manzanillo, train, regular first class
  • 9/10, every second day, Habana Central - Sancti Spiritus, "El Espirituano", train, regular first class, German coaches
  • 19/20, every second day, Habana La Coubre - Cienfuegos, train, second class
  • 21/22, every second day, Habana Central - Pinar del Rio, "El Lechero", train, second class
  • 23/34, every second day, Habana Central - Camagüey, railbus, special first class
  • 29/30, every second day, Habana Central - Morón, railbus, special first class
  • 41/42, two per week, Santa Clara - Santiago de Cuba, train, second class
  • 83/84, daily, Camagüey - Bayamo, train, second class
  • 88/89, every second day, Guantánamo - Holguin, train, second class
  • 90/91/92/93/800/801/802/803/804/805, daily, Matanzas - Habana Casa Blanca, Hershey railbus
  • 119/120, daily, Habana La Coubre - Unión de Reyes, train, second class
  • 133/134, daily, Matanzas - Agramonte, train, second class
  • 139/140/141/142/143/144, daily, Habana 19 de Noviembre - San Antonio de los Baños, train, second class
  • 159/160/161/162, daily, Cárdenas - Aguada de Pasajeros, railbus, second class
  • 163/164, daily, Colón - Aguada de Pasajeros, railbus, second class
  • 165/166, daily, Los Palacios - Guane, train, second class
  • 168/169, daily, Guane - Pinar del Rio, train, second class
  • 213/214/215/216. daily, Artemisa - Habana 19 de Noviembre, train, second class
  • 331/332, six per week, Cienfuegos - Santa Clara, train, second class
  • 333/334, five per week, Cienfuegos - Sto Domingo Viejo, train, second class
  • 337/338/339/340, daily, Santa Clara - Caibarién, railbus, second class
  • 341/342/344, daily, Sagua - Santa Clara, railbus, second class
  • 343, daily, Concha - Santa Clara, railbus, second class
  • 345/346, daily, Sagua - Caibarién, railbus, second class
  • 347/349/350/351/352, daily, Sagua - Concha, railbus, second class
  • 353/354/355/356, daily, Santa Clara - Vega Alta, railbus, second class
  • 357/358/359/360, daily, Zaza del Medio - Tunas de Zaza, train, second class
  • 361/362/363/364, daily, Placetas Norte - Sopimpa, railbus, second class
  • 365/366/367/368/369/370/371/372, daily, Trinidad - Meyer, railbus, second class
  • 373/374, daily, Trinidad - Enlace Central FNTA Iznaga, railbus, second class
  • 379/380, daily, Aguada de Pasajeros - Cienfuegos, train, second class
  • 501/502/503/504, daily, Morón - Camagüey, railbus, regular first class
  • 505/516, daily, Morón - Júcaro, railbus, second class
  • 506/511/512/515, daily, Júcaro - Ciego de Avila, railbus, second class
  • 507/508/509/510/513/514, daily, Morón - Ciego de Avila, train, second class
  • 519/520/521/522/523/524, daily, Fallá - Morón, railbus, second class
  • 525/526, daily, Morón - Ciego de Avila, railbus, second class
  • 532/533/534/535, daily, Nuevitas - Camagüey, train, second class
  • 536/537/538/539/540/541, daily, Nuevitas - Tarafa, railbus, second class
  • 542/543/544/545, daily, Santa Cruz del Sur - Camagüey, railbus, second class
  • 546/547/548/549/550/551/552/553/554/555, daily, Las Tunas - Balcón, railbus, second class
  • 557/558/559/560/561/562/563/564/565/566/567/568, daily, Piedrecitas - Kilómetro 5.6, railbus, second class
  • 608/609, daily, Santiago de Cuba - Manzanillo, train, second class
  • 610/611, every second day, Santiago de Cuba - Holguin, train, second class
  • 613/614, daily, Herrera - Santiago de Cuba, train, second class
  • 615/616, daily, Holguin - Herrera, train, second class
  • 617, daily, Bayamo - Jiguani, train, second class
  • 618/619/620, daily, Jiguani - Manzanillo, train, second class
  • 621, daily, Manzanillo - Bayamo, train, second class
  • 622/623/624/625, daily, Bayamo - Guamo, train, second class
  • 626/630, daily, Contramaestre - Jiguani, railbus, second class
  • 627/631, daily, Jiguani - Oriente, railbus, second class
  • 628/632, daily, Oriente - Contramaestre, railbus, second class
  • 633/634, daily, Contramaestre - Santiago de Cuba, railbus, second class
  • 712/713/714/715, daily, Guantánamo - Martires de la Frontera, railbus, second class
  • 716/717/718/719/720/721, every second day, Guantánamo - San Anselmo, railbus, second class
  • 726/727/730/731/732/733, daily, Guantánamo - Caimanera, railbus, second class
  • 807/809/853/870/872, daily, Talleres Calle 7 - Canasi, Hershey railbus
  • 810/811/812/813/814/815/816/817/818/819/820/821/822/823/824/825/826/827/828/829/830/831, daily, Jaruco - Talleres Calle 7, Hershey railbus
  • 832/833/836/837/842/843/846/847, daily, Caraballo - San Mateo, Hershey railbus
  • 834/835, daily, Caraballo - Playas del Este, Hershey railbus
  • 838/839/844/845/848/849/850/851, daily, Caraballo - Hershey, Hershey railbus
  • 840/841, daily, Caraballo - Talleres Calle 7, Hershey railbus
  • 852/854/855/865/866, daily, Canasi - Santa Cruz del Norte, Hershey railbus
  • 856/857/868, daily, Santa Cruz del Norte - Talleres Calle 7, Hershey railbus
  • 858/859/860/861, daily, Santa Cruz del Norte - Jibacoa, Hershey railbus
  • 862/863, daily, Santa Cruz del Norte - Hershey, Hershey railbus
  • 864/867, daily, Canasi - Hershey, Hershey railbus
  • 876/881/882/883, daily during summer, Playas del Este - Habana La Coubre, Hershey railbus
The following services may run (all daily, second class):
  • 86/87, Holguin - Las Tunas, train
  • 117/118, Matanzas - Los Arabos Nuevo, train
  • 335/336, Los Arabos Nuevo - Santa Clara, train
  • 569/570, Camagüey - Talleres, train
  • 572/573, Las Tunas - Camagüey, railbus

By plane

The fastest and most comfortable way to cover larger distances is on either of the Cuban airlines, Cubana de Aviación [8] or Aero Caribbean [9].
CTSCHARTERS.Com Operates direct non-stop flights from Miami to Cuba for authorized travelers.[10]

By bike

Calm roads and beautiful scenery make Cuba an ideal country for biking. .You will have to bring your own bike as bikes suitable for trekking are not readily available in Cuba.^ This foreign exchange shortage has severely limited Cuba's ability to purchase readily-available food supplies from Canada, Latin America, and Europe.

^ In fact, according to readily-available historical data, Cuba was a relatively advanced country in 1958, certainly by Latin American standards and, in some areas, by world standards.

Do not under any circumstances rent a bike (i.e. el Orbe in Havana) in Cuba as you will get a Chinese junker or something that will leave your backside raw.
.Roads in most places in Cuba are reasonable, but it may still be a good idea to bring a mountain bike.^ No vessel carrying goods or passengers to or from Cuba or carrying goods in which Cuba or a Cuban national has any interest may enter a U.S. port.

^ We must send a message to that leadership that they too may have a role to play in a future democratic Cuba if they help to bring that about and if they submit to democratic processes.

^ In addition, vessels which enter a port or place in Cuba to engage in the trade of goods or services are prohibited from loading or unloading any freight at any place in the U.S. for 180 days.

Mountain bikes are stronger and allow for better driving off-road. .Make sure to bring all spare parts you might need along the way, since they will not be available in Cuba.^ We are making real progress in strengthening the international effort to bring democracy to Cuba.

^ In this report, we describe the kinds of assistance that a democratizing Cuba is likely to need and the ways in which the U.S. and the international community can help.

^ This is the source for all the hard economic data you need.

As casas particulares are available even in relatively small towns it is easy to plan an itinerary. .Food for on the road can often be obtained locally for cheap Cuban Pesos, but make sure if you travel through more remote areas to carry enough food (and water!^ Today, I want to discuss with you four actions the President has decided to take to reach out to the people of Cuba to make their lives more tolerable.

^ The Cuban Government is finding it more difficult to obtain financing, and potential investors face the same problem.

). Obtaining bottled water outside the major cities can be a definite problem.
Bikers are often met with enthusiasm and interest; when taking a break you will often be approached by curious locals. It is possible to take bikes on a tourbus, like "Viazul", to cover larger distances. .You have to arrange a personal agreement with the driver however, who will expect a little bonus in return.^ In 1984, the United States and Cuba negotiated an agreement to resume normal immigration, interrupted in the wake of the 1980 Mariel boatlift, and to return to Cuba persons who had arrived during the boatlift who were "excludable" under U.S. law.

It is also possible to take bikes on trains and even to hitch with bikes (wave some convertible pesos to approaching drivers to catch their attention).

By boat

There are two main island groups to explore along the southern shore of Cuba. Your sailing area from the two main bases, Cienfuegos or Trinidad incorporates the Canarreos Archipelago and the Juventud Islands or Jardines de la Reina Archipelago. Windward Islands [11].

When To Go

The best times to go are between December and April, to avoid the horrendous storms and hurricanes before December and the sticky heat of the Cuban summer which can be unbearable for some.

Talk

The official language of Cuba is Spanish, quite similar to the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rican Spanish, although the version here is quite different from that spoken in Spain (although quite similar to the one in Canary Islands because many Cubans are descendants of Canarians), Mexico and South America. Cubans tend to swallow the last syllable in a word and generally swallow the 's' sound.
Basic to fair English is spoken in some tourist locations and language should not be a deterrent to visiting the country for non-Spanish speaking tourists capable of speaking English, though basic Spanish would prove useful, especially in more informal settings. Cubans enjoy talking to tourists, especially if you are staying with them in the "Casas particulares" and some knowledge of Spanish will help you understand regular Cubans' experiences.
Instead of the Spanish "Que tal?" for "How are you?", Cubans will say "Que bola?" (similar to "What's up?", generally quite informal) or "Como andas?" (literally means, "How are you walking?"). Young Cubans amongst themselves will use the word "asere" which means "buddy" but is generally used between men and is not recommended for use by women. A particularly beautiful woman will be called a "papaya".

Buy

Money

For information specific to U.S. citizens see Americans in Cuba
There are two currencies circulating in Cuba, Cuban Pesos (CUP) and Cuban Convertible Pesos (CUC). Prior to November 2004 US dollars were in wide circulation on par with the CUC, but the government discontinued that and they are no longer used.
CUC is the currency most tourists will use in Cuba. It is how you will pay for hotels, official taxis, entry into museums, meals at restaurants, cigars, rum, etc. Conversion into CUC can be done at exchange houses (casa de cambio, or cadeca). These are located in many hotels and in other places throughout the cities. CUC are valued at 28 times the value of CUP. Tourists are permitted to import or export a maxiumum of CUP 100 or CUC 200 at any one time.
CUP are also known as local Pesos and Moneda Nacional (National money). As of Oct 2008, 1 CUC = 24 CUP. There is a limited range of goods that can be bought for local pesos, and these are transactions carried out in agricultural markets or from street vendors. Fruits, vegetables, fresh juices and snacks from street vendors are among the things CUP can buy. CUP's also buys the local cigars 'tabachos' or 'Nacionales' in local shops. these taste fair, and you get one for 1 CUP, far cheaper than what you have to pay for the exportation brands. Try them, they are OK.
Because the products that can be purchased with CUP are limited, it is not a good idea to change more than CUC 5-10 into CUP at a time, as the CUP will last for a good while.

Exchanging currency

.The USD is no longer a proxy currency in Cuba, and now incurs the same 10% exchange penalty that applies to other foreign currencies.^ Unfortunately, Cuba no longer publishes information on its foreign exchange and gold reserves.

^ The same rule applies when the conflict arises between one or more of the foreign partners and the joint venture or company with totally foreign capital to which the partner or partners belong.

^ My Administration has already begun to notify several foreign nationals that they could no longer enter the United States.

.While it was once the best currency to spend in the country, this is no longer the case...^ Key countries in Europe and, increasingly, Central and South America have made clear that they are no longer conducting "business as usual" with the Castro government.

note that guidebooks older than a year or two are now seriously outdated when it comes to money.
For the overwhelming majority of travelers, it is completely unnecessary to exchange your money (losing) twice. Check to see if your home currency is accepted at the Banco Metropolitano [12]. Over 75% of Cuba's visitors hold Canadian Dollars, Sterling or Euros which are perfectly acceptable. Mexican Pesos, Swiss Francs, Japanese Yen, Australian Dollars and at least four other currencies are also reportedly converted at major banks in Cuba. .If you must change a large sum of home currency for another, make sure to change directly into CUCs, and research exchange rates in advance.^ Payments in freely convertible currency are set according to their value on the international market and conversion into the national currency, for accounting purposes, shall be realized according to the National Bank of Cuba's exchange rates.

For currencies that aren't accepted in Cuba, converting to Euros in your home country will probably be the easiest & cheapest option.
.Banco Central de Cuba [13] publishes official exchange rates on its website.^ Unfortunately, Cuba no longer publishes information on its foreign exchange and gold reserves.

^ Official exchange rate: 1 Cuban peso=U.S.$1 (official rate).

If you must buy Canadian Dollars or Euros first, compare retail rates from different forex vendors: the interbank rates cited by online calculators will underestimate your true exchange costs by 5-10%.
Most travel transactions and expenses are in 'pesos convertibles' or 'chavitos' (CUC$). The best rates for CUC$ are at the banks or CADECA kiosks, not resorts. There's little difference between the rates offered at Cuban airport kiosks or banks. .Consider changing only what you need, because re-conversion will add another exchange cost.^ QUESTION: One more question about the embargo, because you're leaving one big loophole open.

^ QUESTION: But you're not changing, then, the actual restriction on shipping American -- in other words, the six-month ban still applies?

Also, be advised that travelers changing money on the street have been defrauded, with fake or local currency. Caveat emptor!
Changing a very small sum (USD$ 5.) into 'moneda nacional' (CUP) is useful only for theaters, cinemas, local buses, etc. Most tourists will not ever use the 'moneda nacional' on holiday. Travelers or Backpackers with a low budget can save a lot of money in food expenses if they are willing to eat Cheese Pizza and fried eggs.

Traveler's Checks

.Traveler's checks drawn on American banks are not technically valid in Cuba, though many have had success cashing U.S. traveler's checks at major tourist hotels.^ Five (5) licenses were for travel to Cuba by representatives of American pharmaceutical companies to explore possible sales.

^ Remittances from abroad, estimated at $500 - 800 million annually, are a major source of income in Cuba, and help sustain many families.

^ These licenses include 12 authorizations for travel to Cuba by representatives of American pharmaceutical companies to explore possible sales.

American Express checks are difficult to cash due to the likelihood that they were purchased with U.S. dollars. For example, Swiss traveler's checks will be accepted, as long as they are in Swiss francs, even if the checks are made "in licence" of an American bank, as long as the real producer of them is non-American. Visa Traveller's cheques are accepted, though the same caveats about being drawn on an American bank apply. It's better to bring cash to Cuba; resorts accept Euros, Canadian dollars, British pounds, Swiss francs and Hong Kong Dollar currencies without any fees. If backpacking or leaving the resort areas, exchange your currency to CUCs, as foreign currency is not accepted by many locals. .For U.S. dollars, they will charge a penalty of 10%, so it's better to change to Euros, Canadian dollars or Swiss francs before travelling there.^ Once there, they would commonly enrich themselves, robbing millions of dollars from the treasury.

^ Since enactment of the Act, 19 firms from over 10 countries have changed their plans for investment in Cuba or have pulled out of investments there.

ATMs and Credit cards

ATMs are rare in Cuba, with only a handful found in Havana. Most are linked with either the Mastercard/Cirrus or Visa/Plus interbank systems. U.S.-issued cards will not be accepted. Unlike some national systems, only primary accounts (typically checking) are recognized. Even if you find an ATM and meet the above criteria it still may not have sufficient cash for a large withdrawal - if refused, try again and ask for a smaller amount or ask the bank clerks for a cash advance, they can process cash advances.
Visa & Mastercard credit cards (of non-US origin) can usually be used, including for cash advances, but places that accept Visa as payment are extremely limited. Credit cards are charged in US dollars plus 11.24% (the 8% exchange difference plus a 3% fee). The best places to attempt to use a credit/Debit card for a cash withdrawal are at the state run Cadecas / Cambios - rather than banks used by Cubans, using the 'red' (company name) ATMs. Debit cards are generally not accepted, although this does vary from card to card.
As a rule of thumb: if your debit card has a PLUS or CIRRUS logo it may work. If you were able to make a purchase via internet it may work. If it is a USA bank card it won't work.
Many banks will tell you that your debit card will be accepted in Cuba when in fact it will not. Do not rely on ATMs for cash as you may be used to in other countries. Have enough currency or travellers cheques when you enter the country to get by, if necessary.
Other than for use at ATMs and banks, there are generally no facilities for making payments with plastic in hotels, shops and restaurants, necessitating the use of cash.

Banks

Banks often close at 3PM, and earlier on the last day of the month. Cadecas (exchange bureaus) may be open longer, especially in hotels. When going to a bank allow enough time as service is usually slow and many people may already be waiting. Foreigners may get preferred treatment in exchange for a small tip.
You must bring your passport in case you want to exchange traveler's checks or make a credit card advance, although cash can be changed without a passport. Exchange rates do vary from place to place, and some hotels do give significantly worse exchange rates than the banks.

Merchandise

As in any developing country, most of the merchandise available is designed for tourists to take back home. The biggest Cuban exports for tourists are rum, cigars, and coffee, all of which are available at government-owned stores (including the duty free store at the airport) or on the streets. For genuine merchandise, you should pay the official price at the legal stores.
Another thing Cubans do well is music such as salsa, son, and Afro-Cubano. You can purchase CDs or tapes anywhere, but paying the average cost of 20 CUC assures you of quality and supports the artists.
.If you are planning to take big quantities (several boxes or more) of cigars with you, be sure you have purchased them officially from an approved shop that gives you proper purchase documentation.^ QUESTION: One more question about the embargo, because you're leaving one big loophole open.

^ Today, I want to discuss with you four actions the President has decided to take to reach out to the people of Cuba to make their lives more tolerable.

.Foreign nationals are allowed to export up to 50 cigars (generally 25 to a box) without special permits or receipts, but the export of more requires official receipts.^ International economic-association contract: Pact or agreement among one or more national investors and one or more foreign investors, for the joint realization of actions appropriate to an international economic association, without the establishment of a legal entity distinct from each of the parties.

^ A listing of such Specially Designated Nationals may be obtained by calling the Office of Foreign Assets Control at 202/622-2420.

^ Title III allows U.S. nationals to sue foreign companies that profit from American-owned property confiscated by the Cuban regime.

If you buy cigars cheap on streets and you don't have official purchase invoice then your cigars may/will be confiscated. .Also, be advised that any purchase of Cuban cigars outside government-approved stores (even in resorts) has the potential to be fake, and that the "cigar factory worker who steals from the factory" does not exist in any appreciable quantities.^ Those with access to dollars can purchase imported goods at government-run dollar stores.

^ We must, however, do an even better job of sending a concerted message to the Cuban people, and the governing elites, that change is in their interest.

^ On the contrary, we are acting because of new possibilities that exist outside the governments control.

If you find a "deal" from a street vendor, it's incredibly likely you are getting fakes, some of which may not even be made of tobacco. .Always ensure, no matter where you buy, that the Cuban government origin warranty stamp is properly affixed to the cigar box.^ QUESTION: Do you expect that over time these measures will have the effect of eroding support for the Cuban Government?

^ QUESTION: Have you all been in touch with the Cuban Government about this change?

^ We call on the Cuban Government to release Marta Beatriz Roque, to ensure that she receives adequate medical care, and to allow her to carry out her peaceful activities.

.Americans are no longer allowed to bring Cuban cigars back into the U.S., regardless of their value, if they have an OFAC license, or even if they were given as a gift.^ My Administration has already begun to notify several foreign nationals that they could no longer enter the United States.

^ Title III allows U.S. nationals to sue foreign companies that profit from American-owned property confiscated by the Cuban regime.

^ The overarching goal of U.S. policy is to promote a peaceful transition to democracy that will allow Cuba to develop its potential by permitting the Cuban people to choose the future they want.

It is also illegal for Americans to smoke or buy Cuban cigars anywhere in the world.
Officially you'll need permission to export paintings that are larger than 70cm/side. When you buy artwork from approved shop then they'll give you also the required document, that consists of one paper and one stamp that will be glued on back of your painting. Serial numbers on the stamp and paper must match. .Cost of the document is about CUC 2-3. In reality, it is possible that no one will be interested in your paintings.^ Authorization: Document issued by the Executive Committee of the Council of Ministers or a Government Commission, for the realization of one of the forms of foreign investment authorized by this Act, for a specified period.

Medical Tourism

.Cuba has long been a popular Medical Tourism destination for patients worldwide that seek high quality medical care at low costs.^ Healthcare in Cuba: "Medical Apartheid" and Health Tourism Not everyone in Cuba receives substandard healthcare.

^ These facilities are well-equipped to provide their patients with quality modern care.

According to the Association of Caribbean States, nearly 20,000 international patients visited Cuba in 2006 for medical care. Cuba is especially attractive to many Latin American and North American patients given its easy proximity and relaxing environment.
A wide range of medical treatments are provided including joint replacement, cancer treatment, eye surgery, cosmetic surgery and addictions rehabilitation. Costs are about 60 to 80 percent less than U.S. costs. For example, Choice Medical Services [14] a health tourism provider, provides a hip replacement at leading Cuban hospitals for US$5845

Eat

Being that all restaurants are owned by the government and run by underpaid employees, the food in Cuba is notoriously bland. If you are expecting the fiery pepperpot spiciness found on some of the other Caribbean islands, consider that the national dish in Cuba is rice and beans (moros y cristianos). A popular saying goes that the best Cuban food can be found in the United States. Within Cuba, the best food will generally be found in your casa particular or in paladares (locally owned restaurants in private homes).
Black beans are a main staple in Cuban households. Cubans eat mainly pork and chicken for meat. Beef and lobster are controlled by the state, and therefore illegal to sell outside of state owned hotels and restaurants, however special lobster lunch/supper offers are plentiful for tourists. You may see turtle on menus in Paladares, but be aware that they are endangered and eating them is illegal.
Paladares are plentiful, even in the smaller towns. Seating is often limited, so you may need to arrive when they open, usually around 5 or 6PM. If you are staying in a casa particular ask your host for recommendations, as the quality of the food can vary substantially between paladares. Only eat in ones that have a printed menu with prices, otherwise you are very likely to pay two to three times as much as you should. That said, several have taken to printing two different menus, one with local prices and one with foreigner prices. Eating in paladares is perfectly legal, but be aware that if you are taken there by a Cuban, you may be charged extra in order to cover commission of the person who brought you. A supper will cost around 7 to 10 CUC per person.
Eating in state owned hotels and restaurants is significantly more expensive and compares with prices in many first world countries. An average supper with soup, dessert and a glass or two of wine could easily set you back 20 to 30 CUC per person. Note that in these establishment, the vast majority of the employees' income would come from tips (their monthly salary often being less than the cost of one meal), making it a friendly and welcome gesture to tip liberally for good service.
It is difficult to find any restaurants serving breakfast in Cuba outside of resorts; most casas particulares will serve their guests a large breakfast for around 4 CUC per person if requested.
A tasty serving of rice, vegetables, plantains, and pork or beef (called a cajita ["little box" in English]) is an attractive and affordable option, and are generally sold for around US$1 out of people's homes.
You can also find small street vendors selling a variety of foods, typically sandwiches and pizzas for between 2 and 12 CUP. The quality varies from vendor to vendor so when you find a good one take note. .Many of these stores are run from people's living rooms, and buying from them is a good way to help provide some extra income to a Cuban family.^ And that we should explore ways to help the Cuban people without helping the government.

^ Many businesses, including many run by the Cuban Government, and individuals do not accept Cuban pesos.

^ Remittances from abroad, estimated at $500 - 800 million annually, are a major source of income in Cuba, and help sustain many families.

While these meals are satisfying and cheap, be warned that long lines are common and the vendors are rarely in any rush to see everyone fed quickly.

Drink

Cuban national cocktails include the Cuba Libre (rum and cola) and the Mojito (rum, lime, sugar, mint leaves, club soda and ice).
If you request a rum in a small country restaurant do not be surprised if it is only available by the bottle. Havana Club is the national brand and the most popular. Expect to pay $4 for three year old white rum or $8 for seven year old dark rum.
.Cristal is a light beer and is available in "dollar" stores where Cubans with CUCs and visitors may shop.^ Those with access to dollars can purchase imported goods at government-run dollar stores that are not accessible to average Cubans with pesos who must shop in understocked peso stores.

Cubans prefer the Bucanero Fuerte, which at 5.5% alcohol is a strong (hence the "fuerte") darker beer. .Both Cristal and Bucanero are brewed by a joint venture with Labatts of Canada, whose beer is the only Cuban beer sold in CUC. A stronger version, Bucanero Max is also available - primarily available in Havana.^ Cuban officials said early in 1998, there were a total of 332 joint ventures.

^ The fair displayed an array of both foreign and Cuban-manufactured medicines and high-tech medical equipment and services items not available to most Cubans.

^ Joint venture: Cuban commercial company which adopts the form of a registered-share corporation, in which one or more national investors and one or more foreign investors participate as stockholders.

There are also smaller brews, not available everywhere, such as Hatuey and Corona del Mar. These are sold in CUP.

Sleep

.If you want to experience something of the real life of Cubans, the best places to stay are casas particulares (private houses licensed to offer lodging services to foreigners).^ The authorizations of foreign investments, if pertinent, may consign particular facilities and incentives offered to foreign investors in the duty-free zones and industrial parks.

^ The Cuban Government in the mid-1990s permitted Cubans to offer certain services privately under strict government scrutiny, but in 1997 introduced heavy taxes which forced many out of business.

^ The investments in real estate discussed in the previous paragraph can be utilized for: a) Housing and other structures destined for private residence or tourism activities of persons who are not permanent residents in Cuba; b) Housing or offices of foreign companies; c) Real estate development for use in tourism.

.They are cheaper than hotels (average CUC 20/room) and the food (breakfast CUC 3-4, dinner CUC 7-10) is almost always better than you would get in a hotel.^ A closer look at some basic food groups reveals that Cubans now have less access to cereals, tubers, and meats than they had in the late 1940's.

^ Rather than to get into the details of that, we would be glad to provide you more information on this.

Casas particulares are plentiful even in small towns; they are somewhat more expensive in Havana than elsewhere. .Note that any service offered by a casa particular other than accommodation, such as driving you to the bus station, will be added to your bill, regardless of whether this is stated up front.^ We would be willing to participate, but we go in with no offer on the table other than we're willing to talk about this in the hope that something can be done.

^ Such transfers must be in a currency other than U.S. dollars.

^ However, it should be noted that in 1957, Cuba had more television stations (23) than any other country in Latin America, easily outdistancing larger countries such as Mexico (12 television stations) and Venezuela (10).

Items such as bottled water supplied with your meal will also have a charge. .Always make sure that you talk to the owner about what things will cost when you arrive to avoid unpleasant surprises later.^ I think on the embargo, I'm not sure a prolonged argument about whether or not it's good is particularly useful; we can rehearse it if you'd like.

^ What are we talking about, and can you explain that a bit more?

^ And also, the expedited licensing you're talking about for the sale of drugs -- are we still talking about a ban on all medicines that were developed in the last 25 years and stuff like that?

.These houses are under a lot of restrictions by the government, so make sure that you are staying at a legal "casa". A legal house will have a sticker on the front door (often a blue sign on a white background), you will notice these as you walk past houses.^ QUESTION: Do you expect that over time these measures will have the effect of eroding support for the Cuban Government?

^ QUESTION: When do you expect these measures to take effect under executive order?

.Upon arrival, the houseowner will need to take down your passport details and how long you will be staying for.^ I mean, it has been more than 30 years since you applied the embargo and Castro is still in power; so how long are we going to wait until the embargo is going to have an effect?

.Some Cubans do offer illegal accommodation and although they are cheaper, the quality of the food and service is generally lower.^ A closer look at some basic food groups reveals that Cubans now have less access to cereals, tubers, and meats than they had in the late 1940's.

^ Under this accord, Cubans interdicted at sea or who enter the Guantanamo Naval Base illegally are returned to Cuba provided that they do not have any protection concerns.

.If found, the Cubans will risk a large fine and it is best to avoid illegal casas completely.^ Some of the Cuban elite must know that the regime's recalcitrance now increases the risks of instability, and have, I think, a strong self-interest in avoiding that scenario.

If travelling around the island, it is recommended to ask the casa owners if they have friends or family in the city you are going to. There is a network of casas and the family will gladly organise for you to be met by their friends off the bus at your next destination.
If travelling by bus, you will be accosted by jineteros (hustlers) trying to lead you to a casa, where they will get a commission and you will be charged the extra. For the best rates, arrange your accommodation in advance, either by asking your host to recommend someone or by using a casa particular association. Some will let you book accommodation over the internet before your trip, and will go out of their way to arrange accommodation for you while you are there.
.Most small cities and larger towns have at least one state-run hotel, which is often in a restored colonial building.^ It is no exaggeration to state that during the 1950's, the Cuban people were among the most informed in the world, living in an uncharacteristically large media market for such a small country.

The prices range from around CUC 25 to CUC 100, depending on what you are getting. Resorts and high-end Havana hotels can be significantly more expensive.
.Cubans hosting foreigners for free (or through hospitality websites such as CouchSurfing) is technically illegal and risk a large fine if caught.^ The freely convertible currency which constitutes payment of foreign capital should enter the country through the authorized banking entity for use in operations in the national territory.

^ The fair showcased Cuban elite hospitals promoted by "health tourism" enterprises such as SERVIMED and MEDICUBA. Members of the Cuban Communist Party elite and the military high-command are allowed to use these hospitals free of charge.

^ It seems possible that the modest growth the Cuban economy experienced during 1992-95, largely as a result of foreign investment and tourism, has reached a plateau.

.Some will bend the rules, but be cautious if you choose to take up the offer (e.g.^ QUESTION: And can you take up the broader question of why so little, in a sense, after 39 years of this embargo?

don't walk out the front door if you see a police car nearby, especially if you look obviously foreign).

Learn

The University of Havana [15] offers both long and short-term Spanish courses. If you do chose to study at the university, try and see if you can obtain a student "carne" which will enable you to benefit from the same advantages as Cuban students (museums at a 25th of the price, entrance to nightclubs full of mostly Cubans)>
Cuban museums are plentiful, frequently open, and usually charge only one or two CUC for admission. .You may get a guided tour from one of the staff members; even if you do not speak Spanish, this can be useful.^ Registering with the embassy may help you to replace lost identity documents or help family members contact you in case of an emergency.

.They will generally make you check your bags, and charge a small fee for the privilege of taking pictures inside.^ Today, I want to discuss with you four actions the President has decided to take to reach out to the people of Cuba to make their lives more tolerable.

Work

.The average official salary for Cubans is about US$15 per month.^ With increased fertilizers and management attention, the 1995-1996 harvest improved, according to official Cuban estimates, to about 4.4 million tons.

.Non-Cubans can only obtain a business/work visa or a work permit through a Cuban business or a foreign business registered in Cuba.^ The report is not a blueprint for Cuba's future, since only the Cuban people and its democratically elected leaders can chart the country's future course.

^ Nevertheless, Cuban officials said in early 1998, that they intend to be more selective in the investment they permit in Cuba.

^ Congress passes the Cuban Democracy Act, which prohibits foreign-based subsidiaries of U.S. companies from trading with Cuba, travel to Cuba by U.S. citizens, and family remittances to Cuba.

Business visas are generally for up to three months. Work permits are renewable annually.

Stay safe

.Cuba is generally a very safe country; strict and prominent policing, combined with neighborhood watch style-programs keep the streets safe from violent crime.^ The U.S. and Cuba issue a joint communique agreeing to take measures to ensure that migration between the two countries is safe, legal, and orderly.

^ At the United Nations General Assembly in December 1997, more countries than ever before co-sponsored the U.S. resolution on the human rights situation in Cuba.

^ In April, Argentina's President Menem said, "President Clinton and I agreed to maintain our two countries' polices toward Cuba.

Nonetheless, a certain degree of common-sense and caution is advisable, especially in major cities. Visitors should avoid coming to the attention of the Cuban police and security services.
Drug laws can be draconian and their implementation unpredictable. The same may be said about the laws concerning prostitution. The importation, possession or production of pornography is strictly prohibited. .It is not uncommon to see a dog jogging on the luggage carousel sniffing arriving luggage, especially when arriving from countries prone to drug-trafficking, so be sure to lock and/or wrap your luggage to avoid any problems in this regard.^ And for that very same reason, foreign companies will have a strong incentive to immediately cease trafficking in expropriated property -- the only sure way to avoid future lawsuits.

Tourists are generally advised not to involve themselves in the following three areas: politics, drugs, or pornography/prostitution. .It should be noted however that Cuba is not altogether totalitarian, and usually mild comments concerning the regime will not lead to arrest or other penalties.^ Should Cuba choose not to purchase from the U.S., it can purchase medicine or medical equipment from other countries.

^ We should, however, resort to sanctions only after other appropriate diplomatic options have been aggressively pursued and have failed, or would be inadequate.

^ However, it should be noted that in 1957, Cuba had more television stations (23) than any other country in Latin America, easily outdistancing larger countries such as Mexico (12 television stations) and Venezuela (10).

In fact, many employees and locals will often openly agree with the criticisms, especially away from the major cities. .That being said, there is very little tolerance amongst the authorities for any comments made against the Revolution, Fidel, Che, etc., and an extensive network of informers exist who aren't above turning in neighbors who espouse politically unsound beliefs.^ The criminal dangers that are now being attempted against this noble and unrenounceable aim were denounced and the congress reaffirmed that the Cuban revolution will live while there remains one communist, one revolutionary, one patriot to defend it.

^ AMB. DOBBINS: I mean, I think there are some who are going to say we did too little, there are some who are going to say we've done too much.

As such, it is advisable not to make any such comments.
.As far as women are concerned, they will receive a lot of attention from men, especially away from the more touristy centre of Havana.^ While U.S. firms were moving away from sugar, they were rapidly investing in a range of other ventures, especially in infrastructure development.

Avoiding cleavage and short skirts will lessen the attention, although by no means stop it. Do not get annoyed by the whistles or hissing sounds, as Cuban women often acknowledge and welcome the attention. Acknowledging it too enthusiastically however will probably encourage the men though and is best avoided.

Scams

A few well established scams exist:
  • Real-looking discount cigars of dubious authenticity being offered by street touts. .Quite often though these are indeed genuine articles which have been stolen or collected over a long period of time by cigar workers and are sold at substantial discount on legal and taxed cigars.^ AMB. DAVIDOW: I think what will happen over time -- and indeed we have already seen this -- is that these measures will help create in Cuba other centers of activity.

    If you are unable to distinguish genuine cigars then you should only buy from the official cigar dealers. .The best people to buy untaxed (illegal but genuine) cigars from tend to be hotel doormen who will not be offended if asked "if they know where you can get cheap cigars" and may lead you to a room in the hotel used for this purpose.^ Under this accord, Cubans interdicted at sea or who enter the Guantanamo Naval Base illegally are returned to Cuba provided that they do not have any protection concerns.

    .If buying untaxed cigars you should not pay more than say CUC 50 for a box of say 25 Esplendidos (around ten times cheaper than taxed cigars a rule of thumb).^ Press reports indicate that during 1996 more than 7,000 "health tourists" paid Cuba $25 million for medical services.

    ^ In 1991, it came from eight countries; at present, it comes from more than 50 nations.

    ^ The disciplines that the EU and we have adopted can do more than the U.S., acting alone, can do to advance the interests of U.S. claimants and to protect investors around the world.

    Be careful that you see the box you are buying open to prove there are in fact cigars in it. Also often stickers are included to allow you to seal the box as if it had been taxed. There is a risk that customs will confiscate these on exit, but for less than 50 cigars it is very unlikely. .If carrying more then they should be split between the members of your party.^ They may have the objective of carrying out any activity authorized by the contracting parties.

    .Since the activity of selling untaxed cigars stolen or collection from the factory is illegal and the locals are often very short of money outside the main tourist season it is possible to haggle the prices very low, but since a typical salary for a hotel worker may be the equivalent of USD 20 per month it may seem unfair.
  • "Friendly" locals inviting tourists to bars for a drink (normally a Mojito) or to a restaurant; the tourist will be charged two to three times the normal price, and the spoils split between the establishment and the "friend".
  • Short-changing in bars or taxis or giving national pesos (CUP) in change for convertible pesos (CUC).^ Often, the United States has stood alone in that struggle, because our allies and friends believed that pressuring Cuba to change was the wrong way to go.

    ^ Two of the countries ranking ahead of Cuba in rice production in 1958 -- Colombia and Peru -- have since seen their rice production grow by more than three fold.

    ^ Since then, the number of radios per capita in Argentina has grown three times as fast as in Cuba.

    Or, offering to swap a 1 peso for a coin apparently of equal value with a picture of Che Guevara (the swap is of a CUC for CUP which is worth about 20 times less).
  • Water is often sold around tourist areas. Sometimes these bottles have been filled with local tap water and re-sealed (which can be poisonous). You can usually see this tampering on the bottle, but not always, in any case tap water will taste markedly different to bottled water and should be avoided in all cases. .If in doubt you should discard the water.
  • Locals offer to swap money at a 'local bank' where the natives can get the best rates and ask you to remain outside whilst they do the deal as your presence would drive the rate up.^ The Cuban Government defaulted on most of its international debt in 1986, and remains outside of international financial institutions such as the World Bank.

    If you give them your money you will never see them again.
  • Credit cards scams are common and accordingly money should only be withdrawn in reputable hotels or banks. Ideally carry cash with you, USD, EUR and GBP are almost universally accepted (in order of popularity) despite being illegal to spend.
.In Havana it is important to always be careful when using money.^ In fact, tens of millions of dollars have been diverted to support and subsidize Cuba's biomedical research programs--money that could have been used for primary care facilities.

.When taking a taxi, ask someone familiar with the system what the approximate fare should be, as many drivers will try to set an artificially high fare before departing.^ To earn dollar tips, many skilled doctors, teachers, engineers, and scientists are working in restaurants or as taxi drivers.

If in doubt, insist that they use the meter. You can almost be sure that any predetermined fare from the airport is at least 5-10 CUC higher than it should be - insist on the meter.
.Shop assistants have been known not to give change and go on serving the next customer, assuming the tourist will not be able to speak enough Spanish to question the matter.^ We're going to start taking questions in Spanish now.

^ MR. FOLEY: We're going to take one more question in English, and then start taking some questions in Spanish.

In addition, some ambiguity exists between whether or not published prices are in CUC or CUP, and many vendors will take CUC when CUP is due and pocket the difference without telling you of your mistake. If in doubt, observe what the other customers are doing before making your purchase.
Credit card scams are common. Do not let your credit card out of your hands, and watch as the salesperson passes the card in the machine. .If anything seems strange, DO NOT SIGN! Merchants in small shops may take your card to an adjacent bank counter and use it to take out a cash advance.^ U.S. banks may handle the financial aspects of licensed transactions, but may not use blocked funds to pay for such shipments.

Look closely at your receipts, if the receipt indicates 'Venta' and a dollar or CUC amount, this means that is has been passed as a cash advance (which will be kept by the dishonest employees). Credit card facilities are however generally so limited to non-existent in shops that it is customary and more practical to just pay with cash.
Often, real products such as rum and cigars may be switched by employees for fake ones which are under the counter or in a storeroom.
Jineteros are a problem in more hidden areas of larger cities, and will try to sell tourists anything from restaurants to cigars to drugs. .Note that this type of soliciation is illegal in Cuba and most will leave you alone if you ignore them or politely say no for fear of police attention.^ The EU also reported that the EU Human Rights Working Group in Havana ~~~~had been in touch with dissidents and noted that "there has been no substantive change in the political and economic situation in Cuba."

.If you do find yourself in a situation with a more relentless jinetero, tell them that you have been in the country for several weeks, that you are a student at the university or that you are from a third-world country (which you could pass as a citizen of: if you're white, Brazil usually works since it's a non-Spanish speaking country.^ Important transformations also happened in the working of the world economy, like the process of globalization, the large-scale action of the ever more powerful transnational companies and the boom of neoliberalism as a theory and practice that they are trying to impose on the Third World.

^ Such third country transactions only cost an estimated 2-3% more than purchases from the U.S. as a result of higher shipping costs.

^ QUESTION: One more question about the embargo, because you're leaving one big loophole open.

I've also tried Russia) and they will probably leave you alone. Many rely on tourists with who are unfamiliar with the system and comparatively rich, so ideally you should try to make an impression otherwise.

Stay healthy

.Cuba is considered very healthy except for the water; even many Cubans boil their water.^ But the focus of these is very much on the future -- on building a different Cuba and on preparing the Cuban people to build a different Cuba.

That said, some travellers drink untreated water without ill effect. The best solution is bottled water and lots of it, especially for visitors who are not used to the 30+°C/85+°F temperatures. Bottled water (agua embotellada) is easily found and costs between .65 and 2 CUC for a 1.5L bottle, depending on the shop. .It should be noted that the mineral count (total dissolved solids) of bottled water is quite high compared to elsewhere in the world, so if you are planning to visit Cuba for an extended period of time (e.g.^ In October 1990, Castro announced that Cuba had entered a "special period in time of peace" and that the economy would function as if in time of war until the crisis had passed.

as student or on work permit), it might be a useful idea to bring a small jug/sports bottle water filter with a few cartridges along to further purify the water.
Cuban milk is usually unpasteurised, and can make visitors sick. Additionally, tourists should be wary of vegetables washed in tap water. Despite the warnings, most Cuban food is safe to eat and you do not need to be paranoid.
The island is tropical and thus the host to a number of diseases. .Some recommend an aggressive program of inoculations when planning a trip to Cuba, but most travellers come with little or none.^ When change comes, we expect Cuba to rapidly emerge as one of the fastest-growing, most economically exciting markets in the region.

Hepatitis B and Tetanus shots are recommended by most travel clinics. Hepatitis B is generally spread by direct blood or sexual contact, the innoculation course requires three injections over several weeks, followed by a blood test to determine if its actually worked, shorter courses are available. (Interestingly the hepatitis B vaccine is actually produced in Cuba for world-wide use). Generally tetanus immunisation is more important, tetanus is a risk with any wound or cut especially in a dirty contaminated wound.
.HIV/AIDS infection is less than 0.1%, however as always, you should exercise care and make sure you or your partner wears a condom should you become sexually active while in Cuba.^ Today, I want to discuss with you four actions the President has decided to take to reach out to the people of Cuba to make their lives more tolerable.

^ However, it should be noted that in 1957, Cuba had more television stations (23) than any other country in Latin America, easily outdistancing larger countries such as Mexico (12 television stations) and Venezuela (10).

.Cuba has one of the highest number of doctors available per capita in the world (around one doctor for every 170 people), making doctors readily accessible throughout most of the island.^ Cuba had 45 television sets per 1,000 inhabitants in 1957, by far the most in Latin America and fifth in the world, behind only Monaco, the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom.

^ Cuba's infant mortality rate of 32 per 1,000 live births in 1957 was the lowest in Latin America and the 13th lowest in the world, according to UN data.

^ Pre-Castro Cuba ranked third in Latin America in per capita food consumption; today, it ranks last.

Your hotel reception should be able to point you to the closest doctor. .(So plentiful in fact are doctors in Cuba, that it is not uncommon to see doctors selling paintings, books or other artwork to tourists at the flea market to make money in what must be plenty of idle time.^ In fact, tens of millions of dollars have been diverted to support and subsidize Cuba's biomedical research programs--money that could have been used for primary care facilities.

^ Argentina's Foreign Minister DiTella demanded the political democratization and (economic liberalization of Cuba: "Cuba must democratize, it must respect human rights, it must opt for a normal market economy."

^ This was in spite of the fact that the latest available food consumption data for Cuba at the time was from 1948-49, almost a decade before the other Latin American countries' data being used in the comparison.

)
Finding medication is however often difficult. It is highly recommended to stock up on off-the-shelf medication before heading to Cuba, as pharmacies lack many medications that westerners might expect to find, such as aspirin, immodium and diarrhoea relief medication. Do not attempt to import psychoactive drugs into Cuba. Havana also features a clinic (and emergency room) for foreigners, which offers extremely prompt service.
Toiletries such as shampoo, conditioner, razors, tampons and condoms are also hard to come across and expensive so stock up before you leave.

Police, Fire and Medical contact numbers

The emergency number in Cuba is: 106.

Respect

.Cubans are generally friendly and helpful people.^ And that we should explore ways to help the Cuban people without helping the government.

.Keep in mind that they make about US$15 a month; if they can help you, they probably will, but they may expect you to return the favor.^ We must send a message to that leadership that they too may have a role to play in a future democratic Cuba if they help to bring that about and if they submit to democratic processes.

^ Registering with the embassy may help you to replace lost identity documents or help family members contact you in case of an emergency.

If you are invited into a Cuban's home for supper, take the invitation. You will really be treated like a guest of honor. It is a great way to get a feel for the culture. Of course, ordinary Cubans are not permitted to host this type of event, but it goes on as a matter of course.
.One way to help local Cubans is by staying in casas particulares and eating in paladares.^ And that we should explore ways to help the Cuban people without helping the government.

.While free enterprise is usually banned, several years ago the government began selling expensive licenses to individuals wishing to open up rooms for rent in their houses, or set up a few tables on their porch and cook out of their kitchens.^ During the first few years of the 1900s, an American military government ruled Cuba.

^ Over the past five years, we have licensed over $2 billion in private humanitarian aid from U.S. NGOs and individuals to the people of Cuba.

^ The U.S. Government has licensed more than $227 million in humanitarian donations of medicines and medical supplies to Cuba over the last four years.

Not only are the licenses very expensive but the fees must be paid monthly regardless of income, leaving those less fortunate the possibility of actually losing money. .Not only is it more interesting to stay with locals and eat in their homes, you're actually directly benefiting them in one of the few ways possible.^ QUESTION: One more question about the embargo, because you're leaving one big loophole open.

^ We strongly believe that furthering a democratic transition as expeditiously as possible is the only way to ensure stability on the island.

^ QUESTION: But you're not changing, then, the actual restriction on shipping American -- in other words, the six-month ban still applies?

.Do not push Cubans into a discussion of political issues, as this could have serious repercussions on you and the person you are talking to.^ So, could you talk to all that?

Traditionally Cuba is Catholic, but the government has often cracked down on shows of faith. .Recently, however, it is less frowned upon since Pope John Paul II's visit, and there are more important issues to deal with.^ John Paul II has publicly made clear his hope that his visit will propel Cuba toward a process of fundamental change, just as his first visit to Poland did.

^ In preparation for the visit of Pope John Paul II in January 1998, the government further relaxed its restrictions on religion, especially toward the Roman Catholic Church.

^ But there is agreement that the Popes visit generated huge currents of energy and excitement within Cuba.

.Other religions in Cuba are hybrid religions, mixing elements of Catholicism with others of traditional African religions.^ Santeria, a blend of native African religions and Roman Catholicism, is the most widely practiced religion in Cuba.

The most common one is called "Santeria" and their priests can be recognised by the full white regalia with bead necklaces that they wear. Women going through the process to become priests are not allowed (amongst other things) to touch other people, so if your casa owner is distant and dressed all in white, do not be too surprised. .There are many museums in Cuba (especially in the Southern cities like Santiago de Cuba) which depict the history and traditions of Santeria.^ Other major cities --Santiago de Cuba, Camaguey, Santa Clara, Holguin, Guantanamo, Matanzas, Cienfuegos, Pinar del Rio.

^ Castro had established the movement in Mexico, where he was exiled after the failed July 26, 1953, attack on the Moncada army barracks at Santiago de Cuba.

^ There are many indications that the investment environment in Cuba is unstable and risky.

Contact

.Cuba is, by design, one of the most expensive countries to communicate in.^ Cuba has been among the most literate countries in Latin America since well before the Castro revolution, when it ranked fourth.

^ Cuba now has diplomatic or commercial relations with most countries in Latin American and the Caribbean.

^ When change comes, we expect Cuba to rapidly emerge as one of the fastest-growing, most economically exciting markets in the region.

.Incoming phonecalls to Cuba cost about €1 / minute, even through services like Skype.^ Yet, even foreign businessmen in Cuba describe the situation as "desperate," and foreign investors seem increasingly skittish about becoming enmeshed in such a morass.

.Outgoing calls from Cuba are similarly expensive, and can be as high as €5 per minute for making international when roaming with your cellphone from overseas.^ And I called on the international community to condemn Cuba's actions.

^ Passport Services information can be obtained by calling the 24-hour, 7-day a week automated system ($.35 per minute) or live operators 8 a.m.

^ We are making real progress in strengthening the international effort to bring democracy to Cuba.

.Having internet access at your house is illegal, though illegal connections (usually through a modem set up at a school or workplace) can be obtained for about 30 CUC per month.^ To access CABB, dial the modem number: (301-946-4400 (it will accommodate up to 33,600 bps), set terminal communications program to N-8-1 (no parity, 8 bits, 1 stop bit); and terminal emulation to VT100.

In many cities the only way for tourists to access the internet is through the government's communications centers. Look for buildings bearing the name "ETECSA", which stands for Empresa de Telecomunicaciones de Cuba S.A. ETECSA also has internet stations in some of the larger government hotels and resorts.
The connection speed is comparable to analog dial-up speed in Havana or slower in smaller locations, at a cost of 6 CUC / hour.
This is payable by purchasing a prepaid scratch card with a PIN code granting you access for one hour. .The same card can be used throughout the country at any ETECSA terminal, allowing you to disconnect after your session and use the remaining time on the card further at the next hotel/city you go to.^ The Spanish were then pressured to allow free trade, and the country remained wealthy.

WI-FI in hotels and restaurants is certainly uncommon if not non-existent and tourists should not rely on this being available when planning their means of communication.

Phone

The country code for Cuba is 53.
The emergency number is 116. The information number is 113.
GSM cell phones will work in Cuba (900 MHz).
.Cellphones can be rented at several stores in Havana, including one in the airport.^ Administrative subdivisions: 14 provinces, including the city of Havana, and one special municipality (Isle of Youth).

.The rates are 9 CUC per day (6 CUC for the phone and 3 CUC for the SIM card), plus about 36 cents a minute for prepaid cards.^ Passport Services information can be obtained by calling the 24-hour, 7-day a week automated system ($.35 per minute) or live operators 8 a.m.

If you bring an unlocked GSM phone operating at 900 MHz (or quad-band world phone) you can buy a SIM card for 111 CUC, plus your prepaid minutes. .If you're staying two weeks or more it makes sense to bring a cheap phone, buy a SIM card and prepaid minutes, then give the phone to a Cuban friend when you leave.^ QUESTION: One more question about the embargo, because you're leaving one big loophole open.

^ Today, I want to discuss with you four actions the President has decided to take to reach out to the people of Cuba to make their lives more tolerable.

.Cellphones are among the most desired items for Cubans (bring a case for the phone too, Cubans are very fussy about keeping their phones scratch-free).^ The fair displayed an array of both foreign and Cuban-manufactured medicines and high-tech medical equipment and services items not available to most Cubans.

You will have to go to a cellphone store with your friend and sign a paper to give the phone to your friend. Don't give your friend an unlimited plan that charges to your credit card!
  • Granma has a daily [16] edition and an international [17] version.
  • Juventud Rebelde, [18].
  • Cuba Vision, [19] is the national television station.
  • Radio Reloj, [20] broadcasts news 24 hours and states the time every minute on the minute — dos cuarenta y dos minutos...
  • Radio Rebelde, [21], another news radio station.
  • Cuba Holiday News, [22], online news channel, with selected news for people interested on travelling to Cuba.
  • Havana Times, [23], Photos, News Briefs and Features from Havana, Cuba.
Most of the radio stations are available live online [24].

Television

.If you're staying at a hotel or casa particular, it's likely there will be a television, and watching Cuban television is a good place to observe Cuba's unique mix of vibrant culture, sports and controversial politics.^ No vessel carrying goods or passengers to or from Cuba or carrying goods in which Cuba or a Cuban national has any interest may enter a U.S. port.

^ The international community is committed to seeing freedom reach Cuba's shores and the Cuban people assume their rightful place in the family of democratic nations.

^ U.S. government lifts prohibition on travel to Cuba and allows U.S. citizens to spend $100 on Cuban goods during their visits.

.The Cuban telenovelas are one of the state's key instruments for addressing sexual taboos and educating young people about AIDS, for example.^ We can help to lessen the Cuban peoples dependence on the Cuban state by addressing humanitarian needs, aiding the development of a civil society and strengthening the role of the Church and other non-governmental organizations.

^ It is no exaggeration to state that during the 1950's, the Cuban people were among the most informed in the world, living in an uncharacteristically large media market for such a small country.

^ For example, we will continue to verify that medicines reach the Cuban people and are not diverted to other uses.

The locally produced cartoons are the most interesting and uniquely Cuban. They range from abstract and artsy to informative to entertaining.
The most famous of the genre is the children's program Elpidio Valdés, which chronicles the adventures of a band of rebels in the 19th century revolt against the Spanish. The mix of cartoon slapstick humor and images of violent revolution (dashing revolutionaries stealing rifles, blowing up Spanish forts, and sticking pistols into the mouths of goofy Spanish generals) in a program geared at children is simultaneously delightful and disturbing.
One of the channels is called the "Educational Channel" (Canal Educativo) and its purpose is to teach Cubans subjects like Mathematics and Grammar through the television.
This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.CUBA (the aboriginal name), a republic, the largest and most populous of the West India Islands, included between the meridians of 74° 7' and 84° 57' W. longitude and (roughly) the parallels of 19° 48' and 23° 13' N. latitude.^ Cuba, "The Pearl of the Antilles", is the largest and westernmost island of the West Indies.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Cuba 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Official name: Republic of Cuba .
  • Cuba - HFA-PEDIA 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.eird.org [Source type: Academic]

^ CUBA (the aboriginal name), a republic, the largest and most populous of the West India Islands, included between the meridians of 74° 7' and 84° 57' W. longitude and (roughly) the parallels of 19° 48' and 23° 13' N. latitude .

.It divides the entrance to the Gulf of Mexico into two passages of nearly equal width, - the Strait of Florida, about I io m.^ It divides the entrance to the Gulf of Mexico into two passages of nearly equal width, - the Strait of Florida , about I io m.

^ The south coast is washed by the Caribbean Sea, the north coast by the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico, and in the east the Windward Passage separates Cuba from Haiti.
  • Cuba Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Cuba 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/world/countries/cuba.html?nav=el 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.washingtonpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cuba is located ninety miles south of Key West, and lies at the entrance to the Gulf of Mexico between Florida and Central America.
  • Brief History of Cuba 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fiu.edu [Source type: Original source]

wide between .Capes Hicacos in Cuba and Arenas in Florida (Key West being a little over i oo m.^ Capes Hicacos in Cuba and Arenas in Florida (Key West being a little over i oo m.

^ Cuba is located ninety miles south of Key West, and lies at the entrance to the Gulf of Mexico between Florida and Central America.
  • Brief History of Cuba 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.fiu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Often called the 'Rolling Stones of salsa', the group will perform in Key West, Florida on January 28, ending a long absence from the United States.

from .Havana); and the Yucatan Channel, about 130 m.^ Havana); and the Yucatan Channel, about 130 m.

wide between .Capes San Antonio and Catoche.^ The first, the Organ mountains, in Pinar del Rio, rises in a sandy, marshy region near Cape San Antonio.

^ Capes San Antonio and Catoche.

.On the N.E., E. and S.E., narrower channels separate it from the Bahamas, Haiti (50 m.^ On the N.E., E. and S.E., narrower channels separate it from the Bahamas , Haiti (50 m.

) and Jamaica (85 m.). .In 1908, by the opening of a railway along the Florida Keys, the time of passage by water between Cuba and the United States was reduced to a few hours.^ In 1908, by the opening of a railway along the Florida Keys, the time of passage by water between Cuba and the United States was reduced to a few hours.

^ The United States and Cuba open interests sections in each others capitals.

^ At that time, too, the United States was quite isolated.
  • Cuba and US government excerpted from the book Rogue States The Rule of Force in World Affairs by Noam chomsky South End Press, 2000, paper 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.thirdworldtraveler.com [Source type: Original source]

.The island is long and narrow, somewhat in the form of an irregular crescent, convex toward the N. It has a decided pitch to the S. Its length from Cape Maisi to Cape San Antonio along a medial line is about 730 m.; its breadth, which averages about 50 m., ranges from a maximum of 160 m.^ The island is long and narrow, somewhat in the form of an irregular crescent , convex toward the N. It has a decided pitch to the S. Its length from Cape Maisi to Cape San Antonio along a medial line is about 730 m.; its breadth, which averages about 50 m., ranges from a maximum of 160 m.

^ Its western extremity, Cape San Antonio, approaches to within 130 miles of Yucatán , and its easternmost point, Cape Maisí, is within 50 miles of Haiti , the Windward Passage separating the two islands, while the southern end of Florida is less than 100 miles from the northern coast of Cuba.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Cuba 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At Havana the mean temperature is about 76° F., with extreme monthly oscillations ranging on the average from 6° to 12° F. for different months, and with a range between the means of the coldest and warmest months of 10 (70° to 80°); temperatures below 50° or above 90° being rare.

to a minimum of about .22 M. The total area is estimated at 41,634 sq.^ Total area (sq km) .
  • Cuba -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ M. The total area is estimated at 41,634 sq.

^ Total area (sq mi) .
  • Cuba -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

m. without the surrounding keys and the .Isle of Pines (area about i180 sq.^ Isle of Pines (area about i180 sq.

^ Its area is about 45,000 square miles, including the Isle of Pines, which lies immediately south of its western extremity.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Cuba 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

m.), and including these is approximately .44,164. The geography of the island is still very imperfectly known, and all figures are approximate only.^ The geography of the island is still very imperfectly known, and all figures are approximate only.

^ Most of all, I wasn’t ever trying to tell Cuba’s story, but only my own, as I passed through the valleys and towns that dot the island’s landscape.

^ What these "experts" still do not understand is that Castro cannot survive without the excuse of the "imperialist monster" bullying the "little island" only 90 miles away.
  • The Real Cuba 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC therealcuba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The coast line, including larger bays, but excluding reefs, islets, keys and all minute sinuosities, is about 2500 m.^ The coast line, including larger bays, but excluding reefs, islets, keys and all minute sinuosities, is about 2500 m.

^ Cuba's coastline is marked by bays, reefs, keys, and islets.
  • Food in Cuba - Cuban Food, Cuban Cuisine - traditional, popular, dishes, recipe, diet, history, common, meals, rice, main, people, favorite, make, customs, fruits, country, bread, vegetables, bread, drink 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.foodbycountry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On both the N. and the S. side of the island there are long chains of islets and reefs and coral keys (of which it is estimated there are 1300), which limit access to probably half of the coast, and on the N. render navigation difficult and dangerous.

in length. .The N. littoral is characterized by bluffs, which grow higher and higher toward the east, rising to 600 ft.^ The N. littoral is characterized by bluffs, which grow higher and higher toward the east, rising to 600 ft.

at Cape Maisi. .They are marked by distinct terraces.^ They are marked by distinct terraces.

.The southern coast near Cape Maisi is low and sandy.^ The southern coast near Cape Maisi is low and sandy.

^ The first, the Organ mountains, in Pinar del Rio, rises in a sandy, marshy region near Cape San Antonio.

^ The same is true of the chains that coalesce with these near Cape Maisi and diverge northwesterly along the N. coast of the island.

.From Guantanamo to Santiago it rises in high escarpments, a.nd W. of Santiago, where the Sierra Maestra runs close to the sea, there is a very high abrupt shore.^ From Guantanamo to Santiago it rises in high escarpments, a.nd W. of Santiago , where the Sierra Maestra runs close to the sea, there is a very high abrupt shore.

^ One of the disputed actions, the closing of the prison facility at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, has long been a high-profile issue the media can hardly dodge.
  • Cuba | NewsBusters.org 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

^ On the N. shore, beginning at the W., Bahia Honda , Havana , Matanzas , Cardenas , Nuevitas and Nipe; and on the S. shore running westward Guantanamo , Santiago and Cienfuegos , are harbours of the first class, several of them among the best of the world.

.To the W. of Manzanillo it sinks again, and throughout most of the remaining distance to Cape San Antonio is low, with a sandy or marshy littoral; at places sand hills fringe the shore; near Trinidad there are hills of considerable height; and the coast becomes high and rugged W. of Point Fisga, in the province of Pinar del Rio.^ Los Jazmines -Pinar del Rio .
  • Cuba isla | Cuba island | Cuba 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.cubaisla.com [Source type: General]

^ To the W. of Manzanillo it sinks again, and throughout most of the remaining distance to Cape San Antonio is low, with a sandy or marshy littoral; at places sand hills fringe the shore; near Trinidad there are hills of considerable height; and the coast becomes high and rugged W. of Point Fisga, in the province of Pinar del Rio .

^ Cayo Levisa -Pinar del Rio .
  • Cuba isla | Cuba island | Cuba 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.cubaisla.com [Source type: General]

.On both the N. and the S. side of the island there are long chains of islets and reefs and coral keys (of which it is estimated there are 1300), which limit access to probably half of the coast, and on the N. render navigation difficult and dangerous.^ A beautiful Caribbean Island, Cuba has it all - Mountains, lush mangrove & rain forests, tropical beaches, and astonishing coral reefs.

^ Cuba's coastline is marked by bays, reefs, keys, and islets.
  • Food in Cuba - Cuban Food, Cuban Cuisine - traditional, popular, dishes, recipe, diet, history, common, meals, rice, main, people, favorite, make, customs, fruits, country, bread, vegetables, bread, drink 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.foodbycountry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are four primary reef systems which are each equal to or larger than the entire Florida Keys reef.

.On the S. they are covered with mangroves.^ On the S. they are covered with mangroves.

.A large part of the southern littoral is subject to overflow, and much more of it is permanently marshy.^ A large part of the southern littoral is subject to overflow, and much more of it is permanently marshy.

^ One other factor in the proclaimed recovery of the Cuban economy were the remittances from Cuban-Americans, now much diminished, which for a while constituted a large part of the external inputs into the Cuban Economy.

.The Zapata Swamp near Cienfuegos is 600 sq.^ The Zapata Swamp near Cienfuegos is 600 sq.

m. in area; other large swamps are the .Majaguillar, E. of Cardenas, and the Cienaga del Buey, S. of the Cauto river.^ Majaguillar, E. of Cardenas , and the Cienaga del Buey, S. of the Cauto river.

.The Isle of Pines in its northern part is hilly and wooded; in its southern part, very low, level and rather barren; a tidal swamp almost cuts the island in two.^ The Isle of Pines in its northern part is hilly and wooded; in its southern part, very low, level and rather barren; a tidal swamp almost cuts the island in two.

^ In the original formation of the island volcanic disturbances and coral growth played some part; but there are only very slight superficial evidences in the island of former volcanic activity.

^ For two hundred and fifty years after the discovery of the island, cattle raising seems to have been the principal industry, and very little attention was paid to agriculture.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Cuba 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.A remarkable feature of the Cuban coast is the number of excellent anchorages, roadsteads and harbours.^ A remarkable feature of the Cuban coast is the number of excellent anchorages, roadsteads and harbours.

.On the N. shore, beginning at the W., Bahia Honda, Havana, Matanzas, Cardenas, Nuevitas and Nipe; and on the S. shore running westward Guantanamo, Santiago and Cienfuegos, are harbours of the first class, several of them among the best of the world.^ On the N. shore, beginning at the W., Bahia Honda , Havana , Matanzas , Cardenas , Nuevitas and Nipe; and on the S. shore running westward Guantanamo , Santiago and Cienfuegos , are harbours of the first class, several of them among the best of the world.

^ Havana, Santiago and Cienfuegos are cable ports.

^ The main ports are located in the provinces of Cienfuegos, Havana, Manzanillo, Mariel, Matanzas, Nuevitas and Santiago de Cuba.

.Mariel, Cabanas, Banes, Sagua la Grande and Baracoa on the N., and Manzanillo, Santa Cruz, Batabano and Trinidad on the S. are also excellent ports or anchorages.^ Sagua La Grande .

^ Three-fourths of all are in the jurisdictions of Cienfuegos, Cardenas, Havana, Matanzas and Sagua la Grande, which are the great sugar centres of the island (three-fourths of the crop coming from Matanzas and Santa Clara provinces).

^ In Camaguey province the Jatibonico del Sur; in Oriente the Salado, a branch of the Cauto; in Santa Clara the Sagua la Grande (which is navigable for some 20 m.

.The peculiar pouch-shape of almost all the harbours named (Matanzas being a marked exception) greatly increases their security and defensibility.^ The peculiar pouch-shape of almost all the harbours named (Matanzas being a marked exception) greatly increases their security and defensibility.

.These pouch harbours are probably " drowned " drainage basins.^ These pouch harbours are probably " drowned " drainage basins.

.The number of small bays that can be utilized for coast trade traffic is extraordinary.^ The number of small bays that can be utilized for coast trade traffic is extraordinary.

In popular language the different portions of the island are distinguished as the Vuelta Abajo (" lower turn "), W. of Havana; the Vuelta Arriba (" upper turn "), E. of Havana to CienfuegosVuelta Abajo and Vuelta Arriba are also used colloquially at any point in the island to mean " east " and " west " - Las Cinco Villas - i.e. Villa Clara, Trinidad, Remedios, Cienfuegos and Sancti Spiritus - between Cienfuegos and Sancti Spiritus; and Tierra Adentro, referring to the region between Cienfuegos and Bayamo. .These names are extremely common.^ These names are extremely common.

.The province and city of Puerto Principe are officially known as Camaguey, their original Indian name, which has practically supplanted the Spanish name in local usage.^ The province and city of Puerto Principe are officially known as Camaguey, their original Indian name, which has practically supplanted the Spanish name in local usage.

^ Spanish is the official language of Cuba, though it is characterized by certain light local peculiarities of pronunciation.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Cuba 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A dozen or more groups from Nipe in the E. to the coast N. of Puerto Principe in the W. are known only by individual names.

.Five topographic divisions of the island are fairly marked.^ Five topographic divisions of the island are fairly marked.

.Santiago (now Oriente) province is high and mountainous.^ Santiago (now Oriente) province is high and mountainous.

^ The oriental mountain region includes the province of Oriente and a portion of Camaguey.

^ Most of them settled in Oriente province, where their names and blood are still apparent, and with their cafetales and sugar plantations converted that region from neglect and poverty to high prosperity.

.Camaguey is characterized by rolling, open plains, slightly broken, especially in the W., by low mountains.^ Camaguey is characterized by rolling, open plains, slightly broken, especially in the W., by low mountains.

^ Terrain: Flat or gently rolling plains, hills, mountains up to 2,000 meters (6,000 ft.

^ Frequent broad intervals of low upland or low level plain extend from sea to sea between and around the mountains.

.The E. part of Santa Clara province is decidedly rough and broken.^ The E. part of Santa Clara province is decidedly rough and broken.

^ The most promising deposits and the most important workings are in Matanzas and Santa Clara provinces.

^ Besides the deposits in Oriente province, iron is known to exist in considerable amount in Camaguey and Santa Clara, and copper in Camaguey and Pinar del Rio provinces.

.The W. part, with the provinces of Matanzas and Havana, is flat and rolling, with occasional hills a few hundred feet high.^ The W. part, with the provinces of Matanzas and Havana, is flat and rolling, with occasional hills a few hundred feet high.

^ The mogotes are irregularly shaped steep-sided hills that can rise as high as 300m (985 ft) and have bases ranging from just a few hundred yards in diameter to as much as a couple of kilometers in length.
  • Green Explorers Cuba Tour | Cuba Educations Tours 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC realcubatours.org [Source type: General]

^ Smaller outbreaks were pinpointed in fields close to the villages of Maximo Gomez and Bolondron, also in Matanzas Province, a few kilo metres away from the main source.
  • Biological Warfare against Cuba 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.afrocubaweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Finally, Pinar del Rio is dominated by a prominent mountain range and by outlying piedmont hills and mesas.^ Pinar del Rio ► Havana .
  • Train travel in Cuba - a beginner's guide 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Havana ► Pinar del Rio .
  • Train travel in Cuba - a beginner's guide 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Pinar del Rio, Cuba .

.There are mountains in Cuba from one end of the island to the other, but they are not derived from any central mass and are not continuous.^ There are mountains in Cuba from one end of the island to the other, but they are not derived from any central mass and are not continuous.

^ In other words, Cuba became an island.
  • The Cuba diet: What will you be eating when the revolution comes?, By Bill McKibben (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC harpers.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They work for 20 continuous days and then go back to their families at Isla de la Juventud (Island of Youth), or other cities on the main Island of Cuba, for the rest of the month.
  • about Cayo Largo, Cuba photos videos beaches hotels 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.cayolargo.net [Source type: General]

.As just indicated there are three distinctively mountainous districts, various minor groups lying outside these.^ As just indicated there are three distinctively mountainous districts, various minor groups lying outside these.

^ Despite this homogenization, there is some over-representation of darker-skinned Cubans in the lower-income sectors of the society, and some indication that these Cubans may suffer slightly higher victimization rates for interpersonal violence and minor theft.
  • Cuba - Age of Sexual Consent - Sex Laws 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.ageofconsent.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are two main ranges, the Sierra Maestra, and a line of various groups along the N. shore.

.The three main systems are known in Cuba as the occidental, central and oriental.^ The three main systems are known in Cuba as the occidental, central and oriental.

.The first, the Organ mountains, in Pinar del Rio, rises in a sandy, marshy region near Cape San Antonio.^ Pinar del Rio ► Havana .
  • Train travel in Cuba - a beginner's guide 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Havana ► Pinar del Rio .
  • Train travel in Cuba - a beginner's guide 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Havana - Pinar del Rio .
  • Train travel in Cuba - a beginner's guide 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.The crest runs near the N. shore, leaving various flanking spurs and foothills, and a coastal plain which at its greatest breadth on the S. is some 20 m.^ The crest runs near the N. shore, leaving various flanking spurs and foothills, and a coastal plain which at its greatest breadth on the S. is some 20 m.

wide. .The plain on the N. is narrower and higher.^ The plain on the N. is narrower and higher.

.The southern slope is smooth, and abounds in creeks and rivers.^ The southern slope is smooth, and abounds in creeks and rivers.

^ This district, including the finest land, is on the southern slope of the Organ Mountains between the Honda river and Mantua ; bananas are cultivated with the tobacco.

.The portion of the southern plain between the bays of Cortes and Majana is the most famous portion of the Vuelta Abajo tobacco region.^ The portion of the southern plain between the bays of Cortes and Majana is the most famous portion of the Vuelta Abajo tobacco region.

^ An excellent tobacco is grown, especially in the Vuelta Abajo region of Pinar del Río, and citrus, coffee, rice, corn, sweet potatoes, and beans are important crops.
  • Cuba Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Cuba 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many attempts have been made to reproduce the tobacco of this region in other parts of the world, and even in other parts of Cuba, but always without success, the superiority of the Vuelta Abajo product being probably due to the peculiar topography of the country.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Cuba 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The mountain range is capriciously broken at points, especially near Bejucal.^ The mountain range is capriciously broken at points, especially near Bejucal.

^ The principal feature in the physical geography of Cuba is a range of mountains which, more or less broken, runs through the central portion of the island from one end to the other.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Cuba 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Camaguey is characterized by rolling, open plains, slightly broken, especially in the W., by low mountains.

.The highest part is the Pan de Guajaibon, near Bahia Honda, at the W. end of the chain; its altitude has been variously estimated from 2500 to 1950 ft.^ The highest part is the Pan de Guajaibon, near Bahia Honda , at the W. end of the chain; its altitude has been variously estimated from 2500 to 1950 ft.

^ The Sierra de Cobre, a part of the system in the vicinity of Santiago, has a general elevation of about 3000 ft.

^ The mogotes comprise part of the Sierra de los Organos mountain chain, and were formed by eons of erosion.
  • Green Explorers Cuba Tour | Cuba Educations Tours 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC realcubatours.org [Source type: General]

.The central system has two wings, one approaching the N. coast, the other covering the island between Sancti Spiritus and Santa Clara.^ The central system has two wings, one approaching the N. coast, the other covering the island between Sancti Spiritus and Santa Clara .

^ Havana (founded 1728), in Havana; Universidad de Oriente, in Santiago de Cuba; and Central Universidad de las Villas, in Santa Clara.
  • http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/world/countries/cuba.html?nav=el 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.washingtonpost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From here, the route of the Third Front, led by Che, took him through Cuba’s three central provinces of Camagüey, Sancti Spíritus and Villa Clara (where Santa Clara is located).
  • Cuba Travel - Havana Times.org 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.havanatimes.org [Source type: General]

.It comprehends a number of independent groups.^ It comprehends a number of independent groups.

.The highest point, the Pico Potrerillo, is about 2900 ft.^ The highest point, the Pico Potrerillo, is about 2900 ft.

^ About one-quarter is mountainous, with Turquino Peak at an elevation of 6,476 ft (1,974 m) the highest peak; the remainder is extensive plains and basins.
  • Cuba -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The island consists mostly of flat to rolling plains, with more rugged hills and mountains primarily in the southeast and the highest point is the Pico Real del Turquino at 2,005 metres (6,578 ft).

in altitude. .The summits are generally well rounded, while the lower slopes are often steep.^ The summits are generally well rounded, while the lower slopes are often steep.

.Frequent broad intervals of low upland or low level plain extend from sea to sea between and around the mountains.^ Frequent broad intervals of low upland or low level plain extend from sea to sea between and around the mountains.

^ Batista’s forces killed most of the rebels, but enough survived to maintain a low-level insurgency in the mountains.

^ Camaguey is characterized by rolling, open plains, slightly broken, especially in the W., by low mountains.

.Near the coast runs a continuous belt of plantations, while grazing, tobacco and general farm lands cover the lower slopes of the hills, and virgin forests much of the uplands and mountains.^ Near the coast runs a continuous belt of plantations, while grazing, tobacco and general farm lands cover the lower slopes of the hills, and virgin forests much of the uplands and mountains.

^ Hikers can trek through beautiful mountain ranges covered in tropical forest.
  • Traveleye: Travel Search Engine for Travel Guides, Reviews, Photos, Hotels & Holiday/Vacation Rentals 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.traveleye.com [Source type: News]

^ This district, including the finest land, is on the southern slope of the Organ Mountains between the Honda river and Mantua ; bananas are cultivated with the tobacco.

.The oriental mountain region includes the province of Oriente and a portion of Camaguey.^ The oriental mountain region includes the province of Oriente and a portion of Camaguey.

^ The mountain ranges include the Sierra Maestra to the East, the Cordillera de los Organos to the West, and the Sierra del Escambray in the central region.

^ Besides the deposits in Oriente province, iron is known to exist in considerable amount in Camaguey and Santa Clara, and copper in Camaguey and Pinar del Rio provinces.

.In extent, in altitude, in mass, in complexity and in geological interest, it is much the most important of the three systems.^ In extent, in altitude, in mass, in complexity and in geological interest, it is much the most important of the three systems.

^ Its extent, geographical position, the great number of its ports, the fertility of its soil, and its climate make it one of the most interesting countries in the New World .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Cuba 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Exploration of Viñales Valley, containing the most spectacular scenery in Cuba and some of the most interesting and varied geological formations in the Caribbean.
  • Green Explorers Cuba Tour | Cuba Educations Tours 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC realcubatours.org [Source type: General]

.Almost all the mountains are very bold.^ Almost all the mountains are very bold.

^ The number of small brick plants is legion , almost all very primitive.

.They are imperfectly known.^ They are imperfectly known.

.There are two main ranges, the Sierra Maestra, and a line of various groups along the N. shore.^ There are two main ranges, the Sierra Maestra, and a line of various groups along the N. shore.

^ The mountain ranges include the Sierra Maestra to the East, the Cordillera de los Organos to the West, and the Sierra del Escambray in the central region.

^ It is dominated by plains and has four major mountain ranges: the Guaniguanico mountains, in the west; Guamuhaya mountains in the central portion; the Sagua-Baracoa range; and the Sierra Maestra the east.

.The former runs from Cape Santa Cruz eastward along the coast some 125 m.^ The former runs from Cape Santa Cruz eastward along the coast some 125 m.

^ Manganese occurs especially along the coast between Santiago and Manzanillo; the best ores run above 50%.

^ The same is true of the chains that coalesce with these near Cape Maisi and diverge northwesterly along the N. coast of the island.

to beyond the river Baconao. .The Sierra de Cobre, a part of the system in the vicinity of Santiago, has a general elevation of about 3000 ft.^ The Sierra de Cobre, a part of the system in the vicinity of Santiago, has a general elevation of about 3000 ft.

^ (Castro had gone to Mexico after being released from prison, where he was serving a sentence for his part in a 1953 rebel attack on the Moncada Barracks in Santiago de Cuba.

^ Because of the isolation of the eastern part of the island, the dangers from pirates, and the important considerations which had caused Santiago de Cuba (q.v.

.Monte Turquino, 7700-8320 ft.^ Monte Turquino, 7700-8320 ft.

in altitude, is the highest peak of the island. .Gran Piedra rises more than 5200 ft., the Ojo del Toro more than 33 00, the Anvil de Baracoa is somewhat lower, and Pan de Matanzas is about 1267 ft.^ Other major cities --Santiago de Cuba, Camaguey, Santa Clara, Holguin, Guantanamo, Matanzas, Cienfuegos, Pinar del Rio.

^ So, in 1956 an average Cuban worker at Bacardi in Santiago de Cuba made 13 times more money than they do in 2005!
  • Babalu Blog: Cuban Mythology (Updated) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.babalublog.com [Source type: General]

^ For the first time since Fidel Castro's official resignation, Cubans are talking more about what the government is doing than what it's not doing.

.The western portions of the range rise abruptly from the ocean, forming a bold and beautiful coast.^ The western portions of the range rise abruptly from the ocean, forming a bold and beautiful coast.

.A multitude of ravines and gullies, filled with torrential streams or dry, according to the season of the year, and characterized by many beautiful cascades, seam the narrow coastal plain and the flanks of the mountains.^ A multitude of ravines and gullies, filled with torrential streams or dry, according to the season of the year, and characterized by many beautiful cascades, seam the narrow coastal plain and the flanks of the mountains.

^ The trades are steady through the year, and in the dry season the western part of the island enjoys cool "northers."

^ Deep residual clay soils derived from underlying limestones, and coloured red or black according to the predominance of oxides of iron or vegetable detritus, characterize the plains.

.The spurs of the central range are a highly intricate complex, covered with dense forests of superb woods.^ The spurs of the central range are a highly intricate complex, covered with dense forests of superb woods.

.Many points are inaccessible, and the scenery is wild in the extreme.^ Many points are inaccessible, and the scenery is wild in the extreme.

.The mountains beyond Guantanamo are locally known by a variety of names, though topographically a continuation of the Sierra Maestra.^ The mountains beyond Guantanamo are locally known by a variety of names, though topographically a continuation of the Sierra Maestra.

^ He brought the celebration back to where in 1959, he, Fidel and Che Guevara came out of the Sierra Maestra mountains to overthrow the American-backed dictator , Fulgencio Batista.
  • Cuba | NewsBusters.org 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

^ It is dominated by plains and has four major mountain ranges: the Guaniguanico mountains, in the west; Guamuhaya mountains in the central portion; the Sagua-Baracoa range; and the Sierra Maestra the east.

.The same is true of the chains that coalesce with these near Cape Maisi and diverge northwesterly along the N. coast of the island.^ The same is true of the chains that coalesce with these near Cape Maisi and diverge northwesterly along the N. coast of the island.

^ The southern coast near Cape Maisi is low and sandy.

^ The former runs from Cape Santa Cruz eastward along the coast some 125 m.

.The general character of this northern marginal system is much the same as that of the southern, save that the range is much less continuous.^ The general character of this northern marginal system is much the same as that of the southern, save that the range is much less continuous.

.A dozen or more groups from Nipe in the E. to the coast N. of Puerto Principe in the W. are known only by individual names.^ A dozen or more groups from Nipe in the E. to the coast N. of Puerto Principe in the W. are known only by individual names.

^ The province and city of Puerto Principe are officially known as Camaguey, their original Indian name, which has practically supplanted the Spanish name in local usage.

.The range near Baracoa is extremely wild and broken.^ The range near Baracoa is extremely wild and broken.

^ The mountain range is capriciously broken at points, especially near Bejucal.

.The region between the lines of the two coastal systems is a much dissected plateau, imperfectly explored.^ The region between the lines of the two coastal systems is a much dissected plateau, imperfectly explored.

^ Much of the bituminous deposits is on the dividing line between asphalt and coal .

^ The central system has two wings, one approaching the N. coast, the other covering the island between Sancti Spiritus and Santa Clara .

.The Cauto river, the only one flowing E. or W. and the largest of Cuba, flows through it westward to the southern coast near Manzanillo.^ Of the many rivers, only the Cauto is important.
  • Cuba Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Cuba 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The largest river is the Cauto.
  • Food in Cuba - Cuban Food, Cuban Cuisine - traditional, popular, dishes, recipe, diet, history, common, meals, rice, main, people, favorite, make, customs, fruits, country, bread, vegetables, bread, drink 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.foodbycountry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The principal feature in the physical geography of Cuba is a range of mountains which, more or less broken, runs through the central portion of the island from one end to the other.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Cuba 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The scenery in the oriental portion of the island is very beautiful, with wild mountains and tropical forests.^ The scenery in the oriental portion of the island is very beautiful, with wild mountains and tropical forests.

^ The tropical Island extends 750 miles (roughly the size of Pennsylvania) and is a beautiful mix of mountain ranges and plains.

^ The principal feature in the physical geography of Cuba is a range of mountains which, more or less broken, runs through the central portion of the island from one end to the other.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Cuba 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the central part there are extensive prairies.^ In the central part there are extensive prairies.

.In the west there are swelling hills and gentle valleys, with the royal palm the dominating tree.^ In the west there are swelling hills and gentle valleys, with the royal palm the dominating tree .

^ The royal palm is the most characteristic tree of Cuba.

.The valley of the Yumuri, near Matanzas, a small circular basin crossed by a river that issues through a glen to the sea, is perhaps the most beautiful in Cuba.^ The valley of the Yumuri, near Matanzas, a small circular basin crossed by a river that issues through a glen to the sea, is perhaps the most beautiful in Cuba.

^ A quarter of Cuba’s 11 million people live in and around Havana, which lays claim to being the most beautiful city in the Caribbean.
  • Havana Cuba Vacations | Caribbean Travel - Cuba | Holidays in Havana Cuba 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.caribbeantravel.com [Source type: News]

^ Lysiloma sabicu ), mahague ( Hibiscus tiliaceus ), granadillo ( Brya ebenus ), icaquillo ( Licania incania ) and agua-baria ( Cordia gerascanthes ) are perhaps the most beautiful.

.A very peculiar feature of Cuba is the abundance of caverns in the limestone deposits that underlie much of the island's surface.^ A very peculiar feature of Cuba is the abundance of caverns in the limestone deposits that underlie much of the island's surface.

^ It is the Tertiary limestones which form the predominant feature in the geology of Cuba.

^ Because of what Reinaldo Arenas the writer had to say about reality in Cuba, he was disregarded in the U.S. by the intellectual and academic community ­ very much dominated by the pro-Castro left.
  • Cuba People, Economy & Environment 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC cubaclimbing.com [Source type: Original source]

.The caves of Cotilla near Havana, of Bellamar near Matanzas, of Monte Libano near Guantanamo, and those of San Juan de los Remedios, are the best known, but there are scores of others.^ The caves of Cotilla near Havana, of Bellamar near Matanzas, of Monte Libano near Guantanamo, and those of San Juan de los Remedios , are the best known, but there are scores of others.

^ The main ports are located in the provinces of Cienfuegos, Havana, Manzanillo, Mariel, Matanzas, Nuevitas and Santiago de Cuba.

^ There are many fine seaports—Havana (the chief import point), Cienfuegos , Matanzas , Cárdenas , Nuevitas , Santiago de Cuba , and Guantánamo (a U.S. naval base since 1903).
  • Cuba Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Cuba 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many streams are " disappearing," part of their course being through underground tunnels.^ Many streams are " disappearing," part of their course being through underground tunnels.

.Thus the Rio San Antonio suddenly disappears near San Antonio de los Banos; the cascades of the Jatibonico del Norte disappear and reappear in a surprising manner; the Moa cascade (near Guantanamo) drops 300 ft.^ Caibarien and San Antonio de los Banos had the largest proportion of white population.

^ Thus the Rio San Antonio suddenly disappears near San Antonio de los Banos; the cascades of the Jatibonico del Norte disappear and reappear in a surprising manner; the Moa cascade (near Guantanamo) drops 300 ft.

^ The mountain ranges include the Sierra Maestra to the East, the Cordillera de los Organos to the West, and the Sierra del Escambray in the central region.

into a cavern and its waters later reissue from the earth; the .Jojo river disappears in a great " sink " and later issues with violent current at the edge of the sea.^ Jojo river disappears in a great " sink " and later issues with violent current at the edge of the sea.

.The springs of fresh water that bubble up among the keys of the S. coast are also supposedly the outlets of underground streams.^ The springs of fresh water that bubble up among the keys of the S. coast are also supposedly the outlets of underground streams.

^ The manatee, or sea-cow, frequents the mouths of rivers, the sargasso drifts, and the regions of submarine fresh-water springs off the coast.

.The number of rivers is very great, but almost without exception their courses are normal to the coast, and they are so short as to be of but slight importance.^ The number of rivers is very great, but almost without exception their courses are normal to the coast, and they are so short as to be of but slight importance.

^ Almost without exception the lands throughout the island are of extreme fertility.

^ The number of small brick plants is legion , almost all very primitive.

.The Cauto river in Oriente province is exceptional; it is 250 m.^ The Cauto river in Oriente province is exceptional; it is 250 m.

^ In Camaguey province the Jatibonico del Sur; in Oriente the Salado, a branch of the Cauto; in Santa Clara the Sagua la Grande (which is navigable for some 20 m.

long, and navigable by small vessels for about 75 m. .Inside the bar at its mouth (formed by a storm in 1616) ships of 200 tons can still ascend to Cauto.^ Inside the bar at its mouth (formed by a storm in 1616) ships of 200 tons can still ascend to Cauto.

.In Camaguey province the Jatibonico del Sur; in Oriente the Salado, a branch of the Cauto; in Santa Clara the Sagua la Grande (which is navigable for some 20 m.^ In Camaguey province the Jatibonico del Sur; in Oriente the Salado, a branch of the Cauto; in Santa Clara the Sagua la Grande (which is navigable for some 20 m.

^ There are small mines in Santa Clara and Camaguey provinces.

^ Havana (founded 1728), in Havana; Universidad de Oriente, in Santiago de Cuba; and Central Universidad de las Villas, in Santa Clara.
  • Cuba Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Cuba 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

and has an important traffic), and the .Damuji; in Matanzas the Canimar; and in Pinar del Rio the Cuyaguateje, are important streams.^ Pinar del Rio ► Havana .
  • Train travel in Cuba - a beginner's guide 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Havana ► Pinar del Rio .
  • Train travel in Cuba - a beginner's guide 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ Damuji; in Matanzas the Canimar; and in Pinar del Rio the Cuyaguateje, are important streams.

.The water-parting in the four central provinces is very indefinite.^ The water-parting in the four central provinces is very indefinite.

.There are few river valleys that are noteworthy - those of the Yumuri, the Trinidad and the Gaines.^ There are few river valleys that are noteworthy - those of the Yumuri, the Trinidad and the Gaines.

^ The valley of the Yumuri, near Matanzas, a small circular basin crossed by a river that issues through a glen to the sea, is perhaps the most beautiful in Cuba.

At Guantanamo and Trinidad are other valleys, and between Mariel and Havana is the fine valley of Ariguanabo. .Of lakes, there are a few on the coast, and a very few in the mountains.^ Of lakes, there are a few on the coast, and a very few in the mountains.

^ Notice there were VERY few high level Bacardi executives in Santiago de Cuba !
  • Babalu Blog: Cuban Mythology (Updated) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.babalublog.com [Source type: General]

.The finest is Lake Ariguanabo, near Havana, 6 sq.^ The finest is Lake Ariguanabo, near Havana, 6 sq.

m. in area. .Of the almost innumerable river cascades, those of the Sierra Maestra Mountains, and in particular the Moa cascade, have already been mentioned.^ Of the almost innumerable river cascades, those of the Sierra Maestra Mountains, and in particular the Moa cascade, have already been mentioned.

^ He brought the celebration back to where in 1959, he, Fidel and Che Guevara came out of the Sierra Maestra mountains to overthrow the American-backed dictator , Fulgencio Batista.
  • Cuba | NewsBusters.org 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC newsbusters.org [Source type: General]

^ From here, those who survived the landing escaped into the Sierra Maestra Mountains, later dividing up into three groups led by Fidel and his brother Raul, and Che.
  • Cuba Travel - Havana Times.org 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.havanatimes.org [Source type: General]

.The Guama cascade in Oriente province and the Hanabanilla Fall near Cienfuegos (each more than 300 ft.^ The Guama cascade in Oriente province and the Hanabanilla Fall near Cienfuegos (each more than 300 ft.

^ Thus the Rio San Antonio suddenly disappears near San Antonio de los Banos; the cascades of the Jatibonico del Norte disappear and reappear in a surprising manner; the Moa cascade (near Guantanamo) drops 300 ft.

^ More than four-fifths of the total area sown to cane in the island is in the three provinces of Santa Clara, Matanzas and Oriente (formerly Santiago), the former two representing two-thirds of the area and three-fourths of the crop.

high), the .Rosario Fall in Pinar del Rio, and the Almendares cascade near Havana, may also be mentioned.^ Pinar del Rio to 74.7 in Havana, and was 43.9 for the entire island.

^ Rosario Fall in Pinar del Rio, and the Almendares cascade near Havana, may also be mentioned.

^ Thus the Rio San Antonio suddenly disappears near San Antonio de los Banos; the cascades of the Jatibonico del Norte disappear and reappear in a surprising manner; the Moa cascade (near Guantanamo) drops 300 ft.

Table of contents

Geology

.The foundation of the island is formed of metamorphic and igneous rocks, which appear in the Sierra Maestra and are exposed in other parts of the island wherever the comparatively thin covering of later beds has been worn away.^ The Cayman Islands south of Cuba and not part of the country is built up by coral growing over a submerged western extension of the Sierra Maestra is north on the Cuban side of the Deep of Bartlett Cayman Trough and Jamaica an independent state is on the Caribbean plate is on the other side of this great "trench" south of seismically active eastern Cuba.

^ The Cayman Islands mainly coral reefs covering submerged ice age peaks of the Sierra Maestra range) and Jamaica which is geologically related to Central America are south of eastern Cuba.

^ In the 1820s, when the other parts of Spain’s empire in Latin America rebelled and formed independent states, Cuba remained loyal, although there was some agitation for independence.

.A more or less continuous band of serpentine belonging to this series forms the principal watershed, although it nowhere rises to any great height.^ A more or less continuous band of serpentine belonging to this series forms the principal watershed , although it nowhere rises to any great height.

^ Here are a selection: Che Guevara A biography from the Time 100 series by Ariel Dorfman Che Guevara hero file from the more heroes, less villains site.

.It is in this band that the greater part of the mineral wealth of Cuba is situated.^ It is in this band that the greater part of the mineral wealth of Cuba is situated.

.These ancient rocks have hitherto yielded no fossils and their age is therefore uncertain, but they are probably pre-Cretaceous at least.^ These ancient rocks have hitherto yielded no fossils and their age is therefore uncertain, but they are probably pre- Cretaceous at least.

.Fossiliferous Cretaceous limestones containing Rudistes have been found in several parts of the island (Santiago de los Banos, Santa Clara province, &c.^ Fossiliferous Cretaceous limestones containing Rudistes have been found in several parts of the island (Santiago de los Banos, Santa Clara province, &c.

^ The E. part of Santa Clara province is decidedly rough and broken.

^ Havana (founded 1728), in Havana; Universidad de Oriente, in Santiago de Cuba; and Central Universidad de las Villas, in Santa Clara.
  • Cuba Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Cuba 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

). .At the base there is often an arkose, composed largely of fragments of serpentine and granite derived from the ancient floor.^ At the base there is often an arkose, composed largely of fragments of serpentine and granite derived from the ancient floor.

.At Esperanza and other places in the Santa Clara province, bituminous plant-bearing beds occur beneath the Tertiary limestones, and at Baracoa a Radiolarian earth occupies a similar position.^ At Esperanza and other places in the Santa Clara province, bituminous plant-bearing beds occur beneath the Tertiary limestones, and at Baracoa a Radiolarian earth occupies a similar position.

^ Other major cities --Santiago de Cuba, Camaguey, Santa Clara, Holguin, Guantanamo, Matanzas, Cienfuegos, Pinar del Rio.

^ The Organ Mountains contain a hard blue limestone; and sandstones occur on the N. coast of Pinar del Rio province.

.The latter, like the similar deposits in other West Indian islands, is probably of Oligocene age.^ The latter, like the similar deposits in other West Indian islands, is probably of Oligocene age.

^ The civil wars were probably more disastrous to it than to any other agricultural interest of the island.

.It is the Tertiary limestones which form the predominant feature in the geology of Cuba.^ It is the Tertiary limestones which form the predominant feature in the geology of Cuba.

^ A very peculiar feature of Cuba is the abundance of caverns in the limestone deposits that underlie much of the island's surface.

.Although they do not exceed loon ft.^ Although they do not exceed loon ft.

in thickness, they probably at one time covered the whole island except the summits of the .Sierra Maestra, where they have been observed, resting upon the older rocks, up to a height of 2300 ft.^ Sierra Maestra, where they have been observed, resting upon the older rocks, up to a height of 2300 ft.

.They contain corals, but are not coral reefs.^ They contain corals , but are not coral reefs .

.The shells which have been found in them indicate that they belong for the most part to the Oligocene period.^ The shells which have been found in them indicate that they belong for the most part to the Oligocene period.

.They are frequently very much disturbed and often strongly folded.^ They are frequently very much disturbed and often strongly folded.

.Around the coast there is a raised shelf of limestone which was undoubtedly a coral reef.^ Around the coast there is a raised shelf of limestone which was undoubtedly a coral reef .

^ On both the N. and the S. side of the island there are long chains of islets and reefs and coral keys (of which it is estimated there are 1300), which limit access to probably half of the coast, and on the N. render navigation difficult and dangerous.

.But it is of recent date and does not attain an elevation of more than 40 or 50 ft.^ It attains a height of from 50 to 75 ft., and sometimes of more than 100 ft.

^ But it is of recent date and does not attain an elevation of more than 40 or 50 ft.

^ You'll find splendid restoration of the colonial era buildings in Old Havana and more classic old cars than you've seen since the 50's.

.Minerals are fairly abundant in number, but few are present in sufficient quantity to be industrially important.^ Minerals are fairly abundant in number, but few are present in sufficient quantity to be industrially important.

^ Mineral waters , though not yet important in trade, are extremely abundant, and a score of places in Cuba and the Isle of Pines are already known as health resorts.

^ Chromium and a number of other rare minerals are known to exist, but probably not in commercially available quantities.

.Traditions of gold and silver, dating from the time of the Spanish conquest, still endure, but these metals are in fact extremely rare.^ Traditions of gold and silver , dating from the time of the Spanish conquest, still endure, but these metals are in fact extremely rare.

^ The traditions as to gold and silver have already been referred to.

^ Cuban traditional medicine has existed since before the Spanish conquest, these high status practitioners were called Bohiques (e.g.

.Oriente province is distinctively the mineral province of the island.^ Oriente province is distinctively the mineral province of the island.

^ It was estimated officially in 1904 that the wooded lands of the island comprised 3,628,434acres, of which one-third were in Oriente province, another third in Camaguey, and hardly any in Havana province.

.Large copper deposits of peculiar richness occur here in the Sierra de Cobre, near the city of Santiago; and both iron and manganese are abundant.^ Large copper deposits of peculiar richness occur here in the Sierra de Cobre, near the city of Santiago; and both iron and manganese are abundant.

^ Other major cities --Santiago de Cuba, Camaguey, Santa Clara, Holguin, Guantanamo, Matanzas, Cienfuegos, Pinar del Rio.

^ Natural resources: Nickel, cobalt, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt, timber, oil, natural gas.
  • Cuba (08/08) 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Besides the deposits in Oriente province, iron is known to exist in considerable amount in Camaguey and Santa Clara, and copper in Camaguey and Pinar del Rio provinces.^ Besides the deposits in Oriente province, iron is known to exist in considerable amount in Camaguey and Santa Clara, and copper in Camaguey and Pinar del Rio provinces.

^ There are six provinces - Pinar del Rio, Havana, Matanzas, Santa Clara, Camaguey or Puerto Principe, and Oriente.

^ Pinar del Rio .
  • Players by birthplace : Cuba Baseball Stats and Info - Baseball-Reference.com 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.baseball-reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The iron ores mined at Daiquiri near Santiago are mainly rich hematites running above 60% of iron, with very little sulphur or phosphorus admixture.^ The iron ores mined at Daiquiri near Santiago are mainly rich hematites running above 60% of iron, with very little sulphur or phosphorus admixture.

^ Manganese is mined mainly near La Maya and El Cristo in Oriente.

^ The Cobre copper mines near Santiago were once the greatest producers of the world.

.The copper deposits are mainly in well-marked fracture planes in serpentine; the ore is pyrrhotite, with or without chalcopyrite.^ The copper deposits are mainly in well-marked fracture planes in serpentine; the ore is pyrrhotite , with or without chalcopyrite.

.Manganese occurs especially along the coast between Santiago and Manzanillo; the best ores run above 50%.^ Manganese occurs especially along the coast between Santiago and Manzanillo; the best ores run above 50%.

^ The former runs from Cape Santa Cruz eastward along the coast some 125 m.

^ Large copper deposits of peculiar richness occur here in the Sierra de Cobre, near the city of Santiago; and both iron and manganese are abundant.

.Chromium and a number of other rare minerals are known to exist, but probably not in commercially available quantities.^ Chromium and a number of other rare minerals are known to exist, but probably not in commercially available quantities.

^ Minerals are fairly abundant in number, but few are present in sufficient quantity to be industrially important.

.Bituminous products of every grade, from clear translucent oils resembling petroleum and refined naphtha, to lignite-like substances, occur in all parts of the island.^ Bituminous products of every grade, from clear translucent oils resembling petroleum and refined naphtha , to lignite -like substances, occur in all parts of the island.

^ Every year there are seismic disturbances, and though Santiago is the point of most frequent visitation , they occur in all parts of the island, in 1880 affecting the entire western end.

^ Industry: Types --sugar and food processing, oil refining, cement, electric power, light consumer and industrial products.

.Much of the bituminous deposits is on the dividing line between asphalt and coal.^ Much of the bituminous deposits is on the dividing line between asphalt and coal .

^ The region between the lines of the two coastal systems is a much dissected plateau, imperfectly explored.

There is an endless amount of stone, very little of which is hard enough to be good for building material, the greatest part being a soft coralline limestone. .The best buildings in Havana are constructed of a very rich white limestone, soft and readily worked when fresh, but hardening and slightly darkening with age.^ The best buildings in Havana are constructed of a very rich white limestone, soft and readily worked when fresh, but hardening and slightly darkening with age.

^ There is an endless amount of stone, very little of which is hard enough to be good for building material, the greatest part being a soft coralline limestone.

.There are extensive and valuable deposits of beautiful marbles in the Isle of Pines, and lesser ones near Santiago.^ There are extensive and valuable deposits of beautiful marbles in the Isle of Pines, and lesser ones near Santiago.

^ Large copper deposits of peculiar richness occur here in the Sierra de Cobre, near the city of Santiago; and both iron and manganese are abundant.

.The Organ Mountains contain a hard blue limestone; and sandstones occur on the N. coast of Pinar del Rio province.^ Pinar del Rio ► Havana .
  • Train travel in Cuba - a beginner's guide 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

^ The Organ Mountains contain a hard blue limestone; and sandstones occur on the N. coast of Pinar del Rio province.

^ Havana ► Pinar del Rio .
  • Train travel in Cuba - a beginner's guide 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.seat61.com [Source type: General]

.Clays of all qualities and colours abound.^ Clays of all qualities and colours abound.

.Mineral waters, though not yet important in trade, are extremely abundant, and a score of places in Cuba and the Isle of Pines are already known as health resorts.^ Mineral waters , though not yet important in trade, are extremely abundant, and a score of places in Cuba and the Isle of Pines are already known as health resorts.

^ Cuba, the Isle of Youth and all other adjacent islands and keys; internal waters; the territorial waters in the extension prescribed by law; and the air space corresponding to the above; .
  • Constitution of the Republic of Cuba 1992 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.cubanet.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The lack of domestic sources of capital financing, an inherent by-product of its socialist economic system, makes Cuba’s debt extremely vulnerable to disruptions in trade.

.Those near San Diego, Guanabacoa and Santa Maria del Rosario (near Havana) and Madruga (near Gaines) are the best known.^ Those near San Diego , Guanabacoa and Santa Maria del Rosario (near Havana) and Madruga (near Gaines) are the best known.

^ The caves of Cotilla near Havana, of Bellamar near Matanzas, of Monte Libano near Guantanamo, and those of San Juan de los Remedios , are the best known, but there are scores of others.

^ Our suggestion: combine your stay in Havana with hotels in Varadero, Cayo Santa Maria and other destinations in Cuba and SAVE 10% .
  • Cuba Hotel Bookings, Vacation Packages, Car Rental in Cuba, Cuba Travel Deals and News 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.solwayscuba.com [Source type: General]

.The soil of the island is almost wholly of modern formation, mainly alluvial, with superficial limestones as another prominent feature.^ The soil of the island is almost wholly of modern formation, mainly alluvial, with superficial limestones as another prominent feature.

^ In the original formation of the island volcanic disturbances and coral growth played some part; but there are only very slight superficial evidences in the island of former volcanic activity.

^ A very peculiar feature of Cuba is the abundance of caverns in the limestone deposits that underlie much of the island's surface.

.In the original formation of the island volcanic disturbances and coral growth played some part; but there are only very slight superficial evidences in the island of former volcanic activity.^ In the original formation of the island volcanic disturbances and coral growth played some part; but there are only very slight superficial evidences in the island of former volcanic activity.

^ Every year there are seismic disturbances, and though Santiago is the point of most frequent visitation , they occur in all parts of the island, in 1880 affecting the entire western end.

^ The soil of the island is almost wholly of modern formation, mainly alluvial, with superficial limestones as another prominent feature.

.Noteworthy earthquakes are rare.^ Noteworthy earthquakes are rare.

.They have been most common in Oriente province.^ They have been most common in Oriente province.

^ Native blood is most predominant in the provinces of Oriente and Pinar del Rio.

^ Most of them settled in Oriente province, where their names and blood are still apparent, and with their cafetales and sugar plantations converted that region from neglect and poverty to high prosperity.

.Those of 1776, 1842 and 1852 were particularly destructive, and of earlier ones those of 1551 and 1624 at Bayamo and of 1578 and 1678 at Santiago.^ Those of 1776, 1842 and 1852 were particularly destructive, and of earlier ones those of 1551 and 1624 at Bayamo and of 1578 and 1678 at Santiago.

^ Notably destructive ones occurred in 1768, 1774, 1842, 1844, 1846, 1865, 1870, 1876, 1885 and 1894.

.Every year there are seismic disturbances, and though Santiago is the point of most frequent visitation, they occur in all parts of the island, in 1880 affecting the entire western end.^ Every year there are seismic disturbances, and though Santiago is the point of most frequent visitation , they occur in all parts of the island, in 1880 affecting the entire western end.

^ Twenty years ago, when I reported from the Soviet Union, officials insisted there were no poor people in Russia, but they refused to let me look for myself.
  • Cuba News - by CubaNet News Inc. 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.cubanet.org [Source type: News]

^ It has been authoritatively estimated, for example, that from 90 to 95% of all horses, neat cattle and hogs in the entire island were lost in the war years of 1895-1898.

.Notable seismic disturbances in Cuba have coincided with similar activity in Central America so often as to make some connexion apparent.^ Notable seismic disturbances in Cuba have coincided with similar activity in Central America so often as to make some connexion apparent.

^ The Party leadership profess that Cuba is a centralized democracy, meaning that decision-making and popular participation occurs within mass organizations, institutionalized by the state.

^ Historically, Cuba has had some of the highest rates of education and literacy in Latin America, both before and after the revolution.

Flora

.The tropical heat and humidity of Cuba make possible a flora of splendid richness.^ The tropical heat and humidity of Cuba make possible a flora of splendid richness.

^ Stunning and magical tropical flora within Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba.
  • Green Explorers Cuba Tour | Cuba Educations Tours 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC realcubatours.org [Source type: General]

^ The climate of Cuba is tropical and distinctively insular in characteristics of humidity, equability and high mean temperature.

.All the characteristic species of the West Indies, the Central American and Mexican and southern Florida seaboard, and nearly all the large trees of the Mexican tropic belt, are embraced in it.^ All the characteristic species of the West Indies , the Central American and Mexican and southern Florida seaboard, and nearly all the large trees of the Mexican tropic belt , are embraced in it.

.As many as 3350 native flowering species were catalogued in 1876. The total number of species of the island flora was estimated in 1892 by a writer in the Revista Cubana (vol.^ The island has 73 known native species and this number is growing.
  • Green Explorers Cuba Tour | Cuba Educations Tours 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC realcubatours.org [Source type: General]

^ Dollar remittances (estimated at as much as $1 billion) became a crucial source of foreign exchange as well as a lifeline for many Cubans on the island.
  • International Socialist Review 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.isreview.org [Source type: Original source]

xv. pp. .5-16) to be between 5000 and 6000, but hardly one-third of this number had then been gathered into a herbarium, and all parts of the island had not then been explored.^ Bituminous products of every grade, from clear translucent oils resembling petroleum and refined naphtha , to lignite -like substances, occur in all parts of the island.

^ It was the allimportant one in the early history of the island, down to about the latter part of the 18th century.

^ One other factor in the proclaimed recovery of the Cuban economy were the remittances from Cuban-Americans, now much diminished, which for a while constituted a large part of the external inputs into the Cuban Economy.

.It was estimated officially in 1904 that the wooded lands of the island comprised 3,628,434acres, of which one-third were in Oriente province, another third in Camaguey, and hardly any in Havana province.^ Oriente province is distinctively the mineral province of the island.

^ It was estimated officially in 1904 that the wooded lands of the island comprised 3,628,434acres, of which one-third were in Oriente province, another third in Camaguey, and hardly any in Havana province.

^ In 1902 it was officially estimated that the public land available for permanent agrarian cultivation, including forest lands, was only 186,967 hectares (416,995 acres), almost wholly in the province of Oriente.

.Much of this area is of primeval forest; somewhat more than a third of the total, belonging to the government, was opened to sale (and speculative exspoliation) in 1904. The woods are so dense over large districts as to be impenetrable, except by cutting a path foot by foot through the close network of vines and undergrowth.^ The woods are so dense over large districts as to be impenetrable, except by cutting a path foot by foot through the close network of vines and undergrowth.

^ Much of this area is of primeval forest; somewhat more than a third of the total, belonging to the government, was opened to sale (and speculative exspoliation) in 1904.

^ Forest resources have been but slightly touched (more so since the end of Spanish rule) except mahogany , which goes to the United States, and cedar , which is used to box the tobacco products of the island, much going also to the United States.

.The jagaey (Ficus sp.), which stifles in its giant coils the greatest trees of the forest, and the copei (Clusia rosea) are remarkable parasitic lianas.^ The jagaey ( Ficus sp.

^ Clusia rosea ) are remarkable parasitic lianas.

^ The beautiful ceiba ( Bombax ceiba L., Ceiba pentandra ) or silk cotton tree is the giant of the Cuban forests; it often grows to a height of 100 to 150 ft.

.Of the palm there are more than thirty species.^ Of the palm there are more than thirty species.

^ Felipa Poey, in his Ictiologia Cubana, listed 782 species of fish and crustaceans, of which 105 were doubtful; but more than one-half of the remainder were first described by Poey.

^ Of birds there are more than 200 indigenous species, it is said, and migratory species are also numerous.

.The royal palm is the most characteristic tree of Cuba.^ The royal palm is the most characteristic tree of Cuba.

^ In the west there are swelling hills and gentle valleys, with the royal palm the dominating tree .

.It attains a height of from 50 to 75 ft., and sometimes of more than 100 ft.^ It attains a height of from 50 to 75 ft., and sometimes of more than 100 ft.

^ But it is of recent date and does not attain an elevation of more than 40 or 50 ft.

^ Solways also provides Cuba car rental in more than 100 locations in Cuba, including Havana, Varadero, Cayo Coco, Santiago de Cuba, Holguin and Camaguey.
  • Cuba Hotel Bookings, Vacation Packages, Car Rental in Cuba, Cuba Travel Deals and News 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.solwayscuba.com [Source type: General]

.Alone, or in groups, or in long aisles, towering above the plantations or its fellow trees of the forest, its beautiful crest dominates every landscape.^ Alone, or in groups, or in long aisles, towering above the plantations or its fellow trees of the forest, its beautiful crest dominates every landscape.

^ The beautiful ceiba ( Bombax ceiba L., Ceiba pentandra ) or silk cotton tree is the giant of the Cuban forests; it often grows to a height of 100 to 150 ft.

.Every portion, from its roots to its leaves, serves some useful purpose.^ Every portion, from its roots to its leaves, serves some useful purpose.

^ The cup is taken away if they use it for some other purpose than drinking water.
  • Guantanamo Bay - Camp Delta 19 January 2010 9:49 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From it the native draws lumber for his hut, utensils for his kitchen, thatch for his roof, medicines, preserved delicacies, and a long list of other articles.^ From it the native draws lumber for his hut, utensils for his kitchen , thatch for his roof, medicines, preserved delicacies, and a long list of other articles.

^ Others (in addition to some already mentioned) are medicinal; as the palms, calabash , manchineel, pepper , fustic and a long list of cathartics, caustics, emetics , astringents, febrifuges, vermifuges, diuretics and tonics.

.The corojo palm (Cocos crispa) rivals the royal palm in beauty and utility; oil, sugar, drink and wood are derived from it.^ The corojo palm ( Cocos crispa ) rivals the royal palm in beauty and utility; oil, sugar , drink and wood are derived from it.

The coco palm (Cocos nucifera) is also put to varied uses. .The mango is planted with the royal palm along the avenues of the plantations.^ The mango is planted with the royal palm along the avenues of the plantations.

.The beautiful ceiba (Bombax ceiba L., Ceiba pentandra) or silk cotton tree is the giant of the Cuban forests; it often grows to a height of 100 to 150 ft.^ The beautiful ceiba ( Bombax ceiba L., Ceiba pentandra ) or silk cotton tree is the giant of the Cuban forests; it often grows to a height of 100 to 150 ft.

^ It attains a height of from 50 to 75 ft., and sometimes of more than 100 ft.
  • <