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The PGM-19 Jupiter IRBM
.The Cuban Missile Crisis was a confrontation between the United States, the Soviet Union, and Cuba in October 1962, during the Cold War.^ In the Autumn of 1962 the Soviet Union was placing nuclear missiles in Cuba.
  • Amazon.com: Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis (9780393318340): Robert F. Kennedy, Arthur Schlesinger Jr.: Books 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Cuban Missile Crisis documents .

^ For 13 days in October 1962 , the United States and the Soviet...anything new to learn about the Cuban missile crisis ?
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis: The Struggle over Policy by Roger Hilsman at Questia Online Library 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

In the countries of the former Soviet Union, former Eastern Bloc countries, and other communist countries (i.e. China and North Korea), it is termed the "Caribbean Crisis" (Russian: Карибский кризис, Karibskiy krizis), while in Cuba it is called the "October Crisis" (Spanish: Crisis de Octubre). .In September 1962, the Cuban and Soviet governments placed nuclear missiles in Cuba.^ In the Autumn of 1962 the Soviet Union was placing nuclear missiles in Cuba.
  • Amazon.com: Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis (9780393318340): Robert F. Kennedy, Arthur Schlesinger Jr.: Books 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Soviets placed Cuba in the same position of .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, placing missiles in Cuba so as to .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

.When United States military intelligence discovered the weapons, the U.S. government did all it could to ensure the removal of the missiles.^ All the planes, 42 units, have been removed.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ These missiles could reach many cities in the United States.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Well aware of the United States' military .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

.The crisis ranks with the Berlin Blockade as one of the major confrontations of the Cold War, and is generally regarded, along with the Able Archer 83 incident in 1983, as the moment in which the Cold War came closest to a nuclear war.^ It was the most dangerous moment of the Cold War.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Cuban missile crisis was the closest the world ever came to nuclear war.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The crisis is "often called the world's closest brush with nuclear war."

[1]
.The tensions were at their height on October 27, 1962, which was known as "Black Saturday". On October 14, United States reconnaissance observed (with a US Navy F-8 Crusader) missile bases being built in Cuba.^ October 14, 1962, Robert Kennedy .
  • Cuban History, Missle Crisis (3 of 4) 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cuba will sell or lease to the United States .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ United States and Cuba, (2) the factors influencing .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

.The crisis ended two weeks later on October 28, 1962, when President John F. Kennedy and the United Nations Secretary-General U Thant reached an agreement with the Soviets to dismantle the missiles in exchange for a no-invasion agreement.^ October 14, 1962, Robert Kennedy .
  • Cuban History, Missle Crisis (3 of 4) 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ PART II. CRISIS. OCTOBER 16-28 1962 .
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ John F. Kennedy Library, JFK calls former President Truman to brief him on the missile crisis, October 28, 1962.
  • Documents Relating to the Bay of Pigs Invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In his negotiations with the Soviet Ambassador Anatoly Dobrynin, U.S. Attorney General Robert Kennedy informally proposed that the Jupiter missiles in Turkey would be removed "within a short time after this crisis was over"[2].^ He therefore could not be seen to negotiate with the Soviets over the Cuban Missile Crisis.
  • Cuban Missile crisis - The Education Forum 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He demanded the removal of the Soviet strategic missiles.
  • A Near Miss - The Atlantic(October 22, 2008) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.theatlantic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Meanwhile, Attorney General Robert Kennedy meets with Soviet Ambassador Anatoly F. Dobrynin and agrees privately that once the crisis is resolved, the United States will withdraw its Jupiter missiles from Turkey.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis: An In-Depth Chronology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC andromeda.rutgers.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The last missiles were taken down by 24 April 1963, and were flown out of Turkey soon after.^ Khrushchev had agreed to withdraw the weapons in return for a public pledge by Kennedy not to invade Cuba and a secret commitment to pull U.S. missiles out of Turkey.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (1).htm 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ibike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ JFK states: "We can't very well invade Cuba with all its toil...when we could have gotten them out by making a deal on the same missiles in Turkey.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.hpol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Telegram From the Department of State to the Embassy in Turkey raising the possibility of missile removal, October 24, 1962 .
  • Documents Relating to the Bay of Pigs Invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ALL THROUGH THE NIGHT - THE GUARDIAN ANGELS - CUBA 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: News]

[3]

Contents

Background

.The Americans feared the Soviet expansion of Stalinism, but for a Latin American country to ally openly with the USSR was regarded as unacceptable, given the Soviet-American enmity since the end of the World War II in 1945. Such an involvement would also directly defy the Monroe Doctrine, a United States policy which held that European powers should not interfere with states in the Western Hemisphere.^ The United States as well as Western European countries were greatly concerned.
  • Cuban Missle Crisis | Essays & Term Papers Online 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He also stated that Soviet ships would not follow American orders.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A563852 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ In detail, the end result of the war is massive chaos in the United States.
  • The Cuban Missile War Timeline - Alternate History Discussion Board 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.alternatehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

.The United States had been embarrassed publicly in the failed Bay of Pigs invasion of 1961, which had been launched by the CIA under President John F. Kennedy.^ When Kennedy became president, he approved the invasion.
  • Cuban Missle Crisis | Essays & Term Papers Online 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Newly inaugurated President John F. Kennedy approved this invasion on April 12, 1961.
  • Cuban Missle Crisis | Essays & Term Papers Online 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ April 17-19, 1961: CIA-sponsored Bay of Pigs invasion fails.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Afterwards former President Eisenhower told Kennedy that "The failure of the Bay of Pigs will embolden the Soviets to do something that they would otherwise not do."[4] The half-hearted invasion left Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev and his advisers with the impression that Kennedy was indecisive and, as one Soviet adviser wrote, "too young, intellectual, not prepared well for decision making in crisis situations ... too intelligent and too weak."[4] .Covert operations continued in 1961 in the unsuccessful Operation Mongoose.^ In November 1961 President Kennedy put his brother Robert Kennedy, who was also U.S. attorney general, directly in charge of a new covert action program code named Operation Mongoose with the goal of crushing the socialist revolution in Cuba.
  • Steve Clark, Cuban People Thwarted U.S. Invasion Plan In October 1962 `Missile Crisis' 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Soon after taking personal control of Operation Mongoose in November 1961, Bobby had decreed that "the Cuban problem carries top priority in the U.S. government.
  • On The Brink: The Cuban Missile Crisis Revisited : NPR 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

^ January: Although Operation Mongoose itself is being dismantled (see October 30, 1962), the CIA unit involved in the operation, Task Force W, continues to carry out covert activities against Cuba.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis: An In-Depth Chronology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC andromeda.rutgers.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .Publicly, in February 1962, the United States launched an economic embargo against Cuba.^ Cuba will sell or lease to the United States .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ United States and Cuba, (2) the factors influencing .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cuba, the United States would agree to .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

[6]
.The United States considered covert action again and inserted CIA paramilitary officers from their Special Activities Division.^ Subversive activities -- United States.

^ United States needs also to be considered in .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Forty years ago today, President Kennedy called together his closest advisers to decide the course of action for the United States after the CIA had shown him evidence of Soviet missiles on the island of Cuba.

[7] .Air Force General Curtis LeMay presented to Kennedy a pre-invasion bombing plan in September, while spy flights and minor military harassment from the United States Guantanamo Naval Base were the subject of continual Cuban diplomatic complaints to the U.S. government.^ The mobilization of Cuban military forces continues at a high rate.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kennedy continued pressing plans for an invasion over the next few days.
  • Steve Clark, Cuban People Thwarted U.S. Invasion Plan In October 1962 `Missile Crisis' 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Air Force General Curtis LeMay presented to Kennedy a pre-invasion bombing plan — including nuclear sites — in September, 1962, while spy flights and military harassment from the United States Guantanamo Naval Base were the subject of continual Cuban diplomatic complaints to the U.S. .
  • North Korea: Cuban Missile Crisis Redux? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • North Korea: Cuban Missile Crisis Redux? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.prisonplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In September 1962 the Cuban government saw what it perceived to be significant evidence that the U.S. would invade, including a joint U.S. Congressional resolution authorizing the use of military force in Cuba if American interests were threatened,[8] and the announcement of a U.S. military exercise in the Caribbean planned for the following month (Operation Ortsac).^ The Americans would have burst into Cuba.
  • Cold War International History Project 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Khrushchev apparently believed that these would deter American plans to invade Cuba.

^ This plan seemed interesting to us and useful for Cuba.
  • Cold War International History Project 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

.Khrushchev and Cuban leader Fidel Castro agreed to place strategic nuclear missiles secretly in Cuba.^ In the Autumn of 1962 the Soviet Union was placing nuclear missiles in Cuba.
  • Amazon.com: Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis (9780393318340): Robert F. Kennedy, Arthur Schlesinger Jr.: Books 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Fidel Castro agreed to the idea.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, placing missiles in Cuba so as to .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

.Like Castro, Khrushchev felt that a U.S. invasion of Cuba was imminent, and that to lose Cuba would do great harm to the communist cause, especially in Latin America.^ American invasion caused Castro to grow .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ America would ensure that the fate of Cuba .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cuba as a communist state and Castro as the .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

.He said he wanted to confront the Americans "with more than words...the logical answer was missiles."^ But this was more quickly said than done.

^ It should be noted that the Russians knew more about JFK's private life than the US press allowed the American people to know.
  • Cuban Missile ....was it really a crisis? in Wars in History Channel 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: General]

^ Castro released documents that revealed that Cuba actually had many more missiles than we knew about in 1962.
  • Letters to the Editor : We shouldn’t forget Cuban missile crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC readingeagle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9] .The Soviet leadership believed that Kennedy would avoid confrontation and accept the missiles as a fait accompli, based on Kennedy's perceived lack of confidence during the Bay of Pigs invasion.^ Thus, a confrontation with the Russians would not be over the missiles, but over Soviet ships.

^ Major events during the Kennedy Administration included the Bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviets had hoped to present the Americans with a fait accompli at the end of the year, but their military build-up was discovered on October 15 when it was still in progress and when the missiles were not yet operational.
  • The Two Faces of American Power: Military and Political Communicationduring the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC users.fmg.uva.nl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10] .The Soviet missiles in Cuba could also have been seen as a counter to the U.S. Jupiter IRBMs in Turkey.^ Kennedy met with a small group of advisors and agreed to send an oral message to the Soviet Union's ambassador in Washington, delivered by his brother Robert, promising that the U.S. would not invade Cuba and that the missiles in Turkey would be removed.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On October 26 John Kennedy began raising with increasing insistence the need to probe a secret deal with the Soviet government to withdraw U.S. nuclear-armed missiles from Turkey in exchange for removal of the missiles from Cuba.
  • Steve Clark, Cuban People Thwarted U.S. Invasion Plan In October 1962 `Missile Crisis' 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Khrushchev had agreed to withdraw the weapons in return for a public pledge by Kennedy not to invade Cuba and a secret commitment to pull U.S. missiles out of Turkey.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (1).htm 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ibike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

President Kennedy gave a key warning in his first public speech on the crisis (October 22, 1962):
.It shall be the policy of this nation to regard any nuclear missile launched from Cuba against any nation in the Western Hemisphere as an attack on the United States, requiring a full retaliatory response upon the Soviet Union.^ Enhance Soviet strike capability against the United States.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Further, Kennedy has Dobrynin told that if the Soviet Union does not remove its missiles, the United States will attack Cuba.
  • Cuban History, Missle Crisis (3 of 4) 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Autumn of 1962 the Soviet Union was placing nuclear missiles in Cuba.
  • Amazon.com: Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis (9780393318340): Robert F. Kennedy, Arthur Schlesinger Jr.: Books 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

[11]
This speech included another key policy:
.To halt this offensive buildup, a strict quarantine on all offensive military equipment under shipment to Cuba is being initiated.^ This left the question of what to do--a matter which was resolved after five days of debate and deliberation in favor of a "strict quarantine on all offensive military equipment under shipment to Cuba."
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962: Presenting the Photographic EvidenceAbroad 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC permanent.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The parliament and military equipment sent to Cuba.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I hope that the -- to build up a strict quarantine on all offensive military equipment under shipment to Cuba is being initiated.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

.All ships of any kind bound for Cuba from whatever nation and port will, if found to contain cargoes of offensive weapons, be turned back.^ Withdrawal of Soviet offensive weapons from Cuba ...
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where they found to contain Congo's of offensive weapons being turned back.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ownership of any kind bound to Cuba from whatever nation helped -- out.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

.This quarantine will be extended, if needed, to other types of cargo and carriers.^ This quarantine will be extended if needed to other types of Chicago and carry it.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This quarantine will be extended, if needed, to other types of cargo and carriers.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ U Thant answered that the Americans are demanding checks on the Soviet vessels carrying cargo to Cuba, as one of the conditions on their lifting the quarantine.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

We are not at this time, however, denying the necessities of life as the Soviets attempted to do in their Berlin blockade of 1948.
.Kennedy ordered intensified surveillance, and cited cooperation from the foreign ministers of the Organization of American States (OAS).^ The foreign ministers of the OAS in their communique of October 6.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is within the competence of the Organization of American States.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Appropriate actions should be taken through domestic and foreign press media to inform and alarm the people, through the United Nations, through the Organization of American States and its subcommittees, by contact with each free world country at the level of head pf state, foreign minister and ambassador, and through semi-public or private organizations such as labor, church, farm cooperatives, youth groups, etcetera.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Kennedy "directed the Armed Forces to prepare for any eventualities; and I trust that in the interest of both the Cuban people and the Soviet technicians at the sites, the hazards to all concerned of continuing the threat will be recognized."^ I have directed the armed forces to prepare for any eventuality.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Soviets than on direct involvement in Cuban .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I have directed the Armed Forces to prepare for any eventualities; and I trust that in the interest of both the Cuban people and the Soviet technicians at the sites, the hazards to all concerned of continuing this threat will be recognized.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He called for emergency meetings of the OAS and United Nations Security Council to deal with the matter.^ Dana North Korea Fires Missile; Japan Asks for Emergency Meeting of U.N. Security Council North Korea did go ahead with their missile launch against all warnings.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis - Associated Content - Topic 12 September 2009 9:29 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Kennedy was stunned, and immediately assembled a high-level emergency group, called "ExComm" ("the Executive Committee of the National Security Council"), to immediately propose a solution.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cuban Missile Crisis - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These include transcripts of tapes secretly made by Kennedy of meetings of the National Security Council; of its executive committee (ExComm), hand picked by Kennedy in the opening days of the crisis; and of numerous informal meetings and consultations.
  • Steve Clark, Cuban People Thwarted U.S. Invasion Plan In October 1962 `Missile Crisis' 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: Original source]

[11]

U-2 flights

.
U-2 reconnaissance photograph of Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba.
^ In the Autumn of 1962 the Soviet Union was placing nuclear missiles in Cuba.
  • Amazon.com: Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis (9780393318340): Robert F. Kennedy, Arthur Schlesinger Jr.: Books 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Soviet Missiles are discovered on the island of Cuba.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviets secretly installed missiles with nuclear warheads in Cuba.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Shown are the transports and tents for fueling and maintenance.
.The first consignment of SS-3 MRBMs (medium range ballistic missiles) arrived on the night of September 8, followed by a second on September 16. The Soviets were building nine sites — six for SS-4s and three for SS-5s with a 4,000 kilometer-range (2,400 statute miles).^ "How do you know this is a medium-range ballistic missile?"
  • On The Brink: The Cuban Missile Crisis Revisited : NPR 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

^ SS-4 Medium Range Ballistic Missile (MRBM) sites found in varying stages of readiness.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A U-2 flight on October 14 provided the first proof of Soviet medium-range ballistic missiles in Cuba.
  • The Bay of Pigs and the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1961-1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: News]

.The planned arsenal was forty launchers, a 70% increase in first strike capacity.^ The first of these plans involved the air strike against selective Cuban targets.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oh, I don't think that...this strategic integrated operational plan, the SlOP uh...ever cut out the option of a very large general first strike or preemptive strike.
  • Inside the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC openvault.wgbh.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So as far as you know, a first strike plan never went to the president?
  • Inside the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC openvault.wgbh.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Cuban populace readily noticed it, with over one thousand reports reaching Miami, which U.S. intelligence considered spurious.^ It also includes intelligence memorandums and estimates, briefing papers, Cuban refugee reports, and memorandums on Operation MONGOOSE, the clandestine program aimed at destabilizing the Castro regime.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am returning the report of the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board dated February 4th commenting on the intelligence community's actions in connection with the Cuban crisis.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kennedy asked if there was any up-to-date intelligence reports on Cuban morale and support for Castro.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12]
.On 7 October, Cuban President Osvaldo Dorticós spoke at the U.N. General Assembly: "If ...^ October 16-22: President Kennedy and his closest advisers deliberate on what to do about Cuban sites for nuclear weapons that could be used against the United States.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis: An In-Depth Chronology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC andromeda.rutgers.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Notes on Meeting With President Kennedy, Attorney General, General Taylor, General Sweeney and the Secretary of Defense, 21 October 1962 .
  • Documents Relating to the Bay of Pigs Invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cuban President Osvaldo Dortico told the General Assembly, ''I repeat we have sufficient means with which to defend ourselves; we have indeed our inevitable weapons, the weapons which we would have preferred not to acquire and which we do not wish to employ.''
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (2).htm 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ibike.org [Source type: News]

we are attacked, we will defend ourselves. .I repeat, we have sufficient means with which to defend ourselves; we have indeed our inevitable weapons, the weapons, which we would have preferred not to acquire, and which we do not wish to employ". Several unrelated problems meant the missiles were not discovered by the U.S. until a 14 October Lockheed U-2 flight showed the construction of an SS-4 site at San Cristóbal, Pinar del Río Province, in western Cuba.^ And we therefore should have weapons to defend ourselves.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis All over Again | Drudge Retort 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.drudge.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet Missiles are discovered on the island of Cuba.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cuban President Osvaldo Dortico told the General Assembly, ''I repeat we have sufficient means with which to defend ourselves; we have indeed our inevitable weapons, the weapons which we would have preferred not to acquire and which we do not wish to employ.''
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (2).htm 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ibike.org [Source type: News]

Planning an American response

.It shall be the policy of this nation to regard any nuclear missile launched from Cuba against any nation in the Western Hemisphere as an attack by the Soviet Union on the United States, requiring a full retaliatory response upon the Soviet Union.^ States' "violation of the Charter of the United Nations and .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Enhance Soviet strike capability against the United States.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Autumn of 1962 the Soviet Union was placing nuclear missiles in Cuba.
  • Amazon.com: Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis (9780393318340): Robert F. Kennedy, Arthur Schlesinger Jr.: Books 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

 
John F. Kennedy, October 22, 1962
.When President Kennedy saw the photographs on 16 October,[13] he assembled the Executive Committee of the National Security Council (EXCOMM), fourteen key officials and his brother Robert, at 9.00 a.m.^ Record of Action of the Second Meeting of the Executive Committee of the National Security Council, 23 October 1962 .
  • Documents Relating to the Bay of Pigs Invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That day, Kennedy's Executive Committee of National Security Advisers approved the letter to Cuba.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (1).htm 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ibike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Minutes of Meeting of the Executive Committee of the National Security Council , 23 October 1962 .
  • Documents Relating to the Bay of Pigs Invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.mtholyoke.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The U.S. had no plan for dealing with such a threat, because U.S. intelligence was convinced that the Soviets would not install nuclear missiles in Cuba.^ In the Autumn of 1962 the Soviet Union was placing nuclear missiles in Cuba.
  • Amazon.com: Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis (9780393318340): Robert F. Kennedy, Arthur Schlesinger Jr.: Books 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Ergo, there would be no missiles.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cuban Missile Crisis - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Deploying Soviet missiles in Cuba would prejudice this strategy.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis 1962: The world at death's door - Opinion - The Independent 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.independent.co.uk [Source type: News]

The EXCOMM quickly discussed five possible courses of action:
.
  1. Do nothing.
  2. Use diplomatic pressure to get the Soviet Union to remove the missiles.
  3. An air attack on the missiles.
  4. A full military invasion.
  5. The naval blockade of Cuba, which was redefined as a more selective quarantine.^ In the Autumn of 1962 the Soviet Union was placing nuclear missiles in Cuba.
    • Amazon.com: Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis (9780393318340): Robert F. Kennedy, Arthur Schlesinger Jr.: Books 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Soviet Missiles are discovered on the island of Cuba.
    • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Soviets had missiles, weapons, and the ability to use them.
    • PostPartisan - With Iran, 'The Cuban Missile Crisis in Slow Motion' 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC voices.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

    [14]
.Unanimously, the Joint Chiefs of Staff agreed that a full-scale attack and invasion was the only solution.^ The chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff disagreed.
  • On The Brink: The Cuban Missile Crisis Revisited : NPR 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

^ The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCoS) unanimously agreed that a full out invasion was the key.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A563852 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Joint Chiefs of Staff advocated an invasion.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They agreed that the Soviets would not act to stop the U.S. from conquering Cuba; Kennedy was skeptical, saying:
.They, no more than we, can let these things go by without doing something.^ Both of these regimes have proven that they are more than willing to kill thousands of people, destroy hundreds of square miles of land and water, and waste billions of dollars in doing so just so they can establish their position in their battle to control their world.
  • The Next Cuban Missile Crisis? - From Niklas Kozloff 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.homepagedaily.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What's more, without a proper Skirmish or multiplayer option, if you're adverse to such hardships it won't be long before you're pining for something more upbeat.
  • PC Review: Cuban Missile Crisis: The Aftermath Review - ComputerAndVideoGames.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.computerandvideogames.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Barack Obama is not going to attack ANYONE, and this is no more than Stanley Baldwin being compelled to say something or look even more foolish.
  • PostPartisan - With Iran, 'The Cuban Missile Crisis in Slow Motion' 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC voices.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

.They can't, after all their statements, permit us to take out their missiles, kill a lot of Russians, and then do nothing.^ In RFK's posthumous book, "Thirteen Days," he describes his conversation with Dobrynin on Oct 27 as refusing any quid pro quo, just that the US was planning to take the Turkey missiles out anyway.

^ JFK states: "We can't very well invade Cuba with all its toil...when we could have gotten them out by making a deal on the same missiles in Turkey.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.hpol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We would gladly let your ships pass in both directions, if they carry all your missiles away.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.If they don't take action in Cuba, they certainly will in Berlin.^ President Kennedy then said that he thought at some point Khrushchev would say that if we made a move against Cuba, he would take Berlin.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They would probably link Cuba with the Berlin situation and emphasize their patience and preference for negotiations, implying that Berlin was held hostage to US actions in Cuba.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What is the likelihood that if we take an active step in Cuba, the Soviets will take a parallel counterstep in Central Europe and particularly in or around Berlin.
  • Inside the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC openvault.wgbh.org [Source type: Original source]

[15]
.Kennedy concluded that attacking by air would signal the Soviets to presume "a clear line" to conquer Berlin.^ The Soviets would not let a military attack go unwarranted, but at the same time had families of their own and ultimately wanted the same outcome from this standoff; a peaceful conclusion.
  • Amazon.com: Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis (9780393318340): Robert F. Kennedy, Arthur Schlesinger Jr.: Books 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ President Kennedy and his advisers had to take into consideration how the Soviet Union and Cuba would react to decisions made by the United States.
  • Cuban Missile crisis - The Education Forum 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Student Question: Cuban Missile Crisis - The Education Forum 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Power supposedly had the order transmitted "in the clear", hoping the Soviets would pick it up and realize we were willing to going to war if necessary.
  • Defcon 2 during Cuban Missile Crisis - did it help? - Straight Dope Message Board 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Adding that in taking such an action, the United States' allies would think of the U.S. as "trigger-happy cowboys" who lost Berlin because they could not peacefully resolve the Cuban situation.^ United States had misinterpreted Castro and the Cuban .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cuba, the United States would agree to .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cubans that they could act constructively to .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
President Kennedy and Secretary of Defense McNamara in an EXCOMM meeting.
.The EXCOMM then discussed the effect on the strategic balance.^ And, in effect, that both of these, and underneath them, the overall strategic balance, ah, that...
  • Inside the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC openvault.wgbh.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Joint Chiefs of Staff believed that the missiles would seriously alter the balance, but Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara disagreed.^ Kennedy asked Robert McNamara, the secretary of defense.
  • Steve Clark, Cuban People Thwarted U.S. Invasion Plan In October 1962 `Missile Crisis' 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff disagreed.
  • On The Brink: The Cuban Missile Crisis Revisited : NPR 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

^ He would later succeed McNamara as secretary of defense.
  • Washington Decoded: What Did LBJ Know About the Cuban Missile Crisis? And When Did He Know It? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.washingtondecoded.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He was convinced that the missiles would not affect the strategic balance at all.^ Since the foregoing evidence is not fully conclusive, we must also consider whether the Soviets would wish to secrete strategic missiles in Cuba.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We would gladly let your ships pass in both directions, if they carry all your missiles away.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Well, Khrushchev thought the missiles would change the nuclear balance, but not significantly.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis | Arms Control Association 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.armscontrol.org [Source type: Original source]

.An extra forty, he reasoned, would make little difference to the overall strategic balance.^ The missiles actually made very little difference to the balance of power in strategic terms, i.e.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis@Everything2.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Cuban Missile Crisis@Everything2.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Marxism Cuban Missile Crisis: How Politics Helped to Serve the Process of Decision Making Would the decision-making process during the Cuban Missile Crisis have been different had it not taken place during an election year?
  • Cuban Missile Crisis - Associated Content - Topic 12 September 2009 9:29 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ One must suppose that the Russians are sufficiently experienced people to understand that the military equipment which they are supplying to Cuba, or can supply in the future, would make little difference if the USA were to consider itself forced to take military action against it.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The US already had approximately 5,000 strategic warheads[16], whilst the Soviet Union only had 300. He concluded that the Soviets having 340 would not therefore substantially alter the strategic balance.^ A summit therefore would buy the Soviets some additional time, offer a forum to make a reasonable case, confuse the issues, and raise the political costs of further US action.

^ In a broad strategic sense the outcome of the crisis was a success for the Soviet Union.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis@Everything2.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Cuban Missile Crisis@Everything2.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At its critical September 19, 1962, meeting it decided that the intelligence contained no evidence that the Soviets had sent nuclear missiles to Cuba, and it unanimously concluded that on balance they would not do so in the future.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cuban Missile Crisis - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1990 he reiterated that "it made no difference...The military balance wasn't changed.^ The missiles actually made very little difference to the balance of power in strategic terms, i.e.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis@Everything2.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Cuban Missile Crisis@Everything2.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This paragraph, paragraph one of your cable, was immediately passed to the DD/I. However, no change was made to the estimate.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Secretary McNamara confirmed the military appraisal expressed above but made no recommendation as to policy.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

I didn't believe it then, and I don't believe it now."[17]
.The EXCOMM did agree, however, that the missiles would affect the political balance.^ In his ABC interview with Barbara Walters, Castro said his country did not agree to accept the missiles out of fear, and ``we would have rather not had them in order to preserve the prestige'' of Cuba.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (2).htm 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ibike.org [Source type: News]

^ Kornienko: Mr. McNamara, you have asked, did the deployment in Cuba affect the nuclear balance?
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis | Arms Control Association 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.armscontrol.org [Source type: Original source]

^ (Blight & Welch p.197) Bolshakov however did not prove to be totally useless to the Kennedy administration in resolving the missile crisis.
  • The Role Of Bobby Kennedy Throughout The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.freeessay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.First, Kennedy had explicitly promised the American people less than a month before the crisis that "if Cuba should possess a capacity to carry out offensive actions against the United States...the United States would act"[18].^ The United States should ignore the missiles in Cuba.
  • Student Question: Cuban Missile Crisis - The Education Forum 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Before the crisis the Americans were preparing an intervention against Cuba.
  • Cold War International History Project 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cuba sanctions: United States Treasury .
  • Intute - Cuba (including cuban missile crisis) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.intute.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Second, U.S. credibility amongst their allies, and amongst the American people, would have been damaged if they had allowed the Soviet Union to appear to redress the strategic balance by placing missiles in Cuba.^ In the Autumn of 1962 the Soviet Union was placing nuclear missiles in Cuba.
  • Amazon.com: Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis (9780393318340): Robert F. Kennedy, Arthur Schlesinger Jr.: Books 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Soviets placed Cuba in the same position of .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, placing missiles in Cuba so as to .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

.Kennedy explained after the crisis that "it would have politically changed the balance of power.^ I therefore believe that it was the existence of ah, very powerful forces in both countries, and not the balance of nuclear power between those two forces, that was ah, important in the crisis.
  • Inside the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC openvault.wgbh.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Well, Khrushchev thought the missiles would change the nuclear balance, but not significantly.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis | Arms Control Association 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.armscontrol.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We now know that Krushchev's actions in this regard were a big part of the post-Crisis political fallout he suffered and that fallout eventually helped lead to his removal from power.
  • The Cuban Missile War Timeline - Alternate History Discussion Board 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.alternatehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

It would have appeared to, and appearances contribute to reality."[19]
A full-scale invasion was not the first option, but something had to be done. .Robert McNamara supported the naval blockade as a strong but limited military action that left the U.S. in control.^ You could have all these military actions combined with a blockade.
  • Cuban Missiles Crisis Excomm Transcripts 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Cuban Missiles Crisis Excomm Transcripts 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC ftp.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Paradoxically, McNamara was right by claiming political leadership: most of the dangerous actions the military took during the crisis were indeed implied in the Presidential orders.
  • The Two Faces of American Power: Military and Political Communicationduring the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC users.fmg.uva.nl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He also wanted the Pentagon generals eager to enforce the blockade (officially designated a “quarantine”) to know that although it was a military action, it was intended only to communicate a political message.
  • Learning from the Missile Crisis | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to international law a blockade is an act of war, but the Kennedy administration did not feel itself limited, thinking that the USSR would not be provoked to attack by a mere blockade.^ A blockade is an act of war.
  • Learning from the Missile Crisis | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kennedy called upon Khrushchev 12″to halt and eliminate this clandestine, reckless and provocative threat to world peace and to stable relations between our two nations” and warned that an attack from Cuba on any nation in the western hemisphere would be considered an attack by the USSR on the United States itself.
  • Cuban Missle Crisis | Essays & Term Papers Online 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Finally, I feel very strongly that any belief in a limited quick action is an illusion and would lead us into a full war with Cuba on a step by step basis which would greatly increase the possibility of general war.
  • Cuban Missiles Crisis Excomm Transcripts 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Cuban Missiles Crisis Excomm Transcripts 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC ftp.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
.By 19 October, frequent U-2 spy flights showed four operational sites.^ Five of the six MRBM sites are now believed to have a full operational capability and the sixth is estimated to achieve this status tomorrow--28 October (see Figure 2).
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Four days earlier, Kennedy had been informed that U.S. government spy flights over Cuba had photographed Soviet-supplied nuclear missiles on the island.
  • Steve Clark, Cuban People Thwarted U.S. Invasion Plan In October 1962 `Missile Crisis' 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I. Surveillance of 26 October and preliminary analysis of yesterday's coverage shows that the development of both IRBM and MRBM sites in Cuba is continuing its rapid pace.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As part of the blockade, the US military was put on high alert to enforce the blockade and to be ready to invade Cuba at a moment's notice.^ And their military is in a high state of alert."
  • Steve Clark, Cuban People Thwarted U.S. Invasion Plan In October 1962 `Missile Crisis' 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And the solution to the Cuban Missile Crisis involved (a) the US promise not to invade Cuba, (b) the removal of Soviet missiles from Cuba, and (c) sooprise: the removal those Jupiter missiles from Turkey (although that was a secret part of the agreement that didn't come to light until later).
  • Cuban Missile Crisis All over Again | Drudge Retort 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.drudge.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At almost the same moment, an intelligence message arrived reporting that America was going to invade Cuba within two days.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / How My Father and President Kennedy Saved the World 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

.The 1st Armored Division was sent to Georgia, and five army divisions were alerted for maximal action.^ PM The first two full companies of the 1st Armored Division are formed up and receive orders to advance inland.
  • The Cuban Missile War Timeline - Alternate History Discussion Board 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.alternatehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I was assigned to one of the two armored divisions there; the 1st (Old Ironsides) and the 2nd, (Hell On Wheels) General George Patton's old outfit and my outfit.
  • Cafe Talk | Talking Points Memo | Lessons of the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 1st Armored packed up and went down to Georgia or somewhere to be ready to invade Cuba.
  • Cafe Talk | Talking Points Memo | Lessons of the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Strategic Air Command (SAC) distributed its shorter-ranged B-47 Stratojet medium bombers to civilian airports and sent aloft its B-52 Stratofortress heavy bombers.^ Strategic Air Command (CINCSAC), raised the SAC alert level to .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Strategic Air Command personnel interpreting reconnaissance photo during the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over the DEW Line, the bombers of Long-Range Aviation are going to be joined by a large number of shorter-range bombers, in essence overwhelming the defenders, much as SAC will do to PVO several hours later.
  • The Cuban Missile War Timeline - Alternate History Discussion Board 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.alternatehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

Quarantine

Problems listening to this file? See media help.
A U.S. Navy P-2 of VP-18 flying over a Soviet freighter.
.In customary international practice, a blockade stops all shipments into the blockaded area, and is considered an act of war.^ A blockade is an act of war.
  • Learning from the Missile Crisis | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The meeting considered three drafts of scenarios of three possible courses of action, that is, air strike, the political path and progressive economic blockade, all of which are attached.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He considered, along with most foreign policy experts in the world, that a blockade was an act of war deserving of the most aggressive kind of response.
  • Student Question: Cuban Missile Crisis - The Education Forum 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: Original source]

.Quarantines are more selective, as, in this case, being limited to offensive weapons.^ The President placed limitations on the publication of reports on weapons which might be offensive, pending receipt of further information con­cerning c suspected missile installation at Banes.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ JFK asserts that the quarantine has already been successful since the USSR has already turned back fourteen ships presumably carrying offensive weapons.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.hpol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Discussion of the negotiations at the UN. JFK says that we could lift the quarantine if the UN provides guarantees that no new offensive weapons would be introduced.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.hpol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

While the original U.S. Navy paper did use the term "blockade,"
.This initially was to involve a naval blockade against offensive weapons within the framework of the Organization of American States and the Rio Treaty.^ This initially was to involve a naval blockade against offensive weapons within the framework of the Organization of American States and the Rio Treaty.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ United States lifted its naval blockade.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (1).htm 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ibike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is within the competence of the Organization of American States.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Such a blockade might be expanded to cover all types of goods and air transport.^ Such a blockade might be expanded to cover all types of goods and air transport.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many more preparations were necessary, however, before the JCS considered the stage set, not so much for the imposition of the blockade but for the possibilities such action might precipitate.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The meeting considered three drafts of scenarios of three possible courses of action, that is, air strike, the political path and progressive economic blockade, all of which are attached.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The action was to be backed up by surveillance of Cuba.^ The action was to be backed up by surveillance of Cuba.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ JFK suspends U-2 air surveillance over Cuba and orders that no military action be taken against ships approaching the quarantine line.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.hpol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We were there ready for action in case a MIG made a run on one of our surveillance aircraft that was flying across Cuba.
  • CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.mofak.com [Source type: Original source]

.The CNO's scenario was followed closely in later implementing the quarantine.^ CNO's scenario was followed closely in later implementing the quarantine.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Kennedy made an address to the Nation in which he said "To halt this offensive buildup, a strict quarantine on all offensive military equipment under shipment to Cuba is being initiated."^ This left the question of what to do--a matter which was resolved after five days of debate and deliberation in favor of a "strict quarantine on all offensive military equipment under shipment to Cuba."
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962: Presenting the Photographic EvidenceAbroad 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC permanent.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Within the past week, unmistakable evidence has established the fact that a series of offensive missiles is now in preparation on that imprisoned island,'' Kennedy said in his speech to the nation.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (2).htm 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ibike.org [Source type: News]

^ Kennedy took public responsibility for the mistakes made, but remained determined to rid Cuba of Castro.
  • The Bay of Pigs and the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1961-1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: News]

"1962 Year In Review: Cuban Missile Crisis"
Admiral Anderson's paper, by differentiating between the quarantine of offensive weapons and all materials, indicated that a classic blockade was not the original intention. .Since it would take place in international waters, President Kennedy obtained the approval of the OAS for military action under the hemispheric defense provisions of the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (i.e., the Rio Treaty).^ President Kennedy decided to take action.
  • Cuban Missle Crisis | Essays & Term Papers Online 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ President Kennedy : That's what it would seem to me.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis@Everything2.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Cuban Missile Crisis@Everything2.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What military action did Kennedy eventually take?
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Latin American participation in the quarantine now involved two Argentine destroyers which were to report to the U.S. Commander South Atlantic [COMSOLANT] at Trinidad on 9 November.^ Latin American countries are beginning to offer military units for the quarantine, and there is generally little adverse reaction in the hemisphere.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are reports that anti-US demonstrations have broken out in several Latin American capitals, including Buenos Aires, Caracas, and La Paz.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recent oral history conferences involving both American and Soviet participants have generated startling revelations about the nature and degree of the threat represented by the Crisis.
  • Student Question: Cuban Missile Crisis - The Education Forum 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: Original source]

An Argentine submarine and a Marine battalion with lift were available if required. .In addition, two Venezuelan destroyers and one submarine had reported to COMSOLANT, ready for sea by November 2. The Government of Trinidad and Tobago offered the use of Chaguaramas Naval Base to warships of any OAS nation for the duration of the quarantine.^ Venezuela's naval intelligence chief, Admiral Salbatore Cammarata Bastidas, said that 1,000 Russian military personnel would take part in mid-November exercises with Venezuelan frigates, patrol boats, submarines, and aircraft.
  • Nikolas Kozloff: The Next Cuban Missile Crisis? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: News]

^ Guantanamo and the two nuclear torpedoes used against American ships ensure that no one is in the mood to take prisoners.
  • The Cuban Missile War Timeline - Alternate History Discussion Board 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.alternatehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He demands that the general use these against Guantanamo Naval Base in retaliation for the American nuclear strike.
  • The Cuban Missile War Timeline - Alternate History Discussion Board 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.alternatehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Dominican Republic had made available one escort ship.^ For instance, aerial photos made available this morning show 68 boxes on ships that are not believed to be Il-28s and cannot be identified.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis | Arms Control Association 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.armscontrol.org [Source type: Original source]

.Colombia was reported ready to furnish units and had sent military officers to the U.S. to discuss this assistance.^ The forces of the military units in this group (105,000 persons) have been brought to military readiness, and are occupying departure positions.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Secretary Rusk reported on the United Nations, stated there is no confirmed Soviet reaction or statement of intentions but discussed exchange with.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Great care had to be taken to prevent disclosure of the scope of preparations and to avoid the impression that the United States was building to a point of military readiness for Cuban operations.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.history.navy.mil [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Argentine Air Force informally offered three SA-16 aircraft in addition to forces already committed to the quarantine operation.^ Additionally, Castro's air force, which supposedly .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ SA-2 sites, of which 16 are believed to be individually operational with some missiles on launcher; .
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PM Three Soviet nuclear devices destroy Rhein-Main Air Force base and the scratch forces attempting to defend it.
  • The Cuban Missile War Timeline - Alternate History Discussion Board 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.alternatehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

[20]
President Kennedy signs the Proclamation for Interdiction of the Delivery of Offensive Weapons to Cuba at the Oval Office on October 23, 1962.
.At 7 p.m., on 22 October, President Kennedy delivered a televised radio address announcing the discovery of the missiles.^ The following is a televised address delivered by president Kennedy to the American people.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Kennedy's Report to the People, delivered on 22 October 1962.
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At that moment, when Kennedy made a statement and announced [on October 22--ed.
  • Cold War International History Project 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

As part of the context of the speech a directive went out to all US forces worldwide placing them on DEFCON 3. The world wide US Forces DEFCON 3 status was returned to DEFCON 4 on 20 November 1962.

Crisis deepens

.On 23 October at 11:24 a.m.^ The third volume from that series fails to note that Johnson was indeed present at ExComm meetings on October 22 (3 PM ) , 23 (6 PM ), 24 (10 AM ), 25 (5:25 PM ), and 27 (9 PM ).
  • Washington Decoded: What Did LBJ Know About the Cuban Missile Crisis? And When Did He Know It? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.washingtondecoded.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

a cable drafted by .George Ball to the U.S. Ambassador in Turkey and the U.S. Ambassador to NATO notified them that they were considering making an offer to withdraw missiles from Italy and Turkey in exchange for a withdrawal from Cuba.^ You do not defend Cuba by withdrawing missiles from Turkey.
  • Student Question: Cuban Missile Crisis - The Education Forum 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Krushchev offering to remove the missiles in exchange for American missiles removed from Turkey is recieved.
  • The Cuban Missile War Timeline - Alternate History Discussion Board 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.alternatehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He demanded that JFK remove Jupiter missiles from Turkey in exchange for removal of missiles from Cuba.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis | Red Room 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

.Later, on the morning of 25 October, journalist Walter Lippman proposed the same thing in his syndicated column.^ If the Soviet side has some draft proposals, it is desirable to obtain them, and the American side then will do the same thing.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Forty years later, Washington and the world are again on the brink, and debates about the lessons of that long-ago October are as fresh as the morning headlines.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (1).htm 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ibike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He confirmed, half in jest, that he "caught it hot" for having published [in a column published on 25 October--ed.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.For many years, this has been interpreted as a trial balloon floated by the Kennedy administration, although the historical record suggests this is not the case.^ In this, the flagrancy of the Kennedy history-making influence is shown to have reigned supreme for many years.
  • Student Question: Cuban Missile Crisis - The Education Forum 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In September of this year as many as 50 cases were recorded of Soviet vessels being air-patrolled.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Over the years, our knowledge of it has been enhanced by autobiographies written by many participants, by a great deal of scholarship and by nostalgic, on-the-record gatherings of Soviet, American and Cuban officials.
  • Learning from the Missile Crisis | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.At the time the crisis continued unabated, and that evening TASS[citation needed] reported on an exchange of telegrams between Khrushchev and Bertrand Russell, in which Khrushchev warned that the United States' "pirate action" would lead to war.^ Cuba, the United States would agree to .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cold War struggle with the United States.
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ United States would return to .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

However, this was followed at 9:24 p.m. by a telegram from .Khrushchev to Kennedy which was received at 10:52 p.m., in which Khrushchev stated, "If you coolly weigh the situation which has developed, not giving way to passions, you will understand that the Soviet Union cannot fail to reject the arbitrary demands of the United States," and that the Soviet Union views the blockade as "an act of aggression" and their ships will be instructed to ignore it.^ The United States and the Soviet Union were the tw more...
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1962 the Soviet Union's position vis--vis the United States was in decline.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis@Everything2.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Cuban Missile Crisis@Everything2.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What would you have done if you were Castro, Kennedy, or Khrushchev?
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the night of October 23, the Joint Chiefs of Staff instructed Strategic Air Command to go to DEFCON 2, for the only confirmed time in history.^ Joint Chiefs of Staff advocated an invasion.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During Senate confirmation hearings as Air Force Chief of Staff, General Norton Schwartz countered that "we should stand strong and indicate that is something that crosses a threshold, crosses a red line."
  • Soaring, Cryptography and Nuclear Weapons 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC nuclearrisk.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Strategic Air Command personnel interpreting reconnaissance photo during the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The message, and the response, were deliberately transmitted uncoded, unencrypted, in order to allow Soviet intelligence to intercept them.^ It is noteworthy that the Soviet message strongly implies that a U.S. invasion of Cuba would not trigger a military response from the USSR, but only political condemnation.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Powers order, however, was transmitted in the clear , in such a way that the Soviets monitoring American transmissions could understand it.
  • The Two Faces of American Power: Military and Political Communicationduring the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC users.fmg.uva.nl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An order is thus a communication with a rank attached to it, so that it only allows for a very limited range of responses.
  • The Two Faces of American Power: Military and Political Communicationduring the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC users.fmg.uva.nl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .Operation Falling Leaves quickly set up three radar bases to watch for missile launches from Cuba.^ Three automatic 37 mm guns with 1200 rounds for each have been set up on the transport Aleksandrovsk for defense against ships and aircraft of pirates (SIC).
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis | Arms Control Association 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.armscontrol.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What if, for example, the Russians had responded to the blockade, as the Joint Chiefs had explicitly warned, by carrying out low-level bombing raids in the southeastern U.S. and/or by launching the operational nuclear missiles in Cuba at the American mainland?
  • Washington Decoded: The Cuban Missile Crisis 45 Years Later: A Personal and Professional Remembrance 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.washingtondecoded.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a matter of six or seven minutes missiles launched from that base could devastate major centres in the Ukraine and southern Russia.
  • Soaring, Cryptography and Nuclear Weapons 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC nuclearrisk.org [Source type: Original source]

The radars were experimental models ahead of their time. Each base was connected with a hotline to NORAD control.
.At 1:45 a.m., on 25 October, Kennedy responded to Khrushchev's telegram, stating that the U.S. was forced into action after receiving repeated assurances that no offensive missiles were being placed in Cuba, and that when these assurances proved to be false, the deployment "required the responses I have announced...^ However, placing missiles in Cuba so as to .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The response in Cuba to President Kennedy's October 22nd .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We repeated that these planes are not offensive, and that the Soviets will proceed from this fact in their actions.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.I hope that your government will take necessary action to permit a restoration of the earlier situation."^ In the course of the Cuban events our party and government were acting having in mind to do whatever was necessary to make [the situation] better for Cuba.
  • Cold War International History Project 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Requests for additional copies or for initial distribution from offices not under your immediate control, but in your department of the Government, will be referred to you for action.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is the minimal amount of time necessary for the US government to do this, taking into account the procedures that exist within the NATO framework.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis | Red Room 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

A recently declassified map used by the U.S. Navy's Atlantic Fleet showing the position of American and Soviet ships at the height of the crisis.
At 7:15 a.m., the USS Essex and USS Gearing attempted to intercept the Bucharest but failed to do so. .Fairly certain the tanker did not contain any military material, it was allowed through the blockade.^ They are probably capable of containing and controlling any threat to the regime through guerrilla action and of repelling any invasion short of a direct US military intervention in strength.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Theres nothingand I mean literally nothinginvolving any significant military action that did not occur as a result of the decision of the President, through the Secretary of Defense.
  • The Two Faces of American Power: Military and Political Communicationduring the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC users.fmg.uva.nl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We believe that even under a total blockade individual air­craft and submarines might get through to deliver vital military items, e.g., nuclear warheads.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Later that day, at 5:43 p.m., the commander of the blockade effort ordered the USS Kennedy to intercept and board the Lebanese freighter Marcula. .This took place the next day, and the Marcula was cleared through the blockade after its cargo was checked.^ Eight days later the elections for Congress took place.
  • Student Question: Cuban Missile Crisis - The Education Forum 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ 'The president also asked N.S. Khrushchev to give him an answer (through the Soviet ambassador and R. Kennedy) if possible within the next day (Sunday) on these thoughts in order to have a business-like, clear answer in principle.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis | Red Room 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

.At 5:00 p.m., William Clements announced that the missiles in Cuba were still actively being worked on.^ "As for U.S.-Cuba relations, they were as bad as they could get before the missile crisis, and the missile crisis confirmed them as being bad.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (1).htm 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ibike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Monday, October 15 A U-2 high level reconnaissance jet records pictures of nuclear missile site s being assembled in Cuba .
  • Cuban Missile Crisis@Everything2.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Cuban Missile Crisis@Everything2.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Once when still being in International School of Toulouse, I had to write a test that conatined a question on ''seriousness'' of the Cuban Missile crisis.
  • Cuban Missile crisis - The Education Forum 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This report was later verified by a CIA report that suggested there had been no slow-down at all.^ We need all of this, Robert Kennedy remarked, so that we can satisfy our domestic public opinion by reporting that there has been some progress in the removal of the IL-28 planes.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no sign of a slow-down in the military shipments; about 20 Soviet vessels are en route with probable military cargoes, and one or two are leaving Soviet ports almost daily.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no evidence of new rissile sites in Cuba since the report given to you at 2:30 p.m.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In response, Kennedy issued Security Action Memorandum 199, authorizing the loading of nuclear weapons onto aircraft under the command of SACEUR (which had the duty of carrying out the first air strikes on the Soviet Union).^ Allowed to be the first to deliver a nuclear strike.” .
  • AmericanHeritage.com / How My Father and President Kennedy Saved the World 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ AM The first American ICBMs begin to strike targets in the Soviet Union.
  • The Cuban Missile War Timeline - Alternate History Discussion Board 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.alternatehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Strategic Air Command has ever been carried out to my knowledge.
  • Inside the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC openvault.wgbh.org [Source type: Original source]

.The next morning, Kennedy informed the executive committee that he believed only an invasion would remove the missiles from Cuba.^ Not only would the missiles have enabled .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Kennedy’s discovery of the missiles could wait till the next morning.
  • The Role Of Bobby Kennedy Throughout The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.freeessay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, Castro also believed that the missiles would .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, he was persuaded to give the matter time and continue with both military and diplomatic pressure.^ At the same time, however, members of the Politburo and of the Soviet military establishment were urgently seeking means to offset the U.S.s numerical nuclear superiority.
  • The Two Faces of American Power: Military and Political Communicationduring the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC users.fmg.uva.nl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SecDef and Taylor both objected to political talks because it would give time for threatening missiles to become operational and also give the Soviets an opportunity to camouflage the missiles.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ JFK went ahead with all preparations to do both, while stalling the hawks in his government one day at a time, and increasing the public propaganda pressure on Kruschev.
  • Student Question: Cuban Missile Crisis - The Education Forum 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: Original source]

.He agreed and ordered the low-level flights over the island to be increased from two per day to once every two hours.^ He went to Bonn during that very day, and with Mr. Dowling saw the Chancellor for two hours late in the afternoon.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962: Presenting the Photographic EvidenceAbroad 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC permanent.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ He has direct orders from Moscow, received two days prior, not to release any nuclear weapons without the expressed order of high command.
  • The Cuban Missile War Timeline - Alternate History Discussion Board 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.alternatehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After 15 hours of rioting and two deaths, Kennedy sent in troops to restore order.
  • Cuban Missle Crisis | Essays & Term Papers Online 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.He also ordered a crash program to institute a new civil government in Cuba if an invasion went ahead.^ Bundy refers to "post-Castro Cuba" and recommends using the Mongoose organization in planning a new civil government for Cuba.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.hpol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ JFK went ahead with all preparations to do both, while stalling the hawks in his government one day at a time, and increasing the public propaganda pressure on Kruschev.
  • Student Question: Cuban Missile Crisis - The Education Forum 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He said that the government of the USSR had ordered him to arrive in New York to aid U Thant in his efforts to eliminate the dangerous situation that has arisen.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

At this point, the crisis was ostensibly at a stalemate. .The USSR had shown no indication that they would back down and had made several comments to the contrary.^ They have made no comment on this information, and have asked no questions.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He also referred to the President's recent public statements and indicated a feeling that if no action was taken, we would free the Soviets to act any place they wished and at their own will.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We indicated that the message made no mention of such points, but we declined to discuss the matter, pleading our lack of authorization to do so.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The U.S. had no reason to believe otherwise and was in the early stages of preparing for an invasion, along with a nuclear strike on the Soviet Union in case it responded militarily, which was assumed.^ Two nuclear-armed F-102s respond, and although the flight is shadowed by Soviet aircraft, no shots are fired.
  • The Cuban Missile War Timeline - Alternate History Discussion Board 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.alternatehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The temporary no-mans land created by the five nuclear detonations buys American forces time to contain the Soviet breakthrough.
  • The Cuban Missile War Timeline - Alternate History Discussion Board 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.alternatehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In return for the Soviet Union dismantling her missiles in Cuba, the United States would withdraw her nuclear missiles from Turkey and Italy.
  • Cuban Missile crisis - The Education Forum 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Student Question: Cuban Missile Crisis - The Education Forum 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: Original source]

[21]

Secret negotiations

.At 1:00 p.m., John A. Scali of ABC News had lunch with Aleksandr Fomin at Fomin's request.^ (As a result, a plaque later appeared on the wall of the Occidental Restaurant, where the two men had had lunch, with this inscription: “At a tense moment of the Cuban crisis (October 1962) a mysterious Russian, Mr. X, advanced a proposal here to John Scali, a newsman at ABC News.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / How My Father and President Kennedy Saved the World 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Memorandum From ABC Correspondent John Scali to the Director of the Bureau of Intelligence and Research (Hilsman) .
  • ALL THROUGH THE NIGHT - THE GUARDIAN ANGELS - CUBA 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: News]

^ That same Friday, October 26, the KGB station chief in Washington, Aleksandr Fomin, left on his daily hunt for news.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / How My Father and President Kennedy Saved the World 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

.Fomin noted, "War seems about to break out," and asked Scali to use his contacts to talk to his "high-level friends" at the State Department to see if the U.S. would be interested in a diplomatic solution.^ Let's talk about force levels.
  • Inside the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC openvault.wgbh.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When asked about the possibility of Russian naval exercises in the Caribbean, U.S. State Department spokesman Sean McCormack mockingly responded, “If it is, in fact, true, then they found a few ships that can make it that far.” .
  • Nikolas Kozloff: The Next Cuban Missile Crisis? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: News]

^ A public opinion poll in the United States revealed that three out of five people expected fighting to break out between the two sides.
  • Student Question: Cuban Missile Crisis - The Education Forum 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: Original source]

.He suggested that the language of the deal would contain an assurance from the Soviet Union to remove the weapons under UN supervision and that Castro would publicly announce that he would not accept such weapons in the future, in exchange for a public statement by the U.S. that it would never invade Cuba.^ Withdrawal of Soviet offensive weapons from Cuba ...
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the US accepts the strategic missile buildup in Cuba, the Soviets would continue the buildup of strategic weapons in Cuba.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet Union, Castro may, .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

.The U.S. responded by asking the Brazilian government to pass a message to Castro that the U.S. would be "unlikely to invade" if the missiles were removed.^ In addition, Castro also believed that the missiles would .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ U Thant asked whether there could be a disclosure, through first-hand observation, of the missiles on the vessels that will remove them from Cuba, or whether instead they would be kept in containers.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The message ended with a proposal we could fully accept: if we would guarantee we would not invade Cuba, Khrushchev would remove the missiles from Cuba.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis | Arms Control Association 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.armscontrol.org [Source type: Original source]

.At 6:00 p.m., the State Department started receiving a message that appeared to be written personally by Khrushchev.^ (Cook p.92) Robert Kennedy made time to see Bolshakov on October 5 because Bolshakov said he had received and important message from Khrushchev.
  • The Role Of Bobby Kennedy Throughout The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.freeessay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All the messages between Khrushchev and Kennedy and everything received from him confidentially were given to comrade Fidel.
  • Cold War International History Project 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ With regard to the issue of Comrade N.S. Khrushchev's message of 27 October, U Thant declared that the formulation contained in it appears to him a positive one.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Robert Kennedy described the letter as "very long and emotional."^ PM -- In Washington, Kennedy and ExComm agree to a response to Krushchev's trade letter, and agree to the deal as long as the American missile withdrawal will be kept secret.
  • The Cuban Missile War Timeline - Alternate History Discussion Board 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.alternatehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (Robert Kennedy exploring options in the ExComm) "This alternative doesn't seem to be a very acceptable one, but wait until you work on the others."
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He saw the blockade as a “very slow death.”(Thompson p.123) Robert Kennedy envisioned that a blockade would last for months.
  • The Role Of Bobby Kennedy Throughout The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.freeessay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Khrushchev reiterated the basic outline that had been stated to John Scali earlier in the day, "I propose: we, for our part, will declare that our ships bound for Cuba are not carrying any armaments.^ Cuba of the ships carrying the missiles on 6 and 7 November.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ We have specified here that our installations now being dismantled can be shipped out of Cuba by 7 or 8 or at the latest 10 November.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ (Fursenko & Naftali p.276-9) On top of that, Khrushchev cabled a new proposal to the White House only a day after the first modest proposal was received.
  • The Role Of Bobby Kennedy Throughout The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.freeessay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.You will declare that the United States will not invade Cuba with its troops and will not support any other forces which might intend to invade Cuba.^ Send United States troops to Cuba to overthrow Castro's government.
  • Student Question: Cuban Missile Crisis - The Education Forum 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When it emerged that the United States had aided opposition forces involved in the coup, relations took a nosedive and never fully recovered.
  • Nikolas Kozloff: The Next Cuban Missile Crisis? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: News]

^ President Kennedy and his advisers had to take into consideration how the Soviet Union and Cuba would react to decisions made by the United States.
  • Student Question: Cuban Missile Crisis - The Education Forum 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: Original source]

.Then the necessity of the presence of our military specialists in Cuba will disappear."^ He had done everything possible to avoid a military engagement with Cuba and with the Soviet Union, but now they had forced our hand.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis | Red Room 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact we are under pressure from our military to use force against Cuba.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis | Red Room 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Role Of Bobby Kennedy Throughout The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.freeessay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the American govern-ment's calculations, there are currently in Cuba around five thousand Russian military specialists.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.At 6:45 p.m., news of Fomin's offer to Scali was finally heard and was interpreted as a "set up" for the arrival of Khrushchev's letter.^ McNamara denounces Khrushchev's Oct 26 letter: "Hell, that's no offer.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.hpol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sign up for regular email updates from Smithsonian magazine, including free newsletters, special offers and current news updates.
  • Learning from the Missile Crisis | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Fursenko & Naftali p.277) Kennedy’s reaction to this new letter was “He didn't say that, did he?” “That wasn’t in the letter we received, was it?”(Fursenko & Naftali p.277) Khrushchev had upped the anti in this new proposal and had taken a much firm stance then only a day before.
  • The Role Of Bobby Kennedy Throughout The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.freeessay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The letter was then considered official and accurate, although it was later learned that Fomin was almost certainly operating of his own accord without official backing.^ Although there is continuing improvement of these sites, these mobile missiles must be considered operational now and could be launched within 18 hours after the decision to launch.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although external interactions can be coded in another systems form of communication, all representations within the political system operate according to this qualitative form.
  • The Two Faces of American Power: Military and Political Communicationduring the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC users.fmg.uva.nl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although there is continuing improvement of these sites, this regiment must be considered operational now.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Additional study of the letter was ordered and continued into the night.^ N.S. Khrushchev gave the order to place the missiles into vertical position only at night, but to maintain them in a lying-down position in the daytime.
  • Cold War International History Project 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

Crisis continues

.Direct aggression against Cuba would mean nuclear war.^ There would not be an assault against Cuba.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis | Arms Control Association 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.armscontrol.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Cold War International History Project 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ N.S. Khrushchev told us that while staying in that country he was thinking all the time of Cuba, he was worried that the Americans would organize an intervention in Cuba with the aid of reactionary governments of Latin America or would carry out a direct aggression.
  • Cold War International History Project 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If it became clear that the USSR was establishing an "offensive" base in Cuba, most Latin Ameri­can governments would expect the US to eliminate is, by whatever means were necessary, but many of them would still seek to avoid direct involvement.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Americans speak about such aggression as if they did not know or did not want to accept this fact.^ I know they speak French there.” .
  • Hot Air » Blog Archive » Audio: Dana Perino not sure what the Cuban Missile Crisis was 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC hotair.com [Source type: General]

^ Do they know about Soviet missiles?
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were speaking about the possibility of such a demand inside American circles.
  • Cold War International History Project 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

.I have no doubt they would lose such a war.^ No, no Democrat would ever go to war.
  • PostPartisan - With Iran, 'The Cuban Missile Crisis in Slow Motion' 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC voices.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He also referred to the President's recent public statements and indicated a feeling that if no action was taken, we would free the Soviets to act any place they wished and at their own will.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Inevitably, nuclear war would be unleashed as a result of such a collision.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis | Arms Control Association 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.armscontrol.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Cold War International History Project 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

 
Ernesto "Che" Guevara, October 1962[22]
S-75 Dvina with V-750V 1D missile on a launcher. An installation similar to this one shot down Major Anderson's U-2 over Cuba.
.Castro, on the other hand, was convinced that an invasion was soon at hand, and he dictated a letter to Khrushchev which appeared to call for a preemptive strike on the U.S. He also ordered all anti-aircraft weapons in Cuba to fire on any U.S. aircraft, whereas in the past they had been ordered only to fire on groups of two or more.^ For Castro, the order to fire at the aircraft was meant, in .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After giving the order to fire, Castro, convinced that .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Castro, on the other hand, exploited the American .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

.At 6:00 a.m., on 27 October, the CIA delivered a memo reporting that three of the four missile sites at San Cristobal and the two sites at Sagua la Grande appeared to be fully operational.^ On 27 October you told the Group that three of the four MRBM sites at Sam C£Hsto£al and two sites: at Sagua La Grande appeared fully operational and covered the latest Watch Committee report on Soviet military developments.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One is located in the San Cristobal area and the other in the Sagua La Grande area.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are three coastal defense missile sites—two now operational.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They also noted that the Cuban military continued to organize for action, although they were under order not to initiate action unless attacked.^ However, they remain under orders not to take any hostile action unless attacked.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The mobilization of Cuban military forces continues at a high rate.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though aware that American tactics involved the use of practice depth charges, the Soviet submariners believe they are under attack.
  • The Cuban Missile War Timeline - Alternate History Discussion Board 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.alternatehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

.At 9 a.m., Radio Moscow began broadcasting a message from Khrushchev.^ That message, having been delayed at the Moscow telegraph office, began to arrive in Washington only after 6:00 P.M. , Friday, October 26 (1:00 A.M. , October 27 in Moscow).
  • AmericanHeritage.com / How My Father and President Kennedy Saved the World 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Why did Khrushchev announce his decision to withdraw the missiles over a public radio transmitter in Moscow?
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis | Arms Control Association 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.armscontrol.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus the deal was complete and when Khrushchev received the terms the following day, he quickly broadcast the terms of the agreement over Moscow radio as to prevent a surprise event from disrupting the agreement.
  • The Role Of Bobby Kennedy Throughout The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.freeessay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Contrary to the letter of the night before, the message offered a new trade, that the missiles on Cuba would be removed in exchange for the removal of the Jupiters from Italy and Turkey.^ If I remember, we secretly agreed to remove our missiles from Turkey in exchange for removing the missiles from Cuba.
  • Defcon 2 during Cuban Missile Crisis - did it help? - Straight Dope Message Board 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Krushchev offering to remove the missiles in exchange for American missiles removed from Turkey is recieved.
  • The Cuban Missile War Timeline - Alternate History Discussion Board 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.alternatehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ McCone questioned value of Jupiter missiles in Turkey and Italy.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At 10 a.m., the executive committee met again to discuss the situation and came to the conclusion that the change in the message was due to internal debate between Khrushchev and other party officials in the Kremlin.^ President Kennedy did so by maintaining his official responsibilities, such as welcoming ambassadors from other countries, and also keeping private social dates, such as attending dinner parties.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As recently as two weeks before the Kennedy administration became aware of the actual missile situation in Cuba, Bolshakov came to Bobby with an important message.
  • The Role Of Bobby Kennedy Throughout The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.freeessay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was their conclusion that Khrushchevs primary motivation was to accomplish a quick fix countermove against what later came to be known as the missile gap in reverse.
  • Student Question: Cuban Missile Crisis - The Education Forum 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: Original source]

[23] .McNamara noted that another tanker, the Grozny, was about 600 miles (970 km) out and should be intercepted.^ Stupidly, he had done so even after being called in and asked rather specific questions about it -- questions that should have made it clear that the USA had found out about the missiles.
  • Defcon 2 during Cuban Missile Crisis - did it help? - Straight Dope Message Board 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ McNamara reviews plans for destroying any SAM site which shoots down a U-2; JFK adds that when taking out the SAM site, the US should simultaneously announce that if another plane is brought down all the SAM sites would be destroyed.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.hpol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Note: McNamara's statements were not consistent with reports that an Intercept had been attempted at 10:35 a.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He also noted that they had not made the USSR aware of the quarantine line and suggested relaying this information to them via U Thant at the UN.
.
Air Force U-2 high altitude reconnaissance aircraft of the type shot down over Cuba.
^ For example, a U.S. U-2 reconnaissance aircraft was shot down over eastern Cuba that morning.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis | Arms Control Association 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.armscontrol.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Several tense days ensued, in the course of which on 27 October Soviet antiaircraft batteries on Cuba shot down—apparently without specific authorization from Kremlin leaders, whom this episode greatly alarmed—a U.S. U-2 reconnaissance aircraft.

^ Castro told how a U-2 airplane had been shot down from an altitude of 21 kilometers, and that the Cuban military powers had collected its fragments and the corpse of its pilot.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

The aircraft in 1962 was painted overall gray and carried USAF military markings and national insignia.
While the meeting progressed, at 11:03 a.m. a new message began to arrive from Khrushchev. .The message stated, in part, "You are disturbed over Cuba.^ Under these conditions the guarantees of Cuba's security on the part of the United States will be ensured.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Kennedy decided to respond to the first message, and on October 28, Khrushchev agreed to dismantle and remove the weapons from Cuba and offered the United States on-site inspection.
  • Cuban Missle Crisis | Essays & Term Papers Online 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The USA is giving assurances that no invasion will be inflicted on Cuba, not only on the part of the United States, but also on the part of their allies-- the other countries of the Western hemisphere.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.You say that this disturbs you because it is ninety miles by sea from the coast of the United States of America.^ America patterned in the image of the United States.
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Alliance for Progress and President Kennedy’s particular concern for democratic institutions brought the United States renewed popularity in Latin America.
  • Cuban Missle Crisis | Essays & Term Papers Online 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cuba says the 1966 Cuban Adjustment Act encourages its citizens to undertake risky journeys to the United States because the law allows any Cuban who reaches American soil to apply for U.S. residency.
  • ALL THROUGH THE NIGHT - THE GUARDIAN ANGELS - CUBA 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: News]

But... you have placed destructive missile weapons, which you call offensive, in .Italy and Turkey, literally next to us...^ He also adds that the other side may ask the US to dismantle the missile sites in Turkey and Italy as part of a settlement.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.hpol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Turkey and Italy and sent the letter the next day.
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

.I therefore make this proposal: We are willing to remove from Cuba the means which you regard as offensive...^ To judge from Kennedy's response, the USA is attempting to put forth as the basis of its negotiations its demand for the removal of "offensive weaponry" from Cuba.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The message ended with a proposal we could fully accept: if we would guarantee we would not invade Cuba, Khrushchev would remove the missiles from Cuba.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis | Arms Control Association 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.armscontrol.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We believe that the American proposals for carrying out an observation of the removal of Soviet missiles from Cuba are acceptable.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Your representatives will make a declaration to the effect that the United States ...^ United States still makes it necessary .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ US concessions, the United States declared war on .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ PM In what is perhaps the oddest joint session of Congress in the history of the United States, a formal state of war is declared between the United States and Cuba.
  • The Cuban Missile War Timeline - Alternate History Discussion Board 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.alternatehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

will remove its analogous means from Turkey ... and after that, persons entrusted by the .United Nations Security Council could inspect on the spot the fulfillment of the pledges made."^ DHS Ready.Gov Ready is a national public service advertising campaign produced by The Advertising Council in partnership with Homeland Security.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United Nations Charter allows for regional security arrangements-and the nations of this hemisphere decided long ago against the military presence of outside powers.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Minutes of the 506th Meeting of the National Security Council.

.The executive committee continued to meet through the day.^ That day, Kennedy's Executive Committee of National Security Advisers approved the letter to Cuba.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (1).htm 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ibike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Washington, Kennedy met with his Executive Committee of top advisers and after seven days of intense debate ordered a naval quarantine around Cuba -- approved on Oct.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (1).htm 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ibike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They include President Kennedy's personal recollections of discussions, conversations with his advisors, meetings with the Joint Chiefs of Staff and members of the president's executive committee.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.hpol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Throughout the crisis, Turkey had repeatedly stated that it would be upset if the Jupiter missiles were removed, while it is now known that Italy's Prime Minister Fanfani, who was also Foreign Minister ad interim, offered the withdrawal of the missiles deployed in Apulia as a bargaining chip, entrusting the general manager of RAI-TV Mr. Ettore Bernabei, one of his most trusted friends, who at the time was in New York to attend an international conference on satellite TV broadcasting, to convey the message to Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., which later informed him of the President's agreement.
The engine of the Lockheed U-2 shot down over Cuba on display at Museum of the Revolution in Havana.
.That morning, a U-2 piloted by USAF Major Rudolf Anderson, departed its forward operating location at McCoy AFB, Florida, and at approximately 12:00 p.m.^ The destruction of the U-2 piloted by Major Rudolf Anderson, Jr. October 27, 1962, was closely connected to the deployment of Soviet nuclear cruise missiles in the vicinity of the U.S. naval base at Guantanamo.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the height of the crisis, U.S. Air Force Major Rudolf Anderson, Jr., piloting a U-2, is brought down by a Soviet SA-2 surface-to-air missile.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American U-2, killing its pilot, Major Rudolph Anderson, Jr. .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

.Eastern Standard Time, he was shot down and killed by an S-75 Dvina (NATO designation SA-2 Guideline) SAM launched from an emplacement in Cuba.^ For example, a U.S. U-2 reconnaissance aircraft was shot down over eastern Cuba that morning.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis | Arms Control Association 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.armscontrol.org [Source type: Original source]

^ News arrives that a U-2 has been shot down and the pilot killed.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.hpol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eight of the missiles will be SS-6 Sapwood missiles (two of the ten in service are down for maintenance and will not be available at the time of launch) launched from Baikonur and Plesetsk.
  • The Cuban Missile War Timeline - Alternate History Discussion Board 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.alternatehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

.The stress in negotiations between the USSR and the U.S. intensified, and only later was it learned that the decision to fire was made locally by an undetermined Soviet commander acting on his own authority.^ It was important to learn whether the Soviets had made a limited deployment of SA-2' s to Cuba or whether an island-wide defense was being built.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Kennedy and his advisers had to take into consideration how the Soviet Union and Cuba would react to decisions made by the United States.
  • Student Question: Cuban Missile Crisis - The Education Forum 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He also referred to the President's recent public statements and indicated a feeling that if no action was taken, we would free the Soviets to act any place they wished and at their own will.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Later that day, at about 3:41 p.m., several U.S. Navy RF-8A Crusader reconnaissance aircraft on low-level photo reconnaissance missions were fired upon, and one was hit by a 37 mm shell but managed to return to base.^ They take heavy fire, and one aircraft is hit by a 37mm antiaircraft shell but is able to return to base.
  • The Cuban Missile War Timeline - Alternate History Discussion Board 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.alternatehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ F8U-1P aircraft on a reconnaissance mission.
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The pilots hugged the ground and hid behind every hill, but upon their return technicians counted several holes in their wings made by 30-millimeter shells.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / How My Father and President Kennedy Saved the World 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

.At 4 p.m., Kennedy recalled the executive committee to the White House and ordered that a message immediately be sent to U Thant asking if the Soviets would "suspend" work on the missiles while negotiations were carried out.^ The president immediately recognized that we would have to force the Soviets to remove the missiles.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis | Arms Control Association 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.armscontrol.org [Source type: Original source]

^ U Thant said that he would do all he could, although he asks us as well to think of measures that would be favorably received by the USA. At the end of the conversation, U Thant said that today he had presented the Cuban delegate to the UN with the message, to be conveyed to Castro, in which he asked that missile installation work in Cuba, which according to reports received by him from the Americans continues day and night, be suspended for the 2 to 3 week period that is necessary for negotiations.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ U Thant asked whether there could be a disclosure, through first-hand observation, of the missiles on the vessels that will remove them from Cuba, or whether instead they would be kept in containers.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.During this meeting, Maxwell Taylor delivered the news that the U-2 had been shot down.^ News arrives that a U-2 has been shot down and the pilot killed.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.hpol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the president and his advisers were analyzing Khrushchev's two letters, news came through that a U-2 plane had been shot down over Cuba.
  • Cuban Missile crisis - The Education Forum 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PM -- Kennedy meets with the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Maxwell Taylor, about the U-2 shootdown.
  • The Cuban Missile War Timeline - Alternate History Discussion Board 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.alternatehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

.Kennedy had earlier claimed he would order an attack on such sites if fired upon, but he decided to leave the matter unless another attack was made.^ Kennedy realized the cowardlyness in such an attack.
  • The Role Of Bobby Kennedy Throughout The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.freeessay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LeMay had earlier proposed Operation Northwoods urging Kennedy to order a variety of false flag attacks to create a rationale for invading the communist island nation.
  • North Korea: Cuban Missile Crisis Redux? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All of this could take more than 10 hours and such a consultation would not have made sense by that time.
  • Cold War International History Project 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

In an interview 40 years later, McNamara remembers (Note that he dates, from memory, the shooting down of the U-2 to Friday, October 26):
.We had to send a U-2 over to gain reconnaissance information on whether the Soviet missiles were becoming operational.^ What's been known for a few years now is Soviet missile commanders on the ground in Cuba had operational control and orders to use the nukes instead of lose them in case of attack.
  • Cafe Talk | Talking Points Memo | Lessons of the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC tpmcafe.talkingpointsmemo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the foregoing evidence is not fully conclusive, we must also consider whether the Soviets would wish to secrete strategic missiles in Cuba.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thompson realized that odds were this would not be enough to remove the missiles already existing in Cuba and would not prevent them from becoming operational in the near future.
  • The Role Of Bobby Kennedy Throughout The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.freeessay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.We believed that if the U-2 was shot down that—the Cubans didn't have capabilities to shoot it down, the Soviets did—we believed if it was shot down, it would be shot down by a Soviet surface-to-air-missile unit, and that it would represent a decision by the Soviets to escalate the conflict.^ A Soviet SA-2 missile shoots down Maj.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soviet decision for the missile deployment, but also provided .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A U-2 plane is shot down over Cuba by a Soviet surface-to-air missile and the pilot is killed.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.hpol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.And therefore, before we sent the U-2 out, we agreed that if it was shot down we wouldn't meet, we'd simply attack.^ Roughly 250 miles away from the airfield, the survivors release their underwing AS-2 Kangaroo cruise missiles before they are shot down in turn.
  • The Cuban Missile War Timeline - Alternate History Discussion Board 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.alternatehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We have just received a report that an unarmed American plane was shot down while carrying out a reconnaissance flight over Cuba.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis | Red Room 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Iranians sent the letter to the IAEA on Monday, so Russia could easily have known about it before his meeting with Obama.
  • PostPartisan - With Iran, 'The Cuban Missile Crisis in Slow Motion' 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC voices.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

It was shot down on Friday [...]. .Fortunately, we changed our mind, we thought "Well, it might have been an accident, we won't attack."^ Obviously our minds changed.
  • Inside the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC openvault.wgbh.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Well, Khrushchev thought the missiles would change the nuclear balance, but not significantly.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis | Arms Control Association 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.armscontrol.org [Source type: Original source]

.Later we learned that Khrushchev had reasoned just as we did: we send over the U-2, if it was shot down, he reasoned we would believe it was an intentional escalation.^ Khrushchev believed, correctly, that we would interpret this as a deliberate escalation of the confrontation.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis | Arms Control Association 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.armscontrol.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If the US confronts Khrushchev with its knowledge of the MRBM deployment and presses for a withdrawal, we do not believe the Soviets would halt ths deployment.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What did the Soviets and Cubans believe the U.S. response would be?
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis | Arms Control Association 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.armscontrol.org [Source type: Original source]

And therefore, he issued orders to Pliyev, the Soviet commander in Cuba, to instruct all of his batteries not to shoot down the U-2.[24]

Drafting the response

.Emissaries sent by both Kennedy and Nikita Khrushchev agreed to meet at the Yenching Palace Chinese restaurant in the Cleveland Park neighborhood of Washington D.C.[25] Kennedy suggested that they take Khrushchev's offer to trade away the missiles.^ In April, Bruce Klinger of The Heritage Foundation said Obama must impose sanctions on North Korea, otherwise he will risk a repeat of “Kennedy’s disastrously weak performance during a 1961 meeting with Nikita Khrushchev that inspired the Soviet leader to engage in the Berlin Crisis and the Cuban Missile Crisis.” .
  • North Korea: Cuban Missile Crisis Redux? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The photos he brought back to Washington confirmed that the Soviet Union was deploying offensive nuclear missiles in Cuba, just 80 miles south of Florida, and pushed President John F. Kennedy into a nuclear showdown with his Soviet counterpart, Nikita Khrushchev.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (1).htm 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ibike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both sides abided by the agreements that were made in an exchange of letters between Kennedy and Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev, setting the course of U.S.-Cuba relations through the Cold War and beyond.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (1).htm 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ibike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unknown to most members of the EXCOMM, Robert Kennedy had been meeting with the USSR Ambassador in Washington to discover whether these intentions were genuine.^ In these ExComm meetings.
  • Inside the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC openvault.wgbh.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His brother, Attorney General Robert Kennedy, later met with the Soviet ambassador in Washington, Anatoly Dobrynin, and offered a deal that included a pledge not to invade Cuba and the withdrawal of U.S missiles from Turkey.
  • The Hydrogen Bomb Homepage, with stuff on the Cuban missile crisis and nuclear testing and transportation 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bilderberg.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Khrushchev’s account of the meeting between the two negotiators in his memoirs Khrushchev Remember’s are as follows: “The climax came after five or six days, when our ambassador to Washington, Anatoly Dobrynin, reported that the President's brother, Robert Kennedy, had come to see him on an unofficial visit.
  • The Role Of Bobby Kennedy Throughout The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.freeessay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The EXCOMM was generally against the proposal because it would undermine NATO, and the Turkish government had repeatedly stated it was against any such trade.^ However, from a broader point of view, he opposed surprise attack because of the indictment, the resulting tensions, and the fact that such action by the United States would license other countries to resort to violent military action without notice.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because ground-burst explosions generate particularly large amounts of highly radioactive debris, fallout from the blast would cause much of the destruction.
  • North Korea: Cuban Missile Crisis Redux? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ambassador Bohlen warned against any action against Cuba, particularly an air strike without warning, stating such would be divisive with all Allies and subject us to criticism throughout the world.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As the meeting progressed, a new plan emerged and Kennedy was slowly persuaded.^ Robert Kennedy said in conclusion that he was flying now to New York on personal business, and that he would be willing to meet with me at any time.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Eric Pace, “ Rusk Tells a Kennedy Secret: Fallback Plan in Cuba Crisis ,” New York Times , 28 August 1987.
  • Washington Decoded: What Did LBJ Know About the Cuban Missile Crisis? And When Did He Know It? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.washingtondecoded.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The new plan called for the President to ignore the latest message and instead to return to Khrushchev's earlier one.^ A new message arrives from Khrushchev in which he expresses willingness to remove the missiles from Cuba under UN supervision in return for a US commitment to dismantle its missiles in Turkey.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.hpol.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It mentions in particular Bolshakov's reception by N. S. Khrushchev in the summer of this year, and the oral message for the President conveyed through him.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ We want to ask you, Mr. Dobrynin, to pass President Kennedy's message to Chairman Khrushchev through unofficial channels.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Role Of Bobby Kennedy Throughout The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.freeessay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Kennedy was initially hesitant, feeling that Khrushchev would no longer accept the deal because a new one had been offered, but Llewellyn Thompson argued that he might accept it anyway.^ What would you have done if you were Castro, Kennedy, or Khrushchev?
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After some hesitation, Khrushchev acquiesced in the removal of the missiles, once his ambassador in Washington, Anatoly Dobrynin, secretly obtained an unpublicized pledge from Robert Kennedy that his brother would shortly remove the missiles in Turkey.

^ The message ended with a proposal we could fully accept: if we would guarantee we would not invade Cuba, Khrushchev would remove the missiles from Cuba.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis | Arms Control Association 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.armscontrol.org [Source type: Original source]

.White House Special Counsel and Advisor Ted Sorensen and Robert Kennedy left the meeting and returned 45 minutes later with a draft letter to this effect.^ Sending a letter to the White House, .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Overall, his [Robert F. Kennedy’s] visit left a somewhat strange impression.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis | Arms Control Association 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.armscontrol.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Robert McNamara, defense secretary at the time, later recalled going to these meetings wondering if the world would come to an end.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (1).htm 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ibike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The President made several changes, had it typed, and sent it.^ During this conversation with Bundy, the president summarized his position on negotiating with Hanoi, and in the process made several allusions to the missile crisis.
  • Washington Decoded: What Did LBJ Know About the Cuban Missile Crisis? And When Did He Know It? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.washingtondecoded.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Apparently he had given way to nerves yesterday, had been too hasty when he sent the President a letter that made no mention of the American missiles in Italy and Turkey.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / How My Father and President Kennedy Saved the World 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

.After the EXCOMM meeting, a smaller meeting continued in the Oval Office.^ The precise details of how four regular ExComm members were disinvited from the gathering in the Oval Office remain murky.
  • Washington Decoded: What Did LBJ Know About the Cuban Missile Crisis? And When Did He Know It? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.washingtondecoded.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Stevenson later left the meeting to take a call from the UN in the Oval Office.
  • Washington Decoded: The Cuban Missile Crisis 45 Years Later: A Personal and Professional Remembrance 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.washingtondecoded.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The group argued that the letter should be underscored with an oral message to Ambassador Dobrynin stating that if the missiles were not withdrawn, military action would be used to remove them.^ Earlier in the week Bobby Kennedy told Ambassador Dobrynin that if the missiles were not withdrawn immediately, the crisis would move into a different and dangerous military phase.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis | Red Room 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Later [on Saturday], accepting a proposal from Dean Rusk, [John F.] Kennedy instructed his brother to tell Ambassador Dobrynin that while there could be no bargain over the missiles that had been supplied to Turkey, the President himself was determined to have them removed and would attend to the matter once the present crisis was resolved - as long as no one in Moscow called that action part of a bargain.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis | Red Room 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And so, after the ExComm meeting [on the evening of October 27, 1962], as I'm sure almost all of you know, a small group met in President Kennedy's office, and he instructed Robert Kennedy - at the suggestion of Secretary of State [Dean] Rusk - to deliver the letter to Ambassador Dobrynin for referral to Chairman Khrushchev, but to add orally what was not in the letter: That the missiles would come out of Turkey.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis | Red Room 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

.Dean Rusk added one proviso, that no part of the language of the deal would mention Turkey, but there would be an understanding that the missiles would be removed "voluntarily" in the immediate aftermath.^ There is no "I told you so" in me on this one.
  • PostPartisan - With Iran, 'The Cuban Missile Crisis in Slow Motion' 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC voices.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The president immediately recognized that we would have to force the Soviets to remove the missiles.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis | Arms Control Association 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.armscontrol.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Later [on Saturday], accepting a proposal from Dean Rusk, [John F.] Kennedy instructed his brother to tell Ambassador Dobrynin that while there could be no bargain over the missiles that had been supplied to Turkey, the President himself was determined to have them removed and would attend to the matter once the present crisis was resolved - as long as no one in Moscow called that action part of a bargain.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis | Red Room 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.redroom.com [Source type: Original source]

.The President agreed, and the message was sent.^ Khrushchev, realizing his weak military position, sent a message on October 26 in which he agreed to Kennedy’s demands to remove all missiles.
  • Cuban Missle Crisis | Essays & Term Papers Online 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.
An EXCOMM meeting during the Cuban Missile Crisis.
^ The Cuban missile crisis .
  • The Hydrogen Bomb Homepage, with stuff on the Cuban missile crisis and nuclear testing and transportation 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bilderberg.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cuban Missile Crisis (October 1962) .

^ This strategic position of the U.S. played a role during the Cuban missile crisis.
  • The Two Faces of American Power: Military and Political Communicationduring the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC users.fmg.uva.nl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

President Kennedy, Secretary of State Rusk, and Secretary of Defense McNamara, in the White House Cabinet Room.
At Juan Brito's request, Fomin and Scali met again. .Scali asked why the two letters from Khrushchev were so different, and Fomin claimed it was because of "poor communications". Scali replied that the claim was not credible and shouted that he thought it was a "stinking double cross". He went on to claim that an invasion was only hours away, at which point Fomin stated that a response to the U.S. message was expected from Khrushchev shortly, and he urged Scali to tell the State Department that no treachery was intended.^ We agree to conduct ground inspection, as the letter of N.S. Khrushchev stated, but it is necessary to have some kind of element of reciprocity so that this understanding does not affect the national feelings of the Cubans.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ (In provisionally specifying this time frame, we were proceeding from the relevant points made in Comrade N.S. Khrushchev's message to Kennedy of 27 October.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ McNamara at this point presented the alternatives referred to the previous day, stating that alternatives one and two were not conclusive and that we would have to resort to alternative 3 and in fact this would lead us ultimately into an invasion.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Scali said that he did not think anyone would believe him, but he agreed to deliver the message.^ What did the Soviets and Cubans believe the U.S. response would be?
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis | Arms Control Association 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.armscontrol.org [Source type: Original source]

^ U Thant said that in the event that he decides to go, he would intend to take several aides and experts along with him.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In response to McCloy and Stevenson, we said that we did not think that the questions referred to by Stevenson were open-ended any longer.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

The two went their separate ways, and Scali immediately typed out a memo for the EXCOMM.
.Within the U.S. establishment, it was well understood that ignoring the second offer and returning to the first put Khrushchev in a terrible position.^ Now, after N. S. Khrushchev's messages of 27 and 28 October, and the explanations offered by V. V. Kuznetsov, he has a clear idea of the Soviet government's position.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Khrushchev defined his position in this way: I want to say that our tests of new nuclear weapons are also coming along very well.
  • The Hydrogen Bomb Homepage, with stuff on the Cuban missile crisis and nuclear testing and transportation 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bilderberg.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first one is assembled by putting together a few kilograms of fissionable or fissile material within as short a period as possible -- (within some microseconds if possible).
  • The Hydrogen Bomb Homepage, with stuff on the Cuban missile crisis and nuclear testing and transportation 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bilderberg.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Military preparations continued, and all active duty Air Force personnel were recalled to base for possible action.^ We are taking all military preparations for either an air strike or an invasion.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Air Force General Curtis LeMay presented to Kennedy a pre-invasion bombing plan — including nuclear sites — in September, 1962, while spy flights and military harassment from the United States Guantanamo Naval Base were the subject of continual Cuban diplomatic complaints to the U.S. .
  • North Korea: Cuban Missile Crisis Redux? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The mobilization of Cuban military forces continues at a high rate.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Robert Kennedy later recalled the mood, "We had not abandoned all hope, but what hope there was now rested with Khrushchev's revising his course within the next few hours.^ All within a few days.
  • PostPartisan - With Iran, 'The Cuban Missile Crisis in Slow Motion' 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC voices.washingtonpost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We need all of this, Robert Kennedy remarked, so that we can satisfy our domestic public opinion by reporting that there has been some progress in the removal of the IL-28 planes.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Castro thinks that war will begin in the next few hours and that his source is reliable,” said Troyanovsky, looking at his notes.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / How My Father and President Kennedy Saved the World 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

It was a hope, not an expectation. The expectation was military confrontation by Tuesday, and possibly tomorrow..."
.At 8:05 p.m., the letter drafted earlier in the day was delivered.^ The letter from the President had been sent to the Prime Minister's office earlier in the day.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962: Presenting the Photographic EvidenceAbroad 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC permanent.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The message read, "As I read your letter, the key elements of your proposals—which seem generally acceptable as I understand them—are as follows: 1) You would agree to remove these weapons systems from Cuba under appropriate United Nations observation and supervision; and undertake, with suitable safe-guards, to halt the further introduction of such weapon systems into Cuba.^ I would like to read you (?
  • Cuban Missiles Crisis Excomm Transcripts 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Cuban Missiles Crisis Excomm Transcripts 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC ftp.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cuba, the United States would agree to .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These new weapons are not in your interest.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.2) We, on our part, would agree—upon the establishment of adequate arrangements through the United Nations, to ensure the carrying out and continuation of these commitments (a) to remove promptly the quarantine measures now in effect and (b) to give assurances against the invasion of Cuba."^ There would not be an assault against Cuba.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis | Arms Control Association 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.armscontrol.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Cold War International History Project 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cuba, the United States would agree to .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ United Nations commitment.
  • Cuban Missiles Crisis Excomm Transcripts 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Cuban Missiles Crisis Excomm Transcripts 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC ftp.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

The letter was also released directly to the press to ensure it could not be "delayed."
.With the letter delivered, a deal was on the table.^ Also, proposed letter to Khrushchev was tabled, paper dealing with probable Castro response to U.S. appeal and a proposed letter to Fidel Castro, marked "To Mr. F. C", all included in State papers.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, as Robert Kennedy noted, there was little expectation it would be accepted.^ We need all of this, Robert Kennedy remarked, so that we can satisfy our domestic public opinion by reporting that there has been some progress in the removal of the IL-28 planes.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Here Robert Kennedy asked, would the Soviet Union itself really agree to some foreign posts on its own territory?
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It must however be noted that, as Stevenson told U Thant, Kennedy is examining this message in a positive and benevolent frame of mind.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.At 9 p.m., the EXCOMM met again to review the actions for the following day.^ The ExComm debated all that day as to what course of action to take.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis | Arms Control Association 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.armscontrol.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Action: Following meeting McCone, Wiesner, Smith and Edwarde met and reviewed the CIA Latin American communication syitem.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They shaped and constrained U.S. actions during the days that followed, so that there would be no immediate, knee-jerk, emotional response to the news of the deployment.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis | Arms Control Association 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.armscontrol.org [Source type: Original source]

.Plans were drawn up for air strikes on the missile sites as well as other economic targets, notably petroleum storage.^ (Fursenko & Naftali p.263-4) The reason he was wavering was not that agreed with Thompson or the others, rather he began to fully recognize the consequence of the alternative air strike.
  • The Role Of Bobby Kennedy Throughout The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.freeessay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We believe that a nuclear warhead storage site is under construction adjacent to the most complete of the fixed missile launch sites near Guanajay [XXX].
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It targeted the San Cristobal area, not as another location where alleged missile activity should be negated by photography, but as a suspect SS-4 site.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

McNamara stated that they had to "have two things ready: a government for Cuba, because we're going to need one; and secondly, plans for how to respond to the Soviet Union in Europe, because sure as hell they're going to do something there".
.At 12:12 a.m., on 27 October, the U.S. informed its NATO allies that "the situation is growing shorter...^ Lnforming Canadians and all NATO allies of growing seriousness oi situation; also advocated removal of restrictions on use of Guantanamo by the Lansdale group.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He remarked that the situation had been extraordinarily serious, especially towards the end of 27 October, although Comrade N.S. Khrushchev's message of 28 October had relieved the situation.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

the .United States may find it necessary within a very short time in its interest and that of its fellow nations in the Western Hemisphere to take whatever military action may be necessary."^ States' "violation of the Charter of the United Nations and .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If the response is unsatisfactory, referring to the OAS and the United Nations prior to taking military action.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ United States to be the typical nation of .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

To add to the concern, at 6 a.m. the .CIA reported that all missiles in Cuba were ready for action.^ Handling the Cuban Missile Crisis and the reasons for Russia's actions in Cuba .
  • Inside the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC openvault.wgbh.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Emphasis is on the READINESS status of the offensive missiles in Cuba.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the President found it necessary to restrict the publication of information on offensive missiles in Cuba and to confine such information to designated categories of recipients, the intelligence community did not have in readiness a plan to meet the reporting requirements of such an emergency.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 27 October, the US Navy dropped a series of "signaling depth charges" (explosives designed to signal submarines) on a Soviet submarine (B-59) at the quarantine line, unaware that it was armed with a nuclear-tipped torpedo with orders that allowed it to be used if the submarine was "hulled" (hole in the hull from depth charges or surface fire).^ U.S. Navy surveillance of first Soviet F-class submarine to surface near the quarantine line .
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The destroyer dropped depth charges near the submarine to try to force it to surface, not knowing it had a nuclear-tipped torpedo.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (1).htm 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ibike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was pandemonium on the Soviet B-59 submarine.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (1).htm 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ibike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26]

Ending the Crisis of 1962

.After much deliberation between the Soviet Union and Kennedy's cabinet, Kennedy secretly agreed to remove all missiles set in southern Italy and in Turkey, the latter on the border of the Soviet Union, in exchange for Khrushchev removing all missiles in Cuba.^ If I remember, we secretly agreed to remove our missiles from Turkey in exchange for removing the missiles from Cuba.
  • Defcon 2 during Cuban Missile Crisis - did it help? - Straight Dope Message Board 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The exchange of letters between N.S. Khrushchev and Kennedy - this is in essence already an agreement.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Krushchev offering to remove the missiles in exchange for American missiles removed from Turkey is recieved.
  • The Cuban Missile War Timeline - Alternate History Discussion Board 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.alternatehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

.At 9 a.m., on 28 October, a new message from Khrushchev was broadcast on Radio Moscow.^ Moscow, October 28, 1962.

^ On Sunday, October 28th, in a message to President Kennedy broadcasts over Radio Moscow at 9 a.m., EDT, Premier Khrushchev agrees to remove "the weapons which you describe as offensive" in return for assurances that the U.S. will not invade Cuba.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (In provisionally specifying this time frame, we were proceeding from the relevant points made in Comrade N.S. Khrushchev's message to Kennedy of 27 October.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Khrushchev stated that, "the Soviet government, in addition to previously issued instructions on the cessation of further work at the building sites for the weapons, has issued a new order on the dismantling of the weapons which you describe as 'offensive' and their crating and return to the Soviet Union."^ Withdrawal of Soviet offensive weapons from Cuba ...
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviet government has stated that it is dismantling and removing these launchers from Cuba.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Soviet offensive weapons.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (1).htm 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ibike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Kennedy immediately responded, issuing a statement calling the letter "an important and constructive contribution to peace". He continued this with a formal letter: "I consider my letter to you of October twenty-seventh and your reply of today as firm undertakings on the part of both our governments which should be promptly carried out...^ Firmness should be combined with flexibility while you carry out a policy.
  • Cold War International History Project 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You should also consider the issue of the base in Guantanamo.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ From talks with U Thant, conversations at the UN, and information from the American press, we have received the impression that the strategy of the USA government is at present directed towards the carrying out of our decision to dismantle military sites in Cuba, rejecting at the same time the necessity of giving clear and firm guarantees of Cuban security, restricted in this regard by the statements issued earlier by Kennedy in his messages to Comrade N.S. Khrushchev of 27 and 28 October, or in the last resort by the Security Council's approval of those statements.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The U.S. will make a statement in the framework of the Security Council in reference to Cuba as follows: it will declare that the United States of America will respect the inviolability of Cuban borders, its sovereignty, that it take the pledge not to interfere in internal affairs, not to intrude themselves and not to permit our territory to be used as a bridgehead for the invasion of Cuba, and will restrain those who would plan to carry an aggression against Cuba, either from U.S. territory or from the territory of other countries neighbouring to Cuba."^ There would not be an assault against Cuba.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis | Arms Control Association 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.armscontrol.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Cold War International History Project 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ United States had misinterpreted Castro and the Cuban .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cuba will sell or lease to the United States .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

[27]
.The practical effect of this Kennedy-Khrushchev Pact was that it effectively strengthened Castro's position in Cuba in that he would not be invaded by the United States.^ Had the United States invaded Cuba, the ensuing conflict .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ United States had misinterpreted Castro and the Cuban .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cuba will sell or lease to the United States .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is possible that Khrushchev only placed the missiles in Cuba to get Kennedy to remove the missiles from Italy and Turkey and that the Soviets had no intention of resorting to nuclear war if they were out-gunned by the Americans.^ We believe that the American proposals for carrying out an observation of the removal of Soviet missiles from Cuba are acceptable.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Do they seriously WANT a nuclear war?
  • North Korea: Cuban Missile Crisis Redux? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Krushchev offering to remove the missiles in exchange for American missiles removed from Turkey is recieved.
  • The Cuban Missile War Timeline - Alternate History Discussion Board 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.alternatehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, because the withdrawal of the Jupiter missiles from NATO bases in Southern Italy and Turkey was not made public at the time, Khrushchev appeared to have lost the conflict and become weakened.^ Jupiter missiles from Turkey .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Klinger did not bother to mention that Khrushchev demanded that the U.S. withdraw its Jupiter and Thor ICBMs from Turkey on the Soviet (Georgia) border or that there was ample evidence the U.S. planned to invade Cuba.
  • North Korea: Cuban Missile Crisis Redux? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Khrushchev had agreed to withdraw the weapons in return for a public pledge by Kennedy not to invade Cuba and a secret commitment to pull U.S. missiles out of Turkey.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (1).htm 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ibike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The perception was that Kennedy had won the contest between the superpowers and Khrushchev had been humiliated.^ The exchange of letters between N.S. Khrushchev and Kennedy - this is in essence already an agreement.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ We emphasized in particular that at the present time there is only one basis for an agreement, the one established by the exchange of messages between Comrades N.S. Khrushchev and Kennedy.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ We believe that the exchange of letters between Kennedy and Khrushchev contains concrete and clear formulas.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.However, this is not entirely the case as both Kennedy and Khrushchev took every step to avoid full conflict despite the pressures of their governments.^ Now it is important to move from general declarations to concrete steps for cardinal solution of the entire issue on the basis of the letters of N.S. Khrushchev [and] Kennedy, and also the just and constructive proposals of Fidel Castro.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ JFK went ahead with all preparations to do both, while stalling the hawks in his government one day at a time, and increasing the public propaganda pressure on Kruschev.
  • Student Question: Cuban Missile Crisis - The Education Forum 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: Original source]

^ U Thant received this information with very great interest, and expressed gratitude to the Soviet government for this new and important step towards settling the Cuban conflict.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

Khrushchev held power for another two years.[27]

Aftermath

.The compromise was a particularly sharp embarrassment for Khrushchev and the Soviet Union because the withdrawal of U.S. missiles from Italy and Turkey was not made public—it was a secret deal between Kennedy and Khrushchev.^ His brother, Attorney General Robert Kennedy, later met with the Soviet ambassador in Washington, Anatoly Dobrynin, and offered a deal that included a pledge not to invade Cuba and the withdrawal of U.S missiles from Turkey.
  • The Hydrogen Bomb Homepage, with stuff on the Cuban missile crisis and nuclear testing and transportation 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bilderberg.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Klinger did not bother to mention that Khrushchev demanded that the U.S. withdraw its Jupiter and Thor ICBMs from Turkey on the Soviet (Georgia) border or that there was ample evidence the U.S. planned to invade Cuba.
  • North Korea: Cuban Missile Crisis Redux? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviets felt a similar threat from our missiles in Turkey, in addition to having apparently promised the Cubans that they’d do something to prevent a re-run of the Bay of Pigs, more particularly, a rerun supported fully by our military.
  • Think Progress » Barnes: Effect Of Obama’s Missile Defense Policy Could Be ‘Worse’ Than Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

.The Soviets were seen as retreating from circumstances that they had started — though if played well, it could have looked just the opposite.^ Well, I'll just start again.
  • Inside the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC openvault.wgbh.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Though aware that American tactics involved the use of practice depth charges, the Soviet submariners believe they are under attack.
  • The Cuban Missile War Timeline - Alternate History Discussion Board 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.alternatehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Those international crises just start to blur after awhile, don’t they?
  • Hot Air » Blog Archive » Audio: Dana Perino not sure what the Cuban Missile Crisis was 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC hotair.com [Source type: General]

.Khrushchev's fall from power two years later can be partially linked to Politburo embarrassment at both Khrushchev's eventual concessions to the U.S. and his ineptitude in precipitating the crisis in the first place.^ Precisely this self-restraint in the light of so much threat, and the profound fear and sense of responsibility felt by both Kennedy and Khrushchev, paved the way for an eventual solution of the crisis.
  • The Two Faces of American Power: Military and Political Communicationduring the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC users.fmg.uva.nl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The crisis was defused two weeks later when the Soviet Union agreed to remove the missiles.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (1).htm 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ibike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Cuban Missile Crisis took place 44 years ago from October 14- 28th.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the Cuban Missile Crisis was not solely responsible for the fall of Khrushchev.^ The Cuban missile crisis .
  • The Hydrogen Bomb Homepage, with stuff on the Cuban missile crisis and nuclear testing and transportation 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bilderberg.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cuban Missile Crisis and analyzing the .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cuban Missile Crisis by placing nuclear .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

.The main reason was that rival politicians such as Leonid Brezhnev believed that Khrushchev did not have enough "power" to handle international crises[citation needed].^ Previously, Khrushchev had insisted that the Soviet Union did not have such weapons in Cuba.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (1).htm 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ibike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For Cuba, it was a partial betrayal by the Soviets, given that decisions on how to resolve the crisis had been made exclusively by Kennedy and Khrushchev, and certain issues of interest to Cuba, such as the status of Guantanamo, were not addressed.^ A decision in which Cuba is not a party will not be binding for her.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Soviets had betrayed Cuba's .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cuba would consider to resolve the crisis.
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

.This caused Cuban-Soviet relations to deteriorate for years to come.^ Before Khrushchev's fall from power, the two men were reconciled, and Soviet-Cuban relations remained close until the end of the Cold War.

^ Relations were strained recently during the highly emotional custody dispute involving the six-year-old Cuban boy, Elian Gonzalez.
  • ALL THROUGH THE NIGHT - THE GUARDIAN ANGELS - CUBA 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: News]

[28] .On the other hand, Cuba continued to be protected from invasion.^ The USA in its turn committed itself not to invade Cuba, and not to allow any invasion by the other states of the Western hemisphere.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, if he does issue the go-order, it might trigger a full-scale nuclear war, not just the little one in Cuba and Germany.
  • The Cuban Missile War Timeline - Alternate History Discussion Board 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.alternatehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, he recognized the necessity of obtaining vertical coverage of the Isle of Pines and the eastern portion of Cuba.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One U.S. military commander was not happy with the result either.^ The player assumes command of one of four military powers remaining: the Anglo-America alliance, the Franco-German alliance, the remnants of the old Soviet military or the Chinese.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis: The Aftermath - Armchair General and HistoryNet >> The Best Forums in History 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.armchairgeneral.com [Source type: General]

^ These meanings are then not produced by non-military interference or by the inspiration of individual commanders, but are the results of the systems own inner logic.
  • The Two Faces of American Power: Military and Political Communicationduring the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC users.fmg.uva.nl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their reproduction is as finite as the chain of command, except when the execution of orders produces results of specific meaning to the military rationale.
  • The Two Faces of American Power: Military and Political Communicationduring the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC users.fmg.uva.nl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.General LeMay told the President that it was "the greatest defeat in our history" and that the U.S. should invade immediately.^ Until the President was ready to act, the Russians must not know that we knew their secret, and, when we were ready to act, our allies should know our chosen course before our adversaries.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962: Presenting the Photographic EvidenceAbroad 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC permanent.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ When General LeMay was informed about the incident, he immediately readied fighter planes to destroy the SAM site.
  • The Two Faces of American Power: Military and Political Communicationduring the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC users.fmg.uva.nl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Obama should just go ahead and do what he thinks is right for our country and for the world.
  • Think Progress » Barnes: Effect Of Obama’s Missile Defense Policy Could Be ‘Worse’ Than Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

.The Cuban Missile Crisis spurred the Hotline Agreement, which created the Moscow-Washington hot line, a direct communications link between Moscow and Washington, D.C. The purpose was to have a way that the leaders of the two Cold War countries could communicate directly to solve such a crisis.^ The Cuban missile crisis .
  • The Hydrogen Bomb Homepage, with stuff on the Cuban missile crisis and nuclear testing and transportation 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bilderberg.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cuban Missile Crisis and analyzing the .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Who were the two leaders (US and USSR) during the Cuban Missile Crisis (CMC)?
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Major Anderson's body was returned to the United States and he was buried with full military honors in South Carolina.^ By early 1965, the Normal Movement had grown to encompass the vast majority of people in the United States.
  • The Cuban Missile War Timeline - Alternate History Discussion Board 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.alternatehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States had several military options prepared, and Cuba expected that an invasion was imminent.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis | Arms Control Association 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.armscontrol.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Charleston, South Carolina In addition to being the largest city in the state of South Carolina, Charleston was at the time home to the Charleston Navy Yard, one of the largest ports of the United States Navy, and a major home port for several ballistic missile submarines.
  • The Cuban Missile War Timeline - Alternate History Discussion Board 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.alternatehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

He was the first-ever recipient of the newly-created Air Force Cross, which was awarded posthumously.
.Various commentators (Melman, 1988; Hersh, 1997) also suggest that the Cuban Missile Crisis encouraged U.S. use of military means, such as in the Vietnam War.^ The Cuban missile crisis .
  • The Hydrogen Bomb Homepage, with stuff on the Cuban missile crisis and nuclear testing and transportation 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bilderberg.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cuban Missile Crisis and analyzing the .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cuban Missile Crisis by placing nuclear .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

.This Russo-American confrontation was synchronous with the Sino-Indian War, dating from the U.S.'s military quarantine of Cuba; historians speculate that the Chinese attack against India for disputed land was meant to coincide with the Cuban Missile Crisis.^ The Cuban Missile Crisis: a brief account .
  • The Two Faces of American Power: Military and Political Communicationduring the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC users.fmg.uva.nl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Handling the Cuban Missile Crisis and the reasons for Russia's actions in Cuba .
  • Inside the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC openvault.wgbh.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Federation of American Scientists, Cuban Missile Crisis U-2 reconnaissance aircraft photographs of Cuba.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29]

Historical notes

Adlai Stevenson shows aerial photos of Cuban missiles to the United Nations in November 1962.
Arthur Schlesinger, historian and adviser to John F. Kennedy, on National Public Radio on October 16, 2002, concluded that Castro had not wanted the missiles but that Khrushchev had forced them upon Cuba in a bit of political arm-twisting and "socialist solidarity." However, Castro has said that although he was not completely happy about the idea of the missiles in Cuba, the Cuban National Directorate of the Revolution accepted them to protect Cuba against U.S. attack, and to aid its ally, the Soviet Union.[30] .Schlesinger believed that, having accepted the missiles, Castro was angrier with Khrushchev than he was with Kennedy when the missiles were withdrawn, because Khrushchev had not consulted Castro before deciding to remove them from Cuba.^ Castro's Motives for Accepting the Missiles,84 .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition, Castro also believed that the missiles would .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Remove the missiles before they were operational.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31]
.In early 1992, it was confirmed that Soviet forces in Cuba had, by the time the crisis broke, received tactical nuclear warheads for their artillery rockets and IL-28 bombers,[32] though General Anatoly Gribkov, part of the Soviet staff responsible for the operation, stated that the local Soviet commander, General Issa Pliyev, had predelegated authority to use them if the U.S. had mounted a full-scale invasion of Cuba.^ He quickly launches into a tirade, demanding an immediate nuclear response from General Issa Pliyev, commander of Soviet forces in Cuba.
  • The Cuban Missile War Timeline - Alternate History Discussion Board 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.alternatehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And when did the warheads for the tactical nuclear weapons arrive in Cuba?
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis | Arms Control Association 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.armscontrol.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Use nuclear weapons against Cuba and/or the Soviet Union.
  • Student Question: Cuban Missile Crisis - The Education Forum 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: Original source]

Gribkov misspoke: the Kremlin's authorization remained unsigned and undelivered..March 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] (Other accounts show that Pliyev was given permission to use tactical nuclear warheads but only in the most extreme case of a U.S. invasion during which contact with Moscow was lost.^ Such information, arguably, would have reduced the pressure on Kennedy to launch an invasion of the island--an action which, it is now known, would have led to the use of Luna class tactical nuclear weapons against US troops, as the Soviet commander, General Issa A. Pliyev, in charge had been given permission to use the weapons without consulting Moscow first.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The world has long known that it came to the brink of war during the 13-day crisis after American spy planes confirmed that Moscow had deployed nuclear missiles in Cuba, only 100 miles from Florida.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (1).htm 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ibike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And I do not, myself, think that that kind of contingency planning for the limited use of nuclear warheads happened in a way that seriously included the president during the Kennedy administration.
  • Inside the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC openvault.wgbh.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, when U.S. forces seemed to be readying for an attack (after the U-2 photos, but before Kennedy's television address, Khrushchev rescinded his earlier permission for Pliyev to use the tactical nuclear weapons, even under the most extreme conditions.^ Would I have been ready to use nuclear weapons?
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis | Arms Control Association 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.armscontrol.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I mean, where would it lead—the use of tactical nuclear weapons?
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis | Arms Control Association 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.armscontrol.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Tell me, do you believe Pliyev would have used tactical nuclear weapons in the event of an American invasion, even though Moscow had rescinded permission to do so?
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis | Arms Control Association 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.armscontrol.org [Source type: Original source]

)
.Castro has stated that he knew during the crisis that the warheads had indeed reached Cuba, and that he would have recommended their use in the event of invasion, despite being sure that Cuba would be completely destroyed should nuclear war break out.^ Cuba, the United States would agree to .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We knew that it would be impossible to reach land.''
  • ALL THROUGH THE NIGHT - THE GUARDIAN ANGELS - CUBA 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: News]

^ Over 60 NATO nuclear warheads are destroyed.
  • The Cuban Missile War Timeline - Alternate History Discussion Board 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.alternatehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

[32]
.In October 1997, The John F. Kennedy Library released a set of tape recordings documenting the crisis for the period October 18 to October 26, 1962. These recordings were made in the Oval Office.^ HOURS 26 OCTOBER 1962 .
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HOURS 18 OCTOBER 1962 .
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cuban Missile Crisis (October 1962) .

.They include President Kennedy's personal recollections of discussions, conversations with his advisers, meetings with the Joint Chiefs of Staff and members of the president's executive committee.^ There, he was rushed to a briefing with Kennedy and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (1).htm 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ibike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ JOHNSON: The Joint Chiefs of Staff wrote a letter to [President] Kennedy recommending that he bomb .
  • Washington Decoded: What Did LBJ Know About the Cuban Missile Crisis? And When Did He Know It? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.washingtondecoded.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Joint Chiefs of Staff advocated an invasion.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Arguably the most dangerous moment in the crisis was unrecognized until the Cuban Missile Crisis Havana conference in October 2002, attended by many of the veterans of the crisis, at which it was learned that on October 26, 1962 the USS Beale had tracked and dropped signalling depth charges on the B-59, a Soviet Foxtrot-class submarine which was armed with a nuclear torpedo.^ HOURS 26 OCTOBER 1962 .
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cuban The Cuban Missile Crisis Diplomatic relations were at their worst during the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis - Associated Content - Topic 12 September 2009 9:29 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ The Cuban missile crisis .
  • The Hydrogen Bomb Homepage, with stuff on the Cuban missile crisis and nuclear testing and transportation 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bilderberg.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Running out of air, the Soviet submarine was surrounded by American warships and desperately needed to surface.^ Americans in kind" for surrounding the Soviet Union with .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Soviet submarine's crew thought the war may have started and considered using their nuclear weapon, but decide instead to surface, Orlov said.
  • The Hydrogen Bomb Homepage, with stuff on the Cuban missile crisis and nuclear testing and transportation 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bilderberg.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though aware that American tactics involved the use of practice depth charges, the Soviet submariners believe they are under attack.
  • The Cuban Missile War Timeline - Alternate History Discussion Board 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.alternatehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

.An argument broke out among three officers on the B-59, including submarine captain Valentin Savitsky, political officer Ivan Semonovich Maslennikov, and chief of staff of the submarine flotilla, Commander Vasiliy Arkhipov.^ Vadim Orlov, a member of the submarine crew, told the conference in Havana that the submarine was authorised to fire it if three officers agreed.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (1).htm 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ibike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This difference has crystallized institutionally to the point that the political system needs a representation of the military system (institutionalized in Departments of Defense) and the military system needs a body to confer with the political system (i.e., the Joint Chiefs of Staff).
  • The Two Faces of American Power: Military and Political Communicationduring the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC users.fmg.uva.nl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the period leading up to the First World War, western countries developed chiefs of staff, rigid chains of command, secret codes, and so on.
  • The Two Faces of American Power: Military and Political Communicationduring the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC users.fmg.uva.nl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An exhausted Savitsky became furious and ordered that the nuclear torpedo on board be made combat ready.^ A "totally exhausted" Captain Valentin Savitsky, unable to establish communications with Moscow, "becomes furious" and orders a nuclear torpedo be assembled for battle readiness.
  • The Cuban Missile War Timeline - Alternate History Discussion Board 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.alternatehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Savitsky can order a nuclear torpedo readied on his own and wouldn't need to try and radio Moscow first.
  • The Cuban Missile War Timeline - Alternate History Discussion Board 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.alternatehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We never received any order from Moscow to bring the missiles to full combat readiness," said General Gribkov.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (1).htm 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ibike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Accounts differ about whether Commander Arkhipov convinced Savitsky not to make the attack, or whether Savitsky himself finally concluded that the only reasonable choice left open to him was to come to the surface.^ But now not only is he ready to die himself, he wants to drag us with him.” Whatever doubts Father might have had about his decision to remove the missiles had vanished completely.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / How My Father and President Kennedy Saved the World 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the convention opened, it appeared that Kennedy’s only serious challenge for the nomination would come from the Senate majority leader, Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas.
  • Cuban Missle Crisis | Essays & Term Papers Online 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You showed such a poor hospitality to him, that he can hardly be convinced to come to New York again.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

[33]
.At the Cuban Missile Crisis Havana conference, Robert McNamara admitted that nuclear war had come much closer than people had thought.^ The Cuban missile crisis .
  • The Hydrogen Bomb Homepage, with stuff on the Cuban missile crisis and nuclear testing and transportation 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bilderberg.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cuban Missile Crisis (October 1962) .

^ I doubt that he gave any thought to the substance of his Cuban Missile Crisis analogy.
  • Think Progress » Barnes: Effect Of Obama’s Missile Defense Policy Could Be ‘Worse’ Than Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

.Thomas Blanton, director of the National Security Archive, said that "a guy called Vasili Arkhipov saved the world."^ "Castro didn't know," said Thomas Blanton, the National Security Archive's executive director.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (1).htm 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ibike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The U.S. Navy (news - web sites) "did not have a clue that the submarine had a nuclear weapon on board," National Security Archives director Thomas Blanton said at a news conference.
  • The Hydrogen Bomb Homepage, with stuff on the Cuban missile crisis and nuclear testing and transportation 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bilderberg.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And McNamara thought there was a significant possibility he would not live to see the sunrise," said Thomas Blanton, executive director of the National Security Archive at George Washington University.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (1).htm 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ibike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also

Media

Notes

  1. ^ B. Gregory Marfleet, ‘The Operational Code of John F. Kennedy During the Cuban Missile Crisis: A Comparison of Public and Private Rhetoric’, Political Psychology, 21/3, p 545.
  2. ^ Glover, Jonathan (2000). Humanity: a moral history of the twentieth century. Yale University Press. p. 222. ISBN 0300087004. http://books.google.com/books?id=xtqFJVhmuowC&pg=PA222&dq=%22within+a+short+time+after+this+crisis+was+over%22+%2Brobert+kennedy&client=firefox-a. Retrieved July 2, 2009. 
  3. ^ Schlesinger, Arthur (2002). Robert Kennedy and his times. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 523. ISBN 0618219285. http://books.google.com/books?id=0xqrU5lnD7AC&pg=PA528&dq=robert+kennedy+ambassador++cuban+missile&client=firefox-a. Retrieved July 2, 2009. 
  4. ^ a b Mind-Sets and Missiles: A First Hand Account of the Cuban Missile Crisis, Kenneth Michael Absher, Strategic Studies Institute, United States Army War College, 2009, p. 10.
  5. ^ a b Franklin, Jane, [excerpts from The Cuban Missile Crisis - An In-Depth Chronology], http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~hbf/missile.htm 
  6. ^ The American Presidency Project. "Proclamation 3447—Embargo on all trade with Cuba". http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=58824. 
  7. ^ Shadow Warrior: The CIA Hero of 100 unknown battles, Felix Rodriguez and John Weisman, Publisher: Simon & Schuster, October 1989, ISBN 9780671667214
  8. ^ Cuban resolution,october U.S. Public Law 87-733, S.J. Res. 230
  9. ^ quote in Weldes, J. - "Constructing National Interests: The United States and the Cuban Missile Crisis" University of Minnesota Press, 1999 p.29
  10. ^ Absher, p. 1.
  11. ^ a b Kennedy, John F. (October 22, 1962) ( – Scholar search), Speech on the Cuban Missile Crisis, http://edition.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/episodes/10/documents/kennedy.speech/ 
  12. ^ Interview with Sidney Graybeal - 29.1.98, George Washington University National Security Archive, http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/coldwar/interviews/episode-21/graybeal3.html 
  13. ^ Revelations from the Russian Archives
  14. ^ Allison, Graham (1999). Essence of Decision. Pearson Education. pp. 111–116. ISBN 0-321-01349-2. 
  15. ^ Kennedy, Robert (1971). Thirteen Days: A memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis. W.W. Norton & Company. pp. 14. ISBN 0-393-09896-6. 
  16. ^ Robert Evan Ornstein, Paul R. Ehrlich: “New world new mind: moving toward conscious evolution”: the University of Michigan, USA: Doubleday, 1989. P.p. 261
  17. ^ Blight, J. & Welch, D. - 'On the Brink: Americans and Soviets Reexamine the Cuban Missile Crisis' Noonday Press, 1990
  18. ^ Kennedy, J. - 'The President's News Conference of September 13, 1962', In 'Public Papers of the Presidents: John F Kennedy, 1962' pp. 674-681. Washington, DC. Government Printing Office, 1963
  19. ^ Kennedy, J. - 'After Two Years: A conversation with the president' Television and radio interview, December 17, 1962. In 'Public Papers of the Presidents: John F. Kennedy, 1962' pp.889-904. Washington, DC. Government Printing Office 1963
  20. ^ Anderson, George Whelan Jr. (Chief of Naval Operations), "The Naval Quarantine of Cuba, 1962: Abeyance and Negotiation, 31 October -13 November", The Naval Quarantine of Cuba, 1962, U.S. Naval Historical Center, Report on the Naval Quarantine of Cuba, Operational Archives Branch, Post 46 Command File, Box 10, Washington, DC, http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq90-5c.htm 
  21. ^ Helms, Richard (Deputy Director for Plans, CIA) (19 January 1962), Memorandum for the Director of Central Intelligence: Meeting with the Attorney General of the United States concerning Cuba, George Washington University National Security Archives, http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/nsa/cuba_mis_cri/620119%20Meeting%20with%20the%20Attorney%20Gen..pdf 
  22. ^ Attack us at your Peril, Cocky Cuba Warns US by Henry Brandon, The Sunday Times, October 28, 1962
  23. ^ For the President's Eyes Only, pg. 300
  24. ^ Interview with Robert McNamara by Columbia Tristar Home Entertainment, bundled as a DVD special feature of Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb.
  25. ^ Frey, Jennifer (January 14, 2007). "At Yenching Palace, Five Decades of History to Go". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/01/13/AR2007011301272.html. Retrieved 2008-12-27. 
  26. ^ "The Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962: Press Release, 11 October 2002, 5:00 PM". George Washington University. 2002-10-11. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/nsa/cuba_mis_cri/press3.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-26. 
  27. ^ a b Faria p. 103
  28. ^ Ramonet, Ignacio, Fidel Castro: My Life. Penguin Books: 2007, p. 278. ISBN 978-0-1410-2626-8
  29. ^ Frontier India India-China Section Note alleged connections to Cuban Missile Crisis
  30. ^ Ramonet, Ignacio, ibid, p. 272
  31. ^ In his biography, Castro does not compare his feelings for either leader at that moment, however he makes it clear that he was angry with Khrushchev for lack of consultation. See Ramonet, Ignacio, Fidel Castro: My Life. Penguin Books: 2007, pp. 284-5. ISBN 978-0-1410-2626-8
  32. ^ a b Arms Control Association: Arms Control Today
  33. ^ Dobbs, Michael, One Minute to Midnight: Kennedy, Khrushchev, and Castro on the Brink of Nuclear War, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 2008; p. 303, 317. ISBN 978-1-4000-4358-3.
  34. ^ http://www.csathemovie.com/timeline/moreinfo/newfoundland.html

References

.The short time span of the Cuban Missile Crisis and the extensive documentation of the decision-making processes on both sides makes it an excellent case study for analysis of state decision-making.^ The Cuban missile crisis .
  • The Hydrogen Bomb Homepage, with stuff on the Cuban missile crisis and nuclear testing and transportation 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bilderberg.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cuban Missile Crisis and analyzing the .
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^ Cuban Missile Crisis by placing nuclear .
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.In the Essence of Decision, Graham T. Allison and Philip D. Zelikow use the crisis to illustrate multiple approaches to analysing the actions of the state.^ Graham T. Allison, the Harvard professor who wrote "Essence of Decision," a seminal study of the crisis recently revised with Philip D. Zelikow (Addison Wesley, 1999) noted another element: President Kennedy's willingness to take a secret gamble on Sat.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (1).htm 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ibike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two books on the subject well worth reading: The Essence of Decision by Graham Allison, and Kennedy's Wars by Lawrence Freedman.
  • Defcon 2 during Cuban Missile Crisis - did it help? - Straight Dope Message Board 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vote Up Vote Down Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis (2nd Edition) by Graham T. Allison .
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.It was also a substantial focus of the 2003 documentary The Fog of War, which won an Oscar.^ Construction Management Courses Errol Morris' Documentary The Fog of War This documentary, which is part biography, part history lesson, forms a companion piece to Sun Tzu's The Art of War.
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^ The Academy Award-winning documentary film The Fog of War directed by Errol Morris (Sony Pictures, 2003).
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.
  • Allison, Graham and Zelikow, P. Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis; New York: Longman, 1999.
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    ^ So what does the Cuban missile crisis tell us?
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    ^ 'Cuba On The Brink', James G Blight, Pantheon Books, New York, 1993.
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    .On the Brink: Americans and Soviets Reexamine the Cuban Missile Crisis; New York: Hill and Wang, 1989.
  • Chayes, Abram.^ Handling the Cuban Missile Crisis and the reasons for Russia's actions in Cuba .
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    ^ So what does the Cuban missile crisis tell us?
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    ^ 'Cuba On The Brink', James G Blight, Pantheon Books, New York, 1993.
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    .The Cuban Missile Crisis, International Crisis and the Role of Law; Oxford University Press, 1974; 2nd ed., 1987.
  • Diez Acosta, Tomás, October 1962: The 'Missile' Crisis As Seen From Cuba; Pathfinder Press, New York, 2002.
  • Divine, Robert A. The Cuban Missile Crisis; New York: M. Wiener Pub.,1988.
  • Dobbs, Michael.^ McGeorge Bundy, Danger and Survival: Choices About the Bomb in the First Fifty Years (New York: Random House, 1988), 432.
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    ^ Handling the Cuban Missile Crisis and the reasons for Russia's actions in Cuba .
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    ^ So what does the Cuban missile crisis tell us?
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    .One Minute to Midnight: Kennedy, Khrushchev, and Castro on the Brink of Nuclear War; Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 2008; ISBN 978-1-4000-4358-3.
  • Faria, Miguel, Cuba in Revolution—Escape from a Lost Paradise(2002); Hacienda Publishing, Macon, Georgia, ISBN 0-9641077-3-2. http://www.haciendapub.com
  • Feklisov, Alexander and Sergei Kostin, The Man Behind the Rosenbergs; Enigma Books, 2005. ISBN 978-1-929631-24-7.
  • Frankel, Max, High Noon in the Cold War; Ballantine Books, 2004; Presidio Press (reprint), 2005; ISBN 0-345-46671-3.
  • Fursenko, Aleksandr, and Naftali, Timothy; One Hell of a Gamble - Khrushchev, Castro and Kennedy 1958-1964; W.W. Norton (New York 1998)
  • Fursenko, Aleksandr; Night Session of the Presidium of the Central Committee, 22-23 October; Naval War College Review, vol.^ I was one of the 5 minute alert pilots the night of 25 October.
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    ^ October 22, 2005 .
    • AmericanHeritage.com / How My Father and President Kennedy Saved the World 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ New York: Basic Books, 1977.
    • Cuban Missle Crisis | Essays & Term Papers Online 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

    59, no. 3 (Summer 2006).
  • George, Alice L. (2006). .Awaiting Armageddon: How Americans Faced the Cuban Missile Crisis.^ Handling the Cuban Missile Crisis and the reasons for Russia's actions in Cuba .
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    ^ So what does the Cuban missile crisis tell us?
    • Cuban Missile Crisis (1).htm 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ibike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If the Americans invaded Cuba, how could we help the Cubans?
    • AmericanHeritage.com / How My Father and President Kennedy Saved the World 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

    University of North Carolina Press. .ISBN 0807828289. 
  • Gonzalez, Servando The Nuclear Deception: Nikita Khrushchev and the Cuban Missile Crisis; IntelliBooks, 2002; ISBN 0-971-1391-5-6.
  • Kennedy, Robert F. Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis; ISBN 0-393-31834-6.
  • Khrushchev, Sergei, How my father and President Kennedy saved the world; American Heritage magazine, October 2002 issue.
  • May, Ernest R. (editor); Zelikow, Philip D. (editor), The Kennedy Tapes: Inside the White House during the Cuban Missile Crisis; Belknap Press, 1997; ISBN 0-674-17926-9.
  • Polmar, Norman and Gresham, John D. (foreword by Clancy, Tom) DEFCON – 2: Standing on the Brink of Nuclear War During the Cuban Missile Crisis; Wiley, 2006; ISBN 0-471-67022-7.
  • Pope, Ronald R., Soviet Views on the Cuban Missile Crisis: Myth and Reality in Foreign Policy Analysis; University Press of America, 1982.
  • Pressman, Jeremy.^ Did President Kennedy play any role in precipitating the Cuban Missile Crisis?
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    ^ That is how Kennedy tells it in his book Thirteen Days .
    • AmericanHeritage.com / How My Father and President Kennedy Saved the World 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The fact that this did not happen is the greatest achievement of those Cold War warriors President John F. Kennedy and my father, the premier of the Soviet Union, Nikita Khrushchev.
    • AmericanHeritage.com / How My Father and President Kennedy Saved the World 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

    ."September Statements, October Missiles, November Elections: Domestic Politics, Foreign-Policy Making, and the Cuban Missile Crisis.” Security Studies 10, no.^ Handling the Cuban Missile Crisis and the reasons for Russia's actions in Cuba .
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    ^ TIM WEINER, "Word for Word: The Cuban Missile Crisis," New York Times, October 5, 1997 .
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    ^ It is necessary to concretize these statements, and to confirm the whole settlement of the Cuban issue, including guarantees for Cuba's security, through the Security Council.
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    .3 (Spring, 2001), pages 80–114.
  • Stern, Sheldon M., Averting the Final Failure: John F. Kennedy and the Secret Cuban Missile Crisis Meetings; Stanford University Press, 2003; ISBN 0-804-74846-2
  • Trahair, Richard C.S. and Robert Miller., Encyclopedia of Cold War Espionage, Spies, and Secret Operations; Enigma Books, 2009. ISBN 978-1-929631-75-9.
  • Stern, Sheldon M. (2005).^ The Cuban missile crisis .
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    ^ Vietnam is what the second Cuban crisis was for John F. Kennedy.
    • Washington Decoded: What Did LBJ Know About the Cuban Missile Crisis? And When Did He Know It? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.washingtondecoded.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Kennedy did the same thing in the Cuban missile crisis.
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    .The Week The World Stood Still: Inside The Secret Cuban Missile Crisis (Stanford Nuclear Age Series).^ In the weeks that followed, both nations stood at the brink of nuclear holocaust.
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    ^ TIM WEINER, "Word for Word: The Cuban Missile Crisis," New York Times, October 5, 1997 .
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    ^ Published 10/16/2008 More topics: Cuban Missile Crisis .
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    .Stanford University Press.^ Sheldon M. Stern, Averting ‘The Final Failure’: John F. Kennedy and the Secret Cuban Missile Crisis Meetings (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2003), 388.
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    ISBN 0804750777. 
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis: Declassified (Television Program)

External links

.

Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

Cuban Missile Crisis
by John F. Kennedy
Delivered on 22 October 1962.
.Good evening, my fellow citizens: - This Government, as promised, has maintained the closest surveillance of the Soviet military buildup on the island of Cuba.^ Good evenin g my fellow citizens: .

^ Review the timetable of Soviet military buildup in Cuba ( Page 1 , Page 2 ).
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis | Linda K. Miller and Mary McAuliffe | OAH Magazine of History 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.oah.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This government, as promised, has maintained the closest surveillance of the Soviet military buildup on the island of Cuba.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis: Kennedy Tells the American People 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC usgovinfo.about.com [Source type: General]

.Within the past week, unmistakable evidence has established the fact that a series of offensive Missile sites is now in preparation on that imprisoned island.^ Within the past week, unmistakable evidence has established the fact that a series of offensive missiles is now in preparation on that imprisoned island,'' Kennedy said in his speech to the nation.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (2).htm 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ibike.org [Source type: News]

^ Within the past week unmistakable evidence headed out into the back.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Within the past week, unmistakable evidence has established the fact that a series of offensive missile sites is now in preparation on that imprisoned island.
  • JFK on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Rhetoric: John F. Kennedy - Cuban Missile Crisis Address to the Nation 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.americanrhetoric.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.virginiawestern.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Cuban Missile Crisis: Kennedy Tells the American People 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC usgovinfo.about.com [Source type: General]
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC web311.pavilion.net [Source type: Original source]
  • 1962 Cuban Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC atterburybakalarairmuseum.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ӣ���ݽ�37. JFK - Cuban Missile Crisis - ����Ӣ������ 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.putclub.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JFK, John F Kennedy, Cuban Missile Crisis Address to the Nation, Sound Bite 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.entertonement.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The purpose of these bases can be none other than to provide a nuclear strike capability against the Western Hemisphere.^ He added, “The purpose of these bases can be none other than to provide a nuclear strike capability against the Western Hemisphere.” Such a capability was impermissible, and so two atomic powers suddenly found themselves on the brink of war.
  • AmericanHeritage.com / The Cuban Missile Crisis: A Lesson for Today? 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The purpose of these bases can be none other than to providing nuclear strike capability against the Western Hemisphere.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The purpose of these bases can be none other than to provide a nuclear strike capability against the Western Hemisphere.
  • JFK on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Rhetoric: John F. Kennedy - Cuban Missile Crisis Address to the Nation 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.americanrhetoric.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.virginiawestern.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC web311.pavilion.net [Source type: Original source]
  • John F. Kennedy Speech, Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.famous-speeches-and-speech-topics.info [Source type: Original source]
  • 1962 Cuban Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC atterburybakalarairmuseum.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ӣ���ݽ�37. JFK - Cuban Missile Crisis - ����Ӣ������ 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.putclub.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis speech by John F. Kennedy 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.famousquotes.me.uk [Source type: Original source]
  • Speeches by John F. Kennedy: Cuban Missle Crisis 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC usa.usembassy.de [Source type: Original source]

.Upon receiving the first preliminary hard information of this nature last Tuesday morning at 9 a.m., I directed that our surveillance be stepped up.^ Upon receiving the first preliminary hard information of this nature last Tuesday morning at 9A.M., I directed that our surveillance be stepped up.

^ Upon receiving the first preliminary hard information of this nature last Tuesday morning at 9 A.M., I directed that our surveillance be stepped up.
  • American Rhetoric: John F. Kennedy - Cuban Missile Crisis Address to the Nation 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.americanrhetoric.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Ӣ���ݽ�37. JFK - Cuban Missile Crisis - ����Ӣ������ 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.putclub.com [Source type: Original source]
  • JFK, John F Kennedy, Cuban Missile Crisis Address to the Nation, Sound Bite 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.entertonement.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I'm receiving the -- preliminary hide information of this make your life Tuesday morning at 9 AM. I directed that our surveillance he stepped up.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

.And having now confirmed and completed our evaluation of the evidence and our decision on a course of action, this Government feels obliged to report this new crisis to you in fullest detail.^ And having now confirmed and completed our evaluation of the evidence.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And having now confirmed and completed our evaluation of the evidence and our decision on a course of action, this Government feels obliged to report this new crisis to you in fullest detail.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis - Wikisource 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • JFK on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Rhetoric: John F. Kennedy - Cuban Missile Crisis Address to the Nation 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.americanrhetoric.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.virginiawestern.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • John F. Kennedy Speech, Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.famous-speeches-and-speech-topics.info [Source type: Original source]
  • 1962 Cuban Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC atterburybakalarairmuseum.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ӣ���ݽ�37. JFK - Cuban Missile Crisis - ����Ӣ������ 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.putclub.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis speech by John F. Kennedy 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.famousquotes.me.uk [Source type: Original source]
  • JFK, John F Kennedy, Cuban Missile Crisis Address to the Nation, Sound Bite 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.entertonement.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Speeches by John F. Kennedy: Cuban Missle Crisis 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC usa.usembassy.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Of course, by then our decision was set.
  • Global Security Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.gsinstitute.org [Source type: Original source]

.The characteristics of these new missile sites indicate two distinct types of installations.^ An odd occasion on a course of action this government feels obliged to report this new crisis to you in both the -- The characteristic of these new missile site indicate two distinct types of installations.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The characteristics of these new missile sites indicate two distinct types of installations.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis - Wikisource 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • JFK on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Rhetoric: John F. Kennedy - Cuban Missile Crisis Address to the Nation 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.americanrhetoric.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.virginiawestern.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC web311.pavilion.net [Source type: Original source]
  • John F. Kennedy Speech, Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.famous-speeches-and-speech-topics.info [Source type: Original source]
  • 1962 Cuban Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC atterburybakalarairmuseum.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ӣ���ݽ�37. JFK - Cuban Missile Crisis - ����Ӣ������ 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.putclub.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis speech by John F. Kennedy 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.famousquotes.me.uk [Source type: Original source]
  • JFK, John F Kennedy, Cuban Missile Crisis Address to the Nation, Sound Bite 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.entertonement.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Speeches by John F. Kennedy: Cuban Missle Crisis 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC usa.usembassy.de [Source type: Original source]

^ If this is your first time to the site, let us welcome you to what we hope will become your new daily source of Cuban Missile Crisis: The Aftermath information.
  • GameStats: Cuban Missile Crisis: The Aftermath Cheats, Reviews, News 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.gamestats.com [Source type: General]

.Several of them include medium range ballistic missiles, capable of carrying a nuclear warhead for a distance of more than 1000 nautical miles.^ Capable of carrying a nuclear warhead for a distance of more than 1000 nautical miles.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The missile carries a 2,000 lb- HE warhead.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several of them include medium range ballistic missiles , capable of carrying a nuclear warhead for a distance of more than 1000 nautical miles.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis - Wikisource 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.Each of these missiles, in short, is capable of striking Washington, D.C., the Panama Canal, Cape Canaveral, Mexico City, or any other city in the southeastern part of the United States, in Central America, or in the Caribbean area.^ Enhance Soviet strike capability against the United States.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He's capable of striking Washington DC the Panama canal cape Canaveral Mexico City.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ America patterned in the image of the United States.
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

.Additional sites not yet completed appear to be designed for intermediate range ballistic missiles capable of traveling more than twice as far-and thus capable of striking most of the major cities in the Western Hemisphere, ranging as far north as Hudson Bay, Canada, and as far south as Lima, Peru.^ Additional sites not yet completed appear to be designed for intermediate range ballistic missiles capable of traveling more than twice as far-and thus capable of striking most of the major cities in the Western Hemisphere, ranging as far north as Hudson Bay, Canada, and as far south as Lima, Peru.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis - Wikisource 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Speeches by John F. Kennedy: Cuban Missle Crisis 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC usa.usembassy.de [Source type: Original source]

^ Additional sites not yet completed -- good to be designed for intermediate range ballistic missiles.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The medium-range missiles were capable of .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

.In addition, jet bombers, capable of carrying nuclear weapons, are now being uncrated and assembled in Cuba, while the necessary air bases are being prepared.^ Capable of carrying nuclear weapons are now being on -- and assembled in Cuba.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cuba while Cuban air bases capable of supporting .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ President also reported that jet bombers capable of carrying .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

.This urgent transformation of Cuba into an important strategic base- by the presence of these large, long-range, and clearly offensive weapons of sudden mass destruction constitutes an explicit threat to the peace and security of all the Americas, in flagrant and deliberate defiance of the Rio Pact of 1947, the traditions of this Nation and hemisphere, the joint resolution of the 87th Congress, the Charter of the United Nations, and my own public warnings to the Soviets on September 4 and 13. This action also contradicts the repeated assurances of Soviet spokesmen, both publicly and privately delivered, that the arms buildup in Cuba would retain its original defensive character, and that the Soviet Union had no need or desire to station strategic missiles on the territory of any other nation.^ States' "violation of the Charter of the United Nations and .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Autumn of 1962 the Soviet Union was placing nuclear missiles in Cuba.
  • Amazon.com: Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis (9780393318340): Robert F. Kennedy, Arthur Schlesinger Jr.: Books 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]
  • GlobalSecurity.org Bookstore - Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC astore.amazon.com [Source type: General]
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ This urgent transformation of Cuba into an important strategic base--by the presence of these large, long range, and clearly offensive weapons of sudden mass destruction--constitutes an explicit threat to the peace and security of all the Americas, in flagrant and deliberate defiance of the Rio Pact of 1947, the traditions of this Nation and hemisphere, the joint resolution of the 87th Congress, the Charter of the United Nations, and my own public warnings to the Soviets on September 4 and 13.

.The size of this undertaking makes clear that it has been planned for some months.^ The size of this undertaking makes clear that it has been planned for some months.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis - Wikisource 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • JFK on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Rhetoric: John F. Kennedy - Cuban Missile Crisis Address to the Nation 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.americanrhetoric.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.virginiawestern.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • John F. Kennedy Speech, Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.famous-speeches-and-speech-topics.info [Source type: Original source]
  • 1962 Cuban Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC atterburybakalarairmuseum.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ӣ���ݽ�37. JFK - Cuban Missile Crisis - ����Ӣ������ 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.putclub.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis speech by John F. Kennedy 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.famousquotes.me.uk [Source type: Original source]
  • Speeches by John F. Kennedy: Cuban Missle Crisis 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC usa.usembassy.de [Source type: Original source]

.Yet only last month, after I had made clear the distinction between any introduction of ground-to- ground missiles and the existence of defensive anti-aircraft missiles, the Soviet Government publicly stated on September 11th that, and I quote, "the armaments and military equipment sent to Cuba are designed exclusively for defensive purposes," that, and I quote the Soviet Government, "there is no need for the Soviet Government to shift its weapons...for a retaliatory blow to any other country, for instance Cuba," and that, and I quote their government, "the Soviet Union has so powerful rockets to carry these nuclear warheads that there is no need to search for sites for them beyond the boundaries of the Soviet Union."^ In the Autumn of 1962 the Soviet Union was placing nuclear missiles in Cuba.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ He announced there was evidence that Soviet missile bases in Cuba were be… .
  • President Kennedy Discussing Cuban Missile Crisis - Rights Managed - Corbis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.corbisimages.com [Source type: General]

^ Yet only last month, after I had made clear the distinction between any introduction of ground-to-ground missiles and the existence of defensive antiaircraft missiles, the Soviet Government publicly stated on September 11, and I quote, "the armaments and military equipment sent to Cuba are designed exclusively for defensive purposes," that, and I quote the Soviet Government, "there is no need for the Soviet Government to shift its weapons .

That statement was false. Only last Thursday, as evidence of this rapid offensive buildup was already in my hand, Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko told me in my office that he was instructed to make it clear once again, as he said his government had already done, that Soviet assistance to Cuba, and I quote, "pursued solely for the purpose of contributing to the defense capabilities of Cuba," that, and I quote him, "training by Soviet specialists of Cuban nationals in handling defensive armaments was by no means offensive, and if it were otherwise," Mr. Gromyko went on, "the Soviet Government would never become involved in rendering such assistance." That statement also was false.
.Neither the United States of America nor the world community of nations can tolerate deliberate deception and offensive threats on the part of any nation, large or small.^ States' "violation of the Charter of the United Nations and .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Can tolerate deliberate deception and offensive threat on the part of any nation large -- small.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ United States to be the typical nation of .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

.We no longer live in a world where only the actual firing of weapons represents an efficient challenge to a nation's security to constitute maximum peril.^ We no longer live in a world, he said, where only the actual firing of weapons represents a sufficient challenge to a nation's security to constitute maximum peril."
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (1).htm 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ibike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We no longer live in a world where only the actual firing of weapons represents a sufficient challenge to a nation's security to constitute maximum peril.
  • JFK on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Rhetoric: John F. Kennedy - Cuban Missile Crisis Address to the Nation 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.americanrhetoric.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.virginiawestern.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • 1962 Cuban Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC atterburybakalarairmuseum.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ӣ���ݽ�37. JFK - Cuban Missile Crisis - ����Ӣ������ 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.putclub.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We no longer live in a world where only the actual firing of weapons represents an efficient challenge to a nation's security to constitute maximum peril.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis - Wikisource 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • John F. Kennedy Speech, Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.famous-speeches-and-speech-topics.info [Source type: Original source]
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis speech by John F. Kennedy 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.famousquotes.me.uk [Source type: Original source]
  • Speeches by John F. Kennedy: Cuban Missle Crisis 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC usa.usembassy.de [Source type: Original source]

.Nuclear weapons are so destructive and ballistic missiles are so swift, that any substantially increased possibility of their use or any sudden change in their deployment may well be regarded as a definite threat to peace.^ Would I have been ready to use nuclear weapons?
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis | Arms Control Association 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.armscontrol.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I strongly recommended that nuclear weapons be used.
  • Project Syndicate - Today's Lessons from the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.project-syndicate.org [Source type: News]

^ Some of the nuclear weapons may be used before we could destroy them.

.For many years, both the Soviet Union and the United States, recognizing this fact, have deployed strategic nuclear weapons with great care, never upsetting the precarious status quo which insured that these weapons would not be used in the absence of some vital challenge.^ The tremendous nuclear firepower of the United States was deployed to discourage any reckless challenge.

^ Never before had the Soviet Union placed nuclear weapons outside their own borders.
  • Global Security Institute 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.gsinstitute.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States and the Soviet Union came to the brink of nuclear war.
  • Center for History Education Online Lessons 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC asp1.umbc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Our own strategic missiles have never been transferred to the territory of any other nation under a cloak of secrecy and deception; and our history - unlike that of the Soviets since the end of World War II - demonstrates that we have no desire to dominate or conquer any other nation or impose our system upon its people.^ (General Curtis LeMay, pounding the table, about the agreement) "Our own strategic missiles have never been transferred to the territory of any other nation under a cloak of secrecy and deception; and our history, unlike that of the Soviets since the end of World War II, demonstrates that we have no desire to dominate or conquer any other nation or impose our system upon its people."
  • Google Answers: Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC answers.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Almost unique among the major world powers, we have never been at war with each other.
  • Daily Kos: State of the Nation 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Or impose our system upon -- people.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

.Nevertheless, American citizens have become adjusted to living daily on the bull's-eye of Soviet missiles located inside the USSR or in submarines.^ Nevertheless, American citizens have become adjusted to living daily on the bull's-eye of Soviet missiles located inside the USSR or in submarines.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis - Wikisource 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nevertheless, American citizens have become adjusted to living daily on the Bull's-eye of Soviet missiles located inside the U.S.S.R. or in submarines.

^ Nevertheless, American citizens have become adjusted to living daily on the bull's-eye of Soviet missiles located inside the U.S.S.R. or in submarines.
  • American Rhetoric: John F. Kennedy - Cuban Missile Crisis Address to the Nation 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.americanrhetoric.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.virginiawestern.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • John F. Kennedy Speech, Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.famous-speeches-and-speech-topics.info [Source type: Original source]
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis speech by John F. Kennedy 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.famousquotes.me.uk [Source type: Original source]
  • Speeches by John F. Kennedy: Cuban Missle Crisis 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC usa.usembassy.de [Source type: Original source]

.In that sense, missiles in Cuba add to an already clear and present danger - although it should be noted the nations of Latin America have never previously been subjected to a potential nuclear threat.^ Cuba, Latin America, and all oppressed nations."132 The .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And that -- missiles in Cuba add to an already clear and present danger.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In that sense, missiles in Cuba add to an already clear and present danger although it should be noted the nations of Latin America have never previously been subjected to a potential nuclear threat.
  • Ӣ���ݽ�37. JFK - Cuban Missile Crisis - ����Ӣ������ 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.putclub.com [Source type: Original source]

.But this secret, swift, and extraordinary buildup of Communist missiles-in an area well known to have a special and historical relationship to the United States and the nations of the Western Hemisphere, in violation of Soviet assurances, and in defiance of American and hemispheric policy - this sudden, clandestine decision to station strategic weapons for the first time outside of Soviet soil - is a deliberately provocative and unjustified change in the status quo which cannot be accepted by this country, if our courage and our commitments are ever to be trusted again by either friend or foe.^ States' "violation of the Charter of the United Nations and .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States as well as Western European countries were greatly concerned.
  • Cuban Missle Crisis | Essays & Term Papers Online 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In violation of Soviet assurances.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

.The 1930s taught us a clear lesson: aggressive conduct, if allowed to go unchecked and unchallenged, ultimately leads to war.^ The 1930's taught us a clear lesson: aggressive conduct, if allowed to go unchecked and unchallenged, ultimately leads to war.
  • American Rhetoric: John F. Kennedy - Cuban Missile Crisis Address to the Nation 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.americanrhetoric.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • John F. Kennedy Speech, Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.famous-speeches-and-speech-topics.info [Source type: Original source]
  • Ӣ���ݽ�37. JFK - Cuban Missile Crisis - ����Ӣ������ 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.putclub.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis speech by John F. Kennedy 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.famousquotes.me.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The 1930's taught us a clear lesson: aggressive conduct, if allowed to go unchecked, ultimately leads to war.

^ The 1930s taught us a clear lesson: aggressive conduct, if allowed to go unchecked and unchallenged, ultimately leads to war.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis - Wikisource 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.This nation is opposed to war.^ This nation is opposed to war.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis - Wikisource 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • JFK on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Rhetoric: John F. Kennedy - Cuban Missile Crisis Address to the Nation 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.americanrhetoric.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.virginiawestern.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • John F. Kennedy Speech, Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.famous-speeches-and-speech-topics.info [Source type: Original source]
  • 1962 Cuban Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC atterburybakalarairmuseum.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ӣ���ݽ�37. JFK - Cuban Missile Crisis - ����Ӣ������ 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.putclub.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis speech by John F. Kennedy 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.famousquotes.me.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ This nation as opposed to war we are also through lower.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

.We are also true to our word.^ We are also true to our word.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis - Wikisource 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • JFK on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Rhetoric: John F. Kennedy - Cuban Missile Crisis Address to the Nation 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.americanrhetoric.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.virginiawestern.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • John F. Kennedy Speech, Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.famous-speeches-and-speech-topics.info [Source type: Original source]
  • 1962 Cuban Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC atterburybakalarairmuseum.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ӣ���ݽ�37. JFK - Cuban Missile Crisis - ����Ӣ������ 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.putclub.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis speech by John F. Kennedy 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.famousquotes.me.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Our unswerving objective, therefore, must be to prevent the use of these missiles against this or any other country, and to secure their withdrawal or elimination from the Western Hemisphere.^ Our unswerving objective, therefore, must be to prevent the use of these missiles against this or any other country, and to secure their withdrawal or elimination from the Western Hemisphere.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis - Wikisource 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • JFK on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Rhetoric: John F. Kennedy - Cuban Missile Crisis Address to the Nation 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.americanrhetoric.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.virginiawestern.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • John F. Kennedy Speech, Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.famous-speeches-and-speech-topics.info [Source type: Original source]
  • 1962 Cuban Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC atterburybakalarairmuseum.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ӣ���ݽ�37. JFK - Cuban Missile Crisis - ����Ӣ������ 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.putclub.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis speech by John F. Kennedy 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.famousquotes.me.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ And it's secure their withdrawal or elimination from the Western Hemisphere.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On -- objective therefore must be to prevent the use of these missiles against this or any other country.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

.Our policy has been one of patience and restraint, as befits a peaceful and powerful nation, which leads a worldwide alliance.^ B 50 people and powerful nation which -- worldwide alliance.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Our policy has been one of patience and restraint.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Our policy has been one of patience and restraint, as befits a peaceful and powerful nation, which leads a worldwide alliance.

.We have been determined not to be diverted from our central concerns by mere irritants and fanatics.^ We have been determined not to be diverted from our central concerns by mere irritants and fanatics.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis - Wikisource 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • JFK on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Rhetoric: John F. Kennedy - Cuban Missile Crisis Address to the Nation 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.americanrhetoric.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • John F. Kennedy Speech, Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.famous-speeches-and-speech-topics.info [Source type: Original source]
  • 1962 Cuban Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC atterburybakalarairmuseum.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ӣ���ݽ�37. JFK - Cuban Missile Crisis - ����Ӣ������ 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.putclub.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis speech by John F. Kennedy 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.famousquotes.me.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ We have been determined not to be diverted from a central concern by mere irritant and fanatic.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And where our strengh and determination are clear, our words need merely to convey conviction, not belligerence.
  • John F. Kennedy Quote Page 12 September 2009 9:29 UTC home.att.net [Source type: Original source]

.But now further action is required - and it is under way; and these actions may only be the beginning.^ But now further action is required - and it is under way; and these actions may only be the beginning.

^ But now further action is required, and it is under way.
  • Ӣ���ݽ�37. JFK - Cuban Missile Crisis - ����Ӣ������ 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.putclub.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But now further action is required-and it is under way; and these actions may only be the beginning.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.virginiawestern.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.We will not prematurely or unnecessarily risk the costs of worldwide nuclear war in which even the fruits of victory would be ashes in our mouth - but neither will we shrink from that risk at any time it must be faced.^ It would be the start of a nuclear war.

^ We will not prematurely or unnecessarily risk the costs of worldwide nuclear war in which even the fruits of victory would be ashes in our mouth--but neither will we shrink from that risk at any time it must be faced.

^ JOHN F. KENNEDY: We will not prematurely or unnecessarily risk the course of worldwide nuclear war in which even the fruits of victory would be ashes in our mouth.
  • On The Media: Transcript of "Missile Crisis Memories" (July 3, 2009) 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.onthemedia.org [Source type: Original source]

Acting, therefore, in the defense of our own security and of the entire Western Hemisphere, and under the authority entrusted to me by the Constitution as endorsed by the resolution of the Congress, I have directed that the following initial steps be taken immediately:
.First: To halt this offensive buildup, a strict quarantine on all offensive military equipment under shipment to Cuba is being initiated.^ This left the question of what to do-a matter which was resolved after five days of debate and deliberation in favor of a "strict quarantine on all offensive military equipment under shipment to Cuba."
  • THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS OF 1962: PRESENTING THE PHOTOGRAPHIC EVIDENCE ABROAD 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This left the question of what to do--a matter which was resolved after five days of debate and deliberation in favor of a "strict quarantine on all offensive military equipment under shipment to Cuba."
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962: Presenting the Photographic EvidenceAbroad 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC permanent.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The parliament and military equipment sent to Cuba.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

.All ships of any kind bound for Cuba from whatever nation or port will, if found to contain cargoes of offensive weapons, be turned back.^ Some Red ships turn back .
  • Cuba Nostalgia Missile Crisis Photos | The Miami Herald 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC gallery.pictopia.com [Source type: General]

^ All ships of any kind bound for Cuba from whatever nation or port will, if found to contain cargoes of offensive weapons, be turned back.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis - Wikisource 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • JFK on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.virginiawestern.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • John F. Kennedy Speech, Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.famous-speeches-and-speech-topics.info [Source type: Original source]
  • 1962 Cuban Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC atterburybakalarairmuseum.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ӣ���ݽ�37. JFK - Cuban Missile Crisis - ����Ӣ������ 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.putclub.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis speech by John F. Kennedy 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.famousquotes.me.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ All t he other Russian ships (carrying missiles) turned back .
  • Cuban Missiles Crisis 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.johndclare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This quarantine will be extended, if needed, to other types of cargo and carriers.^ This quarantine will be extended if needed to other types of Chicago and carry it.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This quarantine will be extended, if needed, to other types of cargo and carriers.
  • JFK on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.virginiawestern.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • John F. Kennedy Speech, Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.famous-speeches-and-speech-topics.info [Source type: Original source]
  • 1962 Cuban Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC atterburybakalarairmuseum.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ӣ���ݽ�37. JFK - Cuban Missile Crisis - ����Ӣ������ 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.putclub.com [Source type: Original source]

^ U Thant answered that the Americans are demanding checks on the Soviet vessels carrying cargo to Cuba, as one of the conditions on their lifting the quarantine.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

We are not at this time, however, denying the necessities of life as the Soviets attempted to do in their Berlin blockade of 1948.
.Second: I have directed the continued and increased close surveillance of Cuba and its military buildup.^ Second: I have directed the continued and increased close surveillance of Cuba and its military buildup.
  • JFK on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.virginiawestern.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 1962 Cuban Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC atterburybakalarairmuseum.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ӣ���ݽ�37. JFK - Cuban Missile Crisis - ����Ӣ������ 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.putclub.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The President directed that we dramatize the fact that the missile buildup in Cuba is continuing.

^ We are not at this time, however, denying the necessities of life as the Soviets attempted to do in their Berlin blockade of I948 - Second: I have directed the continued and increased close surveillance of Cuba and its military build-up.

.The foreign ministers of the OAS, in their communiqué of October 6th, rejected secrecy on such matters in this hemisphere.^ The foreign ministers of the OAS in their communique of October 6.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The foreign ministers of the OAS, in their communiqué of October 6th, rejected secrecy on such matters in this hemisphere.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis - Wikisource 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rejected that could -- in such matters in this hemisphere.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

.Should these offensive military preparations continue, thus increasing the threat to the hemisphere, further action will be justified.^ Should these offensive military preparations continue .
  • Learning from the Missile Crisis | History & Archaeology | Smithsonian Magazine 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.smithsonianmag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Should these offensive military preparations continue, thus increasing the threat to the hemisphere, further action will be justified.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.virginiawestern.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • John F. Kennedy Speech, Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.famous-speeches-and-speech-topics.info [Source type: Original source]
  • 1962 Cuban Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC atterburybakalarairmuseum.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Ӣ���ݽ�37. JFK - Cuban Missile Crisis - ����Ӣ������ 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.putclub.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The group quickly agreed that RFK should warn Dobrynin that military action against Cuba was imminent and make clear, consistent with Khrushchev’s Friday letter, that the U.S. was prepared to pledge not to invade Cuba if the missiles were withdrawn.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis Myth You Probably Believe 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC hnn.us [Source type: Original source]

.I have directed the Armed Forces to prepare for any eventualities; and I trust that in the interest of both the Cuban people and the Soviet technicians at the sites, the hazards to all concerned of continuing this threat will be recognized.^ I have directed the armed forces to prepare for any eventuality.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Soviets than on direct involvement in Cuban .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I have directed the Armed Forces to prepare for any eventualities; and I trust that in the interest of both the Cuban people and the Soviet technicians at the sites, the hazards to all concerned in continuing this threat will be recognized.

.Third: It shall be the policy of this Nation to regard any nuclear missile launched from Cuba against any nation in the Western Hemisphere as an attack by the Soviet Union on the United States, requiring a full retaliatory response upon the Soviet Union.^ States' "violation of the Charter of the United Nations and .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Enhance Soviet strike capability against the United States.
  • CIA Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.allworldwars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Further, Kennedy has Dobrynin told that if the Soviet Union does not remove its missiles, the United States will attack Cuba.
  • Cuban History, Missle Crisis (3 of 4) 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

.Fourth: As a necessary military precaution, I have reinforced our base at Guantanamo, evacuated today the dependents of our personnel there, and ordered additional military units to be on a standby alert basis.^ Fourth: As a necessary military precaution., I have reinforced our base at Guantanamo, evacuated today the dependents of our personnel there, and ordered additional military units to be on a standby alert basis.

^ And ordered additional military units to be on the standby alert them to.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fought as a necessary military precaution.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

.Fifth: We are calling tonight for an immediate meeting of the Organ of Consultation under the Organization of American States, to consider this threat to hemispheric security and to invoke articles 6 and 8 of the Rio Treaty in support of all necessary action.^ Fifth: We are calling tonight for an immediate meeting of the Organ of Consultation under the Organization of American States , to consider this threat to hemispheric security and to invoke articles 6 and 8 of the Rio Treaty in support of all necessary action.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis - Wikisource 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Fifth: We are calling tonight for an immediate meeting of the Organ of Consultation under the Organization of American States, to consider this threat to hemispheric security and to invoke articles 6 and 8 of the Rio Treaty in support of all necessary action.

^ To consider this threat to hemispheric security.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

.The United Nations Charter allows for regional security arrangements - and the nations of this hemisphere decided long ago against the military presence of outside powers.^ The United Nations Charter allows for regional security arrangements-and the nations of this hemisphere decided long ago against the military presence of outside powers.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.virginiawestern.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ United Nations -- allowed for regional security arrangements.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The United Nations Charter allows for regional security arrangements--and the nations of this hemisphere decided long ago against the military presence of outside powers.

.Our other allies around the world have also been alerted.^ Our other allies around the world have also been alerted.

^ Our other allies around the world have also been aware that.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At one point our military went on world-wide alert, don't recall all the details, but they are in numerous books including Kissinger's memoir.
  • Most Dangerous Cold War moment other than Cuban Missile Crisis... in Wars in History Channel 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sixth: Under the Charter of the United Nations, we are asking tonight that an emergency meeting of the Security Council be convoked without delay to take action against this latest Soviet threat to world peace.^ States' "violation of the Charter of the United Nations and .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Take action against this latest Soviet threat to world peace.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sixth: Under the Charter of the United Nations, we are asking tonight that an emergency meeting of the Security Council be convoked without delay to take action against this latest Soviet threat to world peace.

.Our resolution will call for the prompt dismantling and withdrawal of all offensive weapons in Cuba, under the supervision of U.N. observers, before the quarantine can be lifted.^ The blockade would continue, he threatened, until "all offensive weapons" in Cuba were dismantled and returned to the Soviet Union, "under the supervision of UN observers."
  • Steve Clark, Cuban People Thwarted U.S. Invasion Plan In October 1962 `Missile Crisis' 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Before the quarantine it can be lifted.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I resolution were called for the prop dismantling and withdrawal of all offensive weapons in Cuba.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

.Seventh and finally: I call upon Chairman Khrushchev to halt and eliminate this clandestine, reckless, and provocative threat to world peace and to stable relations between our two nations.^ Kennedy called upon Khrushchev 12″to halt and eliminate this clandestine, reckless and provocative threat to world peace and to stable relations between our two nations” and warned that an attack from Cuba on any nation in the western hemisphere would be considered an attack by the USSR on the United States itself.
  • Cuban Missle Crisis | Essays & Term Papers Online 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ 'I call on Chairman Khrushchev to halt and eliminate this reckless and provocative threat to world peace' .

^ Seventh and finally: I call upon Chairman Khrushchev to halt and eliminate this clandestine, reckless, and provocative threat to world peace and to stable relations between our two nations.

.I call upon him further to abandon this course of world domination, and to join in an historic effort to end the perilous arms race and to transform the history of man.^ And the yards in the historic effort to end the perilous -- and a friend on the history of man.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I call upon him further to abandon this course of world domination, and to join in an historic effort to end the perilous arms race and to transform the history of man.

^ I call upon him further to abandon this course of world domination.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

.He has an opportunity now to move the world back from the abyss of destruction - by returning to his government's own words that it had no need to station missiles outside its own territory, and withdrawing these weapons from Cuba - by refraining from any action which will widen or deepen the present crisis - and then by participating in a search for peaceful and permanent solutions.^ He has an opportunity now to move the world back from the abyss of destruction - by returning to his government's own words that it had no need to station missiles outside its own territory, and withdrawing these weapons from Cuba - by refraining from any action which will widen or deepen the present crisis - and then by participating in a search for peaceful and permanent solutions.

^ By returning to a government over words.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That there is no need to search for site.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

.This Nation is prepared to present its case against the Soviet threat to peace, and our own proposals for a peaceful world, at any time and in any forum - in the OAS, in the United Nations, or in any other meeting that could be useful - without limiting our freedom of action.^ In this case we see a limitation of actions without limitation of sovereignty.
  • Cold War International History Project 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Soviets with a model that could be used to export .
  • Cuba, Castro, And The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.globalsecurity.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sixth: Under the Charter of the United Nations, we are asking tonight that an emergency meeting of the Security Council be convoked without delay to take action against this latest Soviet threat to world peace.
  • JFK on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • John F. Kennedy Speech, Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.famous-speeches-and-speech-topics.info [Source type: Original source]

.We have in the past made strenuous efforts to limit the spread of nuclear weapons.^ We have in the past made strenuous efforts to limit the spread of nuclear weapon.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We have in the past made strenuous efforts to limit the spread of nuclear weapons.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviet Union and Cuba have agreed that once the atomic weapons are in Cuba, the Soviet-Cuban agreement will be made public, along with the presence of the nuclear weapons, based on Cuba's right to defend itself.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis: An In-Depth Chronology 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC andromeda.rutgers.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.We have proposed the elimination of all arms and military bases in a fair and effective disarmament treaty.^ We have proposed the elimination of all arms and military bases in a fair and effective disarmament treaty.
  • JFK on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We have proposed the elimination of all mom and military bases in a fair and effective disarmament treaty.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Khrushchev responds to and agrees with the proposal of peace sent by the U.N. General Secretary, agreeing to suspend all arms shipments to Cuba.
  • Cuban History, Missle Crisis (3 of 4) 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

.We are prepared to discuss new proposals for the removal of tensions on both sides - including the possibilities of a genuinely independent Cuba, free to determine its own destiny.^ We are prepared to discuss new proposals for the removal of tensions on both sides--including the possibility of a genuinely independent Cuba, free to determine its own destiny.
  • JFK on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.historyplace.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Including the possibility of a genuinely independent Cuba created determine its own destiny we have no wish to roll the Soviet Union.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We are prepared to discuss new proposals for the removal of tensions on both sides- including the possibilities of a genuinely independent Cuba, free to determine its own destiny.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.We have no wish to war with the Soviet Union - for we are a peaceful people who desire to live in peace with all other peoples.^ And that the Soviet Union had no need or desire the nation's strategic metals on the territory of any other nation.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We are peaceful people who desire to live in peace -- all of the people.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We have no wish to war with the Soviet Union-for we are a peaceful people who desire to live in peace with all other peoples.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But it is difficult to settle or even discuss these problems in an atmosphere of intimidation.^ But it is difficult to settle or even discuss these problems in an atmosphere of intimidation.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ McCloy and Stevenson did not enter into any real discussion of these issues, even less than they had before at the earlier meetings.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Last evening we were discussing the relative merits of these forms of military action, assuming that some form of military action is required.
  • Cuban Missiles Crisis Excomm Transcripts 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Cuban Missiles Crisis Excomm Transcripts 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC ftp.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

.That is why this latest Soviet threat - or any other threat which is made either independently or in response to our actions this week - must and will be met with determination.^ Which is made either independently or in response to our actions that we must and will be met with determination.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Take action against this latest Soviet threat to world peace.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That is why this latest Soviet threat-or any other threat which is made either independently or in response to our actions this week-must and will be met with determination.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Any hostile move anywhere in the world against the safety and freedom of peoples to whom we are committed - including in particular the brave people of West Berlin - will be met by whatever action is needed.^ Any hostile move anywhere in the world against the safety and freedom of people -- who we are committed.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Any hostile move anywhere in the world against the safety and freedom of peoples to whom we are committed- including in particular the brave people of West Berlin-will be met by whatever action is needed.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Including in particular the brave people of west Berlin would be met by whatever action is needed.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

.Finally, I want to say a few words to the captive people of Cuba, to whom this speech is being directly carried by special radio facilities.^ Finally, I want to say a few words to the captive people of Cuba, to whom this speech is being directly carried by special radio facilities.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • John F. Kennedy Quote Page 12 September 2009 9:29 UTC home.att.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Finally I want to say a few words of the captive people of Cuba to whom this speech is being directly carried by special radio facilities.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Soviet government releases a statement saying that 'Cuba belongs to the Cuban people and only they can be masters of their destiny' .

.I speak to you as a friend, as one who knows of your deep attachment to your fatherland, as one who shares your aspirations for liberty and justice for all.^ For those of you who don't know her, know that she is one in a million.
  • The Next Cuban Missile Crisis? - From Niklas Kozloff 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.homepagedaily.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I speak you had a friend -- want to know to go deep attachment to your fatherland.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I speak to you as a friend, as one who knows of your deep attachment to your fatherland, as one who shares your aspirations for liberty and justice for all.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • John F. Kennedy Quote Page 12 September 2009 9:29 UTC home.att.net [Source type: Original source]

.And I have watched and the American people have watched with deep sorrow how your nationalist revolution was betrayed - and how your fatherland fell under foreign domination.^ And I have watched and the American people have watched with deep sorrow how your nationalist revolution was betrayed-and how your fatherland fell under foreign domination.
  • John F. Kennedy Quote Page 12 September 2009 9:29 UTC home.att.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And I have watched and the American people have watched with deep sorrow how your nationalist revolution was betrayed- and how your fatherland fell under foreign domination.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I think the American people will willingly undertake the very great danger, and necessary great suffering, and if they have the deep feeling that we have done everything that is reasonably possible and that this thing is really necessary.
  • Cuban Missiles Crisis Excomm Transcripts 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.fas.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Cuban Missiles Crisis Excomm Transcripts 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC ftp.fas.org [Source type: Original source]

.Now your leaders are no longer Cuban leaders inspired by Cuban ideals.^ Now your leaders are no longer Cuban leaders inspired by Cuban ideals.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • John F. Kennedy Quote Page 12 September 2009 9:29 UTC home.att.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Now you alluded to no longer Cuban leaders.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Inspired by Cuban ideals they're puppets and agents of an international conspiracy.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

.They are puppets and agents of an international conspiracy which has turned Cuba against your friends and neighbors in the Americas - and turned it into the first Latin American country to become a target for nuclear war - the first Latin American country to have these weapons on its soil.^ The Americans would have burst into Cuba.
  • Cold War International History Project 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They are puppets and agents of an international conspiracy which has turned Cuba against your friends and neighbors in the Americas-and turned it into the first Latin American country to become a target for nuclear war-the first Latin American country to have these weapons on its soil.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Use nuclear weapons against Cuba and/or the Soviet Union.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis: Activities 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC web311.pavilion.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Cuban Missile crisis - The Education Forum 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Student Question: Cuban Missile Crisis - The Education Forum 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: Original source]

.These new weapons are not in your interest.^ These new weapons are not in your interest.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Register your subject interests to receive an email alert when we release new ebooks in your field of interest.
  • eBooks.com - High Noon in the Cold War: Kennedy, Khrushchev, and the Cuban Missile Crisis eBook 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ebooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These new weapons are not in your impressed they contribute nothing GOP and wellbeing they can only undermine it.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

.They contribute nothing to your peace and well-being.^ They contribute nothing to your peace and well-being.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These new weapons are not in your impressed they contribute nothing GOP and wellbeing they can only undermine it.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You and we, as it was underlined more than once by N.S. Khrushchev, are human beings and you have your own ideology, and you are well aware of our attitude towards it.
  • Russian Documents on the Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC faculty.chass.ncsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.They can only undermine it.^ They can only undermine it.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These new weapons are not in your impressed they contribute nothing GOP and wellbeing they can only undermine it.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

.But this country has no wish to cause you to suffer or to impose any system upon you.^ Or impose our system upon -- people.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But this country has no wish to cause you to suffer or to impose any system upon you.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But this country has no way to court you to stop what ought to impose any system upon.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

.We know that your lives and land are being used as pawns by those who deny your freedom.^ We know that you're alive and -- being used that spawned by those who deny your freedom.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We know that your lives and land are being used as pawns by those who deny your freedom.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I was to have been one of those who plotted (by radar) the boats and help direct them to their landing points.
  • Cuban Missle Crisis - Topic Powered by Social Strata 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC forums.military.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many times in the past, the Cuban people have risen to throw out tyrants who destroyed their liberty.^ Many times in the past, the Cuban people have risen to throw out tyrants who destroyed their liberty.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many times in the past the Cuban people have risen to throw out tyrant who destroyed their liberty.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the USA there are hysterics, but in their souls many people understand the fairness of the Cuban demands.
  • Cold War International History Project 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.wilsoncenter.org [Source type: Original source]

.And I have no doubt that most Cubans today look forward to the time when they will be truly free - free from foreign domination, free to choose their own leaders, free to select their own system, free to own their own land, free to speak and write and worship without fear or degradation.^ Look forward to the time when they will be truly free free from foreign domination created through their -- leaders.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And I have no doubt the most Cubans today.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And I have no doubt that most Cubans today look forward to the time when they will be truly free from foreign domination, free to choose their own leaders, free to select their own system, free to own their own land, free to speak and write and worship without fear or degradation.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.And then shall Cuba be welcomed back to the society of free nations and to the association of nations of this hemisphere.^ And then shall Cuba be welcomed back to the society of free nations and to the association of nations of this hemisphere.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And then -- be welcome back of the society of free nations and the association that this chemistry.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ JFK, Profiles in Courage, 1956 Cuba It shall be the policy of this Nation to regard any nuclear missile launched from Cuba against any nation in the Western Hemisphere as an attack by the Soviet Union on the United States, requiring a full retaliatory response upon the Soviet Union.
  • John F. Kennedy Quote Page 12 September 2009 9:29 UTC home.att.net [Source type: Original source]

.My fellow citizens: let no one doubt that this is a difficult and dangerous effort on which we have set out.^ My fellow citizens: let no one doubt that this is a difficult and dangerous effort on which we have set out.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Good evening my fellow citizens.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Good evening, my fellow citizens.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC web311.pavilion.net [Source type: Original source]

.No one can foresee precisely what course it will take or what costs or casualties will be incurred.^ No one can foresee precisely what course it would take or what -- or casualties will be incurred.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No one can foresee precisely what course it will take or what costs or casualties will be incurred.
  • John F. Kennedy Quote Page 12 September 2009 9:29 UTC home.att.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Of course if they offered Israel one, no one would believe it, so what's the point?
  • Iranian Crisis: “Cuban Missile Crisis In Slow Motion”? | The Moderate Voice 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC themoderatevoice.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many months of sacrifice and self-discipline lie ahead - months in which both our patience and our will will be tested - months in which many threats and denunciations will keep us aware of our dangers.^ Many months to sacrifice.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Month in which many threat and renunciation will keep us aware about changes.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many months of sacrifice and self-discipline lie ahead—months in which both our patience and our will will be tested—months in which many threats and denunciations will keep us aware of our dangers.
  • John F. Kennedy Quote Page 12 September 2009 9:29 UTC home.att.net [Source type: Original source]

.But the greatest danger of all would be to do nothing.^ But the greatest danger at all would be to do nothing.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But the greatest danger of all would be to do nothing.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They all agreed that the Russians would do nothing to stop them from taking over Cuba.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A563852 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The path we have chosen for the present is full of hazards, as all paths are - but it is the one most consistent with our character and courage as a nation and our commitments around the world.^ But it is the one most consistent with -- odd character and courage as a nation and our commitments around the world.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The path we have chosen for the present is full of hazards, as all paths are- but it is the one most consistent with our character and courage as a nation and our commitments around the world.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But the greatest danger of all would be to do nothing The path we have chosen for the present is full of hazards, as all paths are—but it is the one most consistent with our character and courage as a nation and our commitments around the world.
  • John F. Kennedy Quote Page 12 September 2009 9:29 UTC home.att.net [Source type: Original source]

.The cost of freedom is always high - but Americans have always paid it.^ The cost of freedom is always high-but Americans have always paid it.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • John F. Kennedy Quote Page 12 September 2009 9:29 UTC home.att.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The cost of freedom has always time but Americans have always paid.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And most important, the British sailors could be counted upon not to fight for their freedom , as Americans always do.
  • Big Lizards:Blog:Entry “Shades of the Cuban Missile Crisis” 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC biglizards.net [Source type: News]

.And one path we shall never choose, and that is the path of surrender or submission.^ And one path we shall never -- that the path of surrender or submission.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And one path we shall never choose, and that is the path of surrender or submission.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • John F. Kennedy Quote Page 12 September 2009 9:29 UTC home.att.net [Source type: Original source]

^ "There are never two choices in foreign policy," Ms. Mathews said the other day, "and the right answer is not to choose an unacceptable one, but to look for a third.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis (1).htm 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ibike.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Our goal is not the victory of might, but the vindication of right - not peace at the expense of freedom, but both peace and freedom, here in this hemisphere, and, we hope, around the world.^ Not peek at the expense of freedom but both peace and freedom here in this hemisphere.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And we hope around the world.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Our goal is not the victory of might, but the vindication of right-not peace at the expense of freedom, but both peace and freedom, here in this hemisphere, and, we hope, around the world.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.God willing, that goal will be achieved.^ God willing that goal will be achieved.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ God willing, that goal will be achieved.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • John F. Kennedy Quote Page 12 September 2009 9:29 UTC home.att.net [Source type: Original source]

.Thank you and good night.^ Thank you and good night.
  • Thirteen Days in October: The Cuban Missile Crisis 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thank you and good night" .
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Good for you, and thanks for your service, Nauticus!
  • Deja Vu - Cuban Missile Crisis - SecurityInfoWatch Forums - Discussions for the Security Professional 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC forums.securityinfowatch.com [Source type: General]

PD-icon.svg This work is in the .public domain in the United States because it is a work of the United States federal government (see 17 U.S.C. 105).^ And most recently, their views and recollections have been augmented by voluminous government records of the United States, some from old Soviet archives, and even a few from Cuban dossiers.
  • eBooks.com - High Noon in the Cold War: Kennedy, Khrushchev, and the Cuban Missile Crisis eBook 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.ebooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That government is big and bad, that federal fiscal integrity is measured by inaccurate administrative budgets, and that unfavorable turns in the economy are due to a lack of public confidence in the administration.
  • JFK Televised Address on Cuban Missile Crisis at Boston.com 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC multimedia.boston.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It blasted what it called ``the continued cynical policies of the government of the United States to continue promoting and stimulating illegal departures'' of U.S.-bound Cubans.
  • ALL THROUGH THE NIGHT - THE GUARDIAN ANGELS - CUBA 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: News]


Simple English


The Cuban Missile Crisis was a time of tension between the Soviet Union, the United States and Cuba during the Cold War. In Russia, it is known as the Caribbean Crisis (Russian: Карибский кризис, Karibskiy krizis). Cuba calls it the October Crisis. It was a proxy conflict around Cuba. It happened when the Soviet Union (USSR) began building missile sites in Cuba in 1962. Together with the Berlin Blockade, this crisis is seen as one of the most important confrontations of the Cold War. It may have been the moment when the Cold War came closest to a nuclear war.[1]

There was a coup in Cuba in 1959. In it, a small group of people led by Fidel Castro took power. The new government of Cuba took over some American businesses. The American government refused to buy anything from Cuba after that. The US embargo against Cuba began February 7, 1962. In 1962, the American government was worried that the USSR would attack America from Cuba, because Cuba is near enough that the missiles could reach almost any city in America. Cuba was then a Communist country, like the Soviet Union.

In October 1962, American ships blocked Soviet ships carrying missiles from going into Cuba. The Soviets and Cubans agreed to take away the missiles if America promised not to attack Cuba. America later removed some missiles from the country of Turkey, near the Soviet Union. However, it is not decided if anyone "won". The USSR lost China's support over it.

Contents

The Crisis

The Americans feared that the Soviet would expand communism or socialism. The United States and the USSR had been political enemies after the end of the Second World War in 1945. The United States felt it was not right that a country in the Caribbean openly allied itself with the Soviet Union. This would also make the Monroe Doctrine useless. This doctrine kept powers in Europe from getting involved in South America.

In late 1961, President John F. Kennedy launched a number of secret operations against Castro's government. These operations were named Operation Mongoose. They were unsuccessful.[2] In February 1962, the United States launched an economic embargo against Cuba.[3]

In September 1962, the Cuban government thought the United States would invade. They thought this because there was a resolution by the Congress of the United States. This resolution allowed the use of military force if the interests of the United States in Cuba were threatened.[4] The United States also announced a military exercise in the Caribbean to be held the following month.

Castro and Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev agreed to secretly place strategic nuclear missiles in Cuba to be ready if the United States invaded. Like Castro, Khrushchev thought that a U.S. would invade Cuba soon, and that for Cuba to no longer be a Communist country would hurt his reputation around the world, especially in Latin America. He said that he wanted to confront the Americans "with more than words...the logical answer was missiles."[5]

The tensions were at their height from October 8, 1962. On October 14. United States reconnaissance saw the missile bases being built in Cuba. The crisis ended two weeks later on October 28, 1962, when the President of the United States John F. Kennedy and the United Nations Secretary-General U Thant reached an agreement with the Soviets to destroy the missiles in Cuba in exchange for a no-invasion agreement. Khrushchev requested that the Jupiter and Thor missiles in Turkey be removed, and the United States did remove them.[6]

Causes of the Cuban Missile Crisis

Fidel Castro

In Cuba, Fidel Castro took power from General Batista on January 1, 1959. From 1952 to 1959, Batista was a military dictator in Cuba, very right-wing with Mafia connections and the support of the Eisenhower administration. The United States was interested in Cuba because of the many businesses that they had there, even though the country was a dictatorship. The countries were also military friends. This was shown by the US base at Guantánamo Bay. When Castro came to power in Cuba, he nationalized American companies in Cuba, meaning he took the private property from those companies and made it the property of Cuba, to use as Castro decided.[7] The United States decided to break off economic relations with Cuba[8] (which means that they would stop buying things from them). They stopped all aid going to Cuba and stopped buying Cuban sugar (which was Cuba's main export). This was a disaster for Castro, because America bought the most Cuban sugar. However, Russia saved the Cuban economy by buying Cuban sugar for a lot of money.

Nikita Khrushchev

Castro turned to the USSR, still powerful at that time. He signed a contract with Nikita Khrushchev, the Russian president at the time. The contract said that the USSR would buy 1 million tons of Cuban sugar once a year, every year in exchange for Castro's Communist support; he declared himself a Marxist-Leninist, December 2, 1961.

The reasons that Krushchev wanted to help Cuba were the following:

  • He wanted a Communist state close to United States;
  • He wanted to test the new US president, John F. Kennedy;
  • He wanted a chance to get the American missile sites out of Turkey, which was close to Russia.

The Bay of Pigs

The Eisenhower government was worried that Castro was a Communist and that this could be a threat to American economic dominance. A timeline released by the National Security Archives shows that the US began planning to overthrow the government of Cuba in October, 1959. After the nationalization of American property on the island, Eisenhower broke diplomatic relations with the revolutionary government of Cuba on January 3, 1961 and plans were made to remove the Castro government from power. The Kennedy government took over those plans later. On April 17, 1961, the CIA began an operation later called the Bay of Pigs invasion by Brigade 2506. The goal was for a group of Cubans, including some who were still loyal to General Batista, to attack Cuba and overthrow Castro. President Kennedy refused to order American troops to support the invasion.

As the group set off to attack Cuba, Kennedy grew nervous. The president suffered from a rare endocrine disorder of chronic adrenal insufficiency, called Addison's disease, for which he received steroid and cortisone treatment. Stress calls on the adrenal glands to function. Symptoms of an adrenal disease include confusion and psychosis. There was a lot of secrecy surrounding Kennedy's health during his years as president, and the 25th amendment to the US Constitution, which clarifies what happens if the president is unable to do his job, was introduced partly because of this incident. Kennedy thought that an American attack against a Communist state could lead to a full-scale war against the USSR. Kennedy decided not to provide American military support at the last moment. This may have led to the failure of the Bay of Pigs attack.

Castro wanted to feel safe from the United States. He knew that if a second attack was made, Cuba might lose and he would be removed from power. Castro asked Krushchev for missile sites to be built on Cuba so that he could defend himself against any American threat. The USSR agreed to this and started building missile sites on Cuba. These missiles could hit any major city in the United States.

When Kennedy found out about the missile sites on October 16[9] by sending a United States Navy F-8 Crusader to take pictures of Cuba,[10] he saw the missile sites and thought the worst: that Cuba was preparing to attack the United States.

Kennedy's Options

The United States was angry when they found out about the missile sites. Kennedy's advisers did not believe that the missiles were completely ready at the time they first saw the pictures, but they guessed that the missiles would be ready in less than two weeks (this is where the movie and book, 13 Days, get their name). This meant that Kennedy had to act fast. His options were not clear at first, so he started EXCOMM (Executive Committee of the National Security Council) so they would give him some options. The options basically were:

Options Pros Cons
Do nothing Avoids a war Kennedy would look weak to the USSR and the rest of the world. Leaves active nuclear missiles very close to the USA.
Attack Would destroy some missile sites. Lots of soldiers would die and Cuba could launch nuclear missiles at the US and cause a lot of destruction, including possibly the destruction of Earth.
Diplomatic pressure Would avoid a war and maybe convince USSR to remove the missiles USSR would probably not give up and it could end up making them look like they held more power than the US or its allies.
Build a Blockade No casualties. Would make it hard for Cuba to get food, military and other support from USSR or others and would stop any more missiles from coming to Cuba The missile sites that were already in Cuba would still be there. It was also internationally illegal to run a blockade and could be seen as an act of war against the USSR, causing a war.


Kennedy chose to build a blockade around Cuba to stop all ships going there.[11] The blockade was put in place on October 20.

Khrushchev's Options

The USSR's first ships arrived at the blockade on October 25 and were turned away.

Nikita Khrushchev sent a letter to Kennedy on October 26. Kennedy's advisers said that the letter looked like it had been written by Krushchev himself and not his official writers who would normally do it. They also said that it looked like it was written by a man who was under stress. In a paper called "Forty Years After 13 Days," Robert McNamara quoted a part of the letter from Krushchev:

Everyone needs peace; both capitalists, if they have not lost their reason, and still more, communists.
War is our enemy and a calamity for all people.
If indeed war should break out, then it would not be in our power to stop it, for such is the logic of war. I have participated in two wars and I know that war ends only when it has rolled through cities and villages, everywhere sowing death and destruction.
I should like you to agree that one cannot give way to pressures; it is necessary to control them.
If people do not show wisdom, then in the final analysis they will come to a clash, like blind moles, and then reciprocal extermination will begin.
If you have not lost your self-control, then Mr. President we and you ought not now to pull on the end of a rope in which you have tied the knot of war, because the more the two of us pull, the tighter the knot will be tied. And a moment may come when that knot will be tied so tight that even he who tied it will not have the strength to untie it. And then it will be necessary to cut that knot.
And what that will mean is not for me to explain to you, because you yourself understand perfectly what terrible forces our countries possess. Let us not only relax the forces pulling on the end of the rope; let us take means to untie the knot. We are ready for this.

—Nikita Kruschev[12]

Krushchev was saying that he would remove the missile sites if he promised not to invade Cuba. An invasion of Cuba would make Krushchev look bad and could also lead to a nuclear war. This was the reaction that Kennedy wanted.

The very next day, a second letter was sent from Russia to Kennedy. This one looked more official than the first. It also said that the US must take its nuclear missiles out of Turkey if they wanted Russia to take their missiles out of Cuba. It would have been a fair trade because the US missiles in Turkey were close enough to Russia that they could reach most of the important cities and Cuba was close enough to the US that the Russian missiles would reach most of the important US cities. The problem for Kennedy was that he could not publicly agree to remove the US missiles from Turkey because Turkey would then not be protected and they would not be happy. Another problem was that Kennedy and his advisers did not know if Krushchev was still in power. They thought that someone in the Russian government might have overthrown Krushchev. They thought this because the second letter was so much different than the first. Kennedy decided to send a secret message to Krushchev saying that they would remove the missiles from Turkey in a few months as long as they did not tell the public about it. Kennedy then sent an official letter to Krushchev agreeing to the conditions of the first letter and ignoring the second.

Krushchev agreed to the secret message.

On November 1, the missile sites were removed and the problems were over.

Outcomes

Nobody really knows who won the Cuban Missile Crisis. Khrushchev said that he had won because the United States never bothered Cuba again and the missile sites in Turkey were removed. But he had lost respect from China. China broke off relations with the USSR and Khrushchev had to quit.

Khrushchev goals in the crisis had various results:

  1. A communist country was closer to the United States. Cuba came out of the crisis still a communist country.
  2. Kennedy was pushed in the crisis. In the end, his desire for peace was important to ending the crisis.
  3. The missile sites in Turkey were removed, but not in the way that Khrushchev had wanted.

The United States saw Kennedy as the hero who had fought Communism and won.

Other pages

References

  1. B. Gregory Marfleet (2000). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "The Operational Code of John F. Kennedy During the Cuban Missile Crisis: A Comparison of Public and Private Rhetoric"]. Political Psychology 21 (3): 545. 
  2. Franklin, Jane, [excerpts from The Cuban Missile Crisis - An In-Depth Chronology], http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~hbf/missile.htm 
  3. The American Presidency Project. "Proclamation 3447—Embargo on all trade with Cuba". http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=58824. 
  4. Cuban resolution,October U.S. Public Law 87-733, S.J. Res. 230
  5. quote in Weldes, J. - "Constructing National Interests: The United States and the Cuban Missile Crisis" University of Minnesota Press, 1999 p.29
  6. Mark J. White, The Cuban Missile Crisis (London: Macmillan Press Ltd, 1996), p. 228
  7. A Thousand days: John F. Kennedy in the White House Arthur Schlesinger Jr 1965
  8. Proclamation 3447--Embargo on all trade with Cuba The American Presidency Project
  9. "Revelations from the Russian Archives". http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/archives/colc.html. 
  10. "Interview with Syndey Graybeal -29. Jan 1998". http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/coldwar/interviews/episode-21/graybeal3.html. 
  11. The Cuban Missile Crisis, October 18-29, 1962, audio recordings
  12. Cuban Missile Crisis documents on Arms Control Association

Other websites

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