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Petroglyphs in Gobustan, Azerbaijan, dating back to 10,000 BC indicating a thriving culture
.Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate")[1] is a term that has different meanings.^ Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere , meaning "to cultivate,") [1] generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activities significance and importance.
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The English , Latinate word " culture " ( from cultura, from colere, meaning " to cultivate "), means , according to the first definition in the American Heritage Dictionary , " The totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns , arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought ."

^ The fw is cultura, L, from rw colere, L. Colere had a range of meanings: inhabit, cultivate, protect, honor with worship.
  • Raymond Williams, Keywords 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC pubpages.unh.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Culture 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.ltcconline.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, in 1952, Alfred Kroeber and Clyde Kluckhohn compiled a list of 164 definitions of "culture" in Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions.^ In 1952, Alfred Kroeber and Clyde Kluckhohn compiled a list of 164 definitions of "culture" in Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions .
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is evidence of this reaction even in the excellent study by Kroeber and Kluckhohn, Culture: a Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions, where usage in North American anthropology is in effect taken as a norm.

^ But to see exactly how meaningful and insightful definition #3 is, contrast with the usual conception of civilization as culture.
  • What Is Civilization 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC c2.com [Source type: Original source]

[2] However, the word "culture" is most commonly used in three basic senses:
  • Excellence of taste in the fine arts and humanities, also known as high culture
  • An integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behavior that depends upon the capacity for symbolic thought and social learning
  • The set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterizes an institution, organization or group
.When the concept first emerged in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Europe, it connoted a process of cultivation or improvement, as in agriculture or horticulture.^ Raymond Williams made a distinction between nineteenth and twentieth century technologies that might be even more apt for the twenty-first century.
  • Cell Phone Culture 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An archeologist and an agricultural specialist have suggested that rice cultivation may have reached Korea from south China in the first century AD. [17] Around 900 BC, evidence emerges of walled-city political structure and labor-intensive dolmen burial sites.

^ Bulb flowers were already in a highly hybridized and cultivated state when the Crusaders carried them home from Palestine to western Europe toward the end of the centuries of Arab power.
  • American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee: Arab Contributions to Civilization 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.adc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the nineteenth century, it came to refer first to the betterment or refinement of the individual, especially through education, and then to the fulfillment of national aspirations or ideals.^ In the 19th century, especially after the publication of biologist Charles Darwin's works on evolution, there was the theme of natural and inevitable progress through the means of natural selection.
  • An Overview of Civilization 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Black American Feminisms: A Multidisciplinary Bibliography - references date back to the early nineteenth century.
  • WSSLinks: Literature and culture 12 September 2009 9:40 UTC libraries.mit.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ No one really knows where the Incas came from that historic record left in stone for archaeologists to unravel through the centuries that followed.

.In the mid-nineteenth century, some scientists used the term "culture" to refer to a universal human capacity.^ Civilization can be used synonymously with the term culture.
  • civilization: Students of English 350 at the University of Washington 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC depts.washington.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere , meaning "to cultivate,") [1] generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activities significance and importance.
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Generalist enemies are not used nowadays in classical biological control though some such uses did occur, especially in the 19th century, before biological control became a profession.

.In the twentieth century, "culture" emerged as a concept central to anthropology, encompassing all human phenomena that are not purely results of human genetics.^ Twentieth-Century World (Houghton Mifflin, 1986) Forsberg, A. Definitions of culture CCSF Cultural Geography course notes.
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A thorough understanding of what civilization and culture are requires a knowledge of all the qualities that make up human nature and a full understanding of all historical developments.
  • An Overview of Civilization 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Humanity is in a global "accelerating culture change period", driven by the expansion of international commerce, the mass media, and above all, the human population explosion, among other factors.
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Specifically, the term "culture" in American anthropology had two meanings: (1) the evolved human capacity to classify and represent experiences with symbols, and to act imaginatively and creatively; and (2) the distinct ways that people living in different parts of the world classified and represented their experiences, and acted creatively.^ Conclusion Cultural has a significant impact on the way the people view the world.
  • Culture & Rehabilitation 16 September 2009 21:59 UTC www.riglobal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ D ifferent cultures have different patterns of behavior/ways and norms of living.
  • Q and A on Cultural Issues: stereotypes, causes of violence and affluenza inAmerican Culture 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.allaboutcounseling.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People learn and work in different ways.

.Following World War II, the term became important, albeit with different meanings, in other disciplines such as sociology, cultural studies, organizational psychology and management studies.^ Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere , meaning "to cultivate,") [1] generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activities significance and importance.
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Group students according to historical periods such as ancient history, the Renaissance, or modern age (post-World War II).

^ Cultural studies developed in the late 20th century, in part through the re-introduction of Marxist thought into sociology , and in part through the articulation of sociology and other academic disciplines such as literary criticism .
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

19th century discourses

English Romanticism

In the nineteenth century, humanists such as English poet and essayist Matthew Arnold (1822-1888) used the word "culture" to refer to an ideal of individual human refinement, of "the best that has been thought and said in the world."[3] This concept of culture is comparable to the German concept of bildung: "...culture being a pursuit of our total perfection by means of getting to know, on all the matters which most concern us, the best which has been thought and said in the world."[3]
British poet and critic Matthew Arnold viewed "culture" as the cultivation of the humanist ideal.
.In practice, culture referred to an élite ideal and was associated with such activities as art, classical music, and haute cuisine.^ Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere , meaning "to cultivate,") [1] generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activities significance and importance.
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This project is a concrete attempt at reaching an ideal within the art circuit, the dissolution of physical boundaries, allowing a wider public to have access to art and culture.

^ In practice, culture referred to élite activities such as museum -caliber art and classical music , and the word cultured described people who knew about, and took part in, these activities.
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] .As these forms were associated with urbane life, "culture" was identified with "civilization" (from lat.^ Goals: Upon completion of the course, students will be able to identify the cultural processes leading toward civilization and theories explaining the emergence of civilization.
  • Civilization 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.uwf.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ In most cases, “civilization” appears in the form of a spectacle of a culturally superior society which the masses are encouraged to emulate and join.

^ Civilization manipulates these primary relationships in such a way as to domesticate the infant--that is, so as to accustom it to life in a social structure one step removed from nature.
  • The Primitivist Critique of Civilization--Richard Heinberg 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.primitivism.com [Source type: Original source]

civitas, city). .Another facet of the Romantic movement was an interest in folklore, which led to identifying a "culture" among non-elites.^ Publishes ethnographical and analytical articles on vernacular culture wordwide, it takes a special interest in the history, theory and method of the study of folklore.
  • SocioSite: CULTURE AND CULTURAL STUDIES 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.sociosite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This distinction is often characterized as that between "high culture", namely that of the ruling social group, and "low culture." In other words, the idea of "culture" that developed in Europe during the 18th and early 19th centuries reflected inequalities within European societies.[5]
Matthew Arnold contrasted "culture" with "anarchy;" other Europeans, following philosophers Thomas Hobbes and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, contrasted "culture" with "the state of nature." According to Hobbes and Rousseau, the Native Americans who were being conquered by Europeans from the 16th centuries on were living in a state of nature; this opposition was expressed through the contrast between "civilized" and "uncivilized." According to this way of thinking, one could classify some countries and nations as more civilized than others and some people as more cultured than others. .This contrast led to Herbert Spencer's theory of Social Darwinism and Lewis Henry Morgan's theory of cultural evolution.^ She next hopes to investigate the cultural evolution of class structure and social inequality.
  • Culture | Wired Science | Wired.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LeepII, on 09/04/2009 , -4/+13 Our culture is evolution, dumb premise, author clearly does not understand all aspects of evolution including social.
  • Evolution: Has Human Culture Replaced Biology? 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC digg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Natural selection theory plays a major role in social science research, as indicated by the growth of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society (HBES).

.Just as some critics have argued that the distinction between high and low cultures is really an expression of the conflict between European elites and non-elites, some critics have argued that the distinction between civilized and uncivilized people is really an expression of the conflict between European colonial powers and their colonial subjects.^ High-context cultures, where a greater degree of communication is implicit, might take to text messaging more easily than low-context cultures.
  • Cell Phone Culture 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Worlds of a Maasai Warrior : An Autobiography   It gives the picture of a boy growing up as a real Maasai and the new life in civilized world of Germany and USA - a man between two cultures and the difficult question to decide which way to go along.
  • People and Culture of Kenya 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.africaguide.com [Source type: General]

^ Real people” like me resonate in politics right now because of the growing chasm between what the political elites of both parties see as the best course for the nation—and for themselves– and the hopes and fears of the average American man and woman.
  • » Culture - Big Government 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC biggovernment.com [Source type: General]

British anthropologist Edward Tylor was one of the first English-speaking scholars to use the term culture in an inclusive and universal sense.
.Other 19th century critics, following Rousseau, have accepted this differentiation between higher and lower culture, but have seen the refinement and sophistication of high culture as corrupting and unnatural developments that obscure and distort people's essential nature.^ From the 19th century onwards, some social critics have accepted this contrast between the highest and lowest culture, but have stressed the refinement and of sophistication of high culture as corrupting and unnatural developments that obscure and distort people's essential nature.
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No doubt this has to do with high prestige culture versus low prestige culture; the Khan didn't follow the culture of the nobles in dress, speech, habit, etc, so he wasn't high prestige culture from their point of view.
  • What Is Civilization 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC c2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the last few centuries the pace of movement has steadily increased: by choice or by force, people from all corners of the world have resettled in other locations.

.These critics considered folk music (as produced by working-class people) to honestly express a natural way of life, while classical music seemed superficial and decadent.^ People learn and work in different ways.

^ On this account, folk music (as produced by working-class people) honestly expresses a natural way of life, and classical music seems superficial and decadent.
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This don't work too well in real life though, people don't work that way.
  • Civilization - Television Tropes & Idioms 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: General]

.Equally, this view often portrayed indigenous peoples as "noble savages" living authentic and unblemished lives, uncomplicated and uncorrupted by the highly stratified capitalist systems of the West.^ Equally, this view often portrays Indigenous peoples as ' noble savages ' living authentic unblemished lives, uncomplicated and uncorrupted by the highly-stratified capitalist systems of the West .
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Proponents of this view believe that traditional societies live in greater harmony with nature than civilizations; people work with nature rather than try to subdue it.
  • Bambooweb: Civilization 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Civilization - Trust 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC enwiki-trust.cse.ucsc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Destruction of our rainforests is not only causing the extinction of plant and animal species, it is also wiping out indigenous peoples who live in the rainforest.
  • Rainforest Facts 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.rain-tree.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1870 Edward Tylor (1832-1917) applied these ideas of higher versus lower culture to propose a theory of the evolution of religion.^ But by applying the tools of population genetics to Polynesian boat designs, researchers show that cultural evolution might be studied as rigorously as the beaks of finches.
  • Culture | Wired Science | Wired.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diffusion of innovations theory presents a research-based model of why and when individuals and cultures adopt new ideas, practices, and products.
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Initiative, Passion and Cultural Evolution ; We Run EMC -- EMCers at every level coming up with ideas and driving the business, and connections, forward.

.According to this theory, religion evolves from more polytheistic to more monotheistic forms.^ Minoan pottery was imitated on the Greek mainland, where it gradually evolved in both shape and decoration into stricter, more disciplined forms.
  • AEGEAN CIVILIZATION, 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "It is not enough to explain how adaptations evolve in populations Evolutionary theory must also explain the multiplication of species , the radiation of an existing species that gives rise to two or more new species."

[6] .In the process, he redefined culture as a diverse set of activities characteristic of all human societies.^ Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere , meaning "to cultivate,") [1] generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activities significance and importance.
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to evolutionary psychologists, the diversity of forms that human cultures take are constrained (indeed, made possible) by innate information processing mechanisms underlying our behavior, including: .
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Edward Tylor "Culture embraces all the manifestations of social habits of a community, the reactions of the individual as affected by the habits of the group in which he lives, and the product of human activities as determined by these habits."
  • Defining Culture 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC courses.ed.asu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This view paved the way for the modern understanding of culture.^ In coming to understand the strengths and limitations of their own and others’ cultural perspectives, students are better able to evaluate their own views and their own level of intercultural understanding.

^ People in society create culture; culture shapes the way people interact and understand the world around them.

^ Broadly and simply put, "culture" refers to a group or community with which you share common experiences that shape the way you understand the world.
  • CULTURAL INTELLIGENCE (CQ) - the Key to Leveraging the Power of Diversity 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.1000ventures.com [Source type: General]

Johann Herder called attention to national cultures.
Adolf Bastian developed a universal model of culture.

German Romanticism

The German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) formulated an individualist definition of "enlightenment" similar to the concept of bildung: "Enlightenment is man's emergence from his self-incurred immaturity."[7] He argued that this immaturity comes not from a lack of understanding, but from a lack of courage to think independently. Against this intellectual cowardice, Kant urged: Sapere aude, "Dare to be wise!" .In reaction to Kant, German scholars such as Johann Gottfried Herder (1744–1803) argued that human creativity, which necessarily takes unpredictable and highly diverse forms, is as important as human rationality.^ According to evolutionary psychologists, the diversity of forms that human cultures take are constrained (indeed, made possible) by innate information processing mechanisms underlying our behavior, including: .
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some Judaic scholars have argued that the purpose of such stringent dietary laws detailed in Deuteronomy and Leviticus were, in fact, God's way of deterring humans from actually eating meat.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In Sumerian religion, the most important gods were seen as human forms of natural forces--sky, sun, earth, water, and storm.
  • Dawn Of Civilization 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Moreover, Herder proposed a collective form of bildung: "For Herder, Bildung was the totality of experiences that provide a coherent identity, and sense of common destiny, to a people."^ Cultural Diversity: Common culture gives us a sense of identity but there is a great deal of variation among groups.

^ Corporate culture is the collective behavior of people using common corporate vision , goals, shared values , beliefs, habits, working language, systems, and symbols.
  • CULTURAL INTELLIGENCE (CQ) - the Key to Leveraging the Power of Diversity 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.1000ventures.com [Source type: General]

^ For instance, come people around the world share the common experience of living with a disability, but beyond the physical realities of disability, some people who identify as disabled have begun to recognize the uniqueness and empowerment of their collective expressions as members of the same culture, disability culture .
  • Culture - Global Issues - TakingITGlobal 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC issues.tigweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8]
.In 1795, the great linguist and philosopher Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767-1835) called for an anthropology that would synthesize Kant's and Herder's interests.^ And to be, like our honoured and justly honoured Faraday, a great natural philosopher with one side of his being and a Sandemanian with the other, would to Archimedes have been impossible.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

During the Romantic era, scholars in Germany, especially those concerned with nationalist movements—such as the nationalist struggle to create a "Germany" out of diverse principalities, and the nationalist struggles by ethnic minorities against the Austro-Hungarian Empire—developed a more inclusive notion of culture as "worldview." According to this school of thought, each ethnic group has a distinct worldview that is incommensurable with the worldviews of other groups. .Although more inclusive than earlier views, this approach to culture still allowed for distinctions between "civilized" and "primitive" or "tribal" cultures.^ Although more inclusive than earlier views, this approach to culture still allowed for distinctions between "civilized" and "primitive" or "tribal" cultures.
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ High-context cultures, where a greater degree of communication is implicit, might take to text messaging more easily than low-context cultures.
  • Cell Phone Culture 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Porphyry believed that animals 3 (unlike plants) although having somewhat less rational souls than humans, nevertheless still had souls.
  • Phoenicia: Phoenician History is the oldest document of human culture & the Western World's historical archives. 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC phoenicia.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1860, Adolf Bastian (1826–1905) argued for "the psychic unity of mankind". He proposed that a scientific comparison of all human societies would reveal that distinct worldviews consisted of the same basic elements.^ All the basic institutions of society that we discussed earlier; the economy, education, religion, recreation, politics represent needs that society must meet.

^ The quicker we begin to accepts that we are not ALL equal, not ALL the same, that there are distinct social and economic classes in our society and they are sometimes defined by race and culture, the quicker we can get on with it all.
  • The Value of Culture - The Daily Hurricane 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC dailyhurricane.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ John Wesley Powell , for example, classified all societies as Savage, Barbarian, and Civilized; the first two of his terms would shock most anthropologists today.

.According to Bastian, all human societies share a set of "elementary ideas" (Elementargedanken); different cultures, or different "folk ideas" (Volkergedanken), are local modifications of the elementary ideas.^ The Toronto Humane Society’s approach is different!

^ Click on the different tables to get an idea of how the means for achieving the good life evolved, in a society so very different from ours and yet so very alike.
  • Ancient Civilizations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC phs.d214.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CQ facilitates the reconciliation of differences and conflict, and enhances the probability of arriving at culturally synergistic solution that embraces the ideas or interests of various parties.
  • CULTURAL INTELLIGENCE (CQ) - the Key to Leveraging the Power of Diversity 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.1000ventures.com [Source type: General]

[9] .This view paved the way for the modern understanding of culture.^ People in society create culture; culture shapes the way people interact and understand the world around them.

^ Broadly and simply put, "culture" refers to a group or community with which you share common experiences that shape the way you understand the world.
  • CULTURAL INTELLIGENCE (CQ) - the Key to Leveraging the Power of Diversity 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.1000ventures.com [Source type: General]

^ The Mehrgarh periods are technically divided for the ease and understanding of the cultural and civilization’s way of development with reference to the site under study.
  • Chowk: Society: Mehrgarh...The Lost Civilization 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Franz Boas (1858–1942) was trained in this tradition, and he brought it with him when he left Germany for the United States.^ United States History photo set : Military proclamation, 1942.

^ United States History photo set : Photograph of boy behind barbed wire at Tule Lake, California, between 1942-1945.

^ Like earlier phases, world leadership of this phase was contested, initially by Germany and Britain, then by Japan , the United States, and the Soviet Union .


20th century discourses

American anthropology

.Although anthropologists worldwide refer to Tylor's definition of culture, in the 20th century "culture" emerged as the central and unifying concept of American anthropology, where it most commonly refers to the universal human capacity to classify and encode their experiences symbolically, and communicate symbolically encoded experiences socially.^ From Anthropology there is the development of Evolutionary culture theory (ECT), a "growing corpus of principles and arguments that attempt to explain the "descent and modification" of human cultural systems."

^ One of the most astonishing features of the contemporary discussion of race is the fact that anthropology, the science that deals with human biological and cultural variation, has managed to be marginalized.

^ One thing most of these have in common — particularly those from the 19th and early 20th century, when the Victorian fad was to write travel diaries — [...
  • Culture | The Arabist 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC arabist.net [Source type: General]

.American anthropology is organized into four fields, each of which plays an important role in research on culture: biological anthropology, linguistics, cultural anthropology and archeology.^ There are three sub-fields of anthropology: biological anthropology, cultural anthropology and archaeology.
  • Cultural 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.drabruzzi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Encyclopedia of Sociology "Culture is a well organized unity divided into two fundamental aspects -- a body of artifacts and a system of customs -- Malinowski.
  • Defining Culture 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC courses.ed.asu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the most astonishing features of the contemporary discussion of race is the fact that anthropology, the science that deals with human biological and cultural variation, has managed to be marginalized.

.Research in these fields have influenced anthropologists working in other countries to different degrees.^ But here's a predictive certainty: Not one non-Muslim from any of these countries (or others such as Egypt or Jordan, which were oddly excluded from the list) will ever become a suicide bomber.
  • Bret Stephens: Airport Security and Our Incompetent Civilization - WSJ.com 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

^ This various artists comp features only field recordings, including projects from Russia, Finland, Italy and other countries from around the globe.
  • Species on MySpace Music - Free Streaming MP3s, Pictures & Music Downloads 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But when I started researching my story on regional foods for the September issue, I was surprised at how differently (at least from a gastronomical standpoint) other folks were raised.
  • NGM Blog Central - Culture - National Geographic magazine - NGM.com 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC blogs.ngm.com [Source type: General]

Biological anthropology: the evolution of culture

Taxonomic relations between four surviving species of the clade Hominoidea: Hylobatidae, Gorillini, Homo, Pan and Pongo
.Discussion concerning culture among biological anthropologists centers around two debates.^ We've already discussed the Anthropologist, George Murdock's proposed list of general traits found in every culture.

^ My own preferences for discussions of catastrophic plague outbreaks lean more towards broad cultural analysis, so I have to mention two titles.
  • Anil Dash: Search Results 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC dashes.com [Source type: General]

.First, is culture uniquely human or shared by other species (most notably, other primates)?^ And there are other Alien Species - Humans!
  • ECO-PROS Invasive Non-Native Species 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.eco-pros.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Humanity is in a global "accelerating culture change period", driven by the expansion of international commerce, the mass media, and above all, the human population explosion, among other factors.
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the most astonishing features of the contemporary discussion of race is the fact that anthropology, the science that deals with human biological and cultural variation, has managed to be marginalized.

.This is an important question, as the theory of evolution holds that humans are descended from (now extinct) non-human primates.^ The theory of the evolution of species through natural selection has two important implications for discussions of species -- consequences that fundamentally challenge the assumptions behind Linnaeus' taxonomy .
  • Species - Paleontology Wiki 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC paleontology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Natural selection theory plays a major role in social science research, as indicated by the growth of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society (HBES).

^ The understanding that they represent ancestral/descendent relationships is presupposed by the theory of evolution and the assumption of phenotypic homology.
  • Evidence for the supernatural origin of species 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.uark.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Second, how did culture evolve among human beings?^ How do humanities scholars define culture?
  • Defining Culture 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC courses.ed.asu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How often have we been told by various philosophers and universalistic religions about unseen connections between human beings and the collective identity of humanity?
  • Complexity and Human Civilization 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC necsi.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Attentive to the theory of evolution , they assumed that all human beings evolved equally, and that the fact that all humans have cultures must in some way result from human evolution.
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gerald Weiss noted that although Tylor's classic definition of culture was restricted to humans, many anthropologists take this for granted and thus elide that important qualification from later definitions, merely equating culture with any learned behavior.^ "Culture is learned behavior" A person is not born with a culture.
  • Defining Culture 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC courses.ed.asu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Twentieth-Century World (Houghton Mifflin, 1986) Forsberg, A. Definitions of culture CCSF Cultural Geography course notes.
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This outdated usage tends to convey the image that physical or biological anthropologists are not interested in genetics (although many of the data references are to biological anthropology journals and to studies conducted by biological anthropologists).

.This slippage is a problem because during the formative years of modern primatology, some primatologists were trained in anthropology (and understood that culture refers to learned behavior among humans), and others were not.^ What can we learn from other cultures?
  • Q and A on Cultural Issues: stereotypes, causes of violence and affluenza inAmerican Culture 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.allaboutcounseling.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Culture is learned behavior" A person is not born with a culture.
  • Defining Culture 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC courses.ed.asu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From Anthropology there is the development of Evolutionary culture theory (ECT), a "growing corpus of principles and arguments that attempt to explain the "descent and modification" of human cultural systems."

.Notable non-anthropologists, like Robert Yerkes and Jane Goodall thus argued that since chimpanzees have learned behaviors, they have culture.^ "Culture is learned behavior" A person is not born with a culture.
  • Defining Culture 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC courses.ed.asu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sociobiologists argue that human behavior ultimately is derived from our biology rather than learning .

^ Marvin Harris The culture of a people is an ensemble of texts, themselves ensembles, which the anthropologist strains to read over the shoulders of those to whom they properly belong."
  • Defining Culture 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC courses.ed.asu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10][11] .Today, anthropological primatologists are divided, several arguing that non-human primates have culture, others arguing that they do not.^ Culture does make humans what they are, but humans also make culture.

^ Humanity is in a global "accelerating culture change period", driven by the expansion of international commerce, the mass media, and above all, the human population explosion, among other factors.
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They pushed for cultural pluralism and argued that a political democracy must also be a cultural democracy and that each ethnic culture should play a unique role in American society.
  • Defining Culture 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC courses.ed.asu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12][13][14][15]
This scientific debate is complicated by ethical concerns. .The subjects of primatology are non-human primates, and whatever culture these primates have is threatened by human activity.^ Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere , meaning "to cultivate,") [1] generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activities significance and importance.
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Edward Tylor "Culture embraces all the manifestations of social habits of a community, the reactions of the individual as affected by the habits of the group in which he lives, and the product of human activities as determined by these habits."
  • Defining Culture 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC courses.ed.asu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These species are also threatened by the invasion of non-native fire ants which can prey upon them as well as compete with them for their limited sources of food.
  • Endangered Species of the Edwards Aquifer 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.edwardsaquifer.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After reviewing the research on primate culture, W.C. McGrew concluded, "[a] discipline requires subjects, and most species of nonhuman primates are endangered by their human cousins.^ For legal, ethical and economic reasons it is a big, and sometimes difficult, decision to conclude that a species is endangered.
  • Why Should We Care about Species? | Learn Science at Scitable 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sociable: (Primates are gregarious and like to be in groups) Smart: (large brain/body weight ratio) Humans' brains are most complex.

^ Trade in specimens of these species must be subject to particularly strict regulation in order not to endanger further their survival and must only be authorized in exceptional circumstances.
  • The CITES glossary 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.cites.org [Source type: Academic]

.Ultimately, whatever its merit, cultural primatology must be committed to cultural survival [i.e.^ We need science, more and better science, not for its technology, not for leisure, not even for health and longevity, but for the hope of wisdom which our kind of culture must acquire for its survival.
  • Human Culture Must Be Based On Real Knowledge 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: Original source]

to the survival of primate cultures]."[16]
.McGrew suggests a definition of culture that he finds scientifically useful for studying primate culture.^ What methods do they use to study culture?
  • Defining Culture 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC courses.ed.asu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This list has taken me several years to put together and I would really appreciate it if you cite it as an electronic publication if you use it in your studies (suggested citation above).
  • Phylum Ctenophora: list of all valid scientific names 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC faculty.washington.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We want an authority, and we find nothing but jealous classes, checks, and a deadlock; culture suggests the idea of the State .
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

.He points out that scientists do not have access to the subjective thoughts or knowledge of non-human primates.^ The modern philosophers and social scientists (along with scientists who include ideology as a determining element in their analyses), are still mired in the pure knowledge comes from pure thought absurdity.
  • Human Culture Must Be Based On Real Knowledge 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As geographer Denis Wood points out in The Power of Maps (1992), a map is the cumulative result of many subjective judgments.
  • Civilization Essay 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.duke.edu [Source type: General]

^ But thoughts like these, as I have often pointed out, are thoroughly British thoughts, and we have been familiar with them for years.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Thus, if culture is defined in terms of knowledge, then scientists are severely limited in their attempts to study primate culture.^ There are several approaches to the study of culture.

^ Attempts at appearing superior to others in terms of dress, manners, knowledge, and the work ethic are discouraged.
  • Culture of Australia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 16 September 2009 21:59 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We search for the parameters that will define a new worldwide culture, one based on provable knowledge.
  • Human Culture Must Be Based On Real Knowledge 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: Original source]

.Instead of defining culture as a kind of knowledge, McGrew suggests that we view culture as a process.^ We search for the parameters that will define a new worldwide culture, one based on provable knowledge.
  • Human Culture Must Be Based On Real Knowledge 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bisht does not disagree with Kenoyer and others who view the Indus civilization as a kind of economic empire composed of city-states with a shared culture.
  • Indus Civilization 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.jcu.edu [Source type: Original source]

He lists six steps in the process:
.
  1. A new pattern of behavior is invented, or an existing one is modified.
  2. The innovator transmits this pattern to another.
  3. The form of the pattern is consistent within and across performers, perhaps even in terms of recognizable stylistic features.
  4. The one who acquires the pattern retains the ability to perform it long after having acquired it.
  5. The pattern spreads across social units in a population.^ Perhaps you were even engaged to one of them.
    • Culture and Lifestyle: News & Videos about Culture and Lifestyle - CNN.com 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It is when we cease to see civilization in terms of theories of cultural evolution and see it merely as one of several possible forms of social organization that we begin to understand why religion can be liberating, enlightening, and empowering when it holds consistently to primitivist ideals; or deadening and oppressive when it is co-opted to serve the interests of power.
    • The Primitivist Critique of Civilization--Richard Heinberg 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.primitivism.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Cell phones seem to prioritize communication with distant people over those sharing one’s space, and the ethics of this new behavior are not universally agreed upon.
    • Cell Phone Culture 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .These social units may be families, clans, troops, or bands.
  6. The pattern endures across generations.^ These gangs were closed groups of specialist workers who tended to work as a unit and were generally not split up again.

    ^ These data may be loaded into the ScatterPlot by using the file Pattern.dat .
    • The Species-Area Relation 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC math.hws.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ These social shifts may accompany ideological shifts and other types of cultural change.
    • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [16]
McGrew admits that all six criteria may be strict, given the difficulties in observing primate behavior in the wild. But he also insists on the need to be as inclusive as possible, on the need for a definition of culture that "casts the net widely":
.Culture is considered to be group-specific behavior that is acquired, at least in part, from social influences.^ Countries and Their Cultures (GVRL) (InfoTrac/Gale Group) Focuses on cultures and countries around the world, specifically what is and is not shared culturally by the people who live in a particular country.
  • Culture and Area Studies Databases at the C.W. Post Library 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cultural differences and symbols such as language, dress, occupation, and residence are part of the class structure and function as pointers of the social hierarchy.
  • Culture of Bolivia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 16 September 2009 21:59 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This consideration is very important, because it has great influence in begetting that spirit of indulgence which is a necessary part of sweetness, and which, indeed, when our culture is complete, is, as I have said, inexhaustible.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Here, group is considered to be the species-typical unit, whether it be a troop, lineage, subgroup, or so on.^ Phylogenetic / Evolutionary / Darwinian species A group of organisms that shares an ancestor; a lineage that maintains its integrity with respect to other lineages through both time and space.
  • Species - Paleontology Wiki 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC paleontology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many populations which were formerly regarded as separate species are now considered to be a single taxon , and many formerly grouped populations have been split.
  • Species - Paleontology Wiki 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC paleontology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Prima facia evidence of culture comes from within-species but across-group variation in behavior, as when a pattern is persistent in one community of chimpanzees but is absent from another, or when different communities perform different versions of the same pattern.^ Figure 1: Variation within species Within the same species, individual organisms can look very different.
  • Why Should We Care about Species? | Learn Science at Scitable 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He believed that they were capable of recognizing and assessing their situation, making future plans and in a sense communicating and responding to one another and to humans.
  • Phoenicia: Phoenician History is the oldest document of human culture & the Western World's historical archives. 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC phoenicia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Acculturation has different meanings, but in this context refers to replacement of the traits of one culture with those of another, such has happened to certain Native American tribes and to many indigenous peoples across the globe during the process of colonization .
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The suggestion of culture in action is stronger when the difference across the groups cannot be explained solely by ecological factors ....^ Literacy is not defined as solely being able to read and write but "to recognize the role of cultural factors associated language learning in different societies."
  • Defining Culture 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC courses.ed.asu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Broad kin groups are not a significant feature of the national culture, but extended families exist across households and are the basis for emotional, financial, and social support.
  • Culture of Australia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 16 September 2009 21:59 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The writer explores various differences in the politics and culture of these two groups.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17]
.As Charles Frederick Voegelin pointed out, if "culture" is reduced to "learned behavior," then all animals have culture.^ "Culture is learned behavior" A person is not born with a culture.
  • Defining Culture 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC courses.ed.asu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The key point is that this behavior is learned.

^ It was in the introduction to his book where he laid out in brief all the atrocities that were happening to the animals at that time.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

[18] .Certainly all specialists agree that all primate species evidence common cognitive skills: knowledge of object-permanence, cognitive mapping, the ability to categorize objects, and creative problem solving.^ Montoya said that having a permanent space would enable Culture Clash to extend its creative endeavors and share its resources and knowledge with emerging artists.

^ That these processes work is evidenced by algorithms used today to solve optimization problems in computing, all of which are closely analogous or consciously based on natural selection processes.
  • Species - Paleontology Wiki 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC paleontology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The word "hominid" in this website refers to members of the family of humans, Hominidae, which consists of all species on our side of the last common ancestor of humans and living apes.
  • Hominid Species 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19] .Moreover, all primate species show evidence of shared social skills: they recognize members of their social group; they form direct relationships based on degrees of kinship and rank; they recognize third-party social relationships; they predict future behavior; and they cooperate in problem-solving.^ I prefer the definition used by Ian Robertson: "all the shared products of society: material and nonmaterial" (Our text defines it in somewhat more ponderous terms-- "The totality of learned, socially transmitted behavior.

^ He believed that they were capable of recognizing and assessing their situation, making future plans and in a sense communicating and responding to one another and to humans.
  • Phoenicia: Phoenician History is the oldest document of human culture & the Western World's historical archives. 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC phoenicia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A group of organisms that all share one or more features pointing to a unique common ancestor, which in turn is not shared by members of other species, would meet the criterion of species under the PSC. The traits used under the PSC are wide ranging and include color or shape, or behavior.
  • Why Should We Care about Species? | Learn Science at Scitable 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19]
Cast of the skeleton of Lucy, an Australopithecus afarensis
One current view of the temporal and geographical distribution of hominid populations
.Nevertheless, the term "culture" applies to non-human animals only if we define culture as any or all learned behavior.^ I prefer the definition used by Ian Robertson: "all the shared products of society: material and nonmaterial" (Our text defines it in somewhat more ponderous terms-- "The totality of learned, socially transmitted behavior.

^ Porphyry believed that animals 3 (unlike plants) although having somewhat less rational souls than humans, nevertheless still had souls.
  • Phoenicia: Phoenician History is the oldest document of human culture & the Western World's historical archives. 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC phoenicia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nevertheless, it seems rather ironic that we humans, Homo sapiens , are not only the principal agent of their rapid spread, but are also the ultimate invasive species on the planet.
  • alien species 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.bofep.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Within mainstream physical anthropology, scholars tend to think that a more restrictive definition is necessary.^ People tend to think of the world as an increasingly homogenous place but it is really a collection of worlds within worlds, with definite boundaries and edges.
  • CULTURAL INTELLIGENCE (CQ) - the Key to Leveraging the Power of Diversity 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.1000ventures.com [Source type: General]

.These researchers are concerned with how human beings evolved to be different from other species.^ And there are other Alien Species - Humans!
  • ECO-PROS Invasive Non-Native Species 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.eco-pros.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Quite different from other species and hybrids.
  • species cat 05/06 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.bovees.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Every species is completely different from other species.
  • species cat 05/06 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.bovees.com [Source type: Academic]

A more precise definition of culture, which excludes non-human social behavior, would allow physical anthropologists to study how humans evolved their unique capacity for "culture".
.Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and Pan paniscus) are humans' (Homo sapiens) closest living relative; both are descended from a common ancestor which lived around five or six million years ago.^ And only 525 million years ago.
  • Farmed Species 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.shrimpnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Homo sapiens Common Name: Human .
  • Earlham College - Biology Department - Introduced Species In Hawaii - Mammals 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.earlham.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ I got her from the Toronto humane society about six years ago and she has been a gift.

.This is the same amount of time it took for horses and zebras, lions and tigers, and rats and mice, to diverge from their respective common ancestors [20] The evolution of modern humans is rapid: Australopithicenes evolved four million years ago and modern humans in past several hundred thousand years.^ And only 525 million years ago.
  • Farmed Species 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.shrimpnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scientists believe this common ancestor existed 5 to 8 million years ago.
  • Evolution: Has Human Culture Replaced Biology? 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC digg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here's a partial list of intermediate forms between Humans and our human-like-ancestors that broke away from the other great apes about 6 million years ago: http://www.archaeologyinfo.com/species.htm Also, please see this: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_human_evo ...
  • Evolution: Has Human Culture Replaced Biology? 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC digg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21] During this time humanity evolved three distinctive features:
(a) the creation and use of conventional symbols, including linguistic symbols and their derivatives, such as written language and mathematical symbols and notations; (b) the creation and use of complex tools and other instrumental technologies; and (c) the creation and participation in complex social organization and institutions.[22]
.According to developmental psychologist Michael Tomasello, "where these complex and species-unique behavioral practices, and the cognitive skills that underlie them, came from" is a fundamental anthropological question.^ Allow them to practice these new skills.

^ According to evolutionary psychologists, the diversity of forms that human cultures take are constrained (indeed, made possible) by innate information processing mechanisms underlying our behavior, including: .
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Progressive specialization with coordination increased the complexity of large scale behaviors.
  • Complexity and Human Civilization 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC necsi.org [Source type: Reference]

.Given that contemporary humans and chimpanzees are far more different than horses and zebras, or rats and mice, and that the evolution of this great difference occurred in such a short period of time, "our search must be for some small difference that made a big difference – some adaptation, or small set of adaptations, that changed the process of primate cognitive evolution in fundamental ways."^ Evolution consists mainly of the accumulation of small changes over large periods of time.
  • Evolution: Has Human Culture Replaced Biology? 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC digg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some are more unique than others .
  • memepool.com: Culture archive 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

^ That is far more serious than just some melting ice.
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

.According to Tomasello, the answer to this question must form the basis of a scientific definition of "human culture."^ According to evolutionary psychologists, the diversity of forms that human cultures take are constrained (indeed, made possible) by innate information processing mechanisms underlying our behavior, including: .
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ask your questions at the forum about Colombian culture or help others to find answers.
  • Colombian culture and contributions to culture. Colombian culture highlights. Mundoandino culture and attractions 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mundoandino.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An exploration of the concept of human culture as it has been articulated in Western scientific and philosophical traditions.
  • SocioSite: CULTURE AND CULTURAL STUDIES 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.sociosite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22]
.In a recent review of the major research on human and primate tool-use, communication, and learning strategies, Tomasello argues that the key human advances over primates (language, complex technologies, complex social organization) are all the results of humans pooling cognitive resources.^ ETI but humans have a limit for social organization.
  • SETA: Finding a ‘Graveyard Civilization’ 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.centauri-dreams.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I prefer the definition used by Ian Robertson: "all the shared products of society: material and nonmaterial" (Our text defines it in somewhat more ponderous terms-- "The totality of learned, socially transmitted behavior.

^ SWEPIC is to help all people and organizations committed to protecting the ecological and economic values of southwest resources from degradation from harmful non-native weeds.
  • Exotic and Invasive Species on the Colorado Plateau 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.cpluhna.nau.edu [Source type: Academic]

This is called "the ratchet effect:" innovations spread and are shared by a group, and mastered "by youngsters, which enables them to remain in their new and improved form within the group until something better comes along." The key point is that children are born good at a particular kind of social learning; this creates a favored environment for social innovations, making them more likely to be maintained and transmitted to new generations than individual innovations.[23] .For Tomasello, human social learning—the kind of learning that distinguishes humans from other primates and that played a decisive role in human evolution—is based on two elements: first, what he calls "imitative learning," (as opposed to "emulative learning" characteristic of other primates) and second, the fact that humans represent their experiences symbolically (rather than iconically, as is characteristic of other primates).^ Critics of "globalisation" reject such a coupling of the terms, saying that what is called "globalisation" is in fact a form of "global corporatisation " and that other forms of globalisation are possible, (for example, in respect for International Human Rights, and the Geneva conventions against torture of political and prisoners of war).

^ Video and other primarily visual media convey messages far more quickly and efficiently than the printed word; human brains process visual information far more quickly than written symbols.
  • The Marxist critique of consumer culture 12 September 2009 9:40 UTC instruct.westvalley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plain thoughts of this kind are surely the spontaneous product of our consciousness, when it is allowed to play freely and disinterestedly upon the actual facts of our social condition, and upon our stock notions and stock habits in respect to it.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Together, these elements enable humans to be both inventive, and to preserve useful inventions.^ Both of these growth patterns can be observed in human civilization, suggesting that they may be possible for ETI civilizations as well.
  • SETA: Finding a ‘Graveyard Civilization’ 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.centauri-dreams.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These sculptures, together with other cultural elements, have been named the Nok Culture.
  • Embassy of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.nigeriaembassyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These, says he, discovered fire from rubbing pieces of wood together, and taught the use of it.
  • Phoenicia: Phoenician History is the oldest document of human culture & the Western World's historical archives. 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC phoenicia.org [Source type: Original source]

It is this combination that produces the ratchet effect.
Chimpanzee mother and baby
Chimpanzee extracting insects
The Japanese Macaques at Jigokudani hotspring in Nagano
.The kind of learning found among other primates is "emuluation learning," which "focuses on the environmental events involved – results or changes of state in the environment that the other produced – rather than on the actions that produced those results."^ Sociobiologists argue that human behavior ultimately is derived from our biology rather than learning .

^ The Wealthy The cuisine of a culture is largely defined, still today, by those who possess the wealth to eat what they fancy, rather than what they can afford.

^ This implies that the collective actions of the system in which the parts of the system affect other parts of the system must be no more complex than the controller.
  • Complexity and Human Civilization 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC necsi.org [Source type: Reference]

[24][25][26] Tomasello emphasizes that emulation learning is a highly adaptive strategy for apes because it focuses on the effects of an act. .In laboratory experiments, chimpanzees were shown two different ways for using a rake-like tool to obtain an out-of-reach-object.^ We use the tools we have in the best ways we can.
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ A typical modder won’t go out and grab modding tools for a game he doesn’t know how to mod; he will stop when he can’t find a way to do it himself.

^ Passport DC is sponsored by Cultural Tourism DC whereby Diplojmatic Missions use the occasion for Cultural Showcase and reach out to their Nationals and Washington Residents.
  • Embassy of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.nigeriaembassyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both methods were effective, but one was more efficient than the other.^ In the event that there is more than one good image of the same species, I have linked the best one or two, whose identification I am sure about, for you.
  • Phylum Ctenophora: list of all valid scientific names 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC faculty.washington.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Video and other primarily visual media convey messages far more quickly and efficiently than the printed word; human brains process visual information far more quickly than written symbols.
  • The Marxist critique of consumer culture 12 September 2009 9:40 UTC instruct.westvalley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Host plant resistance is one of the preferred methods for minimizing the damage caused by pests and and associated viruses , because it does not require the complete elimination of the pest to be effective.

Chimpanzees consistently emulated the more efficient method.[27]
Examples of emulation learning are well-documented among primates. .Notable examples include Japanese macaque potato washing, Chimpanzee tool use, and Chimpanzee gestural communication.^ We've all seen that communicating using all the tools of social media can make people's lives better.
  • Anil Dash: Search Results 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC dashes.com [Source type: General]

^ These may include working within the system to initiate a shift , or actively working against the system using tactics of communication , subversion or what may be referred to as direct action .

^ Symbolic Speech: (Although there are numerous examples of chimpanzees being taught to use symbols to communicate, humans alone have developed a highly complex system of symbolic speech).

.In 1953, an 18-month-old female macaque monkey was observed taking sandy pieces of sweet potato (given to the monkeys by observers) to a stream (and later, to the ocean) to wash off the sand.^ Whale Call The December 26 th 9.0 earthquake, centered in the ocean off Sumatra, created walls of waves washing onshore from Asia to Africa.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

.After three months, the same behavior was observed in her mother and two playmates, and then the playmates' mothers.^ Three species make up this genus endemic to Borneo that have two flower forms on the same inflorescence.
  • Jay's Internet Orchid Species Photo Encyclopedia Dendroc 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.orchidspecies.com [Source type: General]

^ But there are three sides to this blade, not two, opposed and similar at the same time.
  • Mandalorian - Wookieepedia, the Star Wars Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC starwars.wikia.com [Source type: General]

.Over the next two years seven other young macaques were observed washing their potatoes, and by the end of the third year 40% of the troop had adopted the practice.^ About two-thirds of Americans claim membership of a church, 40% go to church once a week, and 43% describe themselves as born-again Christians.
  • Cultural 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.drabruzzi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What we do in the next two to three years will determine our future.
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ Since we lost our cat Pepper this past year we went back to the THS for yet a fourth time and adopted a young cat we named Abby.

[28][29] .Although this story is popularly represented as a straightforward example of human-like learning, evidence suggests that it is not.^ Is there any strong evidence to suggest that humanity is uber-capable or in the process of out-doing all of the previous mass extinctions?
  • SETA: Finding a ‘Graveyard Civilization’ 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.centauri-dreams.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He suggests that the impact of the internet on death may be more significant than on most other aspects of human existence, like birth, marriage and divorce.
  • SocioSite: CULTURE AND CULTURAL STUDIES 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.sociosite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If anyone tries it in our region, it will likely be us, and the odds are not looking up for us at this current page of the human story.
  • SETA: Finding a ‘Graveyard Civilization’ 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.centauri-dreams.org [Source type: Original source]

.Many monkeys naturally brush sand off of food; this behavior had been observed in the macaque troop prior to the first observed washing.^ The suppliers of foods are also many and varied in nature.
  • Complexity and Human Civilization 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC necsi.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Ladder Glider Goby feeds off the bottom as it sifts through the sand eating mouthfuls of substrate and the food that lives within the sand.

^ (That's the issue and it is our most serious issue) and your first posts scoff at it, attempt to brush it off and that is harmful.
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

.Moreover, potato washing was observed in four other separate macaque troops, suggesting that at least four other individual monkeys had learned to wash off sand on their own.^ I am not much an advocate for travelling, and I observe that men run away to other countries, because they are not good in their own, and run back to their own, because they pass for nothing in the new places.

^ Other invocations of the Che image, such as the image above from a greeting card line that features a dog as Che, suggest unconscious (or at least unknowing) parody.
  • » Culture - Big Government 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC biggovernment.com [Source type: General]

^ Four other men were also charged in the incident, which took place on a farm owned by Sheikh Issa.
  • Culture Videos: Culture History and Culture Videos // Current 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC current.com [Source type: News]

[29] .Other monkey species in captivity quickly learn to wash off their food.^ If you love animals and are open to the possibility of communicating with other species , if you desire to learn as much as you can about communication with animals or if you are a practitioner in this field, SPECIES LINK is vital for you!
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It has a herd of forest elephants, the white-faced monkey (indigenous to Nigeria only), buffalo, leopards and lowland gorillas, besides over a thousand other animal species.
  • Embassy of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.nigeriaembassyusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have learned from him that for me to love some species and harm others is damaging to my heart and soul.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

[30] .Finally, the spread of learning among the Japanese macaques was fairly slow, and the rate at which new members of the troop learned did not keep pace with the growth of the troop.^ Probably the best that can be hoped for is to control the growth of the population, slow down its spread and keep it away from sensitive areas or valuable assets.
  • alien species 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.bofep.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pups, born at a length of 20 to 30 inches [51 to 76 cm], double in length within the first year, but their rate of growth slows as they mature.

^ With the help of some very talented members of CFC, I finally learned how to model, texture and put my own custom work into Civ4 .

If the form of learning were imitation, the rate of learning should have been exponential. .It is more likely that monkeys the washing behavior is based on the common behavior of cleaning off food, and that monkeys that spent time by the water independently learned to wash, rather than wipe their food.^ Fall has building requirements for a lot of its units, and we spent time modifying the AI behavior to appropriately construct those buildings so it wouldn’t get trapped with the obsolete units.

^ The results: I had a much easier time selecting and sequencing in past years; the order here is more random than I would like, and it feels like it’s missing some connective tissue.

^ More directly, the number of independent behaviors is related to the number of independent environmental factors/conditions that the organism can effectively respond to.
  • Complexity and Human Civilization 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC necsi.org [Source type: Reference]

.This explains both why those monkeys that kept company with the original washer, and who thus spent a good deal of time by the water, also figured out how to wash their potatoes.^ Fall has building requirements for a lot of its units, and we spent time modifying the AI behavior to appropriately construct those buildings so it wouldn’t get trapped with the obsolete units.

^ To paraphrase, he believes that given the pace of the world today, there will be times in your career where you out-grow your company, or your company out-grows you.

^ Often when scandals errupt, it is the president of the company who resigns -- even if he didn't have any connection -- out of a sense of giri , or a duty to fufill social obligations.
  • JAPANESE CULTURE -- A PRIMER FOR NEWCOMERS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.thejapanfaq.com [Source type: Original source]

.It also explains why the rate at which this behavior spread was slow.^ The discussion of the complexity of the behavior of a system at different scales does not explain, in itself, why systems should be simple or complex.
  • Complexity and Human Civilization 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC necsi.org [Source type: Reference]

[31]
.Chimpanzees exhibit a variety of population-specific tool use: termite-fishing, ant-fishing, ant-dipping, nut-cracking, and leaf-sponging.^ Carpenter ants often use termite galleries that have been abandoned.

.Gombe chimpanzees fish for termites using small, thin sticks, but chimpanzees in Western Africa use large sticks to break holes in mounds and use their hands to scoop up termites.^ They can eat anything from small fishes, crabs, turtles, large fishes, and even other small sharks.

^ Their large fat reserves, built up during the rainy season are used during their upriver journeys and ensuing spawning.
  • Amazon Gamefish overview -r RiverPlate Outfitters fishing adventure 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.riverplateoutfitters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to using the 'dart holes' when danger approaches, these fish will also use them for overnight protection.

.Some of this variation may be the result of "environmental shaping" (there is more rainfall in western Africa, softening termite mounds and making them easier to break apart, than in the Gombe reserve in eastern Africa.^ The results: I had a much easier time selecting and sequencing in past years; the order here is more random than I would like, and it feels like it’s missing some connective tissue.

^ Marriott has been committed to environmental preservation for more than 20 years, and we have developed a five-point strategy to support that commitment.
  • Corporate culture - Information about Marriott culture 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.marriott.com [Source type: News]

^ In the event that there is more than one good image of the same species, I have linked the best one or two, whose identification I am sure about, for you.
  • Phylum Ctenophora: list of all valid scientific names 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC faculty.washington.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Nevertheless it is clear that chimpanzees are good at emulation learning. .Chimpanzee children independently know how to roll over logs, and know how to eat insects.^ I only eat animals when I know how they were kept, fed, transported, slaughtered, and processed.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ I might ask how anyone can eat vegetables when it is so clear that harvesting them kills them, and eating fruit and nuts is like stealing and eating the children of plants.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

.When children see their mothers rolling over logs in order to eat the insects beneath, they quickly learn to do the same.^ I see examples of this every day, especially from parents, as they choose not to let their children use antibacterial soap or start to explore the increase in asthma or allergies among children.
  • Anil Dash: Search Results 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC dashes.com [Source type: General]

^ Greek art, again, Greek beauty, have their root in the same impulse to see things as they really are, inasmuch as Greek art and beauty rest on fidelity to nature,--the best nature,--and on a delicate discrimination of what this best nature is.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition to small fish, aruanã eat , insects, small birds, bats and reptiles, which they will often snatch from overhanging branches.
  • Amazon Gamefish overview -r RiverPlate Outfitters fishing adventure 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.riverplateoutfitters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In other words, this form of learning builds on activities the children already know.[25][32]
Inuit family
Girls in Xinjiang in northwestern China
Children in Jerusalem
Children in Namibia
.The kind of learning characteristic of human children is "Imitative learning," which "means reproducing an instrumental act understood intentionally."^ Human beings, as it s generally understood , are not born civil or civilized: it is a process ; they say , act civilized, and then verbally describe or physically demonstrate, and we learn to behave in a civilized manner .

[33] .Human infants begin to display some evidence of this form of learning between the ages of nine and twelve months, when infants fix their attention not only on an object, but on the gaze of an adult which enables them to use adults as points of reference and thus "act on objects in the way adults are acting on them."^ Thus, the phrase "reproductive isolation" describes some point along a spectrum ranging from something greater than a total lack of reproductive isolation (free gene exchange between populations) to complete reproductive isolation (no gene exchange between populations) .

^ They voluntarily spend their money in ways guaranteed to make profit for someone else, thus impoverishing themselves and reinforcing the gap between the economic classes.
  • The Marxist critique of consumer culture 12 September 2009 9:40 UTC instruct.westvalley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, fixing the material composition and the energy of the system, there are various ways the system can be organized.
  • Complexity and Human Civilization 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC necsi.org [Source type: Reference]

[34] This dynamic is well-documented and has also been termed "joint engagement" or "joint attention."[35][36] Essential to this dynamic is the infants growing capacity to recognize others as "intentional agents:" people "with the power to control their spontaneous behavior" and who "have goals and make active choices among behavioral means for attaining those goals."[37]
.The development of skills in joint attention by the end of a human child's first year of life provides the basis for the development of imitative learning in the second year.^ But pity and lamentation and weeping they consecrated to the produce of the earth when perishing, and to the generation of living creatures at first from the earth, and then to their production one from another, and to their end, when they departed from life.
  • Phoenicia: Phoenician History is the oldest document of human culture & the Western World's historical archives. 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC phoenicia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A ten year old child could easily understand the issue and realize we had better act on it, unless someone can dispute the evidence provided by that author of that article with better evidence.
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ The same sort of perversion of natural ends occurs both at work and at school; indeed, the renunciations learned at school prepare the working-class child for life as a worker.
  • The Marxist critique of consumer culture 12 September 2009 9:40 UTC instruct.westvalley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In one study 14-month old children imitated an adult's overly-complex method of turning on a light, even when they could have used an easier and more natural motion to the same effect.^ They used it to record myths and legends, histories, new dramas and old ones, to record poetry, to make shopping lists, for great fiction and for ferry timetables, to record philosophical discussions and their efforts at proving theorems of geometry.
  • Christianity and the Death of Civilization 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC mwillett.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Similarly, a study of citified Aboriginal children in Australia revealed that they had far more knowledge about the species and habits of birds than did white children in the same neighborhood.
  • Mayan Civilization 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC indians.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The objectives were three-fold: (1) To identify plant species on the islands that are presently causing problems to natural and semi-natural ecosystems; (2) to identify species that, even though they are not presently a major problem, could spread more widely or spread to other islands where they are not present, potentially causing problems; and (3) to confirm the absence of species that are a problem elsewhere and, if introduced to American Samoa, could be a threat there.
  • Full-text articles RE: (potentially) invasive species in Hawaii and the Pacific 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.hear.org [Source type: Academic]

[38] .In another study, 16-month old children interacted with adults who alternated between a complex series of motions that appeared intentional and a comparable set of motions that appeared accidental; they imitated only those motions that appeared intentional.^ They say that those who can’t do, teach.
  • Culture | The American Scene 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC theamericanscene.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Not only do they study them, they also love and admire them.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Children who manage to survive being targets grow into pre-weakened adult targets .
  • memepool.com: Culture archive 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

[39] .Another study of 18-month old children revealed that children imitate actions that adults intend , yet in some way fail, to perform.^ Lest you prejudge The Smurfs as yet another cloying animated children's cartoon, consider an alternative perspective .
  • memepool.com: Culture archive 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

^ While DNA homology offers yet another way of classifying organisms, it serves as nothing more than a convenient means to organize organisms based on similarity in design.
  • Evidence for the supernatural origin of species 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.uark.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40] .Tomasello emphasizes that this kind of imitative learning "relies fundamentally on infants' tendency to identify with adults, and on their ability to distinguish in the actions of others the underlying goal and the different means that might be used to achieve it."^ (Since I am a Catholic this is very much a Catholic take on this piece of the Gospel but I would be very curious to learn about other takes on Cana from different religious perspectives.
  • Culture | The American Scene 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC theamericanscene.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the other benefits of Tea Time is that a few different cultures have tea traditions, and we get a chance to experience teas from around the world and learn a bit about their cultures in the meantime.

^ Often the better known, younger palaces have been used to reconstruct the older ones, but this may have hidden fundamental functional differences.
  • Minoan civilization - Phantis 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC wiki.phantis.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41] .He calls this kind of imitative learning "cultural learning because the child is not just learning about things from other persons, she is also learning things through them — in the sense that she must know something of the adult's perspective on a situation to learn the active use of this same intentional act."^ Japan because they just do the same things every day.
  • JAPANESE CULTURE -- A PRIMER FOR NEWCOMERS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.thejapanfaq.com [Source type: Original source]

^ People can learn how to use RGB, but actually by internalizing how to translate hue, saturation and lightness, or something similar, to RGB. There are several other color schemes possible.
  • CSS Color Module Level 3 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In Civ4 the main reason people rebel is because a foreign city nearby has culture and some great artist did something nice.
  • Civilization 5 - Civilization Fanatics' Forums 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC forums.civfanatics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[42][43] He concludes that the key feature of cultural learning is that it occurs only when an individual "understands others as intentional agents, like the self, who have a perspective on the world that can be followed into, directed and shared"[44]
.Emulation learning and imitative learning are two different adaptations that can only be assessed in their larger environmental and evolutionary contexts.^ "It is not enough to explain how adaptations evolve in populations Evolutionary theory must also explain the multiplication of species , the radiation of an existing species that gives rise to two or more new species."

.In one experiment, chimpanzees and two-year-old children were separately presented with a rake-like-tool and an out-of-reach object.^ Johnson, 41, who has a 17-year-old daughter from a two-year marriage, is four months pregnant and expecting on June 21.
  • Culture Videos: Culture History and Culture Videos // Current 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC current.com [Source type: News]

^ They have a life span of about one to two years.

^ Allies can be made to help out in later scenarios if quests are accomplished, bonus units can be unlocked, and some units carry over experience from one scenario to another.

.Adult humans then demonstrated two different ways to use the tool, one more efficient, one less efficient.^ We use the tools we have in the best ways we can.
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ In the event that there is more than one good image of the same species, I have linked the best one or two, whose identification I am sure about, for you.
  • Phylum Ctenophora: list of all valid scientific names 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC faculty.washington.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Typically two members of different subspecies are more reproductively isolated than two members of the same subspecies .

.Chimpanzees used the same efficient method following both demonstrations.^ Language may be abundantly quoted from both Hellenism and Hebraism to make it seem that one follows the same current as the other towards the same goal.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Most of the human children, however, imitated whichever method the adult was demonstrating.^ And Leftist Hollywood’s depraved indifference to innocent human life — to millions of Iraqi women and children — was the most striking.

^ Art is most broadly defined as human effort to imitate, supplement, alter, or counteract the work of nature .

^ However, most humans are not aware of what they are eating.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

.Were chimps and humans to be compared on the basis of these results, one might think that Chimpanzees are more intelligent.^ We still have work to do, and the nature of AI is that it will probably never compare to a real human (one of the reasons that multiplayer is so important to us), but we have come a long way.

^ According to this way of thinking, one can classify some countries and nations as more civilized than others, and some people as more cultured than others.
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the contents of this site center more on the negative aspects than the positive ones since these are what make life for westerners more difficult here.
  • JAPANESE CULTURE -- A PRIMER FOR NEWCOMERS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.thejapanfaq.com [Source type: Original source]

.From an evolutionary perspective they are equally intelligent, but with different kinds of intelligence adapted to different environments.^ Because of their changed environment, they were subject to different selection pressures - any mutations that were beneficial would have been passed on to their descendants.
  • Evolution: Has Human Culture Replaced Biology? 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC digg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are gradually becoming genetically different from the native wild stocks and are less and less adapted for existence in the wild.
  • alien species 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.bofep.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This kind of thinking about historical scenarios from different perspectives – e.g.
  • Civilization 4 - Kurt Squire, Shree Durga, Ben Devane | ETC-Press (Beta) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.etc.cmu.edu [Source type: General]

[27] .Chimpanzee learning strategies are well-suited to a stable physical environment that requires little social cooperation (compared to humans).^ Covers the social sciences and humanities from 1975 to the present as well as science and technology from 1978 to the present.
  • Culture and Area Studies Databases at the C.W. Post Library 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The interdependence of global human civilization is self-consistently related to the increasing complexity both of our individual social environments and of the behavior of human civilization in entirety.
  • Complexity and Human Civilization 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC necsi.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It requires 1/50th the amount of land to produce a healthy diet for a practicing human herbivore compared to what is required for the average Western meatarian diet.
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

.Human learning strategies are well-suited to a complex social environment in which understanding the intentions of others may be more important than success at a specific task.^ Some are more unique than others .
  • memepool.com: Culture archive 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

^ The environment of human organizations is partially composed of other human organizations.
  • Complexity and Human Civilization 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC necsi.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The truly civilized citizen had to be more than educated or successful.

.Tomasello argues that this strategy has made possible the "ratchet effect" that enabled humans to evolve complex social systems that have enabled humans to adapt to virtually every physical environment on the surface of the earth.^ Let s say for over 99% of its collective existence , humanity lived in organically ethnic, originally nomadic tribes with complex social structures, hierarchies, division of labor, religions , arts and systems of communication , which hunted and gathered naturally occurring food which was given to them by the earth for the cost of the physical work it took to obtain it .

^ More specifically, the course will present students with a systemic , scientific understanding of human social behavior, diversity and evolution.
  • Cultural 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.drabruzzi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is also possible to make a connection to internal structural changes that are taking place in social and economic systems.
  • Complexity and Human Civilization 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC necsi.org [Source type: Reference]

[45]
.Tomasello further argues that cultural learning is essential for language-acquisition.^ To learn Chinese culture will help you broaden your views and increase your knowledge about China through Chinese language learning .
  • Chinese Culture Lessons | Learn Chinese Culture For Adults-eChineseLearning 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sina.echineselearning.com [Source type: General]

.Most children in any society, and all children in some, do not learn all words through the direct efforts of adults.^ Civilization IV lets you develop your society by focusing on one, some, or all of the core disciplines: science, culture, religion, military, industry.

^ John Wesley Powell , for example, classified all societies as Savage, Barbarian, and Civilized; the first two of his terms would shock most anthropologists today.

^ My strategy for winning Civilization II is to pour all my efforts into scientific research, so that my nation is the most technologically advanced.
  • Civilization Essay 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.duke.edu [Source type: General]

."In general, for the vast majority of words in their language, children must find a way to learn in the ongoing flow of social interaction, sometimes from speech not even addressed to them."^ Ariticles XIV and XV address the rights of the patron and the obedience to parents and patrons required of children who were under the age of majority, which at that time was 25.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Or are their lawyers & leaders fearful of Web 2.0 to the point that they find it preferable to NOT engage the way customers and other business-generating communities wish to communicate today?

^ Birds transmit their songs through social interactions, as humans do for languages, dances, cuisine and other cultural elements.
  • Culture | Wired Science | Wired.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46] .This finding has been confirmed by a variety of experiments in which children learned words even when the referent was not present, multiple referents were possible, and the adult was not directly trying to teach the word to the child.^ Knowledge is passed down directly from generation to generation in the animal kingdom as parents teach their children the things they will need to survive.
  • Culture | Wired Science | Wired.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Believing that aliit ori'shya tal'din ("Family is more than bloodline"), it was common for orphaned children, and even adults, to be brought into the culture.
  • Mandalorian - Wookieepedia, the Star Wars Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC starwars.wikia.com [Source type: General]

^ Outside of that, even though 15-20 hours a week is a lot of time, I really try to make those hours as productive as possible.

[47][48][49] .Tomasello concludes that "a linguistic symbol is nothing other than a marker for an intersubjectively shared understanding of a situation.^ CHAPTER IX The ancients worshipped no other gods than the celestial luminaries, knowing nothing of the God of the universe, nor even of the erection of carved images, nor of daemons .
  • Phoenicia: Phoenician History is the oldest document of human culture & the Western World's historical archives. 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC phoenicia.org [Source type: Original source]

[50]
.Tomasello's 1999 review of the research contrasting human and non-human primate learning strategies confirms biological anthropologist Ralph Holloway's 1969 argument that a specific kind of sociality linked to symbolic cognition were the keys to human evolution, and constitute the nature of culture.^ Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere , meaning "to cultivate,") [1] generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activities significance and importance.
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today, many companies create such new jobs as cognitive psychologists, social anthropologists, cross-cultural specialists who adapt products of global brands to markets with different values and mentality, as well as ethnographers.
  • CULTURAL INTELLIGENCE (CQ) - the Key to Leveraging the Power of Diversity 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.1000ventures.com [Source type: General]

^ Currently, a debate is underway regarding whether or not culture can actually change fundamental human cognition .
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to Holloway, the key issue in the evolution of H. sapiens, and the key to understanding "culture," "is how man organizes his experience."^ LeepII, on 09/04/2009 , -4/+13 Our culture is evolution, dumb premise, author clearly does not understand all aspects of evolution including social.
  • Evolution: Has Human Culture Replaced Biology? 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC digg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How long will it take for consumers to organize and use their power to alleviate the problems created in the culture of capitalism?
  • SocioSite: CULTURE AND CULTURAL STUDIES 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.sociosite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Exploring historical experiences and the ways in which various cultural groups have related to each other is key to opening channels for cross-cultural communication.
  • CULTURAL INTELLIGENCE (CQ) - the Key to Leveraging the Power of Diversity 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.1000ventures.com [Source type: General]

.Culture is "the imposition of arbitrary form upon the environment."[51] This fact, Holloway argued, is primary to and explains what is distinctive about human learning strategies, tool-use, and language.^ About this time a new culture was emerging using a new language, Arabic.
  • Christianity and the Death of Civilization 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC mwillett.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Using pathway analysis to inform prevention strategies for alien reptiles and amphibians "Alien reptiles and amphibians are deserving of greater attention that has hitherto been bestowed upon them by managers and researchers.
  • Full-text articles RE: (potentially) invasive species in Hawaii and the Pacific 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.hear.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In fact, Bill Clinton's manipulations are based not so much upon clever deception, but upon the unspoken confidence that no one can, or will, now do anything about it.
  • Culture 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC batr.org [Source type: Original source]

.Human tool-making and language express "similar, if not identical, cognitive processes" and provide important evidence for how humankind evolved.^ It is important to support organic farming, humane treatment of food animals, and in general, to make food choices with conscious awareness of their source.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It is important to understand the definitions of words because they can specifically dictate the workings of the human brain : the Sapir-Worf hypothesis suggests a systematic relationship between the language one speaks and how one interacts with the world .

^ They argue that the fact of trivial evolution such as mutation is compelling evidence for the fact that everything in existence evolved from naturalistic processes.
  • Evidence for the supernatural origin of species 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.uark.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52]
.In other words, whereas McGrew argues that anthropologists must focus on behaviors like communication and tool-use because they have no access to the mind, Holloway argues that human language and tool-use, including the earliest stone tools in the fossil record, are highly suggestive of cognitive differences between humans and non-humans, and that such cognitive differences in turn explain human evolution.^ They had no knowledge of the uses of fire.
  • Civilization - LoveToKnow 1911 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC 1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They don’t like to feed on humans.

^ They also showed some reluctance to use biological evolution to explain differences between specific cultures — an approach that either exemplified a form of, or segment of society vis a vis other segments and the society as a whole, they often reveal processes of domination and resistance .
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For Holloway, the question is not whether other primates communicate, learn or make tools, but that the way they do these things.^ Things are the way they are.
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ They were not legally, or in any other way, correct.
  • Culture 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC batr.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He believed that they were capable of recognizing and assessing their situation, making future plans and in a sense communicating and responding to one another and to humans.
  • Phoenicia: Phoenician History is the oldest document of human culture & the Western World's historical archives. 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC phoenicia.org [Source type: Original source]

."Washing potatoes in the ocean … stripping branches of leaves to get termites," and other examples of primate tool-use and learning "are iconic, and there is no feedback from the environment to the animal ."^ People can learn how to use RGB, but actually by internalizing how to translate hue, saturation and lightness, or something similar, to RGB. There are several other color schemes possible.
  • CSS Color Module Level 3 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Tim Link Native Americans are a great example of how a human can honor an animal and at the same time use them for their needs.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ For a long time there was no passage for them to make their way in upon us, and then it was of no use to think of adapting the world's action to them.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

[53] .Human tools, however, express an independence from natural form that manifests symbolic thinking.^ And because men are all members of one great whole, and the sympathy which is in human nature will not allow one member to be indifferent to the rest or to have a perfect welfare independent of the rest, the expansion of our humanity, to suit the idea of perfection which culture forms, must be a general expansion.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The particles of form can be seen as an extension or manifestation of our spiritual nature, as spirit congealed.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Not that the forms in which the human spirit tries to express the inexpressible, or the forms by which man tries to worship, have or can have, as has been said, for the follower of perfection, anything necessary or eternal.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

."In the preparation of the stick for termite-eating, the relation between product and raw material is iconic.^ Enormous forests provide the raw materials for the lumber and wood products industry (deforestation is an increasing problem).
  • Culture of Bolivia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 16 September 2009 21:59 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Manufacturing a product involves raw materials, capital, design, assembly and marketing.
  • Complexity and Human Civilization 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC necsi.org [Source type: Reference]

.In the making of a stone tool, in contrast, there is no necessary relation between the form of the final product and the original material."^ However, there are no indications of attempts to form communities (early civilizations) with surrounding peoples.

^ For a long time there was no passage for them to make their way in upon us, and then it was of no use to think of adapting the world's action to them.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no great concurrence between learning and wisdom.
  • Culture 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC batr.org [Source type: Original source]

[54]
.In Holloway's view, our non-human ancestors, like those of modern chimpanzees and other primates, shared motor and sensory skills, curiosity, memory, and intelligence, with perhaps differences in degree.^ Humans share a common ancestor with modern African apes, like gorillas and chimpanzees.
  • Evolution: Has Human Culture Replaced Biology? 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC digg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here's a partial list of intermediate forms between Humans and our human-like-ancestors that broke away from the other great apes about 6 million years ago: http://www.archaeologyinfo.com/species.htm Also, please see this: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_human_evo ...
  • Evolution: Has Human Culture Replaced Biology? 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC digg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Culture is always assigning to system-makers and systems a smaller share in the bent of human destiny than their friends like.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

"It is when these are integrated with the unique attributes of arbitrary production (symbolization) and imposition that man qua cultural man appears."[55]
I have suggested above that whatever culture may be, it includes "the imposition of arbitrary forms upon the environment." This phrase has two components. One is a recognition that the relationship between the coding process and the phenomenon (be it a tool, social network, or abstract principle) is non-iconic. The other is an idea of man as a creature who can make delusional systems work—who imposes his fantasies, his noniconic constructs (and constructions) , upon the environment. The altered environment shapes his perceptions, and these are again forced back on the environment, are incorporated into the environment, and press for further adaptation.[56]
.This is comparable to the "ratcheting" aspect suggested by Tomasello and others that enabled human evolution to accelerate.^ Humanity is in a global "accelerating culture change period", driven by the expansion of international commerce, the mass media, and above all, the human population explosion, among other factors.
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He suggests that the impact of the internet on death may be more significant than on most other aspects of human existence, like birth, marriage and divorce.
  • SocioSite: CULTURE AND CULTURAL STUDIES 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.sociosite.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Holloway concludes that the first instance of symbolic thought among humans provided a "kick-start" for brain development, tool complexity, social structure, and language to evolve through a constant dynamic of positive feedback.^ Symbols provide the limits of cultured thought.
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere , meaning "to cultivate,") [1] generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activities significance and importance.
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They already have equal or greater complexity of brain and mind as humans have.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

."This interaction between the propensity to structure the environment arbitrarily and the feedback from the environment to the organism is an emergent process, a process different in kind from anything that preceded it ."^ As per our discussion of the difference between independent individuals and coherent behaviors, this process was driven by military force.
  • Complexity and Human Civilization 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC necsi.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The environment is not a static system, and over time, the organism responds to the environment in a manner that is dictated by the organism's internal structure.
  • Complexity and Human Civilization 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC necsi.org [Source type: Reference]

[57]
Magritte The Treachery of Images provides a classic illustration of the "arbitrariness of the sign."
Ancient stone tools
Simple-edge chopper
Chopping-tool
Unretouched biface
.Linguists Charles Hockett and R. Ascher have identified thirten design-features of language, some shared by other forms of animal connunication.^ "Have you ever seen a bird mutate into some other form of bird?"
  • Evolution: Has Human Culture Replaced Biology? 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC digg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some other race " was included in Census 2000 for respondents who were unable to identify with the five Office of Management and Budget race categories.
  • Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin 18 September 2009 16:36 UTC nationalatlas.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I know some animal communicators whose bodies need to have meat products for optimum health; other people do much better on a vegetarian diet.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

.One feature that distinguishes human language is its tremendous productivity; in other words, competent speakers of a language are capable of producing an infinite number of original utterances.^ He believed that they were capable of recognizing and assessing their situation, making future plans and in a sense communicating and responding to one another and to humans.
  • Phoenicia: Phoenician History is the oldest document of human culture & the Western World's historical archives. 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC phoenicia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These are, in order of the number of speakers, Italian, Greek, Chinese, Serbo-Croatian, Arabic, German, Vietnamese, Spanish, Polish, Macedonian, Filipino languages, and Maltese.
  • Culture of Australia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 16 September 2009 21:59 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Barring mental retardation, human beings pick up languages , movement , and a near -infinite amount of other skills and trades remarkably easily .

This productivity seems to be made possible by a few critical features unique to human language. .One is "duality of patterning," meaning that human language consists of the articulation of several distinct processes, each with its own set of rules: combining phonemes to produce morphemes, combining morphemes to produce words, and combining words to produce sentences.^ This sense of the term is often perceived as less exclusive and ethnocentric, not making the distinction between civilized or barbaric, common to these meanings of the word.

^ The language itself has many words for "I" and "you", each showing how much respect (or lack of) one shows the other.
  • JAPANESE CULTURE -- A PRIMER FOR NEWCOMERS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.thejapanfaq.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From 1388 the word “civil” appeared in English, while “civilisation” as a “law which makes a criminal process civil," appeared in 1704 , closely followed in 1722 with “civilisation” - meaning the opposite of “ barbarity ” and coming probably from the French language .

.This means that a person can master a relatively limited number of signals and sets of rules, to create infinite combinations.^ Before setting out on reading about the history of the Roman republic, please find here the various offices and assemblies which were created in order to rule of the Roman state.

.Another crucial element is that human language is symbolic: the sound of words (or their shape, when written) bear no relation to what they represent.^ He believed that they were capable of recognizing and assessing their situation, making future plans and in a sense communicating and responding to one another and to humans.
  • Phoenicia: Phoenician History is the oldest document of human culture & the Western World's historical archives. 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC phoenicia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They contain elements of nonmaterial pursuits, whereas another school of thought from India, Cārvāka , preached the enjoyment of material world.
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Renaissance History / The Moral Philosophy of the Humanists : A 9 page paper that provides an overview of the issue of morality and man's human nature as they relate to the Humanists of Renaissance Europe.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[58] In other words, their meaning is arbitrary. That words have meaning is a matter of convention. .Since the meaning of words are arbitrary, any word may have several meanings, and any object may be referred to using a variety of words; the actual word used to describe a particular object depends on the context, the intention of the speaker, and the ability of the listener to judge these appropriately.^ In practice, culture referred to élite activities such as museum -caliber art and classical music , and the word cultured described people who knew about, and took part in, these activities.
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They may attempt to change any number of these using any number of methods which have been tried , tested, have failed , and thus been deemed legitimate and effective ways to encourage change .

^ Examining the origins and definitions of words is especially relevant when we use words to describe something that human beings may or may not actively resist .

As Tomasello notes,
An individual language user looks at a tree and, before drawing the attention of her interlocutor to that tree, must decide, based on her assessment of the listener's current knowledge and expectations, whether to say "that tree over there," "it," "the oak," "that hundred-year-oak," "the tree," "the bagswing tree," "that thing in the front yard," "the ornament," "the embarrassment," or any of a number of other expressions. … And these decisions are not made on the basis of the speaker's direct goal with respect to the object or activity involved, but rather that they are made on the basis of her goal with respect to the listener's interest and attention to that object or activity.
This is why symbolic cognition and communication and imitative learning go hand-in-hand.[59]
Holloway argues that the stone-tools associated with genus Homo have the same features of human language:
Returning to matter of syntax, rules, and concatenated activity mentioned above, almost any model which describes a language process can also be used to describe tool-making. This is hardly surprising. Both activities are concatenated, both have rigid rules about eh serialization of unit activities (the grammar, syntax), both are hierarchical systems of activity (as is any motor activity), and both produce arbitrary configurations which thence become part of the environment, either temporarily or permanently.[60]
productivity can be seen in the facts that basic types were probably used for multiple purposes, that tool industries tend to expand with time, and that a slight variation on h basic pattern may be made to met some new functional requisite. .Elements of a basic "vocabulary" of motor operations—flakes, detachment, rotation, preparation of striking platform, etc.—are used in different combinations to produce dissimilar tools, with different forms, and supposedly, different uses.^ Both the Greeks and the Hebrews developed an alphabetical writing system but the uses to which they put this phenomenally powerful tool were very different.
  • Christianity and the Death of Civilization 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC mwillett.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Students must prepare a written self-evaluation report, using the relevant form from the Vade Mecum , including a concise description of the presentation and brief answers to .

. . . .Taking each motor event alone, no one action is complete; each action depends on the prior one and requires a further one, and each is dependent in another ay on the original plan.^ He believed that they were capable of recognizing and assessing their situation, making future plans and in a sense communicating and responding to one another and to humans.
  • Phoenicia: Phoenician History is the oldest document of human culture & the Western World's historical archives. 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC phoenicia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Host plant resistance is one of the preferred methods for minimizing the damage caused by pests and and associated viruses , because it does not require the complete elimination of the pest to be effective.

^ For this one needs to consider that, prior to the reign of Augustus, there was no such thing as a police force.

.In other words, at each point of the action except the last, the piece is not "satisfactory" in structure.^ Indeed, as Mona Charen pointed out at length, in her book Useful Idiots , the Democrats have been all too willing to Blame America First for the actions of others.
  • » Culture - Big Government 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC biggovernment.com [Source type: General]

.Each unit action is meaningless by itself in the sense of the use of the tool; it is meaningful only in the context of the whole completed set of actions culminating in the final product.^ Such a usage is often used in the context of discussions about so-called " globalisation ," again often used in a normative sense.

^ It only involved a few minor source code changes that were used in the final version to clean up some issues.

^ The whole religious world, one may say, use now the word resurrection ,--a word which is so often in their thoughts and on their lips, and which they find so often in St. Paul's writings,--in one sense only.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

This exactly parallels language.[61]
As Tomasello has demonstrated, symbolic thought can operate only in a particular social environment:
Arbitrary symbols enforce consensus of perceptions, which not only allows members to communicate about the same objects in terms of space and time (as in hunting) but it also makes it possible for social relationships to be standardized and manipulated through symbols. It means that idiosyncracies are smoothed out and perceived within classes of behavior. By enforcing perceptual invariance, symbols also enforce social behavioral constancy, and enforcing social behavioral constancy is a prerequisite to differential task-role sectors in a differentiated social group adapting not only to the outside environment but to its own membership.[62]
Biological anthropologist Terrence Deacon, in a synthesis of over twenty years of research on human evolution, human neurology, and primatology, describes this "ratcheting effect" as a form of "Baldwinian Evolution." Named after psychologist James Baldwin, this describes a situation in which an animal's behavior has evolutionary consequences when it changes the natural environment and thus the selective forces acting on the animal.[63]
Once some useful behavior spreads within a population and becomes more important for subsistence, it will generate selection pressures on genetic traits that support its propagation ... Stone and tymbolic tools, which were initially acquired with the aid of flexible ape-learning abilities, ultimately turned the tables on their users and forced them to adapt to a new niche opened by these technologies. Rather than being just useful tricks, these behavioral proshteses for obtaining food and organizing social behaviors became indispensible elements in a new adaptive complex. The origin of "humanness" can be defined as that point in our evolution where these tools became the principle source of selection on our bodies and brains. It is the diagnostic of Homo symbolicus.[64]
.According to Deacon, this occurred between 2 and 2.5 million years ago, when we have the first fossil evidence of stone tool use and the beginning of a trend in an increase in brain size.^ And only 525 million years ago.
  • Farmed Species 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.shrimpnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The hominid line separated from the chimp line ~5-6 million years ago, so with an average generation time of 20 years that would be ~250,000 generations at minimum.
  • Evolution: Has Human Culture Replaced Biology? 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC digg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And no, we did not evolve from anything like the modern monkey, we have a common ancestor with them, but that was millions of years ago(Modern monkeys are our 2nd cousins millions of times removed, but no direct lineage exists between modern monkeys and humans exists).
  • Evolution: Has Human Culture Replaced Biology? 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC digg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

But it is the evolution of symbolic language which is the cause—and not the effect—of these trends.[65] .More specifically, Deacon is suggesting that Australopithecines, like contemporary apes, used tools; it is possible that over the millions of years of Australopithecine history, many troops developed symbolic communication systems.^ I have used animal communicators for many years for my own animal family.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Consequently, we have developed and played many scenarios over the years, ranging in topic from ancient Mesopotamian civilizations to the 100 Years War to the Industrial Revolution.
  • Civilization 4 - Kurt Squire, Shree Durga, Ben Devane | ETC-Press (Beta) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.etc.cmu.edu [Source type: General]

^ More specifically, the course will present students with a systemic , scientific understanding of human social behavior, diversity and evolution.
  • Cultural 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.drabruzzi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All that was necessary was that one of these groups so altered their environment that "it introduced selection for very different learning abilities than affected prior species."^ In the event that there is more than one good image of the same species, I have linked the best one or two, whose identification I am sure about, for you.
  • Phylum Ctenophora: list of all valid scientific names 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC faculty.washington.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the other benefits of Tea Time is that a few different cultures have tea traditions, and we get a chance to experience teas from around the world and learn a bit about their cultures in the meantime.

^ Wide, rapid and frequent variation of the population size or area of distribution in a number of species , with a variation greater than one order of magnitude.
  • The CITES glossary 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.cites.org [Source type: Academic]

[66] This troop or population kick-started the Baldwinian process (the "ratchet effect") that led to their evolution to genus Homo.
.The question for Deacon is, what behavioral-environmental changes could have made the development of symbolic thinking adaptive?^ I think the core of what could change in Civ5 is what was mentioned above: implementing revolutions, rebellions, political instability, propaganda, etc.
  • Civilization 5 - Civilization Fanatics' Forums 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC forums.civfanatics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So here’s a short, quickly composed list of ways in which I think Avatar could’ve been made better without sacrificing the central story or themes: .
  • Culture | The American Scene 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC theamericanscene.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When I wrote about what it's like at the Web 2.0 conference last year, I had despaired somewhat, thinking things could never change.
  • Anil Dash: Search Results 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC dashes.com [Source type: General]

.Here he emphasizes the importance of distinguishing hmans from all other species, not in order to privilege human intelligence but to problematize it.^ Humanity is in a global "accelerating culture change period", driven by the expansion of international commerce, the mass media, and above all, the human population explosion, among other factors.
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dogs plunged into the receding waves to pull back anyone they could of any species, including humans, cats, goats, wild blackbucks, and other dogs.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In order to continue we need a brief , factual, workable timeline of the true history of all that we know : the universe , planet earth , life , and humanity , up to today .

.Given that the evolution of H. sapiens began with ancestors who did not yet have "culture," what led them to move away from cognitive, learning, communication, and tool-making strategies that were and continued to be adaptive for most other primates (and, some have suggested, most other species of animals)?^ It's wonderful to be able to read what other animal communicators are learning and experiencing with their communications.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ All animals can communicate with each other, yet they also eat each other.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Some species are parasites of birds, mammals, or other vertebrate animals.

.Learning symbol systems is more time consuming than other forms of communication, so symbolic thought made possible a different communication strategy, but not a more efficient one than other primates.^ Some are more unique than others .
  • memepool.com: Culture archive 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

^ Having more than one form, or more than one size.

^ In the event that there is more than one good image of the same species, I have linked the best one or two, whose identification I am sure about, for you.
  • Phylum Ctenophora: list of all valid scientific names 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC faculty.washington.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nevertheless, it must have offered some selective advantage of H. sapiens to have evolved.^ Attentive to the theory of evolution , they assumed that all human beings evolved equally, and that the fact that all humans have cultures must in some way result from human evolution.
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Deacon starts by looking a two key determinents in evolutionary history: foraging behavior, and patterns of sexual relations. As he observes competition for sexual access limits the possibilities for social cooperation in many species; yet, Deacon observes, there are three consistent patterns in human reproduction that distinguish them from other species:
.
  1. Both males and females usually contribute effort towards the rearing of their offspring, though often to differing extents and in very different ways.
  2. In all societies, the great majority if adult males and females are bound by long-term, exlusive secual access rights and pronibitions to particular individuals of the opposite sex.
  3. They maintain these exclusive sexual relations while living in modest to large-sized, multi-male, multi-female, cooperative social groups.^ However the Christian Church made a very determined effort to wipe away all of that and turn Latin into the language intended for the internal use of the church alone.
    • Christianity and the Death of Civilization 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC mwillett.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In the same way, a male of Kurdish ancestry living in Iran is above all a member of " Islam ic civilization."

    ^ Gender complementarity—the idea of a necessary union of opposites and of the crucial role of women and men in human and social production—is a hallmark of Bolivian and Andean society and surfaces in many symbolic domains, such as the presence of male and female supernatural deities.
    • Culture of Bolivia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 16 September 2009 21:59 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [67]
.Moreover, there is one feature common to all known human foraging societies (all humans prior to ten or fifteen thousand years ago), and markedly different from other primates: "the use of meat.^ But one thing is common to all of them.

^ We know today that there are factions that agree only on few items aside from the basics of Christianity (i.e., Jesus is God’s Son), but today’s Christianity is largely based on the humanism that helped drive the Reformation more than 400 years ago.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And no, we did not evolve from anything like the modern monkey, we have a common ancestor with them, but that was millions of years ago(Modern monkeys are our 2nd cousins millions of times removed, but no direct lineage exists between modern monkeys and humans exists).
  • Evolution: Has Human Culture Replaced Biology? 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC digg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

. . . .The appearance of the first stone tools nearly 2.5 million years ago almost certainly correlates with a radical shift in foraging behavior in order to gain access to meat."^ And only 525 million years ago.
  • Farmed Species 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.shrimpnews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Julia Butterfly Hill climbed into a redwood almost two years ago, in protest and to protect the forest .
  • memepool.com: Culture archive 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

^ The hominid line separated from the chimp line ~5-6 million years ago, so with an average generation time of 20 years that would be ~250,000 generations at minimum.
  • Evolution: Has Human Culture Replaced Biology? 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC digg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[68] .Deacon does not believe that symbolic thought was necessary for hunting or tool-making (although tool-making may be a reliable index of symbolic thought); rather, it was necessary for the success of distinctive social relations.^ Members of a culture rely on these symbols to frame their thoughts and expressions in intelligible terms.
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We've all seen that communicating using all the tools of social media can make people's lives better.
  • Anil Dash: Search Results 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC dashes.com [Source type: General]

^ Did you honestly answer what you thought the children may believe, after hearing what someone said, words I wrote about the methane gas issue?
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

.The key is that while men and women are equally effective foragers, mothers carrying dependent children are not effective hunters.^ Whether our children's welfare is best served by their all sharing equally in our property, depends on circumstances and on the state of the community in which we live.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

They must thus depend on male hunters. This favors a system in which males have exclusive sexual access to females, and females can predict that their sexual partner will provide food for them and their children. .In most mammalian species the result is a system of rank or sexual competition that results in either polygyny, or life-long pair-bonding between two individuals who live relatively independent of other adults of their species; in both cases male aggression plays an important role in maintaining sexual access to mate(s).^ Who are they, and what roles have the played?

^ Conspecifics are two (or more) individuals who are members of the same species .

^ The players were beginning to suspect that civilizations of both Ben and Morgan were on a different continent than those of Josh and Kurt, as there had been no contact between the two pairs of civilizations despite extensive exploratory efforts on everybody’s part and a relatively small map.
  • Civilization 4 - Kurt Squire, Shree Durga, Ben Devane | ETC-Press (Beta) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.etc.cmu.edu [Source type: General]

What is unique about humans?
Human reliance on resources that are relatively unavailable to females with infants selects not only for coopartion between a child's father and mother but also for the cooperation of other relatives and friends, including elderly individuals and juveniles, who can be relied upon for assistance. The special demands of acquiring meat and caring for infants in our own evolution together contribute to the underlying impetus for the third characteristic feature of human reproductive patterns: cooperative group living.[69]
.What is uniquely characteristic about human societies is what required symbolic cognition, which consequently leads to the evolution of culture: "cooperative, mixed-sex social groups, with significant male care and provisioning of offspring, and relatively stable patterns of reproductive exclusion."^ Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere , meaning "to cultivate,") [1] generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activities significance and importance.
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, the end of the last ice age helped lead to the invention of agriculture , which in its turn brought about many cultural innovations and shifts in social dynamics [ citation needed ] .
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The vulnerability of a species to threats of extinction depends on its population demographics, biological characteristics, (such as body size, trophic level, life cycle, breeding structure or social structure requirements for successful reproduction), and vulnerability due to aggregating habits, natural fluctuations in population size, and/or residency/migratory patterns.
  • The CITES glossary 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.cites.org [Source type: Academic]

.This combination is relatively rare in other species because it is "highly susceptible to disintegration."^ DISPOSITION: The species is thought to be dangerous, though relatively few incidents have been attributed to it or any other species of hammerhead sharks.

Language and culture provide the glue that holds it together.[70]
.Chimpanzees also, on occasion, hunt meat; in most cases, however, males consume the meat immediately, and only on occasion share with females who happen to be nearby.^ The females are wingless and usually legless, while the males have only a single pair of wings or none at all.

^ I only eat meat and eggs from animals who have lived happy lives and who are not fed growth hormones or antibiotics, guaranteed by the health food store I have shopped at for decades.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Laws stressing partible inheritance (equal shares to all legitimate offspring, male or female) are constrained by informal, customary inheritance practices, and in the rural highlands there is a strong patrilineal bias, with most land inherited by males.
  • Culture of Bolivia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 16 September 2009 21:59 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Among chimpanzees, hunting for meat increases when other sources of food become scarce, but under these conditions, sharing descreases.^ These species are also threatened by the invasion of non-native fire ants which can prey upon them as well as compete with them for their limited sources of food.
  • Endangered Species of the Edwards Aquifer 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.edwardsaquifer.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The difficulties in overcoming other systematic ills of society, such as poverty, may also be challenged successfully as the origins of these problems become better understood.
  • Complexity and Human Civilization 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC necsi.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Increasing residential and agricultural development along with rising demand for water for human and agricultural uses may cause the spring sources become dry intermittently.
  • Endangered Species of the Edwards Aquifer 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.edwardsaquifer.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The first forms of symbolic thinking made stone-tools possible, which in turn made hunting for meat a more dependable source of food for our nonhuman ancestors while making possible forms of social communication that make sharing—between males and females, but also among males, decreasing sexual competition:
So the socio-ecological problem posed by the transition to a meat-supplemented subsistence strategy is that it cannot be utilized without a social structure which guarantees unambiguous and exclusive mating and is sufficiently egalitarian to sustain cooperation via shared or parallel reproductive interests. This problem can be solved symbolically.[71]
.Symbols and symbolic thinking thus make possible a central feature of social relations in every human population: reciprocity.^ It is also possible to make a connection to internal structural changes that are taking place in social and economic systems.
  • Complexity and Human Civilization 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC necsi.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The interdependence of global human civilization is self-consistently related to the increasing complexity both of our individual social environments and of the behavior of human civilization in entirety.
  • Complexity and Human Civilization 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC necsi.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Human Resources, and every where else here, making differences in ways well beyond commerce.

.Evolutionary scientists have developed a model to explain reciprocal altruism among closely related individuals.^ The second assumes that the collective behavior can be understood by decomposing the system into its smallest elements and developing models based upon individual behavior.
  • Complexity and Human Civilization 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC necsi.org [Source type: Reference]

.Symbolic thought makes possible reciprocity between distantly related individuals.^ Individuals mature between 7 and 7.5 years, and life-span is thought to be at least 25 years or more.

^ It is encouraging that the field of game studies is beginning to look at these multiple dimensions of play, but it is our hope that as we continue to investigate the relations between them, as well as looking at them individually.
  • Civilization 4 - Kurt Squire, Shree Durga, Ben Devane | ETC-Press (Beta) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.etc.cmu.edu [Source type: General]

[72]

Archeological approaches to culture: matter and meaning

Excavated dwellings at Skara Brae, Europe's most complete Neolithic village
The making of a Levallois Point
Bifacial points, engraved ochre and bone tools from the c. 75,000–80,000 year old M1 & M2 phases at Blombos cave
Monte Alban archaeological site
Excavations at the South Area of Çatal Höyük
Mural of an aurochs, a deer, and humans from Çatalhöyük, sixth millennium BC; Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, Ankara, Turkey
In the 19th century archeology was often a supplement to history, and the goal of archeologists was to identify artifacts according to their typology and stratigraphy, thus marking their location in time and space. .Franz Boas established that archeology be one of American anthropology's four fields, and debates among archeologists have often paralleled debates among cultural anthropologists.^ As a science of human behavior, cultural anthropology has as much to say about the workings of American society as it does about the Dobe Ju/'hoansi, the Yanomamo, the Inuit and the many other peoples traditionally studied by anthropologists.
  • Cultural 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.drabruzzi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are three sub-fields of anthropology: biological anthropology, cultural anthropology and archaeology.
  • Cultural 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.drabruzzi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each team will survey one of the textbooks they use in any of the following subjects: biology, sociology, psychology, geography, anthropology, U.S. or world history/culture.

.In the 1920s and 1930s, Australian-British archeologist V. Gordon Childe and American archeologist W. C. McKern independently began moving from asking about the date of an artifact, to asking about the people who produced it — when archeologists work alongside historians, historical materials generally help answer these questions, but when historical materials are unavailable, archeologists had to develop new methods.^ It wasn't until US forces arrived and Eagle began working alongside American and British security contractors inked with dragons, Chinese characters, and a host of other designs that he realized there existed a world of unexplored potential.
  • Tattoo Culture examines the rituals & social significance of tattooing in cultures around the world 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.vanishingtattoo.com [Source type: General]

^ What these articles made me think about: So much of what EMC's brand stands for to customers, and what we're really good at generally doesn't get headlines.

^ And the reason why competition works is because the people who win competitions are, well, competitive .
  • Culture | The American Scene 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC theamericanscene.com [Source type: Original source]

Childe and McKern focused on analyzing the relationships among objects found together; their work established the foundation for a three-tiered model:
  1. An individual artifact, which has surface, shape, and technological attributes (e.g. an arrowhead)
  2. A sub-assemblage, consisting of artifacts that are found, and were likely used, together (e.g. an arrowhead, bow and knife)
  3. An assemblage of subasemblages that together constitute the archeological site (e.g. the arrowhead, bow and knife; a pot and the remains of a hearth; a shelter)
Childe argued that a "constantly recurring assemblage of artifacts" to be an "archaeological culture."[73][74] Childe and others viewed "each archeological culture ... the manifestation in material terms of a specific people."[75]
.In 1948 Walter Taylor systematized the methods and concepts that archeologists had developed and proposed a general model for the archeological contribution to knoweldge of cultures.^ Cultural anthropology offers specific concepts and methods of social analysis.
  • Cultural 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.drabruzzi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To consider the collective behavior of human civilization, one must develop concepts that describe the relationship of individual to collective behavior in a more general way.
  • Complexity and Human Civilization 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC necsi.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Posted at 07:43 PM in Career Advice , Career Development , Culture , Employee Engagement , Employment Brand , Management Models .

.He began with the mainstream understanding of culture as the product of human cognitive activity, and the Boasian emphasis on the subjective meanings of objects as dependent on their cultural context.^ Culture can be defined as human activity , the way humans interact with themselves , their world , or non-humans, but most specifically other humans around them .

^ When numbers of humans make numbers of objects , this is called production.

^ Life-saving understandings/ideas and technologies (such as humans are NOT omnivores but rather herbivores) are withheld from the mainstream.
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

He defined culture as "a mental phenomenon, consisting of the contents of minds, not of material objects or observable behavior."[76] He then devised a three-tiered model linking cultural anthropology to archeology, which he called conjunctive archeology:
  1. Culture, which is unobservable and nonmaterial
  2. Behaviors resulting from culture, which are observable and nonmaterial
  3. Objectifications, such as artifacts and architecture, which are the result of behavior and material
That is, material artifacts were the material residue of culture, but not culture itself.[77] .Taylor's point was that the archeological record could contribute to anthropological knowledge, but only if archeologists reconceived their work not just as digging up artifacts and recording their location in time and space, but as inferring from material remains the behaviors through which they were produced and used, and inferring from these behaviors the mental activities of people.^ Some stopped and picked up people with their trunks, depositing them on their backs, before they ran uphill into the jungle, just beyond where the driven waves stopped.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ If you use any material or information from these copyrighted web pages when making your own, I expect an acknowledgment.
  • Tree and Shrub Species 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC web.utk.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ They are either just the standard leaders/civilizations from Civ4 , or some placeholder fantasy leaders that a fan made that use the standard Civ4 traits.

.Although many archeologists agreed that their research was integral to anthropology, Taylor's program was never fully implemented.^ Although we have been fortunate enough to receive offers to join the team from many people, we have never accepted anyone like that.

One reason was that his three-tier model of inferences required too much fieldwork and laboratory analysis to be practical.[78] Moreover, his view that material remains were not themselves cultural, and in fact twice-removed from culture, in fact left archeology marginal to cultural anthropology.[79]
In 1962 Leslie White's former student Lewis Binford proposed a new model for anthropological archeology, called "the New Archeology" or "Processual Archeology," based on White's definition of culture as "the extra-somatic means of adaptation for the human organism."[80] This definition allowed Binford to establish archeology as a crucial field for the pursuit of the methodology of Julian Steward's cultural ecology:
The comparative study of cultural systems with variable technologies in a similar environmental range or similar technologies in differing environments is a major methodology of what Steward (1955: 36–42) has called "cultural ecology," and certainly is a valuable means of increasing our understanding of cultural processes. Such a methodology is also useful in elucidating the structural relationships between major cultural sub-systems such as the social and ideological sub-systems.[81]
.In other words, Binford proposed an archeology that would be central to the dominant project of cultural anthropologists at the time (culture as non-genetic adaptations to the environment); the "new archeology" was the cultural anthropology (in the form of cultural ecology or ecological anthropology) of the past.^ You cant do that in a perfect culture or we would have stayed on the other side where we are perfect without food.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of the time we all project our own thoughts onto others not really knowing what has brought people to the decisions they make.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the other benefits of Tea Time is that a few different cultures have tea traditions, and we get a chance to experience teas from around the world and learn a bit about their cultures in the meantime.

.In the 1980s, there was a movement in the United Kingdom and Europe against the view of archeology as a field of anthropology, echoing Radcliffe-Brown's earlier rejection of cultural anthropology.^ There are lots of things we could do, but each has to viewed against the time to create.

[82] .During this same period, then-Cambridge archeologist Ian Hodder developed "post-processual archeology" as an alternative.^ A final section also compares the persecution of women as witches during the Reformation with that of Jewish people during the same period.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Agriculture and more complex societies developed during the Mumun pottery period (c.

^ That of painting in fresco, for instance, shows the same orderly development from at any rate Period II. 2 to the end.
  • Aegean Civilization - LoveToKnow 1911 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.Like Binford (and unlike Taylor) Hodder views artifacts not as objectifications of culture but as culture itself.^ The idea of living of cities, like with the Greeks, was a cultural statement in itself.

Unlike Binford, however, Hodder does not view culture as an environmental adaptation. Instead, he "is committed to a fluid semiotic version of the traditional culture concept in which material items, artifacts, are full participants in the creation, deployment, alteration, and fading away of symbolic complexes."[83] .His 1982 book, Symbols in Action, evokes the symbolic anthropology of Geertz, Schneider, with their focus on the context dependent meanings of cultural things, as an alternative to White and Steward's materialist view of culture.^ I think these books are deeply instructive in a modern context, though, because the greatest threat to cultures today comes from not intermingling.
  • Anil Dash: Search Results 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC dashes.com [Source type: General]

^ M. Renan seems more to have in view what we ourselves mean by culture; because Mr. Bright always has in his eye what he calls 'a commendable interest' in politics and in political agitations.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ But there is of culture another view, in which not solely the scientific passion, the sheer desire to see things as they are, natural and proper in an intelligent being, appears as the ground of it.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

[84] .In his 1991 textbook, Reading the Past: Current Approaches to Interpretation in Archaeology Hodder argued that archeology is more closely aligned to history than to anthropology.^ Each team will survey one of the textbooks they use in any of the following subjects: biology, sociology, psychology, geography, anthropology, U.S. or world history/culture.

^ Humans are more closely related to modern apes than to monkeys, but we didn't evolve from apes, either.
  • Evolution: Has Human Culture Replaced Biology? 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC digg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You're arguing against something you don't even understand, and I cannot imagine something more foolish than that.
  • Evolution: Has Human Culture Replaced Biology? 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC digg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[85]

Language and culture

.The connection between culture and language has been noted as far back as the classical period and probably long before.^ Before the European invasion there were around 250 Aboriginal languages, most of which probably had distinct dialects.
  • Culture of Australia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 16 September 2009 21:59 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you're a long-time reader of my site, you can probably guess my take: This is another example of the impedance mismatch between white and black culture in regard to social standards in public settings.
  • Anil Dash: Search Results 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC dashes.com [Source type: General]

The ancient Greeks, for example, distinguished between civilized peoples and bárbaros "those who babble", i.e. those who speak unintelligible languages.[86] The fact that different groups speak different, unintelligible languages is often considered more tangible evidence for cultural differences than other less obvious cultural traits.
.The German romanticists of the 19th century such as Herder, Wundt and Humbolt, often saw language not just as one cultural trait among many but rather as the direct expression of a people's national character, and as such as culture in a kind of condensed form.^ People understand that tattoos are a form of expression.
  • Tattoo Culture examines the rituals & social significance of tattooing in cultures around the world 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.vanishingtattoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Often I saw people of one eating style berate people of another.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Avatar takes this a bit far, as many have pointed out, in having Jake Sully not just become one of the Na’avi but end up ruling them.
  • Culture | The American Scene 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC theamericanscene.com [Source type: Original source]

.Herder for example suggests, "Denn jedes Volk ist Volk; es hat seine National Bildung wie seine Sprache" (Since every people is a People, it has its own national culture expressed through its own language).^ In the USA and Canada, where people of such cultures were the original inhabitants before being displaced by European settlers, they use the term " First Nations ."

^ But, in a serious people, where every one has to choose and strive for his own order and discipline of religion, the contention about these non-essentials occupies his mind.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ To learn Chinese culture will help you broaden your views and increase your knowledge about China through Chinese language learning .
  • Chinese Culture Lessons | Learn Chinese Culture For Adults-eChineseLearning 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sina.echineselearning.com [Source type: General]

[87]
.Franz Boas, founder of American anthropology, like his German forerunners, maintained that the shared language of a community is the most essential carrier of their common culture.^ Students are required to demonstrate an awareness of the values and the limitations of their individual outlooks, and of the views common to the communities and cultures to which they belong.

^ Common Name or Meaning The Two Pouch Orchid [refers tothen sac-like spurs on the lateral sepals of most species] Type Species = !
  • Jay's Internet Orchid Species Photo Encyclopedia Dendroc 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.orchidspecies.com [Source type: General]

^ The information I most want to share with you, however, comes directly from an animal communication regarding humans, meat-eating, vegetarianism, veganism, and cats.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

.Boas was the first anthropologist who considered it unimaginable to study the culture of a foreign people without also becoming acquainted with their language.^ In Civ4 the main reason people rebel is because a foreign city nearby has culture and some great artist did something nice.
  • Civilization 5 - Civilization Fanatics' Forums 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC forums.civfanatics.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ 'People who talk about what they call culture!
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ TATTOOS USED 'TO IMPROVE APPEARANCE' A Central Queensland University study has found that people who decide to get a tattoo are not doing it to be "socially deviant", but do it to improve their appearance.
  • Tattoo Culture examines the rituals & social significance of tattooing in cultures around the world 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.vanishingtattoo.com [Source type: General]

.For Boas, the fact that the intellectual culture of a people was largely constructed, shared and maintained through the use of language, meant that understanding the language of a cultural group was the key to understanding its culture.^ But another culture of hunters , fishers and gathering peoples using stone tool s replaced them.

^ In addition to discussion culture, purpose, and general aesthetics, the writer also makes mention of the tools and methods used to construct these great architectural works.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the USA and Canada, where people of such cultures were the original inhabitants before being displaced by European settlers, they use the term " First Nations ."

.At the same time, though, Boas and his students were aware that culture and language are not directly dependent on one another.^ Language may be abundantly quoted from both Hellenism and Hebraism to make it seem that one follows the same current as the other towards the same goal.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ One need not go to culture and poetry to find language to judge it.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Some scientists now tell us we could recreate the entire universe from one cell of anything, because that cell has been everything at one time or another!
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

.That is, groups with widely different cultures may share a common language, and speakers of completely unrelated languages may share the same fundamental cultural traits.^ Language may be abundantly quoted from both Hellenism and Hebraism to make it seem that one follows the same current as the other towards the same goal.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

[88][89] Numerous other scholars have suggested that the form of language determines specific cultural traits.[90] This is similar to the notion of Linguistic determinism, which states that the form of language determines individual thought. .While Boas himself rejected a causal link between language and culture, some of his intellectual heirs entertained the idea that habitual patterns of speaking and thinking in a particular language may influence the culture of the linguistic group.^ It also means the culture and custom of a particular group.

^ The believer in machinery may think that to get a Government to abolish Church-rates or to legalise marriage with a deceased wife's sister is to exert a moral and ennobling influence upon Government.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ But culture indefatigably tries, not to make what each raw person may like, the rule by which he fashions himself; but to draw ever nearer to a sense of what is indeed beautiful, graceful, and becoming, and to get the raw person to like that.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

[91] Such belief is related to the theory of Linguistic relativity. Boas, like most modern anthropologists, however, was more inclined to relate the interconnectedness between language and culture to the fact that, as B.L. Whorf put it, "they have grown up together".[92]
.Indeed, the origin of language, understood as the human capacity of complex symbolic communication, and the origin of complex culture is often thought to stem from the same evolutionary process in early man.^ Civilizations experience cycles of birth, life, decline and death, often supplanted by a new civilization with a potent new culture, formed around a compelling new cultural symbol.

^ Vlad Tepes : A 5 page paper on the man most often noted as the original Dracula.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whilst Elam originally adopted their own script from an early age they adopted the Sumerian cuneiform script to their own language.

.Linguists and evolutionary anthropologists suppose that language evolved as early humans began to live in large communities which required the use of complex communication to maintain social coherence.^ The modes of social organization, they say, are fundamentally altered in complex, urban societies that gather large amounts of unrelated people together into cities.

^ The song’s popularity grew when Video Games Live began using it as a standard part of their repertoire.

^ Newspapers ran with the stories but used alarmist language that was largely missing in the actual scientific journals.
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

.Language and culture then both emerged as a means of using symbols to construct social identity and maintain coherence within a social group too large to rely exclusively on pre-human ways of building community such as for example grooming.^ It also means the culture and custom of a particular group.

^ As a way of characterizing human cultures .

^ Educational methods vary depending on particular requirements; for example, education for children in remote rural locations relies heavily on advanced communication technologies.
  • Culture of Australia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 16 September 2009 21:59 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since language and culture are both in essence symbolic systems, twentieth century cultural theorists have applied the methods of analyzing language developed in the science of linguistics to also analyze culture.^ Systems theorists look at many types of relations between cities, including economic relations, cultural exchanges, and political/diplomatic/military relations.

^ This "unified culture" concept of civilization also influenced the theories of historian Arnold J. Toynbee in the mid-twentieth century.

^ The Persian Empire is known for its development of a unique middle eastern culture, one in which science, the arts, and literature flourished.

.Particularly the structural theory of Ferdinand de Saussure, which describes symbolic systems as consisting of signs (a pairing of a particular form with a particular meaning), has come to be applied widely in the study of culture.^ It also means the culture and custom of a particular group.

^ Culture is then properly described not as having its origin in curiosity, but as having its origin in the love of perfection; it is a study of perfection .
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

.But also post-structuralist theories, that nonetheless still rely on the parallel between language and culture as systems of symbolic communication, have been applied in the field of semiotics.^ Systems theorists look at many types of relations between cities, including economic relations, cultural exchanges, and political/diplomatic/military relations.

^ Another group of theorists, making use of systems theory , look at civilizations as complex systems or networks of cities that emerge from pre-urban cultures, and are defined by the economic, political, military, diplomatic, and cultural interactions between them.

^ Posted at 12:05 PM in Culture , Employee Engagement , Employment Brand , Social Meda in the Enterprise , Technology & Communication .

.The parallel between language and culture can then be understood as analog to the parallel between a linguistic sign, consisting for example of the sound [kau] and the meaning "cow", and a cultural sign, consisting for example of the cultural form of "wearing a crown" and the cultural meaning of "being king". In this way it can be argued that culture is itself a kind of language.^ But it is obviously at variance with our definition of culture, or the pursuit of light and perfection, which made light and perfection consist, not in resting and being, but in growing and becoming, in a perpetual advance in beauty and wisdom.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Growing cultures, he argued, tend to develop into imperialistic civilizations which expand and ultimately collapse, with democratic forms of government ushering in plutocracy and ultimately imperialism.

.Another parallel between cultural and linguistic systems is that they are both systems of practice, that is they are a set of special ways of doing things that is constructed and perpetuated through social interactions[93].^ Things are the way they are.
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ And this our neighbours cannot but acknowledge; and they must needs, when they themselves turn to these things, have an eye to our example, and take something of our practice.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Systems theorists look at many types of relations between cities, including economic relations, cultural exchanges, and political/diplomatic/military relations.

.Children, for example, acquire language in the same way as they acquire the basic cultural norms of the society they grow up in - through interaction with older members of their cultural group.^ In the same way, a male of Kurdish ancestry living in Iran is above all a member of " Islam ic civilization."

^ Divide the documents up in advance for the group leaders so that the load for each student is roughly equal, but that the same groupings of documents are used by all groups so that each “study group” will be able to send a member to the “experts group” for the same documents.

^ They are quite in agreement with the popular language one is accustomed to hear about children and large families, which describes children as sent .
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

.However, languages, now understood as the particular set of speech norms of a particular community, are also a part of the larger culture of the community that speak them.^ In learning cultures within dynamic industries in particular, needed skill sets evolve with every strategy evolution.

.Humans use language as a way of signalling identity with one cultural group and difference from others.^ This paper demonstrates the differences between Sparta and Athens that led to the war, as well as the perceptions of culture in other city states.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Humans need to be reminded again and again, for we are the only ones who can forget and lose our way in our mental complexity.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ One need not go to culture and poetry to find language to judge it.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Even among speakers of one language several different ways of using the language exist, and each is used to signal affiliation with particular subgroups within a larger culture.^ If a culture shows growth of several different types of bacteria, then it is likely that the growth is due to contamination.

^ One need not go to culture and poetry to find language to judge it.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the other benefits of Tea Time is that a few different cultures have tea traditions, and we get a chance to experience teas from around the world and learn a bit about their cultures in the meantime.

.In linguistics such different ways of using the same language are called "varities". For example, the English language is spoken differently in the USA, the UK and Australia, and even within English-speaking countries there are hundreds of dialects of English that each signal a belonging to a particular region and/or subculture.^ Tim Link Native Americans are a great example of how a human can honor an animal and at the same time use them for their needs.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Before the European invasion there were around 250 Aboriginal languages, most of which probably had distinct dialects.
  • Culture of Australia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 16 September 2009 21:59 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For a long time there was no passage for them to make their way in upon us, and then it was of no use to think of adapting the world's action to them.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

.For example, in the UK the cockney dialect signals its speakers' belonging to the group of lower class workers of east London.^ Child rearing varies considerably with the country of origin, class background, the education and occupation of the parents, and the religious group to which a family belongs.
  • Culture of Australia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 16 September 2009 21:59 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Differences between varieties of the same language often consist in different pronunciations and vocabulary, but also sometimes of different grammatical systems and very often in using different styles (e.g.^ The very language which they both of them use in schooling us to reach this aim is often identical.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Even when their language indicates by variation,--sometimes a broad variation, often a but slight and subtle variation,--the different courses of thought which are uppermost in each discipline, even then the unity of the final end and aim is still apparent.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet there is a very important difference between the defeat inflicted on Hellenism by Christianity eighteen hundred years ago, and the check given to the Renascence by Puritanism.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

cockney Rhyming slang or Lawyers' jargon). .Linguists and anthropologists, particularly sociolinguists, ethnolinguists and linguistic anthropologists have specialized in studying how ways of speaking vary between speech communities.^ I know that you kill my kind to eat lamb, and yet I speak to you with love and the hope that our communication can help build avenues of trust and respect between humans and all other species.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Enterobacter species can also cause various community-acquired infections, including UTIs, skin and soft-tissue infections, and wound infections, among others.
  • Enterobacter Infections: eMedicine Infectious Diseases 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.A community's ways of speaking or signing are a part of the community's culture, just as other shared practices are.^ It communicates that their work, their hours toiling away on fleshy canvases should be acknowledged just as other artists more recognized by the canon.
  • Tattoo Culture examines the rituals & social significance of tattooing in cultures around the world 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.vanishingtattoo.com [Source type: General]

^ This is my way of sharing my abilities as a communicator to help those I love.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Other service industries are government administration and defense, education, health and community services, and cultural and recreational services.
  • Culture of Australia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 16 September 2009 21:59 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Language use is a way of establishing and displaying group identity.^ Nevertheless, both the diverse Aboriginal groups and many immigrants continue to use languages other than English.
  • Culture of Australia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 16 September 2009 21:59 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ways of speaking function not only to facilitate communication, but also to identify the social position of the speaker.^ In social media, you have community managers that come with certain skill sets you may or may not have had clearly identified in pre-2.0 jobs and job descriptions.

.Linguists calls different ways of speaking language varieties, a term that encompasses geographically or socioculturally defined dialects as well as the jargons or styles of subcultures.^ The understanding we have of ourselves prevents us from seeing our world in a different way, which is what is called for at this critical moment.
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ Human Resources, and every where else here, making differences in ways well beyond commerce.

.Linguistic anthropologists and sociologists of language define communicative style as the ways that language is used and understood within a particular culture.^ In learning cultures within dynamic industries in particular, needed skill sets evolve with every strategy evolution.

^ We have a Pride Festival , a whole bunch of culture and news sites , a style all our own , outreach programs , our own written and spoken languages, and even our own Pantheon ...
  • memepool.com: Culture archive 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

[94]
.The differences between languages does not consist only in differences in pronunciation, vocabulary or grammar, but also in different "cultures of speaking". Some cultures for example have elaborate systems of "social deixis", systems of signalling social distance through linguistic means[95].^ How does each author present the conflict between different people?

^ The cross and the check may have been necessary and salutary, but that does not do away with the essential difference between the main stream of man's advance and a cross or side stream.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Through culture seems to lie our way, not only to perfection, but even to safety.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

.In English, social deixis is shown mostly though distinguishing between addressing some people by first name and others by surname, but also in titles such as "Mrs.", "boy", "Doctor" or "Your Honor", but in other languages such systems may be highly complex and codified in the entire grammar and vocabulary of the language.^ It may be, as I have said, a proof of our honesty that we do not attempt to give to our ordinary self, as we have it in action, predominant authority, and to impose its rule upon other people.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Language may be abundantly quoted from both Hellenism and Hebraism to make it seem that one follows the same current as the other towards the same goal.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The British Union Jack on the flag is for some people an acknowledgment of historical ties with Britain, while for others it is a reason to change the constitution to emphasize the independence of the nation.
  • Culture of Australia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 16 September 2009 21:59 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In several languages of east Asia, for example Thai, Burmese and Javanese, different words are used according to whether a speaker is addressing someone of higher or lower rank than one self in a ranking system with animals and children ranking the lowest and gods and membes of royalty as the highest[95].^ May be used in more than one subject area .

^ People of lower educational status were more likely to have a tattoo and also more likely to have more than one tattoo than those of higher educational status.
  • Tattoo Culture examines the rituals & social significance of tattooing in cultures around the world 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.vanishingtattoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Mother Earth wants her human children to listen to their older brothers and sisters, the animals, to rekindle their connection with one another.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

.Other languages may use different forms of address when speaking to speakers of the opposite gender or in-law relatives and many languages have special ways of speaking to infants and children.^ Marking systems may differ from species to species.
  • The CITES glossary 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.cites.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This system may differ from species to species.
  • The CITES glossary 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.cites.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Many different species comprise the genus Enterobacter .
  • Enterobacter Infections: eMedicine Infectious Diseases 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Among other groups, the culture of speaking may entail not speaking to particular people, for example many indigenous cultures of Australia have a taboo against talking to one's in-law relatives, and in some cultures speech is not addressed directly to children.^ It also means the culture and custom of a particular group.

^ It was directed, as anyone who reads Dr. Newman's Apology may see, against what in one word may be called 'Liberalism.'
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ You will promote your own well-being to the utmost because tha t is the law of natural life: to promote ones own well-being above the interests of all others.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

.Some languages also require different ways of speaking for different social classes of speakers, and often such a system is based on gender differences as well as in Japanese and Koasati[96].^ Apart from indigenous languages, some twelve major community languages are spoken at home by at least fifty thousand speakers.
  • Culture of Australia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 16 September 2009 21:59 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The writer argues that the ancient laws were directed toward commerce and social control, but were most often based on reference to religious deities.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I observe, too, that the heroes of middle-class liberalism, such as we have hitherto known it, speak with a kind of prophetic anticipation of the great destiny which awaits them, and as if the future was clearly theirs.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

Cultural anthropology

1899–1946: Universal versus particular
Franz Boas established modern American anthropology as the study of the sum total of human phenomena.
Ruth Benedict was instrumental in establishing the modern conception of distinct cultures being patterned.
.The modern anthropological understanding of culture has its origins in the 19th century with German anthropologist Adolf Bastian's theory of the "psychic unity of mankind," which, influenced by Herder and von Humboldt, challenged the identification of "culture" with the way of life of European elites, and British anthropologist Edward Burnett Tylor's attempt to define culture as inclusively as possible.^ We lived for centuries in a world where technology and culture limited women’s possibilities.
  • Culture | The American Scene 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC theamericanscene.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The importance of this understanding, and how soon everyone can realize it continues to define how much life is possible, for whom and for how long.
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ Since that time Australia has been defined as an Anglo-fragment society in which British or Anglo-Celtic culture was and remains dominant.
  • Culture of Australia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 16 September 2009 21:59 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Tylor in 1874 described culture in the following way: "Culture or civilization, taken in its wide ethnographic sense, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society."[97] Although Tylor was not aiming to propose a general theory of culture (he explained his understanding of culture in the course of a larger argument about the nature of religion), American anthropologists have generally presented their various definitions of culture as refinements of Tylor's. .Franz Boas's student Alfred Kroeber (1876–1970) identified culture with the "superorganic," that is, a domain with ordering principles and laws that could not be explained by or reduced to biology.^ Explain to students that they will be examining documents from different eras in U.S. history to understand better the connection between the laws regarding citizenship and racism.

[98] .In 1973, Gerald Weiss reviewed various definitions of culture and debates as to their parsimony and power, and proposed as the most scientifically useful definition that "culture" be defined "as our generic term for all human nongenetic, or metabiological, phenomena" (italics in the original).^ Indeed nearly all the characters of perfection, as culture teaches us to fix them, meet in this country with some powerful tendency which thwarts them and sets them at defiance.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ John Wesley Powell , for example, classified all societies as Savage, Barbarian, and Civilized; the first two of his terms would shock most anthropologists today.

^ Most of the time we all project our own thoughts onto others not really knowing what has brought people to the decisions they make.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

[99]
.Franz Boas, founded modern American anthropology with the establishment of the first graduate program in anthropology at Columbia University in 1896. At the time the dominant model of culture was that of cultural evolution, which posited that human societies progressed through stages of savagery to barbarism to civilization; thus, societies that for example are based on horticulture and Iroquois kinship terminology are less evolved that societies based on agriculture and Eskimo kinship terminology.^ Everyone lives in a society and a culture, but not everyone lives in a civilization.

^ All civilized cultures are based on agriculture, and they are all non-sustainable.
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ John Wesley Powell , for example, classified all societies as Savage, Barbarian, and Civilized; the first two of his terms would shock most anthropologists today.

One of Boas's greatest accomplishments was to demonstrate convincingly that this model is fundamentally flawed, empirically, methodologically, and theoretically. .Moreover, he felt that our knowledge of different cultures was so incomplete, and often based on unsystematic or unscientific research, that it was impossible to develop any scientifically valid general model of human cultures.^ And,--to keep to our point of the influence of religious establishments upon culture and a high development of our humanity,--we can surely see reasons why, with all her energy and fine gifts, America does not show more of this development, or more promise of this.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ And because men are all members of one great whole, and the sympathy which is in human nature will not allow one member to be indifferent to the rest or to have a perfect welfare independent of the rest, the expansion of our humanity, to suit the idea of perfection which culture forms, must be a general expansion.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ But culture, which is the study of perfection, leads us, as we in the following pages have shown, to conceive of true human perfection as a harmonious perfection, developing all sides of our humanity; and as a general perfection, developing all parts of our society.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Instead, he established the principle of cultural relativism and trained students to conduct rigorous participant observation field research in different societies.^ So Jacobs explores economic development across wide networks instead of treating each society as an isolated cultural sphere.

^ It is assumed that students will conduct all research outside of class.

^ Different civilizations and societies all over the globe are economically, politically, and even culturally interdependent in many ways.

.Boas understood the capacity for culture to involve symbolic thought and social learning, and considered the evolution of a capacity for culture to coincide with the evolution of other, biological, features defining genus Homo.^ One of the other benefits of Tea Time is that a few different cultures have tea traditions, and we get a chance to experience teas from around the world and learn a bit about their cultures in the meantime.

^ In learning cultures within dynamic industries in particular, needed skill sets evolve with every strategy evolution.

^ Humanism & The Italian Renaissance / Development Of Late Medieval : A 5 page paper that provides and overview of humanism during the Italian Renaissnace and considers the impacts on social constructs, religion and medieval thought.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nevertheless, he argued that culture could not be reduced to biology or other expressions of symbolic thought, such as language.^ Migrant groups want their languages to be maintained through government policies such as the Languages Other Than English (LOTE) program in secondary schools.
  • Culture of Australia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 16 September 2009 21:59 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Boas and his students understood culture inclusively and resisted developing a general definition of culture. .Indeed, they resisted identifying "culture" as a thing, instead using culture as an adjective rather than a noun.^ Typically, the kidnappers would do horrible things to young women, like use hot sticks to disfigure them so they were unsuitable as mates.

^ I have come to appreciate that animals identify more with their spirits rather than their bodies, and have a much longer view of life than we do.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Each team will survey one of the textbooks they use in any of the following subjects: biology, sociology, psychology, geography, anthropology, U.S. or world history/culture.

.Boas argued that cultural "types" or "forms" are always in a state of flux.^ Growing cultures, he argued, tend to develop into imperialistic civilizations which expand and ultimately collapse, with democratic forms of government ushering in plutocracy and ultimately imperialism.

[100][101] His student Alfred Kroeber argued that the "unlimited receptivity and assimilativeness of culture" made it practically impossible to think of cultures as discrete things.[102]
Wovoka, Paiute spiritual leader and creator of the Ghost Dance
Zuñi girl with jar, 1903
Hopi Basket Weaver
.Boas's students dominated cultural anthropology through World War II, and continued to have great influence through the 1960s.^ Since World War II, much trade has been redirected from Britain and Europe to the Asia-Pacific region, especially Japan.
  • Culture of Australia - History and ethnic relations, Urbanism, architecture, and the use of space 16 September 2009 21:59 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fucking come on then!", and of course, "ALL YOUR BASE ARE BELONG TO US", manifested through the ever-entertaining medium of Old World War One and Two posters .
  • memepool.com: Culture archive 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

^ From the American Civil War to the End of World War II. ISBN 0-306-80306-2 (1987 reprint).

.They were especially interested in two phenomena: the great variety of forms culture took around the world,[103] and the many ways individuals were shaped by and acted creatively through their own cultures.^ He mentioned above that I’ve been involved in numerous other mods, and they all fail in comparison with Fall in many ways, but the most glaring is that they simply don’t have his leadership.

^ Through culture seems to lie our way, not only to perfection, but even to safety.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ In this way a man who is interested in the art of war not only acquaints himself with the performance of great generals, but he has an admiration and enthusiasm for them.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

[104][105] .This led his students to focus on the history of cultural traits: how they spread from one society to another, and how their meanings changed over time[106][107]—and the life histories of members of other societies.^ They support one another.

^ In coming to understand the strengths and limitations of their own and others’ cultural perspectives, students are better able to evaluate their own views and their own level of intercultural understanding.

^ You will promote your own well-being to the utmost because tha t is the law of natural life: to promote ones own well-being above the interests of all others.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

[108][109][110][111][112][113][114][115] .Others, such as Ruth Benedict (1887–1948) and Margaret Mead (1901–1978), produced monographs or comparative studies analyzing the forms of creativity possible to individuals within specific cultural configurations.^ Critics of "globalisation" reject such a coupling of the terms, saying that what is called "globalisation" is in fact a form of "global corporatisation " and that other forms of globalisation are possible, (for example, in respect for International Human Rights, and the Geneva conventions against torture of political and prisoners of war).

^ Those who do not occupy their time in producing food may instead focus their efforts in other fields, such as industry , war , science or religion .

^ Aim DNA staining methods such as Hoechst staining techniques are quick with results available within 24 hours, which compares favorably with 4 weeks for detection by culture.

[116][117][118] .Essential to their research was the concept of "context": culture provided a context that made the behavior of individuals understandable; geography and history provided a context for understanding the differences between cultures.^ Poetry was particularly studied, and some attention was given to the fundamentals of history, geography, physics and astronomy (at least such necessary to understand the poetic texts).

^ The cross and the check may have been necessary and salutary, but that does not do away with the essential difference between the main stream of man's advance and a cross or side stream.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning has created standards and benchmarks for language arts, math, science, geography, economics, and history.

Thus, although Boasians were committed to the belief in the psychic unity of humankind and the universality of culture, their emphasis on local context and cultural diversity led them away from proposing cultural universals or universal theories of culture.
.There is a tension in cultural anthropology between the claim that culture as a universal (the fact that all human societies have culture), and that it is also particular (culture takes a tremendous variety of forms around the world).^ We all choose what form we will take when we reincarnate.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ But there has always been a line in the sand between tattoo culture and fine art.
  • Tattoo Culture examines the rituals & social significance of tattooing in cultures around the world 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.vanishingtattoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Morton Fried , a conflict theorist, and Elman Service , an integration theorist, have produced a system of classification for all human cultures and societies based on the evolution of social inequality and the role of the state .

Since Boas, two debates have dominated cultural anthropology. The first has to do with ways of modeling particular cultures. Specifically, anthropologists have argued as to whether "culture" can be thought of as a bounded and integrated thing, or as a quality of a diverse collection of things, the numbers and meanings of which are in constant flux. .Boas's student Ruth Benedict suggested that in any given society cultural traits may be more or less "integrated," that is, constituting a pattern of action and thought that gives purpose to people's lives, and provides them with a basis from which to evaluate new actions and thoughts, although she implies that there are various degrees of integration; indeed, she observes that some cultures fail to integrate.^ There was indeed some distinguished patricians living there.

^ Although there was some ties to the gens .

^ New research is shown to indicate that people who lived in earlier times were more sophisticated than once thought, even playing similar instruments and employing comparable techniques.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[119] .Boas, however, argued that complete integration is rare and that a given culture only appears to be integrated because of observer bias.^ Because our goal with Civ4 was to have a completely dynamic help system, we rarely used these tags.

[120] .For Boas, the appearance of such patterns—a national culture, for example—was the effect of a particular point of view.^ This is what the lovers of culture may perhaps dare to augur for such a nation as ours.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

[121]
The first debate was effectively suspended in 1934 when Ruth Benedict published Patterns of Culture, which has continuously been in print. .Although this book is well known for popularizing the Boasian principle of cultural relativism, among anthropologists it constituted both an important summary of the discoveries of Boasians, and a decisive break from Boas's emphasis on the mobility of diverse cultural traits.^ Twitter: "Work at #EMC offers Opportunity, innovation, diversity both cultural and technical, reward, recognition, leadership, challenge, excitement" .

^ Kristian Misser has published numerous articles featuring well-known tattoo artists, tattoo culture and must see spots on the tattoo convention circuit, in addition to several well received books on tattooing.
  • Tattoo Culture examines the rituals & social significance of tattooing in cultures around the world 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.vanishingtattoo.com [Source type: General]

."Anthropological work has been overwhelmingly devoted to the analysis of cultural traits," she wrote "rather than to the study of cultures as articulated wholes."^ But the aspirations of culture, which is the study of perfection, are not satisfied, unless what men say, when they may say what they like, is worth saying,--has good in it, and more good than bad.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The Wealthy The cuisine of a culture is largely defined, still today, by those who possess the wealth to eat what they fancy, rather than what they can afford.

^ McKibben makes the same pathetic mistake the dominant culture of emrpire makes: Holding civilization up as the thing to save, rather than LIFE being what we need to save.
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

[122] Influenced by Polish-British social anthropologist Bronisław Malinowski, however, she argued that "The first essential, so it seems today, is to study the living culture, to know its habits of thought and the functions of its institutions" and that "the only way in which we can know the significance of the selected detail of behavior is against the background of the motives and emotions and values that are institutionalized in that culture."[123] Influenced by German historians Wilhelm Dilthey and Oswald Spengler, as well as by gestalt psychology, she argued that "the whole determines its parts, not only their relation but their very nature,"[124] and that "cultures, likewise, are more than the sum of their traits."[125] Just as each spoken language draws very selectively from an extensive, but finite, set of sounds any human mouth (free from defect) can make, she concluded that in each society people, over time and through both conscious and unconscious processes, selected from an extensive but finite set of cultural traits which then combine to form a unique and distinctive pattern."[126]
The significance of cultural behavior is not exhausted when we have clearly understood that it is local and man-made and hugely variable. It tends to be integrated. A culture, like an individual, is a more or less consistent pattern of thought and action. Within each culture there come into being characteristic purposes not necessarily shared by other types of society. In obedience to their purposes, each people further and further consolodates its experience, and in proportion to the urgency of these drives the heterogeneous items of behavior take more and more congruous shape. Taken up by a well-integrated culture, the most ill-assorted acts become characteristic of its particular goals, often by the most unlikely metamorphoses.[127]
.Although Benedict felt that virtually all cultures are patterened, she argued that these patterns change over time as a consequence of human creativity, and therefore different societies around the world had distinct characters.^ Indeed nearly all the characters of perfection, as culture teaches us to fix them, meet in this country with some powerful tendency which thwarts them and sets them at defiance.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ We need to completely change the way we see and interact with LIFE. I saw this mentioned a couple times, and the author's of these posts are seeing the light.
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ Renaissance -- Groundwork Of The Western World : A 6 page paper discussing the Renaissance and its differences and similarities to contemporary society.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Patterns of Culture contrasts Zuňi, Dobu and Kwakiutl cultures as a way of highlighting different ways of being human.^ Human Resources, and every where else here, making differences in ways well beyond commerce.

^ I condemn neither way; but culture works differently.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

Benedict observed that many Westerners felt that this view forced them to abandon their "dreams of permanence and ideality and with the individual's illusions of autonomy" and that for many, this made existence "empty."[128] .She argued however that once people accepted the results of scientific research, people would "arrive then at a more realistic social faith, accepting as grounds of hope and as new bases for tolerance the coexisting and equally valid patterns of life which mankind has created for itself from the raw materials of existence."^ About one in five adult New Zealanders have been tattooed with women more likely to get one than men and young people.
  • Tattoo Culture examines the rituals & social significance of tattooing in cultures around the world 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.vanishingtattoo.com [Source type: General]

^ In practice however, it would generally be so that the sons, once matured were granted their independence by their father.

^ Information to the Brain -- people connecting with one another, including on social platforms, is becoming a major factor in driving business results.

[128]
.This view of culture has had a tremendous impact outside of anthropology, and dominated American anthropology until the Cold War, when anthropologists like Sidney Mintz and Eric Wolf rejected the validity and value of approaching "each culture" as "a world in itself" and "relatively stable.".[129] They felt that, too often, this approach ignored the impact of imperialism, colonialism, and the world capitalist economy on the peoples Benedict and her followers studied (and thus re-opened the debate on the relationship between the universal and the particular, in the form of the relationship between the global and the local).^ They have often been without the virtues as well as the faults of the Puritan; it has been one of their dangers that they so felt the Puritan's faults that they too much neglected the practice of his virtues.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The idea of living of cities, like with the Greeks, was a cultural statement in itself.

^ Don't forget to study the relationship between loose underwear and celery in the illustrations of Art Frahm .
  • memepool.com: Culture archive 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

In the meantime, its emphasis on metamorphising patterns influenced French structuralism and made American anthropologists receptive to British structural-functionalism.
Turkish nomad clan with the nodes as marriages
Mexican village with the nodes as marriages
Iroqois Kinship Structure
Culinary triangle
.The second debate has been over the ability to make universal claims about all cultures.^ Still, I have often spoken in praise of culture, I have striven to make all my works and ways serve the interests of culture.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The best we can do is make a conscious choice about what we eat to be as balanced on all levels as possible.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Now culture, because of its keen sense of what is really fatal, is all the more disposed to be rather indifferent about what is not fatal.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Although Boas argued that anthropologists had yet to collect enough solid evidence from a diverse sample of societies to make any valid general or universal claims about culture, by the 1940s some felt ready.^ In my meeting with Creative Director Craig we were discussing some of the special elements that make up the EMC culture.

^ In addition to discussion culture, purpose, and general aesthetics, the writer also makes mention of the tools and methods used to construct these great architectural works.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Suetonius’ ‘‘The Twelve Caesars’’ / Reflection Roman Culture & Society : A 5 page essay that looks at what can be learned about Roman culture from this ancient document.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Whereas Kroeber and Benedict had argued that "culture"—which could refer to local, regional, or trans-regional scales—was in some way "patterned" or "configured," some anthropologists now felt that enough data had been collected to demonstrate that it often took highly structured forms.^ Thats the way everything appears to be going right now, as there appears to be very few around to care enough right now.
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ The writer argues that the ancient laws were directed toward commerce and social control, but were most often based on reference to religious deities.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some scientists now tell us we could recreate the entire universe from one cell of anything, because that cell has been everything at one time or another!
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

The question these anthropologists debated was, were these structures statistical artifacts, or where they expressions of mental models? .This debate emerged full-fledged in 1949, with the publication of George Murdock's Social Structure, and Claude Lévi-Strauss's Les Structures Élémentaires de la Parenté.^ Agoras, Greek & Roman : A 6 page paper that explores the ancient Greek and Roman architecture of agoras (public squares), including their construction, materials, structures, ornamentation, and social significance.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Social Structure of Portugal as Reflected in the Work of Ea de Queiroz : A 6 page paper primarily dealing with the social history of Portugal.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Opposing Boas and his students, Yale anthropologist George Murdock, who compiled the Human Relations Area Files. .These files code cultural variables found in different societies, so that anthropologists can use statistical methods to study correlations among different variables.^ TATTOOS USED 'TO IMPROVE APPEARANCE' A Central Queensland University study has found that people who decide to get a tattoo are not doing it to be "socially deviant", but do it to improve their appearance.
  • Tattoo Culture examines the rituals & social significance of tattooing in cultures around the world 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.vanishingtattoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Knows various roles that musicians perform (e.g., entertainer, teacher, transmitter of cultural tradition) and representative individuals who have functioned in these roles .

^ Aim The protocol below describes the use of passive methods involving an electric -80ºC freezer for the cryopreservation of cell cultures.

[130][131][132] .The ultimate aim of this project is to develop generalizations that apply to increasingly larger numbers of individual cultures.^ The exhibition aims to develop and investigate the cultural and social implications of the tattoo in Portland.
  • Tattoo Culture examines the rituals & social significance of tattooing in cultures around the world 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.vanishingtattoo.com [Source type: General]

.Later, Murdock and Douglas R. White developed the standard cross-cultural sample as a way to refine this method.^ Aim To ensure all cell culture procedures are performed to a standard that will prevent contamination from bacteria, fungi and mycoplasma and cross contamination with other cell lines.

.French anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss's structuralist anthropology brought together ideas of Boas (especially Boas's belief in the mutability of cultural forms, and Bastian's belief in the psychic unity of humankind) and French sociologist's Émile Durkheim's focus on social structures (institutionalized relationships among persons and groups of persons).^ Understands the influence of media on society as a whole (e.g., influence in shaping various governmental, social, and cultural norms; influence on the democratic process; influence on beliefs, lifestyles, and understanding of relationships and culture; how it shapes viewer's perceptions of reality; the various consequences in society of ideas and images in media) .

.Instead of making generalizations that applied to large numbers of societies, Lévi-Strauss sought to derive from concrete cases increasingly abstract models of human nature.^ And what he wants is a larger conception of human nature, showing him the number of other points at which his nature must come to its best, besides the points which he himself knows and thinks of.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ It is important to support organic farming, humane treatment of food animals, and in general, to make food choices with conscious awareness of their source.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It places it in the ever-increasing efficacy and in the general harmonious expansion of those gifts of thought and feeling, which make the peculiar dignity, wealth, and happiness of human nature.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

.His method begins with the supposition that culture exists in two different forms: the many distinct structures that could be inferred from observing members of the same society interact (and of which members of a society are themselves aware), and abstract structures developed by analyzing shared ways (such as myths and rituals) members of a society represent their social life (and of which members of a society are not only not consciously aware, and which typically stand in opposition to, or negate, the social structures of which people are aware).^ He developed and shared many of the processes he pioneered.

^ Tribal societies like the Hopi Indians avoided the inherent problems of a law-enforcement class because accountability was built-in to their social structure; you interacted with the same hundred or so people your entire life, so you knew there would be consequences for inappropriate behavior.
  • memepool.com: Culture archive 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

^ And since Roman society was a mobile structure, where people could receive names not only by birth but also by adoption or enfranchisement the gens was largely meaningless.

.He then sought to develop one universal mental structure that could only be inferred through the systematic comparison of particular social and cultural structures.^ And since Roman society was a mobile structure, where people could receive names not only by birth but also by adoption or enfranchisement the gens was largely meaningless.

^ Humans need to be reminded again and again, for we are the only ones who can forget and lose our way in our mental complexity.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Some scientists now tell us we could recreate the entire universe from one cell of anything, because that cell has been everything at one time or another!
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

.He argued that just as there are laws through which a finite and relatively small number of chemical elements could be combined to create a seemingly infinite variety of things, there were a finite and relatively small number of cultural elements which people combine to create the great variety of cultures anthropologists observe.^ There are lots of things we could do, but each has to viewed against the time to create.

^ This company has done great things for me and my family; I try to pass that along to my people.

^ Great, noble deeds might be done, but without people knowing of them there was no glory, no fame and no advantage to be gained from them.

.The systematic comparison of societies would enable an anthropologist to develop this cultural "table of elements," and once completed, this table of cultural elements would enable an anthropologist to analyze specific cultures and achieve insights hidden to the very people who produced and lived through these cultures.^ Let us observe, on the other hand, the love and enthusiasm excited by others who have laboured for these very things.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ As I compiled the photos, I couldn't help but notice the support of people who have come to know one another through social media at EMC. .

^ 'People who talk about what they call culture!
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

[133][134] Structuralism came to dominate French anthropology and, in the late 1960s and 1970s, came to have great influence on American and British anthropology.
Murdock's HRAF and Lévi-Strauss's structuralism provide two ambitious ways to seek the universal in the particular, and both approaches continue to appeal to different anthropologists. However, the differences between them reveal a tension implicit in the heritage of Tylor and Bastian. .Is culture to be found in empirically observed behaviors that may form the basis of generalizations?^ But we may give to this idea a more general form still, in which it will have a yet larger range of application.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The rate of cooling may vary but as a general guide a rate of between –1ºC and –3ºC per minute will prove suitable for the majority of cell cultures.

Or does it consist of universal mental processes, which must be inferred and abstracted from observed behavior? This question has driven debates among biological anthropologists and archeologists as well.
Structural-Functionalist challenge: Society versus culture
.In the 1940s the Boasian understanding of culture was challenged by a new paradigm for anthropological and social science research called Structural functionalism.^ Standard 17 : Understands massive immigration after 1870 and how new social patterns, conflicts, and ideas of national unity developed amid growing cultural diversity .

^ I take culture to be something a great deal more than what Mr. Frederic Harrison and others call it: 'a desirable quality in a critic of new books.'
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

.This paradigm developed independently but in parallel in both the United Kingdom and in the United States (In both cases it is sui generis: it has no direct relationship to "structuralism" except that both French structuralism and Anglo-American Structural-Functionalism were all influenced by Durkheim.^ United States History photo set : Thomas Jefferson’s Draft Declaration of Independence.

^ United States History photo set : Cartoon, “Welcome to All!

^ United States History photo set : The Dearborn Independent cover, “Jewish Jazz-Moron Music…,” 1921.

It is also analogous, but unrelated to, other forms of "functionalism"). .Whereas the Boasians viewed anthropology as that natural science dedicated to the study of humankind, structural functionalists viewed anthropology as one social science among many, dedicated to the study of one specific facet of humanity.^ We still have work to do, and the nature of AI is that it will probably never compare to a real human (one of the reasons that multiplayer is so important to us), but we have come a long way.

^ Human Nature in Renaissance Art : A 20 page paper describing the view of human nature on renaissance art.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But, finally, perfection,--as culture from a thorough disinterested study of human nature and human experience learns to conceive it, is a harmonious expansion of all the powers which make the beauty and worth of human nature, and is not consistent with the over-development of any one power at the expense of the rest.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

This led structural-functionalists to redefine and minimize the scope of "culture."
.In the United Kingdom, the creation of structural functionalism was anticipated by Raymond Firth's (1901–2002) We the Tikopia, published in 1936, and marked by the publication of African Political Systems, edited by Meyer Fortes (1906–1983) and E.E. Evans-Pritchard (1902–1973) in 1940.[135][136] In these works these anthropologists forwarded a synthesis of the ideas of their mentor, Bronisław Malinowski (1884-1942), and his rival, A. R. Radcliffe-Brown (1881–1955).^ He does a lot of our animation work and has created some very unique units for the mod.

^ He meant that through their military service the idea of public duty and of discipline was brought to the mind of these masses, in other respects so raw and uncultivated.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ These gangs were closed groups of specialist workers who tended to work as a unit and were generally not split up again.

.Both Malinowski and Radcliffe-Brown viewed anthropology—what they call "social anthropology"—as that branch of sociology that studied so-called primitive societies.^ Public health and social issues are taken into consideration as they relate to each of the two societies discussed.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "People are doing it because they want to be socially accepted rather than because they're rejecting society's norms and expectations," she said.
  • Tattoo Culture examines the rituals & social significance of tattooing in cultures around the world 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.vanishingtattoo.com [Source type: General]

^ On their internal social network, they have a ticker running constantly called "Kudos" where anyone is welcome to recognize anyone else.

.According to Malinowski's theory of functionalism, all human beings have certain biological needs, such as the need for food and shelter, and humankind has the biological need to reproduce.^ But all human beings will!
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ However, the idea that human beings belong to biologically distinct races emerged quite recently in world history, in the 1700s.

^ All human beings are in the process of evolving into vegetarians and vegans, but some are still struggling with bodies and food desires that are adapted for the ice ages and hunting and gathering.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

.Every society develops its own institutions, which function to fulfill these needs.^ But, in a serious people, where every one has to choose and strive for his own order and discipline of religion, the contention about these non-essentials occupies his mind.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ And even the institutions, which should develop these, take the same narrow and partial view of humanity and its wants as the free religious communities take.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

.In order for these institutions to function, individuals take on particular social roles that regulate how they act and interact.^ Indeed, individuals will not only have to take matters into their own hands, they will have to try hard to understand the processes whereby we arrived at this point.
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ Knows various roles that musicians perform (e.g., entertainer, teacher, transmitter of cultural tradition) and representative individuals who have functioned in these roles .

^ Trade in specimens of these species must be subject to particularly strict regulation in order not to endanger further their survival and must only be authorized in exceptional circumstances.
  • The CITES glossary 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.cites.org [Source type: Academic]

.Although members of any given society may not understand the ultimate functions of their roles and institutions, an ethnographer can develop a model of these functions through the careful observation of social life.^ Although a student may have made the presentation as a member of a group, the teacher must attribute points on an individual basis.

^ Knows various roles that musicians perform (e.g., entertainer, teacher, transmitter of cultural tradition) and representative individuals who have functioned in these roles .

^ Life in Elizabethan England Analyzed : This 6 page research paper describes the life of a typical member of Elizabethan society.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[137] .Radcliffe-Brown rejected Malinowski's notion of function, and believed that a general theory of primitive social life could only be built up through the careful comparison of different societies.^ And since Roman society was a mobile structure, where people could receive names not only by birth but also by adoption or enfranchisement the gens was largely meaningless.

^ The only furniture that could stand up to four huskies and two cats was upholstered in leather.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The use of bread seems to have become general only at the beginning of the second century BC. Previous to this grain was used as puls , a mashed up form of corn gruel.

.Influenced by the work of French sociologist Émile Durkheim (1858–1917), who argued that primitive and modern societies are distinguished by distinct social structures, Radcliffe-Brown argued that anthropologists first had to map out the social structure of any given society before comparing the structures of different societies.^ Ptolemy I Soter / Egyptian Pharaoh : A 5 page research report that reviews the works and accomplishments of an Egyptian Pharaoh who laid the foundation for the modern day university system.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From that first trip out into the wilderness, we wanted the player to realize he was in a different world, and it was a much more dangerous one.

^ The writer explores the gender roles, ethnicity, language, and religion, and other important influences in modern Greek society.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[138] Firth, Fortes, and Evans-Pritchard found it easy to combine Malinowski's attention to social roles and institutions with Radcliffe-Brown's concern with social structures. .They distinguished between "social organization" (observable social interactions) and "social structure" (rule-governed patterns of social interaction), and shifted their attention from biological functions to social functions (for example, how different institutions are functionally integrated, and the extent to, and ways in, which institutions function to promote social solidarity and stability.^ The Differences Between Feudalism Before and After the Norman Conquest : This 8 page paper reviews how feudalism evolved from its original application after the Norman Conquest and the rule of William I. Bibliography lists five sources.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ask students to consider what they have learned about knowledge and how different disciplines seek to define knowledge and think about how it may apply to race.

^ How does each author present the conflict between different people?

.In short, instead of culture (understood as all human non-genetic or extra-somatic phenomena)they made "sociality" (interations and relationships among persons and groups of people) their object of study.^ All civilized cultures are based on agriculture, and they are all non-sustainable.
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ And, for my part, when I regard the young people of this class, it is above all by the trial and shipwreck made of their own welfare by the circumstances in which they live that I am struck.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ TATTOOS USED 'TO IMPROVE APPEARANCE' A Central Queensland University study has found that people who decide to get a tattoo are not doing it to be "socially deviant", but do it to improve their appearance.
  • Tattoo Culture examines the rituals & social significance of tattooing in cultures around the world 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.vanishingtattoo.com [Source type: General]

(Indeed, Radcliffe-Brown once wrote "I should like to invoke a taboo on the word culture.")[139]
.Coincidentally, in 1946 sociologist Talcott Parsons (1902–1979) founded the Department of Social Relations at Harvard University.^ TATTOOS USED 'TO IMPROVE APPEARANCE' A Central Queensland University study has found that people who decide to get a tattoo are not doing it to be "socially deviant", but do it to improve their appearance.
  • Tattoo Culture examines the rituals & social significance of tattooing in cultures around the world 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.vanishingtattoo.com [Source type: General]

Influenced by such European sociologists as Émile Durkheim and Max Weber, Parsons developed a theory of social action that was closer to British social anthropology than to Boas's American anthropology, and which he also called "structural functionalism." Parson's intention was to develop a total theory of social action (why people act as they do), and to develop at Harvard and inter-disciplinary program that would direct research according to this theory. His model explained human action as the result of four systems:
  1. the "behavioral system" of biological needs
  2. the "personality system" of an individual's characteristics affecting their functioning in the social world
  3. the "social system" of patterns of units of social interaction, especially social status and role
  4. the "cultural system" of norms and values that regulate social action symbolically
.According to this theory, the second system was the proper object of study for psychologists; the third system for sociologists, and the fourth system for cultural anthropologists.^ ENERGY China ranks second in production of solar cells, Japan is third, USA is fourth .
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

[140][141] .Whereas the Boasians considered all of these systems to be objects of study by anthropologists, and "personality" and "status and role" to be as much a part of "culture" as "norms and values," Parsons envisioned a much narrower role for anthropology and a much narrower definition of culture.^ The great politicians might far more have been playing a part in a great theatre play, fighting out their personal struggles for power, but playing their role as champions of a greater cause.

^ No serious man would call this culture , or attach any value to it, as culture, at all.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ But culture, which is the study of perfection, leads us, as we in the following pages have shown, to conceive of true human perfection as a harmonious perfection, developing all sides of our humanity; and as a general perfection, developing all parts of our society.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Although Boasian cultural anthropologists were interested in norms and values, among many other things, it was only with the rise of structural functionalism that people came to identify "culture" with "norms and values."^ And since Roman society was a mobile structure, where people could receive names not only by birth but also by adoption or enfranchisement the gens was largely meaningless.

^ Although many tribal cultures no longer need to hunt for survival, they retain their dietary habits.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It does not help me to think a thing more clearly that thousands of other people are thinking the same; but it does help me to worship with more emotion that thousands of other people are worshipping with me.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

Many American anthropologists rejected this view of culture (and by implication, anthropology). In 1980, anthropologist Eric Wolf wrote,
As the social sciences transformed themselves into "behavioral" science, explanations for behavior were no longer traced to culture: behavior was to be understood in terms of psychological encounters, strategies of economic choice, strivings for payoffs in games of power. Culture, once extended to all acts and ideas employed in social life, was now relegated to the margins as "world view" or "values."[142]
Nevertheless, several of Talcott Parsons' students emerged as leading American anthropologists. .At the same time, many American anthropologists had a high regard for the research produced by social anthropologists in the 1940s and 1950s, and found structural-functionalism to provide a very useful model for conducting ethnographic research.^ And the one and only Thomas Otter , Industry Analyst with Gartner sent this sweet little Tweet regarding EMC's use of social media: .

^ At the time, Ben was making his own smaller modpacks (mods providing new functions to be used by other modders instead of being played).

^ Paul used the contradiction between the Jew's profession and practice, his shortcomings on that very side of moral affection and moral conduct which the Jew and St. Paul, both of them, regarded as all in all ('Thou that sayest a man should not steal, dost thou steal?
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

.The combination of American cultural anthropology theory with British social anthropology methods has led to some confusion between the concepts of "society" and "culture."^ This paper demonstrates the differences between Sparta and Athens that led to the war, as well as the perceptions of culture in other city states.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For most anthropologists, these are distinct concepts. .Society refers to a group of people; culture refers to a pan-human capacity and the totality of non-genetic human phenomena.^ How do the human sciences help us to understand many of the misunderstandings and frictions which frequently arise between groups of people?

^ There is as much individuality in the needs of human bodies as there is in the rest of the animal world, and animal communicators are no different in this regard than any other group of people.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Stomach Capacity CARNIVORE: 60% to 70% of total volume of digestive tract HERBIVORE: Less than 30% of total volume of digestive tract OMNIVORE: 60% to 70% of total volume of digestive tract HUMAN: 21% to 27% of total volume of digestive tract .
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

.Societies are often clearly bounded; cultural traits are often mobile, and cultural boundaries, such as they are, are typically porous, permeable, and plural.^ In the eastern provinces they were often worshipped as gods by a population used to treating their rulers in such fashion.

^ Yet Barbie clearly permeates our society, from knock-offs with attitude to sports marketing .
  • memepool.com: Culture archive 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

[143] .During the 1950s and 1960s anthropologists often worked in places where social and cultural boundaries coincided, thus obscuring the distinction.^ Still, I have often spoken in praise of culture, I have striven to make all my works and ways serve the interests of culture.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

.When disjunctures between these boundaries become highly salient, for example during the period of European de-colonization of Africa in the 1960s and 1970s, or during the post-Bretton Woods realignment of globalization, however, the difference often becomes central to anthropological debates.^ Their study "...largely ruling out major bursts of methane from seafloor deposits during a period of global warming..."
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

[144][145][146][147][148]
1946–1968: Symbolic versus adaptive
Huli Wigman from the Southern Highlands
In Hinduism, the cow is a symbol of wealth, strength, and selfless giving.
Cleveley's depiction of Captain Cook
Vietcong troops pose with new AK-47 rifles
.Parsons' students Clifford Geertz and David M. Schneider, and Schneider's student Roy Wagner, went on to important careers as cultural anthropologists and developed a school within American cultural anthropology called "symbolic anthropology," the study of the social construction and social effects of symbols.^ Humanism & The Italian Renaissance / Development Of Late Medieval : A 5 page paper that provides and overview of humanism during the Italian Renaissnace and considers the impacts on social constructs, religion and medieval thought.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[149][150][151][152] .Since symbolic anthropology easily complemented social anthropologists' studies of social life and social structure, many British structural-functionalists (who rejected or were uninterested in Boasian cultural anthropology) accepted the Parsonian definition of "culture" and "cultural anthropology."^ I gave the link for a very important article written by a man who has spent his enitre adult life studying the planet.
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ Posted at 07:40 PM in Culture , Employee Engagement , Employment Brand , Social Meda in the Enterprise , Who Is Polly?

.British anthropologist Victor Turner (who eventually left the United Kingdom to teach in the United States) was an important bridge between American and British symbolic anthropology.^ United States History photo set : Hebrew Happy New Year card featuring Jewish immigrants, between 1900-1920.

^ United States History photo set : Photograph of boy behind barbed wire at Tule Lake, California, between 1942-1945.

^ It isn't just a problem for or about the citizens of the United States for one thing, it's a 'critically' important world-wide problem.
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

[153]
.Attention to symbols, the meaning of which depended almost entirely on their historical and social context, appealed to many Boasians.^ Why do you think so many FORTUNE 500s are hesitant to embrace social media as a means to engage with talent, customers, prospects, investors, and more?

.Leslie White asked of cultural things, "What sort of objects are they?^ Ask whether there they see any acting, as is described on page 191 in the acting black or white passage.

^ They take a rather shotgun approach to myth, excluding no cultures -- which is a good thing.
  • memepool.com: Culture archive 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

^ But there is of culture another view, in which not solely the scientific passion, the sheer desire to see things as they are, natural and proper in an intelligent being, appears as the ground of it.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

Are they physical objects? Mental objects? Both? Metaphors? Symbols? Reifications?" .In Science of Culture (1949), he concluded that they are objects "sui generis"; that is, of their own kind.^ They consciously held a matrix of support and unity for their own kind and for the whole Earth.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ An intense examination of this early culture concludes that they study of the ancient world is relevant to us today.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They would act as a kind of police, making sure no harm came to their own, that nothing was stolen from them.

.In trying to define that kind, he hit upon a previously unrealized aspect of symbolization, which he called "the symbolate"—an object created by the act of symbolization.^ We try to hit that kind of synergy with every civilization, but I think we got closest to it with the Calabim.

He thus defined culture as "symbolates understood in an extra-somatic context."[154]
Nevertheless, by the 1930s White began turning away from the Boasian approach.[155] He wrote,
In order to live man, like all other species, must come to terms with the external world.... Man employs his sense organs, nerves, glands, and muscles in adjusting himself to the external world. But in addition to this he has another means of adjustment and control.... This mechanism is culture.[156]
Although this view echoes that of Malinowski, the key concept for White was not "function" but "adaptation." .Whereas the Boasians were interested in the history of specific traits, White was interested in the cultural history of the human species, which he felt should be studied from an evolutionary perspective.^ World History photo set : Loaded slave ship from Thomas Clarkson, Essay on the Slavery and Commerce of the Human Species .

^ But the evolution of these forces, separately and in themselves, is not the whole evolution of humanity,--their single history is not the whole history of man; whereas their admirers are always apt to make it stand for the whole history.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Race Study Guide Race: A History Beyond Black and White .

.Thus, the task of anthropology is to study "not only how culture evolves, but why as well....^ Well, and this is the very self which culture, or the study of perfection, seeks to develop in us; at the expense of our old untransformed self, taking pleasure only in doing what it likes or is used to do, and exposing us to the risk of clashing with everyone else who is doing the same!
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

In the case of man ... the power to invent and to discover, the ability to select and use the better of two tools or ways of doing something- these are the factors of cultural evolution."[157] .Unlike 19th century evolutionists, who were concerned with how civilized societies rose above primitive societies, White was interested in documenting how, over time, humankind as a whole has through cultural means discovered more and more ways for capturing and harnessing energy from the environment, in the process transforming culture.^ According to a new poll, the idea of a “Russia for the Russians” is increasingly polarizing Russian society in a time of increased concern over immigration and rising nationalism.
  • Culture : The Other Russia 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.theotherrussia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Back in June I wrote more about what this is all about – our career track for techies who are great at inventing mind boggling stuff – and how we recognize them.

^ See this post written by EMC's Dave Spencer today to get a real-time case study on a positive mirror effect and how this relates to building culture.

.At the same time that White was developing his theory of cultural evolution, Kroeber's student Julian Steward was developing his theory of cultural ecology.^ A History of Dictionaries : This 7 page paper provides an overview of the "invention" of dictionaries, their evolution over time, and their role in the development of human communication.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This lesson is intended to help students understand the evolution of scientific knowledge and its theories about race over time.

^ If a group presentation is envisaged, not every student need speak for the same amount of time, but all students are expected make a contribution and to participate actively.

.In 1938 he published Basin-Plateau Aboriginal Socio-Political Groups in which he argued that diverse societies—for example the indigenous Shoshone or White farmers on the Great Plains—were not less or more evolved; rather, they had adapted differently to different environments.^ More so, they were under far less scrutiny when ruling over the provinces than anyone holding office within the capital.

^ I saw human beings moving with the earth into a much warmer environment with less biodiversity, and more environmental catastrophes related to that warmth.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ If we use more and more land for our own use, less is open to other species to live and to evolve as they have previously, there is then also all the less room to grow and few resources available per capita and aggregately.
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

[158] Whereas Leslie White was interested in culture understood holistically as a property of the human species, Julian Steward was interested in culture as the property of distinct societies. .Like White he viewed culture as a means of adapting to the environment, but he criticized Whites "unilineal" (one direction) theory of cultural evolution and instead proposed a model of "multilineal" evolution in which (in the Boasian tradition) each society has its own cultural history.^ In coming to understand the strengths and limitations of their own and others’ cultural perspectives, students are better able to evaluate their own views and their own level of intercultural understanding.

^ In thus making sweetness and light to be characters of perfection, culture is of like spirit with poetry, follows one law with poetry.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural & Political Histories) WESTERN CIVILIZATION (World Culture & Political Histories) Research Papers on England and Western Civilization - MORE! .
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[159]
When Julian Steward left a teaching position at the University of Michigan to work in Utah in 1930, Leslie White took his place; in 1946 Julian Steward was made Chair of the Columbia University Anthropology Department. In the 1940s and 1950s their students, most notably Marvin Harris, Sidney Mintz, Robert Murphy, Roy Rappaport, Marshall Sahlins, Elman Service, Andrew P. Vayda and Eric Wolf dominated American anthropology.[160][161][162][163][164][165][166][167][168] Most promoted materialist understandings of culture in opposition to the symbolic approaches of Geertz and Schneider. .Harris, Rappaport, and Vayda were especially important for their contributions to cultural materialism and ecological anthropology, both of which argued that "culture" constituted an extra-somatic (or non-biological) means through which human beings could adapt to life in drastically differing physical environments.^ However, the idea that human beings belong to biologically distinct races emerged quite recently in world history, in the 1700s.

^ Gaviotas is a real place with real people who have managed to build a sustainable life in a harsh climate (both physically and politically).
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ I saw human beings moving with the earth into a much warmer environment with less biodiversity, and more environmental catastrophes related to that warmth.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

The debate between symbolic and materialist approaches to culture dominated American Anthropologists in the 1960s and 1970s. The Vietnam War and the publication of Dell Hymes' Reinventing Anthropology, however, marked a growing dissatisfaction with the then dominant approaches to culture. .Hymes argued that fundamental elements of the Boasian project such as holism and an interest in diversity were still worth pursuing: "interest in other peoples and their ways of life, and concern to explain them within a frame of reference that includes ourselves."^ You will promote your own well-being to the utmost because tha t is the law of natural life: to promote ones own well-being above the interests of all others.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Still, I have often spoken in praise of culture, I have striven to make all my works and ways serve the interests of culture.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of the time we all project our own thoughts onto others not really knowing what has brought people to the decisions they make.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

[169] Moreover, he argued that cultural anthropologists are singularly well-equipped to lead this study (with an indirect rebuke to sociologists like Parsons who sought to subsume anthropology to their own project):
In the practice there is a traditional place for openness to phenomena in ways not predefined by theory or design – attentiveness to complex phenomena, to phenomena of interest, perhaps aesthetic, for their own sake, to the sensory as well as intellectual, aspects of the subject. These comparative and practical perspectives, though not unique to formal anthropology, are specially husbanded there, and might well be impaired, if the study of man were to be united under the guidance of others who lose touch with experience in concern for methodology, who forget the ends of social knowledge in elaborating its means, or who are unwittingly or unconcernedly culture-bound..[170]
It is these elements, Hymes argued, that justify a "general study of man," that is, "anthropology".[171]
.During this time notable anthropologists such as Mintz, Murphy, Sahlins, and Wolf eventually broke away, experimenting with structuralist and Marxist approaches to culture, they continued to promote cultural anthropology against structural functionalism.^ Each team will survey one of the textbooks they use in any of the following subjects: biology, sociology, psychology, geography, anthropology, U.S. or world history/culture.

^ They take a rather shotgun approach to myth, excluding no cultures -- which is a good thing.
  • memepool.com: Culture archive 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

^ Away from my family and friends, I spent most of my free time working on Fall from Heaven and made significant headway during that period.

[172][173][174][175][176]
1940–present: Local versus global
Big Tree, a Kiowa chief and warrior
The Tepozteco mountain dominates views from Tepoztlán.
Ex-convent of Dominico de la Natividad, a World Heritage Site
Boas and Malinowski established ethnographic research as a highly localized method for studying culture. .Yet Boas emphasized that culture is dynamic, moving from one group of people to another, and that specific cultural forms have to be analyzed in a larger context.^ It isn't the smart idea, it is the addition of passion and connection that bring success -- evidence of people connecting with one another in unexpected and wonderful ways, facilitating an atmosphere for future success.

^ As I compiled the photos, I couldn't help but notice the support of people who have come to know one another through social media at EMC. .

^ But nothing more strongly marks the essential unity of man, than the affinities we can perceive, in this point or that, between members of one family of peoples and members of another.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

.This has led anthropologists to explore different ways of understanding the global dimensions of culture.^ This paper demonstrates the differences between Sparta and Athens that led to the war, as well as the perceptions of culture in other city states.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I condemn neither way; but culture works differently.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The writer explores various differences in the politics and culture of these two groups.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the 1940s and 1950s, several key studies focused on how trade between indigenous peoples and the Europeans who had conquered and colonized the Americas influenced indigenous culture, either through change in the organization of labor, or change in critical technologies.^ As I compiled the photos, I couldn't help but notice the support of people who have come to know one another through social media at EMC. .

^ 'People who talk about what they call culture!
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ See this post written by EMC's Dave Spencer today to get a real-time case study on a positive mirror effect and how this relates to building culture.

Bernard Mishkin studied the effect of the introduction of horses on Kiowa political organization and warfare.[177] Oscar Lewis explored the influence of the fur trade on Blackfoot culture (relying heavily on historical sources).[178] .Joseph Jablow documented how Cheyenne social organization and subsistence strategy between 1795 and 1840 were determined by their position in trade networks linking Whites and other Indians.^ He mentions redefining how we look at ROI in the realm of the social network fabric ...

[179] .Frank Secoy argued that Great Plains Indians' social organization and military tactics changed as horses, introduced by the Spanish in the south, diffused north, and guns, introduced by the British and French in the east, diffused west.^ DAVID Yes, East and West, and North and South, the palm and the pine, the pole and the equator, the crescent and the cross—how the great Alchemist melts and fuses them with his purging flame!

[180]
.In the 1950s Robert Redfield and students of Julian Steward pioneered "community studies," namely, the study of distinct communities (whether identified by race, ethnicity, or economic class) in Western or "Westernized" societies, especially cities.^ Students in jigsaw “study groups” will read segments of Race and examine up to nine sets of documents related to the theme of race and eras in world history.

^ Students in jigsaw “study groups” will read segments of Race and examine up to sixteen sets of documents related to the theme of race and eras in U.S. history.

^ Each quarter, students will read different literary forms in conjunction with Race which illustrate the evolution of the idea of race and racism in western thought.

.They thus encountered the antagonisms 19th century critics described using the terms "high culture" and "low culture."^ The writer describes images of women in a few key 20th century European paintings, and the social and cultural influences on these portrayals.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of what use is culture, he asks, except for 'a critic of new books or a professor of belles lettres?
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Each team will survey one of the textbooks they use in any of the following subjects: biology, sociology, psychology, geography, anthropology, U.S. or world history/culture.

.These 20th century anthropologists struggled to describe people who were politically and economically inferior but not, they believed, culturally inferior.^ 'People who talk about what they call culture!
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The writer describes images of women in a few key 20th century European paintings, and the social and cultural influences on these portrayals.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gaviotas is a real place with real people who have managed to build a sustainable life in a harsh climate (both physically and politically).
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

Oscar Lewis proposed the concept of a "culture of poverty" to describe the cultural mechanisms through which people adapted to a life of economic poverty. .Other anthropologists and sociologists began using the term "sub-culture" to describe culturally distinct communities that were part of larger societies.^ The song’s popularity grew when Video Games Live began using it as a standard part of their repertoire.

^ Body Ritual among the Nacirema " is a classic paper on the bizarre (some might say backward) cleaning ceremonies and other strange cultural habits encountered by an anthropologist.
  • memepool.com: Culture archive 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

.One important kind of subculture is that formed by an immigrant community.^ It’s not that I am any kind of standard bearer for proper programming - Chalid, Talchas and Sto are all better programmers than I am - but it’s important that one person understand all the changes in the mod.

^ But it was really important that they were frequent because the best way to fight burn out is to get positive feedback form the community, and to do that you have to release.

In dealing with immigrant groups and their cultures, there are various approaches:
  • Leitkultur (core culture): A model developed in Germany by Bassam Tibi. The idea is that minorities can have an identity of their own, but they should at least support the core concepts of the culture on which the society is based.
  • Melting Pot: In the United States, the traditional view has been one of a melting pot where all the immigrant cultures are mixed and amalgamated without state intervention.
  • Monoculturalism: In some European states, culture is very closely linked to nationalism, thus government policy is to assimilate immigrants, although recent increases in migration have led many European states to experiment with forms of multiculturalism.
  • Multiculturalism: A policy that immigrants and others should preserve their cultures with the different cultures interacting peacefully within one nation.
.The way nation states treat immigrant cultures rarely falls neatly into one or another of the above approaches.^ This is undoubtedly,--if we are still to live and grow, and this famous nation is not to stagnate and dwindle away on the one hand, or, on the other, to perish miserably in mere anarchy and confusions,--what we are on the way to.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Pick one day this week to leave your car at home and use another way to commute to work or school.
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ We find no basis for a firm State-power in our ordinary selves; culture suggests one to us in our best self .
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

.The degree of difference with the host culture (i.e., "foreignness"), the number of immigrants, attitudes of the resident population, the type of government policies that are enacted, and the effectiveness of those policies all make it difficult to generalize about the effects.^ Still, I have often spoken in praise of culture, I have striven to make all my works and ways serve the interests of culture.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Level III (grades 7-8), Benchmark 1: Understands the background and experiences of immigrants of the late 19th century (e.g., how the immigrants differed from those of the early 19th century in numbers, motives, origins, ethnicity, religion and language; how Catholic and Jewish immigrants responded to discrimination; attitudes toward immigrants) .

^ One of the other benefits of Tea Time is that a few different cultures have tea traditions, and we get a chance to experience teas from around the world and learn a bit about their cultures in the meantime.

.Similarly with other subcultures within a society, attitudes of the mainstream population and communications between various cultural groups play a major role in determining outcomes.^ What role do racial or ethnic groups play?

^ Each group will have between 5 and 10 minutes to makes its presentation plus up to 5 minutes for answering questions posed by the teacher and/or other students.

^ Political ideology didn't play a major role.

.The study of cultures within a society is complex and research must take into account a myriad of variables.^ In assessing the lower ranks of Roman society, little was taken into account but their material belongings.

^ But neither, on the other hand, must the friends of culture expect to take the believers in action by storm, or to be visibly and speedily important, and to rule and cut a figure in the world.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

Cultural studies

.In the United Kingdom, sociologists and other scholars influenced by Marxism, such as Stuart Hall and Raymond Williams, developed Cultural Studies.^ I have been trying to show that culture is, or ought to be, the study and pursuit of perfection; and that of perfection as pursued by culture, beauty and intelligence, or, in other words, sweetness and light, are the main characters.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Michael “AlazkanAssassin” Hall - Artist, Michael developed the “Puppet Mastery” technique that allowed us to easily use models from other games, such as Pirates!

.Following nineteenth century Romantics, they identified "culture" with consumption goods and leisure activities (such as art, music, film, food, sports, and clothing).^ Each team will survey one of the textbooks they use in any of the following subjects: biology, sociology, psychology, geography, anthropology, U.S. or world history/culture.

^ They would quite literally queue outside the house of their rich patron, dressed in their finest clothes, waiting to be given either money or food.

^ These artists are more than filler, they inspired the D&D game it is based on, and the art of Justin Sweet, or the music of Cirque du Soleli, inspired the Mod.

.Nevertheless, they understood patterns of consumption and leisure to be determined by relations of production, which led them to focus on class relations and the organization of production.^ Some notable quotables from a presentation I was in this morning as they relate to workplace organizational models and the movement away from the industrial era norm of "Command and Control:" .

^ Our re-materials plant would employ market researchers to determine the consumption patterns of the community.
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

[181][182] .In the United States, "Cultural Studies" focuses largely on the study of popular culture, that is, the social meanings of mass-produced consumer and leisure goods.^ The History of the Greek Community in Chicago : An 8 page paper that provides an overview of the problems and social elements that surround the emergence of the Greek culture in Chicago and that has supported the prevallence of elements like the Greek Orthodox Church in the United States.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ United States History photo set : Draft of the Alabama Untreated Syphilis Study, 1949.

^ But the aspirations of culture, which is the study of perfection, are not satisfied, unless what men say, when they may say what they like, is worth saying,--has good in it, and more good than bad.
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The term was coined by Richard Hoggart in 1964 when he founded the Birmingham Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies or CCCS. It has since become strongly associated with Stuart Hall, who succeeded Hoggart as Director.
From the 1970s onward, Stuart Hall's pioneering work, along with his colleagues Paul Willis, Dick Hebdige, Tony Jefferson, and Angela McRobbie, created an international intellectual movement. .As the field developed it began to combine political economy, communication, sociology, social theory, literary theory, media theory, film/video studies, cultural anthropology, philosophy, museum studies and art history in order to study cultural phenomena or cultural texts.^ They are organized by academic discipline including the social sciences (history, government, psychology, and anthropology), the arts (literature, art, music, and media), biology, the history of religion and philosophy.

^ Students will begin with the impact of the Gutenberg printing press, continue with the use of print media and communications by abolitionists, and conclude with an examination of film and television of the 20 th century.

^ Each team will survey one of the textbooks they use in any of the following subjects: biology, sociology, psychology, geography, anthropology, U.S. or world history/culture.

.In this field researchers often concentrate on how particular phenomena relate to matters of ideology, nationality, ethnicity, social class, and/or gender.^ Social classes and gender roles are touched upon.
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^ I think I have somewhere related how M. Michelet said to me of the people of France, that it was 'a nation of barbarians civilised by the conscription.'
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^ The Social Effects of the Glorious Revolution : A 9 page research paper on William III's accession to the throne of England and its affect on the various social classes in England.
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Cultural studies is concerned with the meaning and practices of everyday life. .These practices comprise the ways people do particular things (such as watching television, or eating out) in a given culture.^ Population, again, and bodily health and vigour, are things which are nowhere treated in such an unintelligent, misleading, exaggerated way as in England.
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^ Chances are, these people would not have had the opportunity, or the personal comfort level, to ask such questions of these execs in the course of their normal business routine.

^ And this our neighbours cannot but acknowledge; and they must needs, when they themselves turn to these things, have an eye to our example, and take something of our practice.
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.This field studies the meanings and uses people attribute to various objects and practices.^ Knows the function and meaning of specific art objects within varied cultures, times, and places .

.Recently, as capitalism has spread throughout the world (a process called globalization), cultural studies has begun to analyse local and global forms of resistance to Western hegemony.^ Robert C. Lamm’s "Humanities In Western Culture " : This 15 page report examines the theories and examples presented in Lamm’s book, while also reviewing some of the most fundamental aspects of western culturalism and its role in the development of humankind throughout the world.
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^ An intense examination of this early culture concludes that they study of the ancient world is relevant to us today.
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^ The writer discusses the shape and form that prostitution has taken throughout history with respect to individual cultures and societies such as the Ancient Greeks, Romans, Church in the Middle Ages, and more recent eras as well.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the context of cultural studies, the idea of a text not only includes written language, but also films, photographs, fashion or hairstyles: the texts of cultural studies comprise all the meaningful artifacts of culture.^ See this post written by EMC's Dave Spencer today to get a real-time case study on a positive mirror effect and how this relates to building culture.

^ They can only be reached by the criticism which culture, like poetry, speaking a language not to be sophisticated, and resolutely testing these organisations by the ideal of a human perfection complete on all sides, applies to them.
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^ The only caveat, deep in the code of the EMC Culture, is that you continue to execute your official job inclusive of meeting all your goals.

.Similarly, the discipline widens the concept of "culture". "Culture" for a cultural studies researcher not only includes traditional high culture (the culture of ruling social groups)[183] and popular culture, but also everyday meanings and practices.^ Are more than 4/5ths of largest companies in America not aware of the shift to social media and blogs as a primary means of on-line communication -- now more popular than email?

.The last two, in fact, have become the main focus of cultural studies.^ I have been trying to show that culture is, or ought to be, the study and pursuit of perfection; and that of perfection as pursued by culture, beauty and intelligence, or, in other words, sweetness and light, are the main characters.
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A further and recent approach is comparative cultural studies, based on the discipline of comparative literature and cultural studies.
.Scholars in the United Kingdom and the United States developed somewhat different versions of cultural studies after the field's inception in the late 1970s.^ This paper demonstrates the differences between Sparta and Athens that led to the war, as well as the perceptions of culture in other city states.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ United States History photo set : Draft of the Alabama Untreated Syphilis Study, 1949.

^ Students will read Race in conjunction with four literature units to be studied over the course of the school year to see how different authors over time and culture have depicted the clash between differing peoples.

.The British version of cultural studies was developed in the 1950s and 1960s mainly under the influence first of Richard Hoggart, E. P. Thompson, and Raymond Williams, and later Stuart Hall and others at the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies at the University of Birmingham.^ I have been trying to show that culture is, or ought to be, the study and pursuit of perfection; and that of perfection as pursued by culture, beauty and intelligence, or, in other words, sweetness and light, are the main characters.
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^ It was the first dynamic component of the mod that showed me what could be done, and he had a huge influence on later game design.

^ Michael “AlazkanAssassin” Hall - Artist, Michael developed the “Puppet Mastery” technique that allowed us to easily use models from other games, such as Pirates!

This included overtly political, left-wing views, and criticisms of popular culture as 'capitalist' mass culture; it absorbed some of the ideas of the Frankfurt School critique of the "culture industry" (i.e. mass culture). This emerges in the writings of early British cultural-studies scholars and their influences: see the work of (for example) Raymond Williams, Stuart Hall, Paul Willis, and Paul Gilroy.
.Whereas in the United States Lindlof & Taylor say that "cultural studies was grounded in a pragmatic, liberal-pluralist tradition".[184] The American version of cultural studies initially concerned itself more with understanding the subjective and appropriative side of audience reactions to, and uses of, mass culture; for example, American cultural-studies advocates wrote about the liberatory aspects of fandom.^ Back in June I wrote more about what this is all about – our career track for techies who are great at inventing mind boggling stuff – and how we recognize them.

^ Tim Link Native Americans are a great example of how a human can honor an animal and at the same time use them for their needs.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ If the subject is truly pertinent to an article, I PROMISE I will relate more about this very trying phase of Age Change Transition.
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

The distinction between American and British strands, however, has faded. .Some researchers, especially in early British cultural studies, apply a Marxist model to the field.^ An intense examination of this early culture concludes that they study of the ancient world is relevant to us today.
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This strain of thinking has some influence from the Frankfurt School, but especially from the structuralist Marxism of Louis Althusser and others. The main focus of an orthodox Marxist approach concentrates on the production of meaning. This model assumes a mass production of culture and identifies power as residing with those producing cultural artifacts. .In a Marxist view, those who control the means of production (the economic base) essentially control a culture.^ I have felt uncomfortable at times when I have encountered vegans who seem to consider themselves morally superior to those of us who havent completely embraced their point of view.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This change actually mirrors the development practices within the “professional” Civ4 team - we viewed the product not as a single game but as a generic turn-based strategy engine.

.Other approaches to cultural studies, such as feminist cultural studies and later American developments of the field, distance themselves from this view.^ I have been trying to show that culture is, or ought to be, the study and pursuit of perfection; and that of perfection as pursued by culture, beauty and intelligence, or, in other words, sweetness and light, are the main characters.
  • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

.They criticize the Marxist assumption of a single, dominant meaning, shared by all, for any cultural product.^ Maybe we should tell the martians to stop consuming so much oil, I mean, they are green after all.
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^ They can only be reached by the criticism which culture, like poetry, speaking a language not to be sophisticated, and resolutely testing these organisations by the ideal of a human perfection complete on all sides, applies to them.
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^ All civilized cultures are based on agriculture, and they are all non-sustainable.
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

.The non-Marxist approaches suggest that different ways of consuming cultural artifacts affect the meaning of the product.^ I condemn neither way; but culture works differently.
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This view is best exemplified by the book Doing Cultural Studies: The Case of the Sony Walkman (by Paul du Gay et al.), which seeks to challenge the notion that those who produce commodities control the meanings that people attribute to them. Feminist cultural analyst, theorist and art historian Griselda Pollock contributed to cultural studies from viewpoints of art history and psychoanalysis. .The writer Julia Kristeva is influential voices in the turn of the century, contributing to cultural studies from the field of art and psychoanalytical French feminism.^ The writer describes images of women in a few key 20th century European paintings, and the social and cultural influences on these portrayals.
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Cultural change

A 19th century engraving showing Australian "natives" opposing the arrival of Captain James Cook in 1770
.Cultural invention has come to mean any innovation that is new and found to be useful to a group of people and expressed in their behavior but which does not exist as a physical object.^ Of what use is culture, he asks, except for 'a critic of new books or a professor of belles lettres?
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^ PEOPLE CONNECTING FOR BUSINESS: The modern thoughts on management models for business success by Gary Hamel as found in the Tweetstream coming out of the World Business Forum today.

^ And then comes M. Renan, and says: 'The sound instruction of the people is an effect of the high culture of certain classes.
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.Humanity is in a global "accelerating culture change period", driven by the expansion of international commerce, the mass media, and above all, the human population explosion, among other factors.^ I personally would not use the words "global warming" or climate change", they have all heard those two words often enough.
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ You berat me for writing, "if we don't correct the global warmng problem we all are going to die, humanity and all other life on the planet will become extinct."
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ But, finally, perfection,--as culture from a thorough disinterested study of human nature and human experience learns to conceive it, is a harmonious expansion of all the powers which make the beauty and worth of human nature, and is not consistent with the over-development of any one power at the expense of the rest.
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Cultures are internally affected by both forces encouraging change and forces resisting change. .These forces are related to both social structures and natural events, and are involved in the perpetuation of cultural ideas and practices within current structures, which themselves are subject to change[185].^ And we may regard the intelligence driving at those ideas which are, after all, the basis of right practice, the ardent sense for all the new and changing combinations of them which man's development brings with it, the indomitable impulse to know and adjust them perfectly, as another force.
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^ Both Hellenism and Hebraism arise out of the wants of human nature, and address themselves to satisfying those wants.
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^ This is the social idea ; and the men of culture are the true apostles of equality.
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(See structuration.)
.Social conflict and the development of technologies can produce changes within a society by altering social dynamics and promoting new cultural models, and spurring or enabling generative action.^ Standard 17 : Understands massive immigration after 1870 and how new social patterns, conflicts, and ideas of national unity developed amid growing cultural diversity .

^ In learning cultures within dynamic industries in particular, needed skill sets evolve with every strategy evolution.

^ Briefly discussed are the influences of rural to urban life and the ensuing governmental changes, the rise of cultural and educational pursuits, and the new influence of the church.
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.These social shifts may accompany ideological shifts and other types of cultural change.^ The writer describes images of women in a few key 20th century European paintings, and the social and cultural influences on these portrayals.
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^ These contrasts resulted in changes in theology, politics and intellectual thought, which in turn led to different views in economic, social and technological processes.
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^ Economics is a large part of the problem, it ignores the costs of industrial activity to the environment and would have to radically change to make these types of reforms possible.
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For example, the U.S. feminist movement involved new practices that produced a shift in gender relations, altering both gender and economic structures. Environmental conditions may also enter as factors. Changes include following for the film local hero. .For example, after tropical forests returned at the end of the last ice age, plants suitable for domestication were available, leading to the invention of agriculture, which in turn brought about many cultural innovations and shifts in social dynamics[186].^ Of course there are many methods available, but who has the courage to look into the Eye of Sauron in order to turn the key?
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ Last week I wrote about the importance of a company’s culture and of its leadership for your own career continuity.

^ End of the Piscean Age in synch with the end of oil (as Michael Klare terms it), the cost of gas is the motivational device to turn lots of presumed values & beliefs around.
  • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

Full-length profile portrait of Turkman woman, standing on a carpet at the entrance to a yurt, dressed in traditional clothing and jewelry
Cultures are externally affected via contact between societies, which may also produce—or inhibit—social shifts and changes in cultural practices. War or competition over resources may impact technological development or social dynamics. .Additionally, cultural ideas may transfer from one society to another, through diffusion or acculturation.^ Cultural Discourse : A 5 page creative dialogue between 1 fictitious character from ancient Greece and one from Rome in which the two share political and cultural ideas during their travels.
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^ One may say that to be reared a member of a national Church is in itself a lesson of religious moderation, and a help towards culture and harmonious perfection.
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.In diffusion, the form of something (though not necessarily its meaning) moves from one culture to another.^ Transfer of a specimen from one carrier or form of transport to another.
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^ At one time it feels more powerfully the attraction of one of them, at another time of the other; and it ought to be, though it never is, evenly and happily balanced between them.
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For example, hamburgers, mundane in the United States, seemed exotic when introduced into China. ."Stimulus diffusion" (the sharing of ideas) refers to an element of one culture leading to an invention or propagation in another.^ It isn't the smart idea, it is the addition of passion and connection that bring success -- evidence of people connecting with one another in unexpected and wonderful ways, facilitating an atmosphere for future success.

^ So that our poor culture, which is flouted as so unpractical, leads us to the very ideas capable of meeting the great want of our present embarrassed times!
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^ Cultural Discourse : A 5 page creative dialogue between 1 fictitious character from ancient Greece and one from Rome in which the two share political and cultural ideas during their travels.
  • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

."Direct Borrowing" on the other hand tends to refer to technological or tangible diffusion from one culture to another.^ This is undoubtedly,--if we are still to live and grow, and this famous nation is not to stagnate and dwindle away on the one hand, or, on the other, to perish miserably in mere anarchy and confusions,--what we are on the way to.
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^ Therefore, however great the changes to be accomplished, and however dense the array of Barbarians, Philistines, and Populace, we will neither despair on the one hand, nor, on the other, threaten violent revolution and change.
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^ But neither, on the other hand, must the friends of culture expect to take the believers in action by storm, or to be visibly and speedily important, and to rule and cut a figure in the world.
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.Diffusion of innovations theory presents a research-based model of why and when individuals and cultures adopt new ideas, practices, and products.^ So that our poor culture, which is flouted as so unpractical, leads us to the very ideas capable of meeting the great want of our present embarrassed times!
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^ Geology replaced the idea that continents were immovable with that of continental drift which was modified into the present theory of plate tectonics.

^ Tomorrow I am presenting on Culture & Innovation to the Massachusetts arm of EMC's annual Innovation Conference and Idea Showcase.

.Acculturation has different meanings, but in this context refers to replacement of the traits of one culture with those of another, such has happened to certain Native American tribes and to many indigenous peoples across the globe during the process of colonization.^ During this disaster, many people turned to one another and to the divine love with themselves.
  • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ For no people in the world has the command to resist the devil , to overcome the wicked one , in the nearest and most obvious sense of those words, had such a pressing force and reality.
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^ It isn't the smart idea, it is the addition of passion and connection that bring success -- evidence of people connecting with one another in unexpected and wonderful ways, facilitating an atmosphere for future success.

Related processes on an individual level include assimilation (adoption of a different culture by an individual) and transculturation.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Harper, Douglas (2001). Online Etymology Dictionary
  2. ^ Kroeber, A. L. and C. Kluckhohn, 1952. Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions.
  3. ^ a b Arnold, Matthew. 1869. Culture and Anarchy.
  4. ^ Williams (1983), p.90. Cited in Shuker, Roy (1994). Understanding Popular Music, p.5. ISBN 0-415-10723-7. argues that contemporary definitions of culture fall into three possibilities or mixture of the following three:
    • "a general process of intellectual, spiritual, and aesthetic development"
    • "a particular way of life, whether of a people, period, or a group"
    • "the works and practices of intellectual and especially artistic activity".
  5. ^ Bakhtin 1981, p.4
  6. ^ McClenon, p.528-529
  7. ^ Immanuel Kant 1974 "Answering the Question: What is Enlightenment?" (German: "Beantwortung der Frage: Was ist Aufklärung?") Berlinische Monatsschrift, December (Berlin Monthly)
  8. ^ Michael Eldridge, "The German Bildung Tradition" UNC Charlotte
  9. ^ "Adolf Bastian", Today in Science History; "Adolf Bastian", Encyclopædia Britannica
  10. ^ Robert Yerkes 1943 Chimpanzees: A Laboratory Colony. New Haven: Yale University Press. 51–52, 189, 193
  11. ^ Jane Goodall 1963 "My Life Among Wild Chimpanzees" National Geographic 124: 308
  12. ^ R. J. Andrew 1963 "Comment on The Essential Morphological Basis for Human Culture" Alan Bryan Current Anthropology 4: 301–303, p. 301
  13. ^ Alan Bryan 1963 "The Essential Morphological basis for Human Culture" Current Anthropology 4: 297
  14. ^ Keleman 1963 "Comment on The Essential Morphological Basis for Human Culture" Alan Bryan Current Anthropology 4: 301–303 p.304
  15. ^ W. C. McGrew 1998 "Culture in nonhuman primates?" Annual Review of Anthropology 27: 301–328
  16. ^ a b W.C. McGrew 1998 "Culture in Nonhuman Primates?" Annual Review of Anthropology 27: 323
  17. ^ W.C. McGrew 1998 "Culture in Nonhuman Primates?" Annual Review of Anthropology 27: 305
  18. ^ C.F. Voegelin 1951 "Culture, Language and the Human Organism" Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 7: 370
  19. ^ a b Michael Tomasello 1999 "The Human Adaptation for Culture" in Annual Review of Anthropology vol. 28: 511
  20. ^ M. King and A Wilson 1975 "Evolution at two levels: in humans and chimpanzees" Science 188: 107–116
  21. ^ Stringer and McKiew 1996 African Exodus: The origins of Modern Humanity. London: Cape
  22. ^ a b Michael Tomasello 1999 "The Human Adaptation for Culture" in Annual Review of Anthropology vol. 28: 510
  23. ^ Michael Tomasello 1999 "The Human Adaptation for Culture" in Annual Review of Anthropology vol. 28: 512
  24. ^ Michael Tomasello 1999 "The Human Adaptation for Culture" in Annual Review of Anthropology vol. 28: 520
  25. ^ a b Michael Tomasello 1990 "Cultural Transmission in the Tool Use and Communicatory Signaling of Chimpanzees?" in "Language" and Intelligence in Monkeys and Apes: Comparative Developmental Perspectives ed. S. Parker, K. Bibson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 274–311
  26. ^ Michael Tmoasello 1996 "Do Apes Ape?" in Social Learning in Animals: The Roots of Culture ed. C. Heyes and B. Galef. New York: Academic Press, pp. 319–346
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References

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    Retrieved: 2006-06-29.
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    ^ Little Steven Van Zandt 's distinguished career in entertainment seems to revolve around the much - maligned state of New Jersey .
    • memepool.com: Culture archive 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

    ^ He owns and operates a comic book store in his home state of New Jersey .
    • memepool.com: Culture archive 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

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    ^ What we want is a fuller harmonious development of our humanity, a free play of thought upon our routine notions, spontaneity of consciousness, sweetness and light; and these are just what culture generates and fosters.
    • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But perhaps the Nonconformists worship so unimpressively because they philosophise so keenly, and one part of religion, the part of public national worship, they have subordinated to the other part the part of individual thought and knowledge?
    • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

    .First published in 1871. ISBN 978-0-87968-091-6
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  • Wilson, Edward O. (1998).^ A few days ago I was on the phone with an editor from BusinessWeek about the book published by EMC and written by 96 employees named, "The Working Mother Experience."

    Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge. Vintage: New York. ISBN 978-0-679-76867-8.
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External links

.

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

.Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate") is a term commonly used to indicate the set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterizes an institution, organization or group, an integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behavior that depends upon the capacity for symbolic thought and social learning, or an excellence of aesthetic taste in the arts and humanities, (also known as high culture).^ Organizational culture can loosely be defined as the shared assumptions, beliefs, and "normal behaviors" (norms) of a group.
  • Organizational culture - a toolpack.com guide 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.toolpack.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere , meaning "to cultivate,") [1] generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activities significance and importance.
  • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The totality of learned, socially transmitted behavior.
  • Culture 12 September 2009 9:40 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sourced

.
  • In 16th-century Italy there lived Lodovico Gonzaga, a 16-year old seminarist who was very fond of playing ball.^ For the poor souls out there who have never played any of the Civilization games, Ill describe the experience as briefly as possible: You are the supreme leader of a historical civilization, i.e.

    ^ As I mentioned in previous posts, the first one was a very simple decision: Coyoacán is very close to my heart as I lived there many years, but it has also been able to maintain its personality throughout the centuries (yes, it is that old).

    ^ Speaking of limited attention spans, TV's "Barney Miller" alum Max Gail (Wojciehowicz) talks about how Play Attention helped his 16-year-old son.
    • GameCulture News | Game Culture 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.gameculture.com [Source type: General]

    .Once a certain priest passing by wondered if for a future priest the youth was too keen on his pursuit and asked him: "What would you do if you learned that in half an hour the end of the world was coming?"^ However, I would ask you to consider this.
    • Civilization's Last Chance | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

    ^ I had to ask him, So what did you do ?
    • Species Link magazine 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC animaltalk.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ How would you take over the world?
    • Civilization Revolution Review | iPhone Games App | Macworld 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.macworld.com [Source type: General]

    To which Lodovico replied: "I'd play on." According to the Russian thinker Georgy Fedotov, the importance of culture lies in precisely that: we go on playing ball on the verge of Doomsday....
    • Vladimir Barsky, Chromaticism (1996), ISBN 371865704X
  • Whoever controls the media — the images — controls the culture. .
    • Allen Ginsberg, as quoted in Brain Power : Learn to Improve Your Thinking Skills‎ (1980) by Karl Albrecht, p.^ Want to improve your Italian language skills while learning more about the significant contributions Italians and Italian Americans have made to world culture?
      • Italian Culture - Italian Traditions - Italian Customs - Italian Festivals - Italian Holidays 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC italian.about.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Financial Assistance, Grants and Equipment Buy, sell and trade equipment, apply for grants to improve your quality of life and learn about financial assistance available to people with MS. .

      ^ Once you adjust your thinking from romance language syntax (subject-verb-object) to the Japanese syntax (subject-object-verb), Japanese is easy to learn.
      • JAPANESE CULTURE -- A PRIMER FOR NEWCOMERS 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.thejapanfaq.com [Source type: Original source]

      .6
  • When two cultures collide is the only time when true suffering exists
    • Hermann Hesse, as quoted in Peter's Quotations : Ideas for Our Time‎ (1977) by Laurence J. Peter, p.^ I quote from the Times of only the other day.
      • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Culture’s legendary “Two Sevens Clash” (Shanachie) was Reggae Album of the Year in 1977 and is acknowledged today by Rolling Stone Magazine (April 11, 2002) as #25 of the 50 all time coolest records (the only reggae album to make the list).
      • CULTURE en Música MySpace – Transmisión gratuita de MP3s, Fotos & Videos Musicales 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Aug 6, 2009 - It's been two years since we last visited this topic, which is just about enough time for the controversy over our previous selections to have just about died down.
      • Civilization IV | Sid Meier's Civilization IV (2005) on PC 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC pc.ign.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .456
  • Each form of the sacrosanct was regarded by members of the culture which gave rise to it as a revelation of the Truth.^ In the space of less than 15,000 years, a handful of ancestral forms gave rise to more than 300 species of cichlid fish unique to the lake.

    ^ The Longshan Culture of 3,000 – 2,000 BC gave rise to the first Chinese ‘cities’, with advanced levels of pottery-making, silk production and rice harvesting.
    • The Cradle of Civilization | Heritage Key 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC heritage-key.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    • André Malraux, in Voices of Silence [Les voix du silence] (1951), Pt. IV, Ch. .V
  • Our art culture makes no attempt to search the past for precedents, but transforms the entire past into a sequence of provisional responses to a problem that remains intact.^ We constantly make changes to our culture.

    ^ This project is a concrete attempt at reaching an ideal within the art circuit, the dissolution of physical boundaries, allowing a wider public to have access to art and culture.

    ^ No one who cherished any religious beliefs whatever, or was interested in sport, poetry, or the arts, was allowed to hold a position of public responsibility.
    • Russell Kirk -- Civilization Without Religion? 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.orthodoxytoday.org [Source type: Original source]

    • André Malraux, in Voices of Silence [Les voix du silence] (1951), Pt. IV, Ch. .VII
  • Culture would seem … first and foremost, to be the knowledge of what makes man something other than and accident of the universe be it by deepening his harmony with the world, or by the lucid consciousness of his revolt from it.^ What makes something culturally distinct?
    • Unit 3 -- Culture 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ T here is so much to learn everywhere in the universe, there’s no single culture that seems to have had a corner on all the best ways to be in the world, whether that’s spiritual, dietary, the way we work or organize our societies.
    • Q and A on Cultural Issues: stereotypes, causes of violence and affluenza inAmerican Culture 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.allaboutcounseling.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The first lesson is to drop ethnocentric views that the world should accommodate our method of contracting rather than the other way around.
    • Culture definition 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.tamu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Culture is the sum of all the forms of art, of love and of thought, which, in the course of centuries, have enabled man to be less enslaved.^ Man's concept of man, and his position in the universe, is basic to all cultural thought.
    • Human Culture Must Be Based On Real Knowledge 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.onelife.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Twentieth-Century World (Houghton Mifflin, 1986) Forsberg, A. Definitions of culture CCSF Cultural Geography course notes.
    • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The sage Confucius (551-479 BC) developed the code of ethics that dominated Chinese thought and culture for the next 25 centuries.
    • Dawn Of Civilization 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC history-world.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • André Malraux, quoted in Malraux : An essay in Political Criticism‎ (1967) by David O. Wilkinson, p.^ The Athenian Polis : A 5 page essay examining how the writers and philosophers of Classic Greece criticized Athenian politics/the Athenian polis in their works.
      • Term Papers and more model term papers on Western Civilization (World Cultural& Political Histories) 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC www.termpapers-on-file.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      153
  • One ought not to hoard culture. .It should be adapted and infused into society as a leaven.^ The Clinton mental profile extends well into areas that should legitimately alarm the broader society.
    • Culture 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC batr.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Liberality of culture does not mean illiberality of its benefits.^ (Davies, 1972) What does culture of poverty mean?
    • Defining Culture 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC courses.ed.asu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Cultural invention has come to mean any innovation that is new and found to be useful to a group of people and expressed in their behavior but which does not exist as a physical object.
    • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Cultural Anthropology is my first-choice major for college, but what does this mean to me?
    • culture | Youth Voices 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC youthvoices.net [Source type: General]

    • Wallace Stevens, in a journal entry (20 June 1899); as published in Souvenirs and Prophecies: the Young Wallace Stevens (1977) edited by Holly Stevens, Ch. 3

Unsourced

.
  • It's because we're so trapped in our culture, in the being of being human on this planet with the brains we have, and the same two arms and legs everybody has.^ If humans will guide the next stage of evolution, we're screwed, because right now we lack the proper ethical and moral responsibility to do so.
    • Evolution: Has Human Culture Replaced Biology? 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.dailygalaxy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If we persist in our way of living, over the course of a limited number of generations, our abused planet will barely allow a small fraction of our present human population to survive.

    ^ And in the dim recesses of our brains, we might even recall learning—in what was it, fourth grade?—that the month is named for Janus (below), the two-headed Roman god.
    • NGM Blog Central - Culture - National Geographic magazine - NGM.com 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC blogs.ngm.com [Source type: General]

    .We're so trapped that any way we could imagine to escape would be just another part of the trap.^ If you’re counting dollars at your company and wondering how to justify it, just imagine hearing stories like this on a regular basis.

    ^ If just a few of you would come to your senses , get together , and charge the poop deck, we could turn this ship around and save ourselves .

    ^ In the final stage of adjustment the visitor accepts the customs of the country as just another way of living.
    • WorldWide Classroom: About Culture Shock 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.worldwide.edu [Source type: Original source]

    Anything we want, we're trained to want. .
  • Culture is the arts elevated to a set of beliefs.^ "Culture is the arts elevated to a set of beliefs."
    • CULTURAL INTELLIGENCE (CQ) - the Key to Leveraging the Power of Diversity 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC www.1000ventures.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Culture can be defined as all the ways of life including arts , beliefs and institutions of a population that are passed down from generation to generation.
    • Culture (anthropological) - Psychology Wiki 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This set shows how clothing, headwear, body decorations, and footwear reflect the different cultural, religious, and societal beliefs.
    • Ancient Civilizations 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC phs.d214.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
  • Never judge a culture by one man and never judge a man by popular culture.^ One need not go to culture and poetry to find language to judge it.
    • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Contrary to popular beleif, the Mayan civilization was not one unified empire, but rather a multitude of separate entities with a common cultural background.
    • Mayan Civilization 10 February 2010 13:29 UTC indians.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Pop Culture Madness is your one-stop information location for Popular Culture, Popular Music, Trivia, Jokes and a bunch of other stuff!
    • Pop Culture Madness - January 2009 Popular Culture News, Entertainment and Trivia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.popculturemadness.com [Source type: General]

    .
  • 'Culture' is to make a nice drinking bowl from one's enemy's skull.^ Bridging the cultural gap through intercultural dialogue will make it easier to cross from one culture to another.
    • Culture - Global Issues - TakingITGlobal 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC issues.tigweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In thus making sweetness and light to be characters of perfection, culture is of like spirit with poetry, follows one law with poetry.
    • http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction_u/arnoldm_ca/ca_all.html 16 September 2009 23:25 UTC www.library.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It was a time for celebration, to look up old friends and make new ones, to eat, drink and be merry.
    • Jamaican Culture (Jamaica) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.jamaicans.com [Source type: General]
    • Jamaican Culture (Jamaica) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.jamaicans.com [Source type: General]

    'Civilisation' is to go to prison for that
  • When I hear the word culture, I reach for my revolver
    • Attributed to a minister in the Nazi Kulturkammer

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:
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Look up culture in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

00%.svg Completion status: this resource is a stub, so not much has been done yet.
Mead (1955) said that culture “is an abstraction of the body of learned behaviour which a group of people who share the same tradition transmit entire to their children, and, in part, to adult immigrants who become members of the society.”

See also


Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Basic Writing/Culture article)

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

< Basic Writing
.Learning about culture gives you .^ You may learn about ligers.
  • Biology4Kids.com: Scientific Studies: Species 14 January 2010 6:55 UTC www.biology4kids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You are here: Curacao / About / Culture .

^ What do you like about your culture?
  • ESL Conversation Questions - Culture(I-TESL-J) 6 February 2010 10:58 UTC iteslj.org [Source type: General]

. .
  • a competitive edge
  • the cognition to be a better mentor
  • a knowledge of other people's backgrounds
  • a chance to focus on people as individuals
  • information is a non-intimidated way
  • an understanding that even in a group that appears the same there can be differences
  • an ability to remove obstacles and barriers that block us from our full personal potential
  • techniques for gaining insight
  • a chance to be an advocate for fresh ideas
  • the tools to make your school or work place an environment of value
  • an opportunity for new friendships
  • a reason not to quickly judge others
  • a purpose to cherish your own culture
  • an awareness that diversity is about differences and similarities

Definition of Culture
²Culture represents the ways and means by which human beings deal with universal human situations and problems, beliefs, and behaviors in a given social group.
Surface Culture
  • Foods
  • Holidays
  • Arts
  • Folklore
  • Dress

Hidden Culture
  • Ceremony
  • Courtships and Marriage
  • Esthetics
  • Family and Friends
  • Health and Medicine
  • Myths and superstitions
  • Gestures and non-verbal communication
  • Personal behavior and appearance
  • Ownership
  • Manners
  • Rewards and privileges and gift giving
  • Rights and duties²
  • Religion
  • Gender roles
  • Space and proxemics
  • Money
  • Taboos
  • Time
  • Values and Mores
  • Humor

Simple English

Culture is a word for people's 'way of life', meaning the way they do things. Different groups of people may have different cultures. A culture is passed on to the next generation by learning, whereas genetics is passed on by heredity. Culture is seen in people's writing, religion, music, clothes, cooking, and in what they do.

The concept of culture is very complicated, and the word has many meanings.[1] The word 'culture' is most commonly used in three senses:

Now, 'culture' includes all human phenomena which are not purely results of human genetics. The discipline which investigates cultures is called anthropology, though many other disciplines play a part.

Contents

National cultures


Cultures are what make countries unique. Each country has different cultural activities and cultural rituals. Culture is more than just material goods, that is things the culture uses and produces. Culture is also the beliefs and values of the people in that culture. Culture also includes the way people think about and understand the world and their own lives.

Different countries have different cultures. For example, some older Japanese people wear kimonos, arrange flowers in vases, and have tea ceremonies.

Regional or local cultures

Culture can also vary within a region, society or sub group. A workplace may have a specific culture that sets it apart from similar workplaces. A region of a country may have a different culture than the rest of the country. For example, Canada's east coast Maritime region has a different culture than the rest of Canada, which is expressed by different ways of talking, different types of music, and different types of dances.

A family may have a specific set of values, morals or beliefs that differ from other families of the same ethnic background. For example, a family may emphasize community values.

Company cultures

Companies or other organizations (groups of people) can have a separate culture. Japanese manufacturing companies often have a different culture than other companies; the workday starts with exercise, and the workers are very loyal to the company.

Companies in the high-technology sector often have a different culture than other companies. Software and computer companies sometimes allow employees to play games during the workday, or take time off work to relax, because these companies believe that this will help the workers to think better.

Anthropology

Anthropology is studying human beings and how they relate to each other. An anthropologist is a person who studies anthropology. Anthropologists believe that people use symbols to communicate (express) their experiences -- who they are, what they believe, where they started.

Anthropologists call this use of symbols "culture". For example, immigrants (people who move from one country to another) may keep some of their customs and traditions from their old country. By keeping their culture in this way, they express who they are and that they came from somewhere else.

Other pages

References

  1. Kroeber A.L. and C. Kluckhohn 1952. Culture: a critical review of concepts and definitions.

frr:Kultuur



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 13, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Culture, which are similar to those in the above article.








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